Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2021)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

AUDITING GAS ANALYSIS LABS
Author(s): Carl Alleman
Abstract/Introduction:
Why Should We Audit? The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safety and environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratories responsible for producing this data is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of process improvement, through proper identification of deficiencies and a precise plan for corrective action. The level of confidence in analytical results will increase when the appropriate corrective actions are implemented. The amount of financial and legal exposure can be reduced from a properly executed audit program.
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Document ID: 847223C7

CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF ULTRASONIC METERS
Author(s): Randy Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many in our industry who would consider the advancement of the ultrasonic meter to be one of the most important improvements in gas measurement in the past twenty years. It is my opinion that the immense improvement in gas measurement is not so much the ultrasonic meter itself. Instead, I believe it is the meters ability to detect conditions that would compromise its own accuracy and ability to communicate those conditions to the user. It is in the area of communicating those conditions, that we often under-utilize the meters capabilities. The natural gas pipeline industry has seen tremendous changes in the past twenty years, including a smaller multi- skilled workforce. The reality of todays pipeline workforce is fewer technicians performing a wider range of tasks. Much of their measurement work is performed with less frequency, and on more complex equipment than ever before. Gaining the proficiency needed to recognize and troubleshoot ultrasonic meter problems, requires time and experience to learn. By bringing the meters diagnostic data into our SCADA system, we can provide alarms and trending capabilities that are not dependent on the frequency at which a Technician can visit a measurement facility. Furthermore, it is not dependent on whether a Technician has the necessary expertise to recognize potential meter problems. Another change our industry has seen are meter stations with larger but fewer meters. With the high turn down capabilities of ultrasonic meters, large volume meter stations that before would have been built with four or more orifice meters are now built with one or two larger ultrasonic meters. Fewer meters, means we are placing a higher liability on each meter.
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Document ID: D7B59513

Flare Measurement According to API 14.10
Author(s): Eric Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
With the recent release of the Green House Gas Regulations, the increased visibility of flaring natural gas and increased awareness of royalty owners, the ability to accurately measure and account for the amount of product flared from a facility has become increasingly important to regulators, royalty owners and operators. In the past, flare gas was not considered a necessary measurement, so the measurement of flared product has often been overlooked or not given the same attention as custody transfer measurement. As such API published API MPMS Chapter 14.10, Measurement of Flow to Flares, in June of 2007. This paper will provide a quick overview of the contents of API MPMS 14.10 but is encouraged to obtain 14.10 if more detailed information is desired. In addition, a brief discussion on the importance of calibrating flare flow meters is also discussed.
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Document ID: 03149BFC

FUNDAMENTALS OF NATURAL GAS LIQUID MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Don Sextro, Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of natural gas liquids (NGL) is similar in many respects to that of other hydrocarbon liquids but is markedly different in other aspects. The main difference in NGL measurement is the need to properly address the effects of solution mixing. Measuring NGL by mass measurement techniques will properly address solution mixing effects because the mass measurement process is not sensitive to the effect that pressure, temperature and solution mixing have on the fluid measured. Another difference is the effect of higher vapor pressures on the measurement of natural gas liquids. In static measurement methods, the liquid equivalent of the vapor space must be determined. In dynamic measurement methods, the equilibrium vapor pressure, or that pressure at which a liquid and its vapor phase is in equilibrium at a given operating temperature, must be deducted from the operating pressure when determining the compressibility effects on measured volumes. This paper will describe the basic concepts used to measure and report the quantities of NGL streams.
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Document ID: 3DB67842

Liquids Measurement, Whats an Industry To Do?
Author(s): Mark V. Goloby
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquids measurement in the oil patch is suddenly getting a lot of attention. Some are dismayed at the low level of technology used to measure liquids. Today, custody transfer of 80 to 85% of onshore crude and condensate production is still documented by a hauler climbing to the top of the tank and strapping it. That would be a fair estimate, concurs Mark Davis Staff Engineer Shell Exploration and Production. The hauler straps the tank before loading his truck and again when he finishes. The producer is paid on whatever that hauler writes on the ticket. I did not realize it was that immature, remarked Grant Farris, Vice President Producer Services, CIMA Energy.
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Document ID: F7A1209E


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