Measurement Library

Natural Gas Sampling Technology Conference Publications (2016)

Economics Of Hydrocarbon Compositional And Quality Determination
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
When we last attended NGSTech in January 2014, the W est Texas Intermediate (WTI) price for crude oil for that week was ranging from 94.51 to 96.66 per US barrel. The price now is hovering between 40. 00 and 4 5.00. The Henry Hub natural gas spot price was 4.71 per MMBTU. Now, it is around 2.10. Natural Gas Liquid prices have felt the pinch as well. Propane was trading near 0.90 per gallon in January 2014, and is going for around 0.50 now. Other N GLs are seeing similar downward price trends
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Document ID: 4B2AE193

Analyzer Sample System Relief Valve Sizing
Author(s): Michael Singletary
Abstract/Introduction:
The sample system is responsible for extracting high pressure process fluid, reducing pressur e, transporting the sample , and removing contaminants which would interfere with the performance of the analyzer. A pressure regulator is usually placed at or near the sample extraction tap location. This pressure regulator is responsible for reducing the sample pressure to something acceptable for the analyzer and response time requirements of the application. After pressure reduction, seamless tubing is used to transport the sample to the sample conditioning system . A pressure relief valve is usually placed at the sample conditioning system inlet to prevent the more sensitive equipment contained in the sample conditioning system from being over -pressure
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Document ID: CC476E73

Onshore Regulatory Revision Update
Author(s): Richard Estabrook
Abstract/Introduction:
The Bureau of Land Managements (BLM) proposed revisions to Onshore Order 5 include new requirements for spot sampling frequency of natural gas. Rather than proposing a fixed, arbitrary frequency, the proposed rules would establish a dynamic frequency for meters measuring more than 100 Mcf/day, in order to achieve an uncertainty performance goal. To determine the relationship between average annual heating value uncertainty and variability, the BLM conducted a study based on 217 meters located on Federal and Indian land in four states. The study also looked for correlations between heating value variability and factors such as the richness of the gas, the type of lift, the type of reservoir, and the temperature and flow rate of the gas
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Document ID: ED4196E7

Improving The Analytical Reliability Of Sampling Systems In Challenging And Corrosive Environments
Author(s): Gary Barone, Mark Lawrence, David Smith, Luke Patterson
Abstract/Introduction:
A need for coatings to improve analytical data for sulfurs and mercury across many industries and applications has grown . New Source Performance St andards for Petr oleum Refineries 1 , 40CFR60 Subpart Ja , went into effect in November of 201 5 where inert , coated flow paths are used to improve low - level sulfur analysis. New regulations for mercury emissions from coal - fired boilers have also been enacted and industry sampling initiatives for natural gas and oil wells continue to drive the demand for inert sample flow p aths.
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Document ID: 9390779D

Sample Extraction And Preconditioning For Process Analyzers
Author(s): Mark Firmin
Abstract/Introduction:
Experience throughout the process analy zer community indicates that the sample handling system is the greatest source of the errors and problems that negatively impact the accuracy and reliability of process analyzer systems. The emphasis and effort applied toward ensuring proper design of the sample handling system should be commensurate with its status as the greatest source of both problems and errors. In the past , the general perception of sample handling is that it is a mysterious art to be avoided by most, practiced by few and mastered b y none. A comprehensive collection of fundamental concepts, sound principles and best practices is presented to help make the design of sample extraction and preconditioning systems more like good engineering and less of a mysterious art .
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Document ID: 06FADE73

Development Of Cryogenic Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)REFERENCE Liquids
Author(s): Chris Cowper
Abstract/Introduction:
World production of natural gas in 2013 was 3 , 370 billion cubic metres . 29% of this wa s accounted for by LNG shipments, a proportion that is likely to increase in coming years. Measurement of the composition allows calculation of properties such as c alorific v alue (CV) and liquid density, both of which are important inputs to the knowledge of energy transfer. Prior to liquefaction, natural gas must be treated to remove components that may solidify in the heat exchangers, causing blockages that limit or stop production. These components include carbon dioxide and higher hydrocarbons. Remov al of these components means that the liquefied gas is a simpler mixture than is normally found with conventional gas production, and so measurement of LNG composition is a relatively straightforward task.
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Document ID: 0D191488

Use Of The GERG-2008 Equation Of State For Hydrocarbon Dew Point Calculations
Author(s): Andrew Laughton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the calculation of hydrocarbon dew points of natural gas. It describes the detailed composition of the mixture and how this is treated for use with an equation of state. The paper provides a novel method for use with the GERG - 2008 e quation of state (ISO 20765 parts 2 & 3) to calculate the hydrocarbon dew point of natural gas mixtures. The hydrocarbon dew point of a natural gas is the temperature at which a hydrocarbon liquid mixture first forms from the gas phase mixture (at the spec ified pressure) on cooling. It is an important property of the gas to know, and in the United Kingdom ( UK ) , there is a network entry specification that it should be no more than - 2 ? C (at any pressure). There are two basic methods to obtain this property. One is to use a dew scope, or equivalent, instrument to measure the temperature at which liquid forms
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Document ID: 5BB21C7D

Liquid Sampling For Gas Volume, Quality And Accounting
Author(s): Stephen C. Anson
Abstract/Introduction:
Changes in environmental regulation, emissions monitoring, landowner impact and facility economics are influencing change within the upstream oil and gas production industry. G reenhouse gases from flares, volatile organic compound (VOC) burners, tanks and rotating equipment are tracked and reported to ensure emissions compliance . L andowners desire a smaller footprint for facilities and operators are seeking ways to build production facilities with less equipment. These factors have led to the development of multi - well pads, gathering/pipeline systems and combined/central facilities for produ ction processing
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Document ID: 12B98765

Spot Sample Method Comparison : Fill - And - Empty V Ersus Helium Pop
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
The process of capturing a representative spot gas sample subsequently taken back to a laboratory for chromatographic analysis has always been a challenge when it comes to minimizing uncertainty. There are so many aspects of this process that can contribute to increased uncertainty. The i ncrease in uncertainty translates t o increased risk that the relative density value will be misrepresented and result in an inaccurate volume calculation. Couple d with the potential error in the volume calculation, a more pronounced error may be experienced with the energy calculation, as the BTU factor is a direct multiplier to the calculated volume. Industry standards organizations have sponsored research over the decades and published technical standards such as Gas Processors Association ( GPA ) 2166 - Obtaining Natural Gas Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography to provide guidance in minimizing uncertainty
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Document ID: 07262011

Compressed Natural Gas Filling Station Sampling And Fuel Quality
Author(s): Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
As of 2013, it was estimated that approximately 12 3,000 natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are on U.S. roads. Most of these NGVs are bi -fuel trucks and commercial vehicles that can run on either compressed natural gas ( CNG ) or on a second fuel, with separate tanks and fuel lines for both types of fuel (James, 2013 Stenquist, 2013) . Passenger cars running solely on CN G are also found in the U.S. The most notable, the Honda Civic GX, was introduced in 1998 and discontinued in 2015 (Snavely and Woodyard, 2015). Many of the 16,000 Civic GX units sold in the U.S. during that period serve in taxi and commercial fleets. With recent advances in shale gas production, biogas, and other unconventional sources of natural gas , manufacturers and users of NGVs now have an interest in natural gas quality . High moisture levels cause problems for NGV fuel systems, so identifying an d removing water from NGV supplies is critical. The last nationwide gas quality survey was published in 2003 , while shale gas supplies were introduced to the U.S. after 2004.
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Document ID: DC4E39C4

Extreme Sampling: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
Author(s): H-P Visser, Christiaan Mul
Abstract/Introduction:
As known, a typical LNG composition starts to boil at - 162 ? C or - 260 ? F at atmospheric pressure. Even in climates with extreme winter conditions and ambient temperatures around - 4 0 ? C , the extreme temperature difference can cause pre - vaporization of a product sample before the LNG reach es the vaporizer. This phenomen on results in erratic reading s from the analyz er down stream of the vaporizer , which is typically a g as c hromatograph (GC). Furthermore , the energy content calculations are based on the outcome of the GC therefore , the reported energy content can also be wrong. Since the trade of LNG is based on the amount of energy delivered , the re can be a significant revenue loss for the seller from inaccurate billing to the buyer
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Document ID: 6CBD481B

Understanding Metrics A Nd Its Influence On Sampling Success
Author(s): Donna Spencer
Abstract/Introduction:
Many individuals challenged with the task of interpreting natural gas sampling results may not have the tools for success . Required tools include both background experience and formal training in the process es of developi ng, validating and critical analysis of metrics - specifically sampling metrics. M etric reporting design decisions are sometimes made without an understanding of the technical aspects, technique , and equipment used in proper sampling.
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Document ID: 90302F9D


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