Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2016)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Volume Correcting Devices
Author(s): George E. Brown III Eric G. Gann Tony Santo
Abstract/Introduction:
Customers are the reason for utility companys existence. In gas utility measurement communities, t imely , diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure s that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. Having a developed a volumetric proving system that is designed to minimize uncertainties will make a positive impact to the bottom line and when testing or proving volume correcting devices , reliability, quality, and safety which is of utmost concern for all gas utility programs
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Document ID: A2BE8023

Gas Odorants - Safety
Author(s): Daniel E. Arrieta David C. Miller Eric Van Tol
Abstract/Introduction:
hiols (i.e. mercaptans), sulfides, and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liquefied petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. Mercaptans , for example , have proven to be very effective in odorizing because of their low odor threshold and therefore, immediate impact on the olfactory system (Roberts, 1993) . Although, gas o dorants are characterized as having a low hazard potential regarding health effects, their unique physical chemical properties such as , high flammability , require th at they be handled safel
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Document ID: A2DBB19B

Lightning Free- Automation
Author(s): Jim Gardner Colin Lippincott
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically , oil & gas automation has relied heavily on the direct burial of cable for signal communication from remote devices back to a central controller. This cable acts as a copper conductor for power transients (indirect lightning strikes) . A majority of all automation damage is caused by indirect lightning strikes. Copper cable buried on a location acts like an antenna picking up all inducted power surges from the surrounding area
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Document ID: B1386E91

Odorant Leak Management
Author(s): Pierre Braud Olivier Griperay Jean-Benoit Cazaux
Abstract/Introduction:
All around the world, propane, butane and natural gas must be odoriz ed. The odorization ensures a safe transport , distribution and use of this valuable energy to residential buildings. Regulations vary from one country or state to another. T he natural gas can be odorized at different points of the gas grid: i n some countries (France, Spain, South Korea...), odorization takes place at the e ntry points of the countrys gas grid , either at the gas trans mission pip es or at Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal s just after vaporization . In other countries (USA, Canada, Mexico, Germany, Italy, Belgium, China...) , natural gas is often odorized at city gate level , where gas is depressurized to allow distribution to residential points . Odorants also may vary from one country to another , and within the same country as well . The International Organization for Safety (ISO) is listing in the ISO 13734 (1) components commonly used: o dorants are mainly composed of Sulfides (TetraHydroThiophene, MethylEthylSulfide, DiMethylSulfide) and Light Mercaptans ( mainly TertiaryButylMercaptan , IsoPropylMercaptan ).
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Document ID: CDC1B7AB

Smart Networks For G As Utility Systems
Author(s): David Anglin Brian Crowder
Abstract/Introduction:
There was once a time when you could get a car in any color...as long as it was black. They had frames, running boards and 15 horsepower engines . Who could ever need more? Just like the auto industry has adapted from this original approach to meet the demands of consumers, regulators and shareholders, the gas industry must do the same. Automated meter reading - also known as AMR or AMI - provides that opportunity. This paper will compare and contrast AMR and AMI for gas utilities and provide important areas for gas utilities to consider when adopting or upgrading wireless meter technology
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Document ID: 6A7903A4

Ultrasonic Meters For Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meter s. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flow ing gas velocity to totalize volume. Ultra sonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer vol ume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years, primarily in liquid measurement. However, we are seeing more and more applications in the natural gas industry .
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Document ID: 3FD90785

Basic Electrical Concepts For Field Measurement Technician
Author(s): Gerry Pickens
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficient operation and maintenance of electrical and electronic systems utilized in the natural gas industry is substantially determined by the technician s skill in applying the basic concepts of electrical circuitry. This paper will discuss the basic electrical laws, electrical terms and control signals as they apply to natural gas measurement systems. There are four basic electrical laws that will be discussed
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Document ID: 6B96077B

Fundamentals Of Coriolis Meters - AGA Report No. 11
Author(s): Kyle Barry Marc Buttler
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design, enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the publication of the second edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter
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Document ID: 2A2226F5

Fundamental S Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Julie Ellington
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement is the vertebrae of any natural gas utility. Without the ability to measure, it would be impossible to account for the flow of gas from receipt to delivery. Very much like an accountant that labors to keep the ledger balanced, a uti lity needs metering to balance the gas producers receipts against the end customer delivery
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Document ID: E079CFDC

Fundamentals Of Electronic Flow Meter Design, Application & Implementation
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow measurement as applied to the natural gas industry has advanced considerably over the last 30 years. Applications to address Upstream, Midstream and Downstream gas measurement technologies have become more complex. Over time it has become necessary to understand the fundaments that make up this ever changing environment. This paper will discuss the important fundamental parameters to consider when designing an Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) system. Please be aware of the many variances to each specific design and understand this is only a fundamental paper to give new gas industry members a first look at the technologies that are required when considering an EFM design.
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Document ID: FD37918C

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): J David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, m easurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included is industry acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the instrumentation and systems involved in traditional an d newer, more progressive form s of gas measurement.
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Document ID: 1EFD37B4

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters. A standard cubic foot is defined as one cubic foot of gas at a pressure and temperature agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Common standard conditions a re 14.73 psia and 60 Fahrenheit. The gas passing through a meter is rarely at standard conditions. It is necessary to convert the gas in the meter from the metered conditions to standard cubic feet. The tools w e have for relating volume to pressure and temperature are Equations of State or, simply, the Gas Laws
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Document ID: 779702A2

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account fo r lowe r volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and var ying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration syst ems such as transfer provers. A significant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and configurations have become available over the past 6 0 years of production
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Document ID: 8CAC087A

Fundamentals Of Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): John Lansing, Eric Thompson Irvin Schwartzenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of ultrasonic meters for custody (fiscal) applications has grown substantially over the past several years. This is due in part to the release of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1, Measurement Canadas PS -G-E-06 Provisional Ultrasonic Specification Ref 2, and the confi dence users have gained in the performance and reliability of ultrasonic meters as primary measurement devices. Just like any metering technology, there are design and operational considerations that need to be addressed in order to achieve optimum perfor mance. The best technology will not provide the expected results if it is not installed correctly, or maintained properly. This paper addresses several issues t hat the engineer should consider when designing ultrasonic meter installations.
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Document ID: BB090EA4

Fundamentals Of Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Liquid Ultrasonic Meters for liquid petroleum applications such as custody transfer or allocation measurement is gaining worldwide acceptance by the Oil Industry. Ultrasonic technology is well established but the use of this technology for cust ody transfer and allocation measurement is relatively new. Often users try to employ the same measurement practices that apply to turbine technology to the Liquid Ultrasonic. There are some similarities such as: the need for flow conditioning, upstream and downstream piping requirements but there can also be differences such as the proving technique. This paper will discuss the basics of liquid ultrasonic meter operation and performance. While proving liquid ultrasonic meters is not specifically discusse d, diagnostic information available to troubleshoot meter performance in general will be presented.
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Document ID: D11470C3

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know
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Document ID: E369B4F4

Fundamentals Of Odorization
Author(s): Stephen West
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas has no innate odor, color, or taste therefore, odorization is one of the most important aspects to safely transporting natural gas to customers in a distribution system. As demand for natural gas rises as does the technology involved in odorization. The first odorization occurred in Germany in the 1880s by a Ger man scientist as a means of detecting leaking blue water gas. Fragmented and unregulated odorization of natural gas continued in the United States throughout the early 20th century until tragedy struck in in 1937 in New London, TX. An undetected gas leak at the New London School caused an explosion that completely leveled the school and ultimately killed over 300 people. As a result of this tragedy, the Texas legislature immediately moved to make the odorization of natural gas mandatory. Soon regulation spread across the entire United States. For this reason, it is important that we understand the tremendous responsibility of knowing and implementing the odorization process.
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Document ID: 6E88AB7B

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): David Courtney
Abstract/Introduction:
The history of orifice metering began in the early 1900s. The first test data was done by the U.S. Geological Survey and in 1913 the first Handbook of Natural Gas was published. So as you can tell, orifice metering has been around for over 100 years and in that time much has been learned and improved upon. Orifice metering flow equations have been derived from test data where an orifice plate, a plate with a hole in the middle of it, was placed in the flow line causing a restriction in flow. This diff erential was then compared to the actual amount that passed by the orifice and from tha t information engineers can ascertain by mathematical algorithms what equations to use to du plicate those results. Figure 1 shows a schematic of an orifice differential being compared to a known prover volume
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Document ID: 49EE37C3

Fundamentals Of Pressure & Temperature Measurement
Author(s): Brian Cleary
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement s of pressure and temperature are made for many reasons and by several methods. This paper will focus on measurements made during gas production and tra nsportation. In this industry , pressure and temperature measurements are primarily being made for three (3) reasons
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Document ID: C18870D4

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Jim Mueller
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry, there are two basic types of regulators used for both pressure reducing and back pressure (relief) contr ol. The two types are:
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Document ID: B7B7DD30

Fundamentals Of Pressure Relief Valves
Author(s): Paul J. Murtaugh
Abstract/Introduction:
What Are They and Why Are They Needed What: A stand -alone device that opens and recloses at a pre- selected pressure, containing an orifice sized to flow a required capacity to prevent / avoid over pressure. Why: All natural gas equipment (p ipelines, pressure vessels, air -cooled heat exchangers, compressor cylinders, odorant tanks, instrument control lines, valves, underground storage, industria l-residential -commercial system supply) has a maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) rating. Pressure ratings (MAOP) of each piece of equipment may be different. Pressure relief valves with proper app lication will preve nt over pressure above MAOP. Set point is dictated by the lowest MAOP equipment in the system
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Document ID: FBB9D903

Fundamentals Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Cristina Lancelot
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classifications of gas meters. The first consists of inferential type meters, including, orifice, ultra -sonic and turbine meters, and the second is the positive displacement meters, which consist of diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so -called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow an d calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so -called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them.
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Document ID: 210A4B85

An Overview Of The AGA Gas Quality Management Manual
Author(s): Terrence A . Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of the recently released Gas Quality Manag ement Manual 1 that was developed by the American Gas Association Transmission Measurement Committee over a period of roughly seven years. The manual pulls together a wide range of information and provides context that allows b oth the expert and the novice to understand the why, how and what needed to develop a plan for managing gas quality .
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Document ID: B48EF35E

Auditing Gas Analysis Laboratories
Author(s): Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safety and environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratories responsible for producing this data is prudent business practice. The audit will prov ide a means of process improvement, through proper identification of deficiencies and a precise plan for corrective action. The level of confidence in analytical results will increase when the appropriate corrective actions are implemented . The amount of financial and legal exposure can be reduced from a properly executed audit program
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Document ID: 712BD930

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure, And Supercritical Natural Gas
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux Shannon m. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for on -line BTU analysis, and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natur al gas sampling system
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Document ID: 725BEE7C

D.O.T. Requirements For The Tra Nsportation Of Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regar ding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States. The most important statement to be made is that the D.O.T. and Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49 (CFR -49) is the definitive and final authority on all issues regarding the handling and transportation of sample cylinders. Much has been wr itten and quoted over the years and many regulations have changed over the years. It is the sole responsibility of each company involved with sample cylinders, to have a copy of CFR -49 and to be responsible for clarification of any issues they have, by researching CFR -49 and consulting with D.O.T. representatives.
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Document ID: EDFEDCB0

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): Marshall T . Schreve
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a gas composed of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. H2S is formed by the decomposition of organic matter and is therefore, found naturally in crude oil and natural gas deposits. H2S is a highly toxic , transparent , colorless and corrosive gas . Due to the toxic and caustic properties of this gas and its natural presence within natural gas, it is imperative to measure and control the concentrati on levels of H2S within natural gas pipelines. This paper will discuss the Properties, Purpose of Measurement and Measurement Technologies for H2S and discuss how these technologies can be adapted for measurement of Total Sulfur.
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Document ID: C6E5F7B2

Devices For Field De Termination Of H 2 O In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
H 2 O vapor is an undesirable component of natural gas. It takes up space in the pipeline and provides no fuel value. In higher concentrations it can condense into liquid water in the pipeline and cause corrosion, especially in the presence of carbon dioxide or H 2 S. Liquid water can al so cause damage to turbines. Because of this, most gas transfer tariffs include a limit on the acceptable concentration of H2O in the gas stream. This paper reviews the devices that can be used in the field to determine the amount of water vapor present in a natural gas stream.
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Document ID: B7C8E7DE

Dew Point Wet Gas And Its Effect On Natural Gas Sampling Systems
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas measurement is becoming widely used in the modern oil and gas market place. The effect of entrained liquid in gas and its impact on measurement systems is being researched world -wide by various laboratories and JIP working groups. The impact can be very significant financially. Hydrocarbon Dew Point can also effect the financial operation of a gas transportation company if not managed effectively amounting to hundreds of thousands of dollars per annum based on incorrect sampling and its subsequent analysis . The subject is quite large and encompasses many different concepts, meter types , standards and opinions, w ith many new ideas brought to the forefront each year as more research is done. From upstream applications to midstream measurement issues caused by liquid drop out in the pipelines were gas gathering systems are used.
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Document ID: B3D7B73F

Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HDP) remains one of the key quality parameters of natural gas streams. Its determination is needed for operational and safety considerations, as well as to satisfy tariffs and regulations in US and overseas pipeline operations. The recent development of shale gas in US has added to the need for accurate and consistent measurement of HDP across a range of different mixtures of natural gas. Theoret ical methods for prediction of natural gas have been used in the past, but have been shown to have significant errors associated with them 1 . In general, theoretical methods using GC component analysis and EOS models have too much error to be useful. Direct measurements, using a chilled -mirror, continue to remain the preferred method for measurement of HDP
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Document ID: 410CFC22

Operation Of On Line- Gas Chromatographs
Author(s): Bill Frazier
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatographs serve as a basis for measurement of individual Natural Gas Components to determine the BTU or Energy Value of the Natural Gas. The use of On -Line Gas Chromatographs enables the end user to know 100% of the time the energy value of the gas flowing through their system. It is much like using a cash register to keep count of the dollar s flowing through your pipelines. Here is an example of just how Gas C hromatographs interconnect with the entire setup to determine the value of the natural gas in question:
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Document ID: 70B701F6

Overview Of Equations Of State Eos()
Author(s): Adam G. Hawley Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Determination of fluid properties and phase conditions of hydrocarbon mixtures is critical for accurate hydrocarbon measurement, representative sampling, and overall pipeline operation. Fluid properties such as compressibility and density are critical for flow measurement , and determination of the hydrocarbon due point is important to verify that heavier hydrocarbons will not condense out of a ga s mixture in changing process conditions.
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Document ID: 680943F3

Sampling Challenges Associated With Unconventional Gas Sources
Author(s): Mark Firmin Vincent Argrave
Abstract/Introduction:
dvances in exploration, drilling and production technologies make it feasible to extract natural gas from sources that in the past have been regarded as unconventional and so, such sources are becoming a larger percentage o f the gas supply. The feasibility of producing gas from a source is the primary factor in determining whether that source should be categorized as conventional or unconventional. What has been unconventional in the past may be considered conventional in the future. This pa per will discuss gas samp ling system design fundamentals and highlight key aspects of current industry standards. It will also explore the challeng es associated with sampling gas from unconventional sources such as shale formations, deep - water offshore we lls and enha nced recovery systems. Proper sampling of natural gas from unconventional sources usually requires equipment and techniques that are more sophisticated than those that have perform ed well for conventional gas sourc es.
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Document ID: 5CF70469

Techniques For Composite Gas Sampling
Author(s): David J. Fish Garret Van Dyke
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investig ated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
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Document ID: 1A7B2C69

Techniques For Spot Sampling Gas
Author(s): Matthew S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
While inaccuracies in measurement can be costly and common, they are also avoidable in most cases. Technicians willing to study the experiences and best practices of industry leaders can make a world of difference by applying what theyve learned and sharing the knowledge shared in this paper with others. This paper aims to describe spot sampling as defined by industry standards , and discuss important fact ors that may impact accuracy when taking a spot sample.
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Document ID: E5FDF2DA

Verifying Gas Chromatographs At Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): Steve Lakey
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography is one of the most widely used means of performing chemical analyses in the world. Russian botanist Mikhail Tswett is credited with discovering the technique of chromatography. Using alcohol as a mobile phase and chalk as a stationary phase, Tswett was able to separate various plant extracts
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Document ID: 3D10B9FA

A Review Of API Mpms Chapter 14.3 / AGA Report No. 3 - Part 2
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Jacob L. Thorson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the current contents of the United States (U.S.) orifice flow metering standard - American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids, Part 2, Specification and Installation Requirements. 1 This document is also know n as American Gas Association Report No. 3, Part 2. 2 As of the writing of this paper (i.e., June 2016), this standard was in its fifth edition and was last revised in March 2016
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Document ID: 318F3199

An Overview And Update Of AGA 9 - Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters 2 nd Edition Ref 1 in April 2007. Report 9 details recommended practice for using multipath gas ultrasonic meters (USMs) in fiscal (custody) measurement applications. This paper reviews some of history behind the development of AGA Report No. 9 (often referred to as AGA 9), key Report contents, which inc ludes information on meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. This paper also discusses changes that will be incorporated in the next revision . At the time of this paper the expect ed publication date is spring of 201 7.
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Document ID: FF97FA56

An Overview Of Industry Standards Related To Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Barry Balzer
Abstract/Introduction:
From these definitions, it appears that one could conclude that a standard should have value be established by general consent or by an organization be a yardstick to measure quantity, quality, and value and be a base or support upon which one can built procedures and policies. Standards have been developed and are continually being developed to help provide uniform and consistent actions or results, improve safety, minimize legal action, and to improve efficiencies.
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Document ID: 0254064D

Application Of Flow Computers For Measurement And Control
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
While still in use today, the technology has moved increasingly to microprocessor based flow computer s. Such devices allow for greater measurement accuracy , increased control function ality, and are readily integrated into a company s enterprise computer networks.
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Document ID: D48C0146

Auditing Electronic Gas Measurement Per API Mpms Chapter 21.1
Author(s): Keith Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing evolved as a business practice as owners began to realize a standardized form of accounting must exist to prevent fraud. Financial audits made their way into businesses during the late 1700s. The industrial revolution brought about the separatio n of job duties beyond what a sole proprietor or family could oversee. Managers were hired to supervise the employees and the business processes. Businesses began to expand geographically where previously they were all local. Owners, who could not be in more than one place at a time or chose to be absent, found an increasing need to monitor the accuracy of the financial activities of their growing businesses. Owners responded by hiring people to check their financial results for accuracy, resulting in t he process of financial auditing. In the early 1900s and at the request of the Securities and Exchange Commission, the auditors reports of duties and findings were standardized. Financial auditors developed methods of reporting on selected key business cases as an affordable alternative to examining every detailed transaction. It was found with auditing that the evaluation of both financial risk and financial opportunity was improved.
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Document ID: 1379AFD7

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ) Systems and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technology and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project
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Document ID: 33A16628

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Travis Lame
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics have worked their way into every aspect of our lives today. This fact is especially true in the oil and gas indu stry. With modern electronics it has become easier to attain accurate measurement and automated controls using electronic systems. These devices have become increasingly capable and affordable cementing their use in nearly every company regardless of size. The fiel d measurement personnel must have a basic understanding of electrical principles to be effective in their positions. This paper will focus on the use of electric circuits that apply to the devices used in the oil and gas industry.
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Document ID: 6C83B3DA

Basic National Electric Code Applicable To Measurement
Author(s): Gerry Pickens
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Electrical Code (NEC) defines hazardous locations as those areas where fire or explosion hazards may exist due to flammable gases or vapors, flammable liquids, combustible dust, or ignitable fibers or filings. A substantial part of the NEC is devoted to the discussion of hazardous locations. Thats because electrical equipment can become a source of ignition in these volatile areas. Articles 500 through 504, and 510 through 517 provide classification and installation standards for the use of electrical equipment in the se locations. The writers of the NEC developed a short -hand method of describing areas classified as hazardous locations. One of the purposes of this discussion is to explain this classification system. Hazardous locations are classified in three ways by t he National Electrical Code : TYPE, CONDITION, and NATURE.
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Document ID: CC17EFC1

Understanding AGA Report No. 10 - Natural Gas Speed Of Sound
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The speed of sound in natural gas is the velocity a sound wave travels in the gas. There are a number of gas properties that affect the speed of sound and they include the composition of the gas, the pressure of the gas , and the temperature of the gas. The American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 10 , Speed of Sound in Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases , provides an accurate method for calculating the speed of sound in natural gas and other related hydrocarbon fluids
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Document ID: DE58D687

Calculation Of Natural Gas Liquid Quantities
Author(s): Calculation Of Natural Gas Liquid Quantities
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no substitute for well maintained, properly installed , and properly performing measurement equipment. Provisions for measurement equipment installation, operation, and maintenance deliver the raw data required for those dealing with natural gas liquid s (NGLs) to transact business. Then, this raw data can be adjusted or converted to values suitable for transactions to take place and be accounted for . To make these adjustments and conversions , it helps to know the des ired results . Some measurement software applications require volume quantities. Others require mass. For many NGL applications, the preferred outcomes are liquid volumes of pure components . This is because most NGLs are eventually fractionated into pure products and market prices for these are readily available. Sometimes, the gas equivalent values are also useful for operations .
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Document ID: 518BD43B

Clamp On- Ultrasonic Flow Meter Application And Performance
Author(s): William E. Frasier Joseph Nettleton
Abstract/Introduction:
Clamp -on meters are specified to achieve one to three percent uncertainty. Manufacturers cannot control the quality of a given field installation and must provide latitude. Lab testing has demonstrated many installations perform at an accuracy level range of 1%. If a reliable installation technique is maintained, the clamp -on meter will often perform better than manufacturer standards. Further, the meter control units have piecewise linear error correction schemes such that they can be adjusted to reference flow rates as afforded at a flow lab.
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Document ID: 0504B0E4

Considerations For Liquid Measurement In Production Applications
Author(s): Joey Raskie
Abstract/Introduction:
With the proliferation of horizontal drilling allowing access to tight oil formations, liquid production in the U .S. has significantly increased over recent years. Consequently , there is renewed interest in accurate measurements for both custody transfer and allocation purposes. Advances in measurement automation have yielded operators savings in the millions of doll ars annually . Over the last several years, the increase of s hale play drilling has created a problem within the industry. Most of the shale plays have been developed in p rimarily natural gas production areas , where a l ack of liquids measurement knowledge may exist . While there certainly are knowledgeable people in these areas, measurement personnel can be spread thin due to the many active drill sites. B oth allocation measurement and custody transfer m easurement occur in these areas, so measurement personnel must be well versed on both . Typical q uestions that come up are: What is the right technology to use in each of the areas of measurement ? Should I use t urbine meters, Coriolis meters , or maybe just o rifice meters? W hat data do I need to get ba ck to my h ost system ? Should I just count b arrels or do I want to get some real insight into the process
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Document ID: DE59DAA6

Continuous Monitoring Of Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Randy Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
here are many in our industry who would consider the advancement of the ultrasonic meter to be the greatest improvement in gas measurement in the past twenty years. Its my opinion that the immense improvement in gas measurement is not so much the ultrasonic meter its elf . Instead , I believe it is the meters ability to detect conditions that would compromise its own accuracy and ability to communicate those conditions to the user. It is in the area of communicating those conditions , that we often under -utilize the meters capabilities. Employing electronic flow computers and SC ADA systems to collect and analyze ultrasonic meter data can provide many benefits for todays natural gas pipeline company.
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Document ID: 99A1A66C

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Exsisting Metering Stations
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
n todays competitive gas market, utility companies must meet aggressive market strategies or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and gas distribution is no exception. Our measuring stations are our cash register. The probl em is, these stations were designed 10, 20, 30 or even 50 years ago, and are now performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made. Measurement personnel today must be trained and taught to cope with changing flow requirements. But, modifying a station to meet todays aggressive market can be very expensive. Equipment, such as regulators and the primary element (the meter tube, the orifice plate holder, and the orifice plate), must meet A.G.A. 3 requirements. The secondary element (th e recording device) can raise expenditures significantly. Sometimes modifications cannot be made to deliver the specified volume of product needed, and replacement of a complete station is even more expensive. Companies today must watch money closely, and work to reduce operating and maintenance costs.
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Document ID: 56928073

Coriolis Mass Flow Meters For Gas And Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Michael Keilty Hubbard Donald
Abstract/Introduction:
A mass flowmeter is a system that provides a measurement of fluid flow in units of mass pounds, tons. The Coriolis flowmeter is a type of flowmeter which measures the mass of the fluid flow directly. Coriolis mass flowmeters were first introduced more th an 30 years ago. Global acceptance has spread across all industries where precision flow measurement is needed. Today, installations number in the hundreds of thousands of measurement points including those in liquid hydrocarbon and natural gas applicati ons. This paper will review the Coriolis mass flowmeter technology describing the differences and similarities between Coriolis flowmeters and electronic and mechanical meters and looking at some latest developments in Coriolis mass meter design and opera tion
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Document ID: A4F5DF24

Differential Meters Other Than Orifice
Author(s): Kenneth Reed, III
Abstract/Introduction:
Cone meters differ from other differential pressure type meters, such as o rifice meters and Venturi meters, basically , by design only. They are all required to meet American Petroleum Institute ( API ) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS), Chapter 22.2 (entitled Testing Protocol for Differential Pressure Flow Meter Devices) test criteria developed and published in 2005 and still being updated today. The c one meter is designed to measure liquid or gas. Cone meters are proprietary in design and have limited third -party testing due to patented designs and length of use in the Industry. The orifice meter is the oldest meter of the three that we will discuss and has the most third -party flow lab test data available. The Venturi meter , histor ically, has mostly been utilized for liquids and steam. The Venturi is also known to preform very well in harsh flows, such as sewage, wastewater , and pulp due to its free flowing design. In recent years , Venturis are more commonly being used for liquefied natural gas ( LNG ) and compressed natural gas ( CNG) due to the ability to construct them from a wide variety of materials
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Document ID: 95A603DD

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Christopher Gran
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most common measurement errors and the most difficult to identify in natural gas metering systems is that caused by pulsating flow. It is important to understand the effects that pulsation s have on the common types of flow meters used in the ga s industry so that potential error -producing mechanisms can be identified and avoided. It is also essential to understand pulsation control techniques for mitigating pulsation effects. This paper describes the effects of pulsation on orifice, turbine, ultrasonic, and other flow meter types . It also presents basic methods for mitigating pulsation effects at meter installations, including a specific procedure for designing acoustic filters that can isolate a flow meter from the source of pulsation.
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Document ID: 2A1E6D20

Effects Of Flow Conditioning On Meter Accuracy And Repeatability
Author(s): Danny Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow conditioning is one of the most critical aspects dealing with any type of volumetric flow metering. Flow conditioning is the final buffer between the flow meter and the upstream piping layout and is responsible for eliminating swirl, restoring flow symmetry and generating a repeatable, fully developed velocity flow profile. Even though modern advancem ents have resulted in low uncertainty, high repeatability device s that are effective across a range of flow rates, proper utilization of flow conditioner is still required to maximize the meters performance, diagnostics and ensure the most stable long ter m flow measurement. All flow conditioner technologies are not made equal , as com monly used designs such as AGA tube b undles and straightening vanes can actually cause mor e measurement problems than they resolve. This paper will focus on two main types of flow conditioners perforated plate systems and tube bundles .
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Document ID: DEDB61BB

Effects Of Wet On Orifice Meters
Author(s): Josh Kinney Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that le d to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meter s to be installed in application s where the flow s are actually wet gas flow s, i.e. flows where there is some liquid entrain ment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the systems conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter it is by default the most common wet gas flow meter.
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Document ID: 0033D1C0

Efm Data Communications - Problems And Solutions
Author(s): Jackson Kyle Bates
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is discuss various methods to mitigate experienced problems when it comes to measurement data collection and discuss possible solutions . I think there is great benefit in providing a current state summary of measurement data collection as we sit today and discuss how technology and metrics are continuously being utilized to help shape the future of remote measurement dat a collection in the Natural Gas industry.
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Document ID: 1921E671

Factors Affecting Digital Pressure Calibration
Author(s): Scott A. Crone Jim Pronge
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is done and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically. Figure 1: Pneumatic Deadweight Tester In the past it was a standard practice to use a primary standard for pressure calibration. That standard was normally a dead weight tester or a manometer. Today with more accurate secondary standards available there is a larger choice in what can be used for pressure calibration. What is used normally will depend on the requirements that have to be met and th e equipment that is available.
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Document ID: C16A254B

Flare Measurement
Author(s): Eric Estrada Irvin Schwartzenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
With the recent release of the Green House Gas Regulations, the increased visibility of flaring natural gas and increased awareness of royalty owners, the ability to accurately measure and account for the amount of product flared from a facility has become increasingly important to regulators, royalty owners and operat ors. In the past, flare gas was not considered a necessary measurement, so the measurement of flared product has often been overlooked or not given the same attention as custody transfer measurement. As such API published API MPMS Chapter 14.10, Measureme nt of Flow to Flares, in June of 2007. This paper will provide a quick overview of the contents of API MPMS 14.10 but is encouraged to obtain 14.10 if more detailed information is desired. In addition, a brief discussion on the importance of calibrating flare flow meters is also discussed
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Document ID: 3913BA48

How Not To Measure Gas - Orifice
Author(s): Dee Hummel John Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring natural gas is both a science and an art. Guidelines and industry practices explain how to accurately measure natural gas. The art comes in trying to minimize errors and prevent measurement problems. However, sometime it s easier to explain how not to measure gas when reviewing measurement errors . Measurement errors can be caused through poor installation pr actices , poor measurement practices, operational changes , and human error. The purpose of this paper is to address some real life cases of measurement errors
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Document ID: 67C4B147

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted- For Gas Program
Author(s): John Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many (likely most) gas pipeline companies struggle with lost- and -unaccounted -for -gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom line as shown below. As shown in this inset, by reducing L&U from 0.6 percent to .25 percent, a typical company with a 2 BCF daily throughput could save Over 7.6 million dollars annually based on 3.00 gas prices, which is a daily loss of 21,000
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Document ID: 65FBDF87

Improving Flow Measurement S With Improved Calibration And Data Handling Procedures
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
hese factors and many more create a tremendous and constant challenge for every organization. The gas measurement analyst requires a completely different set of skills to interpret and understand the information documented by the field regarding testing and calibration procedures. The task for the measurement analyst is to absorb the wealth of information presented, and utilize their extensive knowledge base in determining when a current month adjustment or even a prior month adjustment is warranted. Ea ch time an analyst reviews data from the field, a question should be asked, Did the technician follow the correct procedures in performing the calibration?
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Document ID: 8F66A0E3

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Adam G. Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate flow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of flow rates or loads, an example is provided on how to address system rangeability while maintaining accurate flow measurement. Detailed te chnical descriptions of the functionality of the various available gas metering technologies is beyond the scope of this paper, but information of that type can be found in other papers in these Proceedings.
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Document ID: AE2DD82C

Methods For Certifying Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Scott Crone Jim Pronge
Abstract/Introduction:
Like any other piece of equipment, a measurement artifact must be maintained . Obviously, it has to be in working order in general. However, what is more important is that it be operating within specified parameters and providing measurements that are traceable to a known source or sources. This paper provides a general overview of calibration and certification. It also discusses some key terminology and methods
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Document ID: BBC78EDF

Methods Of Gathering Electronic Gas Measurement Egm() D Ata
Author(s): Jackson Kyle Bates
Abstract/Introduction:
Th is paper is intended to discuss various methods used to collect Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) data. There are quite a few options on the market today when it comes to remote measurement data collection in the Natural Gas I ndustry. Due to advancements in technology, we have seen changes in most all the options available making each product viable and made to serve a particular niche. Depending on your companys philosophy and direction, the data collection equipment may be as simple as a hard line phone modem or as advanced as satellite monitoring. We have seen a larg e rise and then decline of spread spectrum radio networks due to the sheer number of radio networks and realized interference. Quite a few companies are choosing to move from serial and go with IP technology all the way to the RTU in an effort to bridge mu ltiple networks and protocols.
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Document ID: DCB3A61D

On Site- Proving Of Gas Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, and higher natural gas prices buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the error in natural gas measurement . A 6 Turbine or Ultrasonic meter operating at 1,000 Psi will move 100 MMSCF/Day. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 10 0 Million Standard Cubic Feet (MMSCF) of Natural Gas selling at 4.00 per Thousand Standard Cubic Feet ( MS CF ) will cause an over or under billing of 4 00.00. Therefore the error in a year is ( 400 X 365) 146, 000.00. This will more than pay for a proving or verifying system
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Document ID: 9CFEBED3

Orifice Plate Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are popular for being relatively simple, reliable and inexpensive. Their principles of operation are relatively easily understood. However, traditionally there has been no orifice meter self diagnostic capabilities. In 2008 & 2009 a generic Differential Pressure (DP) meter self diagnostic methodology 1,2 was proposed. In this paper these diagnostic principles are applied to orifice meters and proven with experimental test results. The diagnostic results are presented in a si mple graphical form designed for easy use in the field by the meter operator.
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Document ID: 1FEE04DA

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and positive metering stations. It takes in to account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: 123E584A

Overview Of AGA Report No. 7 Revision
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
Just when you thought you knew everything there was to know about Turbine meter measurement, wham, out comes a revised AGA 7 standard. Now those basic principles are all still valid but maybe those operating practices we have built into our operating procedures need a little review. Rather than proceed as generations have done before us, research has been completed on the meters, their in stallation and operating practices and the way we calibrate and field test them. So now we have some data to back up our methods and madness.
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Document ID: 217FAE4F

Pressure, Temperature, And Other Effects On Turbine Meter Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper explains the general working principle of gas turbine meters and the common causes for turbine metering errors. Field observations and laboratory test examples are presented in this paper to demonstrate these phenomena. The author also suggests methods to optimize the measurem ent performance of turbine meter installations
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Document ID: F8202616

Problems Unique To Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the technicians ability to verify the accuracy of the gas measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement
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Document ID: 5D57F243

Production Equipment Effects On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
The condition of gas as it presents itself in the pipeline is often not ideal for accurate measurement, by an orifice flow meter. It is the requirement of the American Gas Association (AGA) that the natural gas be in a single phase and with a swirl -free fu lly developed profile as it passes across the orifice plate to meet the standard of measurement to provide acceptable uncertainty for the flow calculation. Thus it is often necessary to condition the gas prior to measurement. Usin g the basic laws of gase s, we can control these conditions by altering the temperature, pressure, or component makeup of the gas. Neglecting these conditions will create a poor measurement environment and inaccurate measurement. It is therefore necessary for measurement personnel to be familiar with common production equipment, how that equipment is utilized and what effect it can have on the overall ability for a system to provide accurate measurement.
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Document ID: 51458004

Protection Of Natural Gas Measurement Equipment Against Moisture And Corrosion
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux David Wall
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation addresses problems associated with moisture and corrosion caused by high relative humidity and airborne contaminants. By controlling moisture and corrosion long -term, many problems associated with sensitive field electronics can be avoided
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Document ID: C2D397B0

Real Time Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years now, flow computers have been implemented in gas measurement systems to utilize technology, to improve measurement accuracy, provide far more efficient data acquisition, and provide better control resources for remote interface through telemetry. As the meters functionality has increased, the meter technician has had to become more diverse in his or her knowledge of measurement, control, computers, and electronics. By taking a closer look at the various advanced applications and reviewing the basics, hopefully the technician will have a better understanding of the requirements of handling, inst alling, and working with todays advanced flow computers.
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Document ID: 91BA77C5

Research Topics Influencing Changes To The API 14.1 Standard
Author(s): Jacob L. Thorson Dr. Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.1, Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer , provides practical guidance for gas sampling in custody transfer applications. It is intended as a collection of lessons learned and best practices, and as such, it is a living document. In support of this, API, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), and the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) co -sponsored an extensive natural gas sampling research program at the Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI ). The body of this research was conducted between 1999 and 2005 and supported the most recent revision of API 14.1, published in 2006.
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Document ID: DBCB35FA

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. Ho wever, these kinds of events are rare. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day -to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing. With the advent of the transistor and today when surface mount electronics is the norm and not the exception, t ransient suppression has become a science of necessity. Tight tolerances of voltage requirements and limited current carrying capabilities makes the new compact integrated circuits much more susceptible to many types of transients
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Document ID: 7899AB6F

Ultrasonic Flow Meter Calibration - Considerations And B Enefits
Author(s): Terrence A . Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
Since their introduction to the natural gas industry in the mid -1990s , multipath ultrasonic flow meters have developed a large installed base and have become the meter s of choice for a variety of reasons. While one of the initial goals of the manufacturers was to develop a meter that di d not require flow calibration, the accuracy requirements of most m easurement applications dictate that ultrasonic flow meters need to be flow calibrated. This paper provides an overview of the calibration process and elements that should be considered by those responsible for the calibration.
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Document ID: 08C99C1A

Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Advanced
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of u ltrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas which are generally used to assess dynamic meter operation and performance. The basic diagnostic features of most gas ultrasonic flow meters were covered in the companion paper Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Basics which covered diagnostics that relate to meter health or validation that the meter is operating properly. Advanced diagnostics are typically those that provide operators information regarding flowing conditions that may affect optimum meter performance. These can include determination of installation effects, upstream blockage s, dirt or other similar operating conditions that can adversely affect the uncertainty or repeatability of the volumetric flow rate information determined by the flow meter. Most of this information can be generalized to other manufacturers transit time ultrasonic flow meter s however, these examples provided, particularly with respect to some advanced diagnostic features, are based on the Daniel SeniorSonic ultrasonic flow meter .
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Document ID: 4AB84B6F

Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Basic
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses fundamental principles of ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas and the available basic diagnostic capability to assess meter operation and performance. The basic requirements for obtaining good meter performance, when installed in the field, will be reviewed. Most of this information can be generalized to other manufacturers transit time ultrasonic flow meter s h owever, these examples provided, particularly with respect to some diagnostic features, are based on the Daniel SeniorSonic ultrasonic flow meter . Advanced diagnostic data, in conjunction with gas composition, pressure and temperature, that provides diagno stic benefits beyond that of other primary measurement devices is outside the scope of this paper, though these topics will be covered in the companion paper, Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Advanced
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Document ID: 8077F87F

Wellheads Liquids Measurement
Author(s): Mark V. Goloby
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquids measurement in the oil patch is suddenly getting a lot of attention. Some are dismayed at the low level of technology used to measure liquids. Today, custody transfer of 80 to 85% of onshore crude and condensate production is still documented by a hauler climbing to the top of the tank and strapping it. That would be a fair estimate, concurs Mark Davis Staff Engineer Shell Exploration and Production. The hauler straps the tank before loading his truck and again when he finishes. The produce r is pa id on whatever that hauler writes on the ticket
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Document ID: AC512B63

Auditing Liquid Measurement Facilities
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
The word Auditing is often used to imply that activities related to a review of general business practices, and procedures for an asset or business unit, are under way. The objective of those activities is to assure compliance with corporate policies and procedures, industry and government standards, and sound management principles. Additional objectives may include review of accounting and financial transactions for accuracy, completeness and timeliness. The Institute of Internal Auditing defines the process as: Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organizations operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes.
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Document ID: 47E75AFD

Fundamentals Of Densitometers And Pycnometers
Author(s): Charles Burton
Abstract/Introduction:
this paper will discuss the role of the pycnometer in density meter calibrations. The primary objective will be to prov ide the necessary steps required to properly install, operate, and maintain the densitometer and pycnometer (pyc) . Common issues encountered with pycnometers as well as densitometers are also discussed.
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Document ID: B5EB3B31

Fundamentals Of Mass Measurement ( Coriolis Meters )
Author(s): Marsha Yon Kyle Barry
Abstract/Introduction:
The first flow meter utilizing the Coriolis force to measure mass flow was patented in 1978. Today, hundreds of thousands of Coriolis meters are in service in the hydrocarbon industry to measure mass , volume , and density of a wide variety of fluids. The American Petroleum Institute published Chapter 5.6 entitled Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Coriolis Met ers in October 2002 and reaffirmed the standard in 2013. Th e standard describes methods to achieve custody transfer levels of accuracy when a Coriolis meter is used to measure liquid hydrocarbons.
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Document ID: 388D6D24

Fundamentals Of Meter Provers And Proving Methods
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will provide the reader an understanding of what a prover is, the need for proving meters for accurate measurement uncertainty verification , the equipment deemed acceptable and available for use in the oil and liquefied gas market. It will also define the general terminology used in the industry, general operational aspects for verification devices , and general information utiliz ed by the groups and agencies that govern the meter verification process
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Document ID: F5E33F93

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Don Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of natural gas liquids (NGL) is similar in many respects to that of other hydrocarbon liquids but is markedly different in other aspects. The main difference in NGL measurement is the need to properly address the effects of solution mixing. Measuring NGL by mass measurement techniques will properly address solution mixing effects because the mass measurement process is not sensitive to the effect that pressure, temperature and solution mixing have on the fluid measured.
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Document ID: 06F8B063

Fundamentals Of Ngl Meter Station Design
Author(s): Tony Lockard Doug Patel
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides a fundamental overview of an NGL meter station design reviewing the nuances of configuring similar components in different ways . There are multiple considerations that influence the meter station design and all must be taken into account . M ajor considerations are: what product or products will be measured, what meter technology to utilize, and the process design limitations . The first thing that must be taken into account is whether the product is a purity product or a mixed compositional product. Most p urity products are measured and accounted for by volume, while a mixed compositional product is measured and accounted for by mass. This influences the meter skid design, since mass product skids must be set -up to allow for the streams mass and streams compo sition to be measured properly.
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Document ID: F167B488

Fundamentals Of Ngl Sampling Systems
Author(s): Dominic Giametta Jim Klentzman Martin Bouska)
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of t his paper is to discuss in depth the system s we use as a standard to sample natural gas liquids, or NGLs. Before we discuss the systems and methods used to sample these products, we must first clearly define what NGL s are. NGL s can be a combination of any fluid in liquid form that is taken from the pipeline under pressure. Typically, NGL refers mainly to ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasolines (pentanes) & condensates . Because of the broad range of products that ca n be claimed as NGLs, there are many different approaches to the methods by which we sample them. The common thread among all NGLs is that these products in order to be maintained and properly sampled, require the use of specific sampling techniques uni que to light liquid and NGL sampling.
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Document ID: 90645D75

Fundamentals Of Volume Measurement Turbine( Meters)
Author(s): Tony Petitto
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 40 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally turbine metes were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and PD meters for higher viscosities. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the fundamental principles of turbine meter measurement as well as new developments including: smart preamps for real -time diagnostics, helical flow turbine meters for higher viscosity applications, higher performance flow conditioners to increase accuracy, and viscosity compensation to extend the application limits.
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Document ID: E7409D4D

Verification / Calibration Of Devices Us Ed In Static Liquid Measurement S
Author(s): Robert Maze Andrew Biddle
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of verifying or calibrating liquid measurement devices is to ensure the accuracy of quantities being reported. With millions of dollars at stake, fractions of an inch or tenths of a degree Fahrenheit can make quite an impact to bottom line. At its most basic , the static (as opposed to dynamic , the use of meters ) quantity determination of liquid hydrocarbons is generally obtained by measuring the depth of the liquid in a storage tank and obtaining a representative temperature. Through the use of volume tables and volume expansion factors the quantity at a standard temperature can be stated. Several factors play an important role in quantity determination. Some of the factors are product density, the presence of fr ee water, ambient temperature, tank construction ( including roof design, stilling well design , stability of the tank bottom, etc.), as well as method of creation of the tank capacity tables . Additional factors come into play when measuring static liquids on board marine vessels.
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Document ID: 820E38DB

Advance D Communication Designs
Author(s): Bob Halford Glenn Longley
Abstract/Introduction:
We say Advanced Wireless Data Radio Communication Systems Design Process not because this is a more in- depth and more technical process, but because the systems involved are complex in nature and must be carefully designed and programmed. If anything, what I want to do is teach you a more simplified approach and technique to design a SCADA or Telemetry project, but one which you do the same whether the system is large or small. By design, I mean we take this specified approach, or Process , which is consistent every time to show us geographically where the sites are and what the terrain challenges are for each site. We think more about one site at a time than the whole forest of sites. We need to visit the area and know the foliage conditions, man made structures and any other issue that may inhibit a good communication path. Wh at is a path? I am sure you most likely know this, but a path is the line of site from the end device back to a collection point, whether a master receiver or a repeater or repeaters between each end point and the master collection point. There must be as clear of a straight line path as possible between key points of collection or repeating or no data is consistently transmitted in those com systems which are line of sites technologies .
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Document ID: D51ADCB9

Communication Between The Office And Field
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Transferring the knowledge base regarding the measurement equipment between a field measurement technician and a corporate measurement analyst can be extremely challenging. A Field technician s skill set is tested on a routine basis therefore, the technician must be knowledgeable in: Electronic controls to pneumatic controls Communication system support Multiple disciplines Support of measurement equipment Procedures that must be followed Regulatory requirements governing the facilities Ongoing training of field personnel Each organization is constantly facing challenges due to these factors as well as many others.
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Document ID: 3B9235F5

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Gary P. Menzel Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic gas measurement auditing or EFM auditing is a very important process in the natural gas industry. Within the last twenty years, the natural gas industry has changed from the dry flow chart recorder to the Electronic flow Computer(EFM) as the primary method of recording the measurement data for custody tr ansfer. These flow computers are still typically connected to a n orifice meter and are subject to all of the problems in the primary device that a chart recorder was. In addition they have their own set of problems that crop up in the flow computer and transmitters, some of which had similar problems when it was a cha rt recorder and some of which are unique to the flow computer. Careful review of the meter data should still be (and usually is) a part of the monthly close process. Even with the review process, occasionally measurement errors make it through to the paym ent calculation. It is for this reason that auditing is necessary and prudent. A proper audit procedure can be cost effective and ensure that proper credit is received for any delivery. As a side benefit, it will also help ensure that internal measurement is being performed properly.
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Document ID: 1722A418

Ethics
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement requires the highest level of ethical integrity in an industry that relies on ethical integrity at every level. A measurement professional is the provider of data to all the other professionals involved in the petroleum industry. If the measurement professional fails at their assigned duties, all the other branches of this industry make decisions based on poor data, or, in the worst case, false dat a.
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Document ID: 0BE62B08

Field Data Capture Without Paper Forms
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter inspections, configuration changes, calibration verification , troubleshooting, and gas sampling generate important subset s of measurement data. Automated computer systems capture, process, store, and report this data better than manual, paper -based systems minimizing effort, time, resources , and error for field and office workers .
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Document ID: 20C003CB

Gas And Liquid Measurement Validation
Author(s): Mike Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental to all electronic gas measurement (EGM) and electronic liquids measurement (ELM) systems is the ability to accurately measure, review, correct, and report data. Any weakness in this chain undermines the accurac y and data integrity in the system . Recent industry standards and practices have greatly expanded the emphasis on data integrity. The Sarbanes -Oxley (SOX) Act of 2002 focuses on the integrit y and consistency of all financial -based transactions for an organization. A SOX auditor will directly reference the American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 21 (popularly known as API 21) as the stand ard for all steps in the measurement process throughout an organization. Therefore, measurement personnel must possess a thorough understanding of API 21 and put its requirements to practice in order to satisfy the audit process
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Document ID: 78620226

Gas Contracts Impact On Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): T. Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Much effort is spent to achieve accurate measurement. Up to date measurement standards, modern meter station design, high quality equipment, and proper measurement operations are all necessary for measurement accuracy. Unfortunately , these processes do not assure measurement accuracy if the contract does not also support accurate measurement. The contract impacts measurement accuracy by what it addresses and what is left unaddressed. More focus needs to be applied to the measurement sections of the contracts. Hopefully this paper will help the reader better understand the relationship between the contract a nd accuracy.
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Document ID: 7D92AFD3

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Tom Pendleton
Abstract/Introduction:
Can the effectiveness of skills training be measured ? A Region Director friend of mine who works for a large natural gas pipeline company complained that his new measuremen t employees (new hires and experienced personnel that have transferred into gas measurement ) are not performing required tasks and activities to his expectations. My over - pressure protection & measurement equipment supplier , two month ago, presented a free , 1-day training session on How to T est a Relief Valve S et Point . I paid for donuts and lunch ! We told them exactly how to do it . My employees just dont get it
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Document ID: 29474E7F

Training Office Personnel
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Experience is the best teacher. Weve all heard that saying, but, what if there arent any experienced personnel left to hir e? After years of downsizing, mergers, and attrition, the industry finds itself in a shortage of good trained personnel. The only way to overcome this problem is to provide the new employee with comprehensive training. Successful training is paramount to the success of the gas measurement department and your company.
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Document ID: 1ADAC865

Understanding The Advantages Of Ip Networks
Author(s): Burke P. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
odays oil and gas industry faces increasing pressure to maximize the capability of its wireless infrastructure while minimizing operational and developmental costs. Unprecedented uncertainty and business volatility are transforming the landscape, as the oil and gas industry becomes more competitive, profit -oriented, and responsive to a fickle and sa vvy clientele. The key to developing a successful enterprise- wide networking strategy is to recognize that it is only part of a larger strategy -one in which modern oil and gas facilities must literally reinvent themselves
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Document ID: B09F081D

Upstream Natural Gas Sales Verification
Author(s): Mark B. Fillman Jayson A. Payne Matt Goppert
Abstract/Introduction:
Within the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry, the custody transfer of natural gas is usually determined by orifice measurement which is governed by a sales agreement between the producer and pipeline company. In most cases, the gas sales agreeme nt references a combination of American Gas Association (AGA), American Petroleum Institute (API), and Gas Processors Association (GPA) standards which are to be incorporated into the custody measurement procedures. Verification that the physical deliveri es of natural gas are accurate and accountable, for both parties, is fundamental to the business cycle that occurs each month. This paper reviews the relationships between producer and pipeline, the varying responsibilities of each party, and some useful methods to produce more accurate and accountable natural gas measurement results
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Document ID: 7A489DA7

Utilizing Wireless Instrumentation In Well Optimization
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
Wireless instrumentation products provide cost- effective and easy to install alternatives to traditional, hardwired sensor sites. These rugged field units are designed for the majority of Oil & Gas applications a nd for installations ranging from general purpose to Class I Div I hazardous locations with extreme temperature and humidity ranges. True wire less instrumentation is comprised of self contained , self -powered field units providing process data to a centralized base radio through an unlicensed band, spread- spectrum, and frequency hopping wireless connection. Networks of up to 100 field units (900MHz version) can be created and polled by a single b ase radio using a secure, proprietary Industrial Wireless protocol, with a typical range between field unit and base radio of up to 5000ft ( -1500m). With the capability to scale up to as many as 256 wireless instrumentation LANs, Wireless Instrumentation networks easily accommodate future expansion plans.
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Document ID: DC99D93F

An Overview Of Pipel Ine Leak Detection Technologi Es
Author(s): Jonathan Fiedler
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide you with a fundamental understanding of the operating principles of currently available pipeline leak detection technologies. To start with well have a look at the topics to be covered: Historical development of pipelines Why they are monitored for leaks The requirements and regulations placed on leak detection systems Various causes of leaks Different leak detection methods It will also be shown how pipelines are monitored utilizing leak detection systems which are operated : non -continuously continuously with external measurements continuously with internal measurements
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Document ID: B0F79C68

Comparing Plug & Seat Regulators & Control Valves
Author(s): Lamar Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper will be to compare a plug and seat regulator to a control valve for high- pressure natural gas installations such as: power plants, city gate stations, large industrial customers, compressor stations, and storage fields . The feat ures, benefits, capabilities, and differences of both devices will be outlined , to enable the reader to make an educated selection. In addition, acceptable design practices will be reviewed concerning sizing, gas velocities, noise levels, equipm ent layout , and performance. The ball valve is the most commonly used type of modulating valve for natural gas pipeline applications, for that reason, we will limit this discussion to comparison between the plug and seat regulator and versions of a 1/4 turn ball v alve.
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Document ID: C1CBBA98

Complete Measurement & Control Facility Design & Installation
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of installers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentation. This presentation focuses on the following items: Developing a project perspective Establishing a sound baseline from which to proceed Examples of actual designs Typical design deliverables Conclusion
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Document ID: 64FFBF30

Field Testing Gas Meters By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
n the typical transfer testing system, air or gas passes through the meter under test (field meter) and then through the Master meter. The vacuum method of testing is basic to all commercially available provers. Atmospheric air is drawn through the field meter and prover by the blower system. Temperature and pressure differences are measured to enable correction of the data to a common base of comparison. The rotary meter transfer proving system is not affected by specific gravity or relative humidity of the flowing gas since under normal condi tions no condensation or change of moisture contact would occur as the gas passes from the field meter to the master meter. It is a volumetric test in which the test time is not a critical variable. Automatic operation minimizes chances for human error, an d built- in self -check features assure reliable system performance. The ROOTS Model 5 Transfer Prover System is typical of the commercially available units and will be utilized in this discussion. Other units may differ slightly in shape, size, or perform ance, but the base operating principles are the same.
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Document ID: 2004EFE0

Periodic Inspection Of Reg Ulators And Relief Valves
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspections and tests on regulators and relief valves is a Department of Transportation Compliance rule. The sections within the DOT manual stating the rule include 192.351 through 192.359, 192.751, 192.479, 192.481, 192.739, and 192.741. K eep in mind these rules are the minimum required tests. Your Company or Regulatory Agency may be more stringent and require more or detailed testing. You must also keep in mind that the Manufacturer of your equipment will also provide a guideline pertaining to mainte nance . These tests are not only required for safe, reliable service to your Customers, but also could be used in any legal proceeding for documentation and purpose.
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Document ID: 6BFC8105

Phmsas Rule Impact On Gas Measurement ( Control Room Management)
Author(s): Russel W.Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarizes a SCADA implementers perspective regarding the intent of the Pipeline Hazardous Materials Safety Administrations (PHMSA) Control Room Management (CRM) rule. In addition, this paper provides a fresh approach to CRM, describing why companies should use the CRM process to go beyond compliance requirements and implement operating best practices that would significantly enhance operations reliability and pipeline safety.
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Document ID: 9EE27449

Scada And Telemetry In Natural Gas Operations
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA systems provide are combinations of field devices, communications infrastructure and software integrated into a system that provides for safe, reliable, and effective operation of remote facilities. Producers, gatherers, midstream operators and pipelines use SCADA system for operations. In addition, SCADA gathers data used by advanced applications such as measurement accounting. SCADA is ke y for highly profitable operation. This paper provides and overview of the building blocks of the SCADA system. The SCADA host and advanced applications are discussed in detail. The paper concludes with a discussion of SCADA trends.
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Document ID: 7FE2235B


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