Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2015)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
n the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters
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Document ID: 7BD658C5

Measurement Of Natural Gas By Coriolis Flow Meter AGA Report No. 11
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained world - wide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design, enhancements in the early 1990s Co - riolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the publication of the sec - ond edition of AGA Report Number 11 , Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter
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Document ID: F56BD3B3

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, posi - tive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measure - ment. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates.
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Document ID: 44D8329D

Basics Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company found - ed in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the sup - ply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers.
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Document ID: 9A1A0727

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter Basics
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and applica - tion of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter, however, many of these is - sues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others
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Document ID: E9609A66

Rotary Displacement Meters Basics
Author(s): Todd Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferen - tial type meters are so-called because rather than mea - suring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them.
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Document ID: 0DF6CA70

Experiences In Shale Play Measurement
Author(s): Buzz Knape
Abstract/Introduction:
As with all production gas measurement, the gas being produced in the various shale plays has its own version of measurement issues. While some of the issues fall more in line with historical production measurement and general industry measurement issues, some of the is - sues seen on a day to day basis are unique to shale play measurement.
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Document ID: 8B4F30D5

Non-Intrusive Ultrasonic Flowmeters In Liquid And Gas APPLICATIONS-TECHNOLOGY And Installation Techniques
Author(s): Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas and Oil are different in their physical, chemical, and ultrasonic properties. Nevertheless, each fluid state can use Widebeam technology that uses the pipe wall as a Sonic Waveguide, permitting accurate, repeatable and reliable non-intrusive flow metering. This paper explains non intrusive gas ultrasonic metering, providing field and laboratory test data demonstrating the ability of Clamp- On Ultrasonic meters to provide accurate Measurement. It also explains the importance of correct installation
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Document ID: 7BF6BF42

Benefits Around Timely Analysis Of Measurement Data
Author(s): Brian Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
Verifying measurement data can be challenging. Challenges include processing an overwhelming amount of data, choosing meaningful data types and validation criteria, and validating the data in a timely manner. Failure to meet these challenges can lead to undesired outcomes such as inaccurate measurement results, prior period adjustments in accounting and increased cost
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Document ID: E0E78C9F

Ultrasonic Meters For Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferen - tial meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that cap - ture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years, primarily in liquid measurement. However, we are seeing more and more applications in the natural gas industry
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Document ID: 991F0696

Compressor Station Design Basics And An Overview Of The Design Process
Author(s): G. Mitchell Mazaher
Abstract/Introduction:
PURPOSE OF A COMPRESSOR STATION Production - Move gas from wells into transmission pipelines Storage - Move gas in and out of storage fields to and from transmission pipelines Transmission - Move gas through a pipeli
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Document ID: A7953C26

Advances In Hydrocarbon Dewpoint Monitoring Theory And Practice
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitoring the hydrocarbon dewpoint of natural gas is becoming ever more important. We have collected more than 20 years worth of data from our customers who use our analyzers in a few different countries with different cli - mates. We have analyzed this data to look for trends and other information that may be useful to the industry. Our customer base includes pipeline operators, gas pro - cessors, storage operators, as well as power plants. While these customers are from distinct segments of the gas industry, they face similar issues in controlling the hydro - carbon dewpoint of their natural gas streams
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Document ID: B824D994

In-Situ On-Site() Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter perfor - mance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Comparisons of flow meters in the field have been per - formed for nearly as long as flow meters have been in ex - istence.
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Document ID: 19793535

Understanding Hydrocarbon Dew Points In Natural Gas Mixtures
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will present a discussion on the hydrocarbon dew point of a gas, and is intended as an introduction for operations technicians to the conditions that determine a hydrocarbon dew point value, operating concerns gener - ated when the hydrocarbon dew point is reached, and approaches to the management of gas quality to control hydrocarbon dew point in pipeline systems. The hydrocar - bon dew point is one of the most important parameters defining the quality of a natural gas mixture
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Document ID: 3B1B6552

Advanced Application Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine and explain several common characteristics of rotary meters and their use in the natu - ral gas distribution, transmission and production markets. The selection, proper installation, start-up procedures and regular maintenance routines will be covered, as well
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Document ID: 3E4B4B2D

Automating Meter Shop Practices Using AMR/AMI Technology
Author(s): Scott Haldi
Abstract/Introduction:
AMR/AMI devices or endpoints have historically been used to reduce labor costs associated with meter read - ing. They can provide other benefits, as well, which would save meter shops additional operating costs, while simul - taneously improving overall efficiencies. This paper will address those options
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Document ID: C814DF65

Basic Properties Of Natural Gas
Author(s): John H. Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automo - biles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right? While it is true that the above mentioned materials are all made up of the same basic components, each has its own physical and chemical characteristics
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Document ID: 501554C7

Practical Considerations For Gas Sampling And Gas Sampling Systems
Author(s): David J. Fish Dominic Giametta, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper ac - counting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed
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Document ID: 013EE000

Low Pressure Gas Measurement Using Ultrasonic Technology
Author(s): Dr. Volker Herrmann Toralf Dietz John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The utilization of ultrasonic metering as a cost effective form of measurement has grown dramatically over the past 10 years. A growing portion of this market is in cus - tody transfer applications. This growth is primarily due to growing acceptance in industry, advances in the technol - ogy, extensive self diagnostic capabilities and industry/ regulatory standards and recommendations related to their use in custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: C6DAAD0D

Distribution Gas Meter Proving: The Equipment And Methodology Used Today In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine the accuracy of a natural gas meter, a known volume of air is passed through the meter, and the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters
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Document ID: AA569E04

Differential Testing Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of rotary meters in the 1920s, gas distribution companies have used the differential pressure across the meter as an indication of meter condition and performance. Using manufacturers recommendations in concert with industry and regulatory standards differential testing is a cost effective method to verify the condition of a rotary meter while in service. With acceptance by many U.S. public utility commissions, differential testing has been used by gas distribution com - panies for many years. This paper will discuss the tradi - tional methods used for differential testing as well as the most recent developments that improve the efficiency and effectiveness of a differential pressure testing program
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Document ID: 320A13B0

Advanced Diagnostic Measurements With Coriolis Mass Flowmeters
Author(s): Michael Keilty
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass flowmeters are high accurate and repeat - able electronic multivariable devices. The inherent design of the Coriolis flowmeter also incorporates internal mea - surements which can be used to diagnose the health of the flowmeter. Continuous monitoring of these diagnostic measures can verify the integrity of the flow and density measurements. Advanced diagnostics is now used in other regulatory applications where verification periods are described as part of the requirements
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Document ID: 79554949

Flow Calibrating High Volume Ultrasonic Flowmeters- Considerations And Benefits
Author(s): Joel Clancey
Abstract/Introduction:
143 INTRODUCTION The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popu - larity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons.
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Document ID: F624CF23

Diagnostics For Large High Volume Flow Orifice Plate Meters
Author(s): Mark Skelton, Simon Barrons, Jennifer Ayre, Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2008/9 DP Diagnostics disclosed a proprietary dif - ferential pressure (DP) meter diagnostic methodology 1,2. Swinton Technology (ST) has subsequently devel - oped software named Prognosis in partnership with DP Diagnostics. Prognosis allows these generic DP meter diagnostic methodologies to be applied in flow comput - ers thereby making these principles available for field applications
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Document ID: F86CF882

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Bonnie Crossland
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is one of the most widely used tech - niques for analyzing hydrocarbon mixtures. Some of the advantages of chromatography are the range of measure - ment (from ppm levels up to 100%), the detection of a wide range of components, and the repeatability of the measurements. Chromatography is used in the labora - tory, in permanently installed online systems, and in the field with portable systems. No matter the location, style or brand, all gas chromatographs are composed of the same functional components that are the sample handling sys - tem, the chromatograph oven, and the controller electron - ics
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Document ID: 1F29F18A

Practical Solution For Ultrasonic Flow Measurement In High Co 2 Natural Gas Applications
Author(s): Marcel Vermeulen, Jan Drenthen Hilko Den Hollander
Abstract/Introduction:
Having it over the past decade established as one of the preferred measurements for high pressure natural gas, the application range of ultrasonic flow meters is also shifting towards the more difficult applications. One type of these applications is natural gas with a high content of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The concentration of CO 2 varies considerably over the various reservoirs. A few examples of this are shown in table 1
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Document ID: F6B6B5EA

Understanding Gas Ultrasonic Meter DIAGNOSTICS-ADVANCED
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USMs), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal- quality, multipath USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners, liquids, and gas compositional errors. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse and British Gas configurations (both being four-path chordal designs) and the information presented here may or may not be appli - cable to other path designs
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Document ID: 1BF02CE8

Determination Of H 2 S & Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): Byron Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, H 2 S and total sulfur are moni - tored to validate tariff limits or to ensure process specifica - tions are maintained at receipt, sales, and process con - trol points throughout the system. Typical measurement ranges are 0-20 ppm for H 2 S and 0-100 ppm for total sul - fur on transmission lines. Wellhead treating, particularly shale gas development has created the need to measure higher ranges of 1000 to 5000 ppm measurement at H 2 S treater skid inlet with a target treater outlet of 1 to 5 ppm. Downstream processing plant inlet applications require percentage measurement of 1-10% and sulfur plant feed or H 2 S re-injection ranges of 20-60%. Natural Gas gath - ering systems may blend off-spec gas with spec gas to maintain gas quality specifications in the 0-5% H 2 S range. Liquid rich shale gas presents a need to measure H 2 S in condensate or light oil streams
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Document ID: 5570B6D1

Recognition & Resolution Of Problems With Gas Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline Operators have used Ultrasonic meters commer - cially for gas custody transfer applications since the late 90s. These meters combination of operating features, including superior rangeability and on-board diagnostics have made this the technology of choice for most high vol - ume gas metering applications. As user comfort with, and capabilities of, the technology has increased and the size and cost of ultrasonic meters has decreased, Operators and Manufacturers continue to stretch the envelope of ap - plication possibilities. This includes use in upstream, cor - rosive and high CO 2 applications, where the technology previously couldnt work or didnt make economic sense
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Document ID: 9F8F8C1F

Fiscal Impact Of Accurately Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point
Author(s): Jack Herring Bob Kenney
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) accurately is critical to the profitability of producing/processing natural gas. End users want a quality product and when HCDP limits are written into the gas contract the producer/pro - cessors and pipeline operators each play a role in deliver - ing that quality product. Accurately measuring HCDP in order to satisfy the customer touches every link in this vital supply chain
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Document ID: A3374314

Large Coriolis Meters And The Applicability Of Water Calibrations For Gas Service
Author(s): Tonya Wyatt, Karl Stappert,
Abstract/Introduction:
In the late 1970s, the first Coriolis mass flow meter was introduced. By the early 1980s, the use of Coriolis me - ters gained popularity for liquid applications, but few were used for gas applications. In the 1990s major design en - hancements were made to the technology improving its usability in gas applications. Driven by the need for a stan - dard industry practice to guide its use in gas applications, the American Gas Association (AGA) published the first edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natu - ral Gas by Coriolis Meter in 2003. Today, with an installed population of over 100,000 Micro Motion Coriolis meters in gas applications and the 2013 publication of the second edition of AGA Report No. 11, many users are applying Coriolis meters in gas custody transfer applications
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Document ID: 323EF584

From The Wellhead To The Burner Tip: A System Overview
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Mea - surement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the first year student to understand the basic flow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by con - sumers. Specific focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution sys - tems
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Document ID: DE5C4A8E

High Volume Measurement Using Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
For over one hundred years the turbine meter has been servicing large volume applications of the natural gas market. During this time the turbine has continuously evolved into a device that offers the industry new and unique features. This paper will focus on the significant advancements of this technology as well as how they are applied in the field today.
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Document ID: 1694178D

Electronic & Pneumatic Pressure And Flow Control
Author(s): Bob Powell
Abstract/Introduction:
This class will highlight the various methods used to electronically adjust both pressure and flow rate. It will include motorized pilots, traditional kickcell applications, and electronic and pneumatic valve positioners. Flow computers which monitor flow and pressure act as the brain of these systems and either through the output of a 4-20mA signal or a contact closure adjustments can be attained. 4-20mA loops are controlled via proportional,
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Document ID: 628CE757

High Pressure Services
Author(s): George Levesque
Abstract/Introduction:
The code governing pressure control of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems is 192.197. This part of the code has been updated several times (11/07/1970, 07/13/1998, and 09/15/2003) since its inception on August 19, 1970. 192.197 details when overpressure protection is required and lists some acceptable methods of overpressure protection. For distribution systems with MAOPs over 125 PSIG, the code is pretty clear on the requirement for, and the ap - plication of, overpressure protection. For MAOPs be - low 125 PSIG, there are several factors that are looked at like the design of the service regulator, whether the gas is free from materials that could interfere with the proper operation of the regulator, the body size of the regulator, as well as other factors
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Document ID: 43468FB4

Gate Station Design
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
The City Gate station is one of the more complex designs a natural gas engineer will deal with in the course of a ca - reer. Like all projects, a properly designed and constructed gate station begins with good preliminary engineering. In preliminary engineering, all of the major project goals and hurdles are defined. If the preliminary engineering docu - ment is written properly, it will serve as the backbone for the entire project.
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Document ID: D8C26DA5

Fundamentals Of District Regulator Station Design
Author(s): James P. Davis Scott A. Laplante
Abstract/Introduction:
Eversource is a local distribution company serving 51 communities with 275,000 customers covering 1,067 square miles of Central and Eastern Massachusetts. The company has been serving customers as a LDC since the mid 1800s. Eversources service territory is urban where district regulating facilities are usually buried in sidewalks and relief vents are not embraced as an over - pressure protection method. District regulators are typi - cally permitted to reside within town sidewalks by a street opening permit or grant of location process
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Document ID: 62AAF2C8

Understanding Remote Controlled Control Valves And Automated Valves From The Scada Control Room To The Field Device
Author(s): Raymond J. Schnebelen
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays modern natural gas infrastructure requires the need for natural gas utilities and pipelines to remotely con - trol flow and pressure through control valves, regulators and actuated block valves to properly and safely control the gas flow to critical systems. For those new to the gas industry, much of this technology may seem overwhelming, and difficult to understand how commands from a gas control center are transferred to the field devices, and signals from end devices are relayed back to the control center
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Document ID: 7B1EDB26

Fundamentals Of Water Vapor Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): Ken Soleyn
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of moisture in natural gas is an impor - tant parameter for the processing, storage and transpor - tation of natural gas. Natural gas is dehydrated prior to introduction into the pipeline and distribution network. For interstate custody transfer of natural gas maximum allow - able levels are set by tariff, normally expressed in terms of absolute humidity in pounds per million cubic feet (lbs/ mmscf). The dew point temperature (C or F T d ) is of interest to insure that liquid water or ice does condense in the system. Moisture concentration in parts per million (ppmv) is used in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Several technologies exist for the online measurement and for spot sampling
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Document ID: 19B3DE3F

How Is Your Gas Quality Applied
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Every company involved in the natural gas industry must reckon with the issue of how to determine and apply gas quality throughout their measurement systems. Pro - duction, gathering, midstream, pipeline and distribution companies are all impacted in this area even though the metering conditions and gas flows swing significantly. The issue of accurate gas quality has an impact on reporting an accurate volume and energy to each customer, man - aging the unaccounted for (UAF) gas loss, determining potential operating condition impacts on the pipeline sys - tem, and the potential fugitive emission
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Document ID: F5DCD5A1

Basic Electronic Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Ken Pollock
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent several years have shown remarkable chang - es in the communications field. New methods and digital techniques have allowed the Communications Techni - cian to solve communications problems that previously required unusual solutions or required manual data col - lecting. There are now methods to get the required data automatically and without human intervention that are proving to be reliable and cost effective without requiring high costs or constant maintenance. This paper will dis - cuss the basics of many of these concepts and provide a basic knowledge of solutions that may be employed to provide telemetry for data collectio
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Document ID: FADD9275

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the first practical gas meter in Eng - land in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843. It consisted of two diaphragms, sliding valves and linkage. T. S. Lacey patent - ed the pre-payment meter in 1870. The most significant change to diaphragm meters over the years has been in the materials of construction. Brass parts have been replaced by plastic, and leather diaphragms have been replaced with synthetic rubber
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Document ID: E41CE650

Basic Application Of Flow Computers And Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Bill Herndon
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to the evolution of flow computers being commonly used in the measurement of hydrocarbons, most telem - etry systems were used to collect control information and real time data and provide control commands to a Remote Terminal Unit at major pump and compressor stations. Most of the local metering was being handled by chart recorders and local data collection by operations. These charts and reports were sent to a central facility where the information was used to provide custody transfer reports and or operations reports. Most of the commonly used chart recorders used the standard circular chart format and were mostly pneumatic devices. The collection of the circular charts and the processing of the information to provide billing information was a cumbersome and costly task.
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Document ID: F85C9931

Understanding OPC-OPEN Connectivity Via Open Standards: The Opc Foundation
Author(s): Russel W. Treat Tony Paine
Abstract/Introduction:
In the mid-1990s, a group of vendors convened to address the growing concern regarding connectivity to the plant floor-referred to as the Device Driver Problem. At that time, HMI and SCADA vendors were responsible for building their own driver libraries. This approach created great solutions when it all the connectivity requirements were provided by a single vendor. However, often when multiple vendors were involved, solutions were incomplete or unreliable across vendors. The vendors were faced with a decision: they either needed to invest resources to de - velop application-level functionality or extend connectivity
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Document ID: 5A98B6EA

Thermoelectric Generator Information
Author(s): Dan Midea
Abstract/Introduction:
Gentherm Global Power Technologies is the worlds lead - ing manufacturer of thermoelectric generators. Gentherm Globals generators are extremely reliable, low mainte - nance, long life generators which provide continuous DC power for many applications including: remote control and monitoring (RTU/SCADA), gas detection, cathodic protec - tion, navigational systems, data gathering systems and telecommunication repeater sites
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Document ID: B0C874F0

Scada Data Collection And Data Distribution
Author(s): Phillip Heim
Abstract/Introduction:
Different data collectors, Chart meters, Electronic Mea - surement with and without communications, Hand Held devices, and smart phone technology are just a few data collectors used by ECA. Including chart integrators, third party, sales points (think pipeline interconnects). Gather - ing is only the beginning, sharing (breaking old habits), integrators and third party requirements along with owner reporting are but a few of the data wants and needs. One collector that should not be overlooked is of course is the visual one, our tenders can input comments in a hand held computer
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Document ID: 2786A9CE

Real Time Applications For Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years now, flow computers have been imple - mented in gas measurement systems to utilize technol - ogy, to improve measurement accuracy, provide far more efficient data acquisition and provide better control re - sources for remote interface through telemetry. As the meters functionality has increased, the meter technician has had to become more diverse in his or her knowledge of measurement, control, computers and elec - tronics. By taking a closer look at the various advanced applications and reviewing the basics, hopefully the tech - nician will have a better understanding of the requirements of handling, installing and working with todays advanced flow computers
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Document ID: 5475A839

Overview Of Level Measurement Technologies
Author(s): George F. Poole
Abstract/Introduction:
Guided Wave Radar (GWR) technology is often the level measurement problem solver and certainly the premier level technology solution. GWR has significant advantag - es vs. all other level technologies. Magnetrol pioneered the GWR technology for level measurement 15 years ago and now has over 100,000 installed units around the world, many in oil & gas related applications.
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Document ID: 3A09130D

Fundamentals Of Pressure Control
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natu - ral gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to bal - ance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures.
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Document ID: AAD9BA5C

The State Of The Market: The Internet Of Things 2015
Author(s): Bob Slevin
Abstract/Introduction:
We predict that by 2025, best-in-class organizations that extensively use IoT technologies in their products and op - erations will be up to 10% more profita
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Document ID: B4673676

12 Rules For Specifying A Successful Scada System
Author(s): Steve Hill
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary role of SCADA & Automation is the monitor - ing and control of remote plant and equipment. These functions should always be considered first when design - ing SCADA software or implementing a SCADA system. However, the data collected by most SCADA systems is often extremely valuable beyond immediate operational requirements. This is clearly the case for Oil & Gas fiscal measurement data, where SCADA can be seen as the cash register for the enterprise. Other data can prove valuable, especially when transferred into other business systems for analysis and distribution. Data can become a strategic tool, used for long term planning and manage - ment of the business.
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Document ID: FCEFDB26

Basics Of Using Modbus Rtu In Monitoring And Control Production
Author(s): Ed Smigo
Abstract/Introduction:
MODBUS is a common industrial Communication proto - col that has been around for decades. It is widely avail - able either as a standard or option in industrial control and monitoring equipment and can be easily utilized. While it is simple, it is slow in comparison to some of todays available networking architecture, but has been so widely adopted because that simplicity
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Document ID: FA2EEFFA

Radio Path Studies 101
Author(s): Dan Steele
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of path studies both physical and use of comput - er-generated software to predict radio frequency (RF) path studies has been around for several years. If you combine the field work with the latest GPS and Google map data you can determine how well your network might work, ac - tual terrain between links, its RF path link reliability, link budgets, Fresnel zones, multi-path and if you may need to invest in different towers, use of more repeaters or add ad - ditional technologies to cover the area you need for com - munication. By examining the guidelines and some fairly simple explanations of how to get the correct information we can discover the true benefits of this software. We will discuss the importance of investing in a high quality GPS device.
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Document ID: B2C082A0

LIQUID/LIQUID Interface Level Measurements
Author(s): John Dimartino
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid/Liquid Interface Level Measurement for hydrocar - bons and water is often of interest. This topic should go over well as AGMSC attendees contemplate how to solve this critical measurement need. Our esteemed colleague, John DiMartino (an Oil & Gas committee member) is the author. John has provided a similar, well-received presen - tation to Chevron and others in 2013.
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Document ID: C6D4AF84

Remote Monitoring And Control - Impact Of Evolving Communication Technologies And Protocols
Author(s): Vishal Prakash
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitoring of remote assets has been in practice since the 19th century. Since then, there has been many quan - tum changes including the type of assets that are being monitored, remote control of instruments and processes, type of media and the protocols used. There is a plethora of information available on the World Wide Web that docu - ments and explains these changes, in detail, including a number of white paper
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Document ID: 0CB30BA4

Wireless Hart Solutions In Oil And Gas Production
Author(s): Joe Cipriani
Abstract/Introduction:
WirelessHART is a global IEC-approved standard (IEC 62591) that specifies an interoperable self-organizing mesh technology in which field devices form wireless net - works that dynamically mitigate obstacles in the process plant or well pad environment. This architecture creates a cost-effective automation alternative that does not require wiring and other supporting infrastructur
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Document ID: 85ECDBEB

The Economic Advantages Of Using Modern Wireless Communications In Upstream Oil And Gas Operations
Author(s): Bill Keever
Abstract/Introduction:
When upstream oil and gas producers consider the es - sential components they need for drilling, completing and automating wells, communications technology is often an afterthought. This oversight has a serious negative impact on the economics of upstream operations. With todays volatile market, more emphasis is being placed on hyper-efficient well completion and full automa - tion. This story is quite common within the industry: drilling crew arrives at the pad site and begins the exploration process. Another crew follows, completing the wells and installing the Christmas tree of valves, spools, pressure gauges and chokes on each.
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Document ID: 8A0F1459

The Challenges Of Liquid Hydrocarbon Flow Measurement
Author(s): John J. Culp
Abstract/Introduction:
The Oil and Gas industry (buyers and sellers) have agreed for nearly 100 years that the market value of liquid hydrocarbons should be based on the volume of the product at standard conditions. Standard conditions being defined as Standard Conditions - Where the pressure is 14.696 psia (101.325 kPa) (One standard atmosphere) and the temperature is 60.0F (15.56C). In some regions of the world the base temperature used is 20.0C, 15.0C or some other agreed to temperature
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Document ID: C3318FEE

Fundamentals Of Odorization
Author(s): Ed Flynn
Abstract/Introduction:
The practice of odorization of gas is relatively a simple operation, however, the detection of gas by means of odor is quite complex. Over the years a great deal of work has been done by the industry to improve the excellent record of safety. During the era of manufactured gas most of the processed gas possessed a readily detectable gassy odor. The dis - coveries of odorless natural gas expanded the need for a satisfactory odorant agent. Natural Gas was introduced to the Northeast in the 1950s, and the odorization issue be - came critical
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Document ID: 24731E6A

Basic Gas And Instrumentation For Gas Detection
Author(s): George Lomax Eric Six
Abstract/Introduction:
In this class we will review what we need to know about how natural gas, and other gases, works in order to bet - ter understand how to detect leakage and unintended releases. We will then look at the operation, maintenance and cali - bration of the instrumentation available for gas detection. The class will conclude with a demonstration of the Explo - sion Chamber
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Document ID: 6C7F0A4C

Odorant Spills: Prevention And First Response
Author(s): Juraj Strmen, John Beighle
Abstract/Introduction:
1. Station shutdown - business disruption 2. Public at risk - negative perception 3. High environmental cleanup costs Sources of odor leaks and spills Storage/burial of contaminated material Equipment malfunction (leaky gaskets, seals, corrosion...) Decommissioning of odorization stations Odorant transfers, filtration, transport of odorization equipment Maintenance of odorization systems Natural disasters (hur - ricanes, floods) Operator error Construction projects involving odorization equipment
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Document ID: BA754072

Network Analysis - Part 1 Gas Flow Equation Fundamentals
Author(s): Tim Bickford
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 25 years engineers in the natural gas in - dustry have come to depend on the computer as a tool to perform complex hydraulic network analysis. Analysis, which would take weeks to perform by hand or by punch- card machines 30 years ago, can now be accomplished in mere hours or sometimes seconds. Today gas net - work analysis software, though complex and extremely sophisticated, has become very user friendly. Low cost PCs, inexpensive software and flexible software licensing now make it possible for almost anyone to have access to these powerful engineering tools. Today, more and more non-technical persons are using this cutting edge tech - nology to perform analyses that were once performed by specialists
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Document ID: CEED3E43

Gas Odorants - Safe Handling, Health, And Environment
Author(s): Daniel E. Arrieta David C. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Thiols (i.e. mercaptans), sulfides, and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liquefied petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. Mercaptans, for example, have proven to be very effective in odorizing because of their low odor threshold and therefore, immediate impact on the olfactory system (Roberts, 1993)
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Document ID: 0057A755

Project Management Fundamentals
Author(s): John Jay Gamble, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a Project? A temporary, non-routine endeavor to create a unique prod - uct or service limited by time, budget, and specifications. How does it differ from Operations? Operations are on-going, permanent, and repetitive. The purpose of operations is to sustain or maintain the business
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Document ID: 11B47927

Self-Operated Regulator Basics
Author(s): Trent Decker Steve Ludtman
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accus - tomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a ten - dency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fun - damental of the regulators operatio
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Document ID: 332C63C3

Natural Gas Odor Level Testing Programs
Author(s): Mark E. Gunsalus
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas odor level testing programs are an important part of delivering safe and reliable natural gas. We will review olfactory biology basics, regulations, odor fade, program development, program execution and training. As an operator and Director for 28 years responsible for this process, we have developed and refined processes and procedures that ensure proper odor levels and iden - tify deficiencies so they can be quickly recti
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Document ID: 3033B4F6

Decommissioning Of Obsolete Odorization Equipment
Author(s): Juraj Strmen Wesley Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas industry is a fast growing segment of our en - ergy industry and there is a need to keep the operations safe and environmentally friendly. Obsolete odorization equipment needs to be removed and disposed of in an environmentally sound and odor-free manner in order to avoid business disruption or potential liquid/vapor odorant leaks from obsolete equipmen
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Document ID: 67CF46F9

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas measurement. In recent years the Pipeline-and Compressor Research Council (PCRC) now know as (GMRC) Gas Machinery Research Council, a subsidiary of the Southern Gas As - sociation, commissioned and funded various pulsation re - search projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas
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Document ID: E2E2D0B7

A Regulator Station Design For Natural Gas Pressure Control To Simple Cycle And Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Engine Power Plants
Author(s): Jim Green
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulator stations providing pressure control to large power plants have always presented unique des i gn chal - lenges that differ from standard pipeline pressure control application s . A large combustion turbine power plant load with little buffering between the regulators and the turbine engines requires a different approach to station design. The design approach becomes even more complicated if the power plant also h a s additional, low flow, auxiliary equipment such as duct burners, waste heat recovery boilers, building heaters, etc. This paper will focus on a regulator station design philosophies for Simple Cycle and Advanced Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine (CT) power plants th at meet the l o ad requirements for power plant operation as well as for ancillary eq uipment
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Document ID: A1D74BB7

Marcellus Shale Measurement
Author(s): Drew Willard
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of the Marcellus Shale play has gener - ated a significant increase in the need for an expanded gas takeaway system. As the pipeline system continues to expand, so does the need for custody transfer mea - surement stations. This significant increase in demand is impacting station design parameters and the means by which they are constructed. This paper is intended to ex - plore the current trends and challenges associated with the Marcellus development, review how those trends have affected station design and investigate potential future trends that may impact future station desig
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Document ID: 03C4DE76

Mitigating Lost And Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
In light of volatile prices, the industry has assumed an every drop counts approach to running the business. In this environment, issues such unaccounted-for (UAF) gas, with which every operation has dealt before, find themselves under new scrutiny. Production, gathering, midstream, pipeline and distribu - tion companies are all responsible for managing UAF. Long gone are the days when the cost and impact of UAF was passed directly to the customer with virtually no re - quirements for managing and reducing costs associated with the loss
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Document ID: F3ED37CF

Ultrasonic Gas Leak Detection, Current And Future
Author(s): Gregory A. Neethling
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the late 1990s ultrasonic gas leak detection has emerged as a powerful method for detecting gas. 1 , 2 . The techniques operating principle is that jetting gas from a high pressure vessel or other pressurized system gener - ates ultrasound, providing a measure of the mass flow rate. Principal advantages of the technology are its fast speed of response, relatively large area of coverage per device, and detection effectiveness in open, well ventilat - ed areas. Several models are equipped with an acoustic integrity check for fail safe operation. Such advantages and the ultrasonic gas leak detectors simplicity of op - eration have contributed to the technologys widespread use. By recent estimates there are approximately 4,000 installed devices worldwid
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Document ID: 28656F9F

LNG Sampling Systems: Techniques, Dos & Donts
Author(s): Ken Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
Sampling and transportation of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) has increased as this has become a Global Market with many new liquefaction plants, export and import ter - minals that have been built to date and more under con - struction or in the planning stages due to the increase in world demand of LNG. This demand has increased due to LNG being considered by many countries as the fuel of choice based on its safe properties, availability, cost, cleanness and ease of transportation. With the increase of liquefaction, storage, blending and transportation so has the need increased for Analytically Accurate measure - ment of the LNG in the realm of custody transfer. This has also led to new techniques in LNG sampling to help verify the measurement results. This paper will cover these new techniques in their approach and their unique challenges for the industry
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Document ID: 73167E27

A History Of Naffmc Installation Effects Testing Including Current Testing
Author(s): Randy Miller, Ed Hanks
Abstract/Introduction:
For nearly a decade the North American Fluid Flow Mea - surement Council has investigated a variety of ultrasonic meter effects on both low and high pressure ultrasonic meters. Our research studied effects ranging from low flow, flow conditioner rotation, header designs, various meter tube end-treatments, flow conditioners, and inline filters. While this paper examines the history of the NAFFMC research, much of our focus will encompass our examina - tions into the use of an ultrasonic meters diagnostics to determine the health and uncertainty of the meter
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Document ID: 85EFACC4

Life Of Data
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the realization by many famous thinkers, physicists and mathematicians over the course of history that every - thing in the world can be represented by groups of 1s and 0s. The foundation of almost all information can be bro - ken down into a simple true/false, yes/no, 1/0 over time. (Quantum Mechanics theories can prove the writer wrong someday, but for the purposes of this paper, this is a fair statement.)
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Document ID: 6109E762

Wet Gas Defined
Author(s): Jim Reinmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas drilling activity into Ohios Point Pleasant and Utica Shale formations has unearthed a prized commod - ity know as Wet Gas. These two formations, and others like them across the nation, have attracted Producers and Midstream operators to garner this value-added Wet Gas product. Improved exploration and drilling techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, continue to reveal new Wet Gas shale opportunities, and challenges, around the world.
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Document ID: 1F4F5B6A

Basic Principles Of Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Michael Garvey Carol Nolte
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators are capable of providing very accurate control in natural gas trans - mission and distribution pipelines. The Pilot Operated Regulator provides advantages over both self-operated regulators and control valves. Primary benefits include simplicity of operation and elimination of any fugitive emissions caused by atmospheric bleed gas. However, it is important to recognize the limitations of the pilot operated flexible element regulator and apply it accord - ingly. The original Flexible Element Regulator, the Flex - flo, was developed by the Grove Valve and Regulator Company circa World War II.
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Document ID: 3885456B

Et Gas Test Comparative Results: Orifice Vs. Usm
Author(s): John Lansing, Toralf Dietz, Dr. Richard Steven, Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
The CEESI Nunn Wet Gas facility consists of a closed- loop test stand with up to 650 horsepower that permits flow rates from about 83 to 620 ACMH. This corresponds to 3 to 23 m/s in 4-inch Schedule 80 piping. Pressures can range from 1,380 kPa up to 7,500 kPa (13.8 Bar - 75 Bar). Gas flow is measured using a calibrated 6-inch turbine meter, and the injected liquid is measured using one of 2 different Coriolis meters (1/2 and 2 sizes). The liquid typically used is Exxsol D80, but water, or a mixture of both can also be used
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Document ID: BB320C6F

Overview Of An Appalachian Shale Gas Processing Plant
Author(s): Ryan Savage Jim Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this class is to provide an overview of a typical northeast Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) processing plant. The Marcellus and Utica Shale play in the Appala - chian Basin area has brought the need for new substruc - ture, compressor stations, facilities and processing plants. The natural gas production in Appalachia has historically been lower pressure Devonian gas which is considered dry when compared to the rich Shale gas. The terms dry, wet, lean and rich are industry terms for describ - ing the physical state and composition of the gas as it is produced from the earth. The term dry gas or lean gas refers to natural gas that has a BTU value range of ap - proximately 900 to 1100. The terms wet gas or rich gas is used almost interchangeably, but the more accurate term for description is probably rich because wet can also refer to the gases water content.
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Document ID: B22BF61C

Agmsc Liquid Product Safe Handling And Operation
Author(s): John V. Jay() Bailey
Abstract/Introduction:
In our industry Liquid Products are becoming more and more valuable. As an industry we are converting our gas - es to liquids for a multitude of reasons. These reasons in - clude easier transportation, easier means of storage, and more efficient operations. So with these practices comes a different role of responsibility. Different safety measures must be taken when operating handling these liquids. When the correct steps are preformed, this makes for a much more efficient and safe operation. To understand the safe handling of liquid products, you must first under - stand the different types liquid products. Three different types of liquid products that will be covered are: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL).
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Document ID: 6F0D31CB

Best Practices For Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas liquids (NGL) are the by-product of natural gas production or processing and are a mix of ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, pentane, and pentanes plus (natural gasoline). An NGL mix may be referred to as con - densate but generally condensate is heavier than most NGL and has a lower vapor pressure. The term conden - sate differs among users of the term and may be treated like an NGL or like a light crude oil. Y grade is another term that falls in the category of NGL except there is a limited amount of ethane content. The specific gravity of NGL is normally less than 0.65 gm/cc. The vapor pressure of NGL increases with an increase in the ethane content. Knowledge of the maximum vapor pressure and thus the expected composition of the NGL are critical for the de - sign of the measurement system
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Document ID: 94C91EE8

Provers For Measurement Verification
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
his document will provide the reader an understanding of what a prover is, the need for proving meters for accurate measurement verification, the equipment deemed ac - ceptable and available for use in the oil and liquefied gas market. It will also define the general terminology used in the industry, general operational aspects for verification devices, and general information utilized by the groups and agencies that govern the meter verification proce
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Document ID: DE250D15

Multiphase Flow Measurement
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of unprocessed hydrocarbon flows is becoming more prevalent in the hydrocarbon production industry. Multiphase meters are now often integral in the design plans for new developments. However, the phrase multi-phase flow covers a huge range of flow conditions and metering these varied flows has proven a major chal - lenge to engineers. Furthermore, due to the relatively re - cent arrival of these technologies on the market, and, the relatively complex and proprietary nature of the products leading to the finer details of operation not being divulged, there is often a lack of technical understanding amongst the multiphase meter users. In this paper, definitions of the phrases multiphase flow and wet gas flow will be discussed.
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Document ID: B72C166F

Proper Sampling Procedures Ngl And Rich Gas
Author(s): Json Rine
Abstract/Introduction:
COLLECTING PROPER SAMPLES Analytical Parameters Sample Location Sample Collection Methods Sample Containers Sample Collection Material Safety ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS Fractional Sulfur Compounds NGL Air Emissions Others SAMPLE LOCATIONS Representative of Product Stream to be Analyzed Accessible for Sampling Accessible Sampling Method
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Document ID: C5BCB29D

Fundamentals Of Control Valves And Pneumatic Controllers
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas flow. The first is the regula - tor and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform flow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the funda - mentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: 35A20699

Natural Gas Storage And The New World Of Shale
Author(s): Rich Fulcher
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 82D623EA


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