Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (2015)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Measuring High Viscosity Liquids With Flow Meters
Author(s): Stephen T. Steve() Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring higher viscosity hydrocarbon liquids with flow meters is much more interesting than measuring lower viscosity liquids for a number of very good reasons including the ones already addressed in many published technical papers and articles. Although several different type s of meters are typically discussed, quadrant-edged orifice meters are often not included. Compared to ce rtain commonly used viscous flow meters, quadrant-edged orifice meters have no moving parts, are fairly inexpensive, reli able, and non-proprietary
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Document ID: 54DE52E1

Proving Liquid Meters With Microprocessor-Based Pulse Output
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
Meters with microprocessor-based pulse outputs or microprocessor-based meters (MBMs) have been on the market since late 1970. As each new meter was introduced to the industry, its technology was expected to revolutionize hydrocarbon measurement. There was no expectation that conventional verification techniques would challenge these new meters and limit their adoption by the industry. Yet, the procedures and processes to verify (prove) a meter with microprocessor-based pulse outputs have been the topic of discussion, contention, and development for more than thirty years. This paper will attempt to shed light on the merging of metering technologies with the proving process
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Document ID: EF15966A

Operational Experience With Coriolis Meters
Author(s): James C. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters are being widely used in the petroleum bu siness, measuring product as light as hydrogen up through something as heavy as vacuum gas oil. Imagine the fl exibility that a meter has to be capable of accurately measuring a product that is made up of the lightest molecule in existence, hydrogen, a nd still be capable of measuring peanut butter at a moments notice. That is pretty amazing in itself. Coriolis meters have changed considerably since their introduction into t he hydrocarbon business. Improvements in design, construction and the exponential improvements in electron ics have made them one of the most popular meters in the hydrocarbon industry. I will explain some of the history of the meters, the selection, correct installations and operation, as well as some of my experienc e with them over the past 20+ years.
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Document ID: FDF24092

Offshore Liquid Fpso Measurement Systems
Author(s): Alastair Mclachlan
Abstract/Introduction:
Floating production, storage, and offloading systems (FPSOs ) receive crude oil from deepwater wells and store it in their hull tanks until the crude can be pumped into shut tl e tankers or oceangoing barges for transport to shore. They may also process the oil and in some later FPSOs to be used fo r Gas distribution. Floating productions systems have been utilized in remote offsh ore areas without a pipeline infrastructure for many years. However, they have become even more important with th e push by the o ffshore industry into ever deeper waters. Floating production, storage, and offlo ading/floating storage and offloading (FPSO/FSO) systems have now become one of most commercially viable concept s for remote or deep-water oilfield developments. They also allow a company to develop offshore resour ces quickly between discovery and production. They have been shown to reduce this time as much as two to four years. Further there can be significant cost savings in developing marginal fields
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Document ID: CA81EFCA

Volumetric Measurement Of Li Quefied Petroleum Gases Lpgs()
Author(s): Paul Mullen
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is defined as butane, propane or other light ends separated from natural gas or crude oil by fractionation or other processes. At atmospheric pressure, LPGs revert to the gaseous state. This paper is intended to provide an overview of metering systems used for the volumetric measurement of LPGs. Operational experiences with meas urement systems that degrade the performance of these systems wil l be addressed. It includes information for turbine, coriolis and positive displacement meters used in volumetric measurement systems. The basic calculations and in dustry standards covering volume tric measurement will also be covered.
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Document ID: 1258FE8E

Viscosity Compensation Of Helical Turbine Meters
Author(s): Nicole Gailey
Abstract/Introduction:
Helical rotor turbine meters can provide signifi cant performance advantages over conventional rotor turbine meters for crude oil service. The us e of viscosity compensation (also referred to as Universal Performance Curve Compensation or Viscosity Indexing ) and the concept of Dynamic Similitude allows the application range of helical turbine meters to be extended even further.
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Document ID: 92311BF2

Basics Of High Pressure- Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
his paper present s a review of criteria necessary for designing high -pressure natural gas measuring and regulating stations. For the purpose of this discu ssion , high pressure is assumed to be gauge pressure values above typical distribution mainline pressures (greater than 60 psig) . T herefore, it is most applicable to station designs with gathering, midstream, and transmission operations. The design engineer has many factors to consider wh en designing a metering facility. These factors mu st include considerations for their impact on measurement accuracy, facility capital cost, e nvironmenta l stewardship, public stewardship , and long -term maintenance cost. The successful designer wil l seek to achieve high accuracy at an appropriate capital cost , while minimizing the risks of environmental hazards, public nuisance , suc h as noise, and maintenance requirements
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Document ID: A28976C1

Advanced Diagnostic Measurement And Verification With Coriolis Mass Flowmeters
Author(s): Michael Keilty
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic instruments have become increasingly intelligen t. In the recent past, a sensor only transferred the measured process parameters to the Distributed Control System (DCS) in plant process applications, today sensors can measure multiple process variables, transmit internal data, and even provide information regarding their status. Digital communication, over fieldbus netwo rks, enables the devices to provide all kinds of data, singly from each measurement point at a time. Today s data management systems have greater power to not just collect the process data and verify w hether the system is within or outsi de acceptable limits but can also determine the reliability of the device information, its condition and whether it is in need of maintenance.
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Document ID: 936F7304

Ngl Terminal Operations And Measurement
Author(s): Blake Stinson
Abstract/Introduction:
Surely one of the most difficult liquid petroleum products t o store, handle, and measure with accuracy is natural gas liquid, or NGL. Historically thought of as a nuisance byproduct, many companies within the petroleum industry once ignored this product and the attention to det ail that it requires. With todays ever expanding natural gas production, increasing volumes of NGL are demanding fu rther consideration. In addition, as each penny of the industry becomes pinched, more companies are rea lizing the profit and extended cash flow that NGLs can produce. Natural gas liquids present several obstacles when trying to store, transport, and accurately measure the product. Most of the components that make up natu ral gas liquids are in a gaseous state at atmospheric conditions, and thus create the largest misunderstanding of the product.
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Document ID: 86A62C0C

Master Meter Prover Certifications Per API Mpms 4.9.3.
Author(s): Kevin Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
When discussions about prover calibrations occur, they normally end with a disagreement about the accuracies of the different approved methods. This paper will discuss the procedures and advantages of the master meter method. This method was developed over 20 years ago to minimize difficulties in calibrating very large volume provers. In the fast pace world of today, where down time means money, many companies use the master meter method to save time and money on a variety of prover sizes. Accurate calibrations require good technique from a knowledgeable technician. Having the proper knowledge and equipment to perform the master meter method will improve the accuracy and minimize the time to complete the calibration. This paper will discuss the Master Meter Method (MMM) of prover calibration as described in API MPMS Chapter 4.9.3.
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Document ID: D2F88C3C

Equipment And Techniques Used In Real Time Component Volume Calculations For Natural Gas Liquid Measurement
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Correct measurement practices are established to minimi ze uncertainty in the determination of the custody transfer volume (or mass) of products. Understanding and evaluation of the fundamental cause an d effect relationships with the liquid to be measured will lead to a volume determination that most closely ma tches the true volume at the referenced standard pressure and temperature. When designing a new measurement station it is up to us as measurement people, to understand the product to be measured, apply the correct equipment, and implement th e appropriate correction equations. Crucial to the proper selection of measurement equi pment and the proper calculation technique is an understanding of the product that is being measured
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Document ID: 566DE1D9

LNG Measurement By Static And Dynamic Measurement
Author(s): Zaki Husain Bruce Abugel Phil Lawrence Dave Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of the techniques used to measure LNG
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Document ID: 09BA9997

Using Control Charts To Predict Failure Of Measurement Devices
Author(s): Zaki Husain Kevin Fields Phil Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Control charts can be used for more than reviewing past perform ance.
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Document ID: 35A66069

Basic Application Of Flow Computer And Telemetry System S
Author(s): Colby C. Waldo
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to explain the many differ ent applications and products of flow measurement and to shed some light on the different locations and processe s the reader may see flow measurement products in the oil and gas industry. This paper will cover volumetric and mass flow measurement, as well as different devices used to produce these results. We will spend some time on the theory, technology and industry standards of several different meters commonly used . A short description of different types of industry standard ta nk level sensors, including ultrasonic, guided wave radar and passive/a ctive float technology will be covered. The importance of the measurement of gas composition and ho w this data will influence the accuracy of the flow measurement result will be discussed.
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Document ID: F1A25615

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Jesse Steiner
Abstract/Introduction:
Electricity has been used for more than a century as a sour ce of motive power and means of conveying information. While the two uses may seem very different at first glance, they are governed by the same basic principles. Technicians in the modern oil and gas field can find a cursory understanding of these basics to be a great benefit when working to install, expand, or troubleshoot lEALJ?? measurement and automation systems.
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Document ID: D725A486

Scada Systems
Author(s): Asim Farooq
Abstract/Introduction:
Supervisory Control And Data Acqui sition (SCADA) in its most simplif ied definition is the process of using computers to collect and then process data fr om multiple devices across various remote locations. A SCADA system is an integral part of any efficient and effective pro cess at a facility. SCADA is used in water, oil, gas, electr icity grids, and othe r industries. With its relativ e ease of implementation, usage has expanded to data communicatio n, transit systems and sprinklers, and continues to expand to numerous other areas. With the growth in new tec hnologies, companies are now able to control and run more of the day-to-day processes using computers which increase profitability, preempt dangerous conditions, and streamline performance
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Document ID: 39437D8E

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): Rusty Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
To understand and improve success in the collection of SCADA and EFM data you must first understand the world you operate in. I know most anyone in the industry ha s their concept of it but I want to introduce you some new ways of viewing this world from a somewhat non-technical st ance. I always think of SCADA networks this wa y, what if there were no air traffic c ontrols on airports or any airspace? Busy airports would have constant airline crashes, mu ltiple airplanes trying use the same runway, multiple airplanes at the same altitude etc... In general it would b e chaos
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Document ID: 926704B1

Economics Of Electron Ic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
When a new technology comes along that has the potential to make the existing tec hnology obsolete, there is a time lag before the new technology becomes the norm . During the 1970s and 1980s, EGM was new, chart recorders had been the norm for decades, and skepticism of the new technology was high. Back office measurement departments were staffed up with chart integr ation equipment and experts to run it. Technicians and well operators in the field were accustomed to seeing a ni ce graphical picture of the meters flowing variables and typically were trained on how to calculate flow rates and vo lumes by hand just from looking at the chart. The technicians became experts in calibrating the chart re corders and everyone was in a nice comfort zone. The transition to a major change of technology, such as EGM, was n ot going to happen overnight!
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Document ID: 1939B152

Production Equipment Effects On Orifice Gas Measurement
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
he condition of gas as it presents itself in the pipeline is often not ideal for accurate m easurement, by an orifice flow meter. It is the requirement of the American Gas Association (AGA) that t he natural gas be in a single phase and with a swirl-free fully developed profile as it passes across the orifice plat e to meet the standard of measurement to provide accept able uncertainty for the flow calculation. Thus it is ofte n necessary to condition the gas prior to measurement. Using the basic laws of gases we can control these conditions by altering the temperature, pressure, or component makeup of the gas. Neglecting these conditions will create a poor measurement environment and inaccurate measurement. It is therefore necessary for measurement personnel to be familiar with common production equipment, how that eq ui pment is utilized and what effect it can have on the overall ability for a system to pr ovide accurate measurement
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Document ID: ACD846A7

Identifying And Eliminatin G Effects Of Induced Sign Als On Measurement System Electronics
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement errors and other effects of induced signal s on measurement system electronic equipment can be quite profound. This paper will explore the sources and effects of induced signals and other phenomena including effects of cathodic protection systems, high voltage power lines, faulty gr ounds, lightning, RFI, and intermittent events. Information to prevent and eliminate undesirabl e signals and technical references are provided
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Document ID: 16EF6573

Ethernet For Scada Systems
Author(s): Paul Brennan
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically, methods of capturing data from the remo te wellhead were designed around older communication technologies (slow serial radio networks.) The advent of advanced Ethernet communications at the field level has opened the door to the use of modern data storage, data transfer and data management technologies. Back office operations can now have a direct line of access to data, direct from the wellhead including: high resolution data capturing (trending and alarm historian), database level a pp lications (truck ticketing), and high end data analysis. This names just a few of the powerful tasks that can take p lace at the well head when a SQL database is available. Additionally, antiquated SCADA protocols are no longer needed to retrieve large amounts of data from the field
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Document ID: EFB17118

Recent Innovations In Spread Spectrum Radio Technology For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Roy Rosado
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last five years, we have seen important introdu ctions of innovative spread spectrum radio technologies that dramatically optimize the performance and reliability of a telemetry network, while at the same time lowering the total deployment cost of the same. By migrating to these newer technologies, gas companies can now, more than ever, seamlessly monitor and control all of their geographically dispersed gas measuring devices and gain unprecedented access to real-time info rmation, to enhance their ability to make just-in-time decisi ons.
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Document ID: F0AE3486

Smart Transmitter Selection, Calibration And Installation
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
Transmitter selection can be summed in general terms under a heading of ap plication. Even though generically speaking pressure transmitters are all the same, the fitness of use for transmitters is not the same. The total accuracy statement of a transmitter that has been hardened to withstand extreme co rrosive effects will not appear equal to a reference class transmitter. This kind of information is not within the scope of a transmitter data sheets an d there in resides a challenge fo r pusers. The history of oil and gas measurement has followed dir ectly the advances made in transmitter technology. As close as 10 years past total sight error budget of 3 - 4% was more the norm th an the exception. The transmitters used were for the most part analog and did not have the repeatabilit y or stability to support data where sight requirements were more stringent. Few of these sights were capable of meeting the TEB 1 over temperature and even fewer of the locations were able to meet the TEB when over pressure effects were added to the requirements
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Document ID: F8E7885D

Data Validation - Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): Nicole Baker
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive fast paced nat ural gas industry people expect to re ceive and send information immediately. Over the past few decades and with implementation of FERC Regulations 636 and 637 in 1992, the natural gas industry has embraced electronic measurement while as a whole, moving away fr om the chart recorder era. This makes the importance of having a reliable and efficient electronic gas measurement (EGM) editor crucial. When searching for an EGM editor there are key component s critical to its functionality. A good EGM editing software program should include the following multiplatform import and export capabilities, feature rich data editing, storage options, must comply with API Chapter 21.1, pr ovide audit trail/ audit package compliance, extensive query capabilities and technical support.
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Document ID: 029DC2E3

The Evolution Of Data Collection For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jackson Kyle Bates
Abstract/Introduction:
As we all move forward in this ever evolving age of mass communication and technology, so does the Oil and Gas industry. Newly developed or enhanced technologies are co ntinuously opening new doors and expanding the, what was once thought of as limitations, boundaries for our industrys communication infrastructure and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems . Whether it is end user device technologies like Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) or new data storage and network possibilities such as the cloud technology, our industry has seen significant change over the last five years and can expect to see much more going forward as technologies evolve. Some of the advancements in te chnology have been driven by the need for a more secure data network in which RTUs and SCADA programs alike are lo cked down so that malicious attacks by hackers or persons wishing to inflict ill will may be prevented. Othe r advancements are merely piggybacking off of the IT industry as it develops a faster and more reliable co mmunication infrastructure for cellular, satellite and high speed intranet capabilities.
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Document ID: 87F57508

Manufactured Meter Pulses - An Explanation
Author(s): Robert Fritz
Abstract/Introduction:
The electronic interface between flow meters and flow com puters takes a couple of different forms (i.e. a current loop proportional to flow rate, a voltage loop proporti onal flow rate, or electronic pulses representing a volume). For the remainder of this paper we are going consider only the electronic pulse interfac e. These electronic pulses are typically generated by a change in voltage and take the form of a square wave similar to those shown in figure 1.
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Document ID: 43CED2A7

Opc Fundamentals
Author(s): Stephen Sponseller
Abstract/Introduction:
In the mid-1990s, a group of vendors convened to address th e growing concern regarding connectivity to the plant floor referred to as the Device Driver Problem. At that time, HMI and SCADA vendors were responsible for building their own driver libraries. This approach created great solutions when it included all the connectivity requi rements that their end users would need, but incomplete solutions when it did not. The vendors were faced with a d ecision: they either needed to invest resource application- level functionality or extend connectivity. Some vendors decided to create their own Application Programming Interfaces (API) or Driver Toolkits. Although this solved their own connectivity needs, it limited end users to how they could app roach purchasing additional solutions. Luckily, it was not too long before the market persuaded the vendors to collaborate and make changes that were in the end users best interests.
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Document ID: 5174FFA4

Simplifying Real-Time And Historical Efm() Data Collection For The Oil & Gas Industry
Author(s): Stephen Sponseller
Abstract/Introduction:
o realize operational excellence, organizations must monitor and manage all aspects of the control system, turning data into usable business intelligence. To acco mplish this, all the components that make up the control system must seamlessly interoperate with one another as if provided by a single vendor. The system must be both reliable and able to withstand the elements that ca n impa ct operation. And it must be extensible over time with the ability to scale and meet the needs of tomorrow. Lastly, the proper amount of security and safety must be built into the system to prevent costly downtime and damage, while safeguarding the environment and the surrounding community.
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Document ID: FFFDE97E

Economics Of Electron Ic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to address the impact of wirele ss instrumentation on gas measurement and oil production automation. We will discuss the economics of wi reless versus traditional wired systems that historically have been used in the Oil & Gas industry. The purpose of incorporating automation whether wired or wireless remains the same, to deliver efficienci es that are not achievable without it. Civilization advances by extending the number of important operations which we can perform without thinking of them. Alfred North Whitehead, co-author of Principia Mathematica (1910-1913)
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Document ID: 9004FCCF

Recent Innovations In License Ethernet Industrial Data Radio Technology For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Roy Rosado
Abstract/Introduction:
License industrial radios have been successfully used for gas measurement applications for over 25 years. In the past these systems were mostly serial communication to a few critical devices that r equired less than 5 Kbps of bandwidth and were used to achieve very long distance and highly reliable communication. License radios have proven to be extremely valuable and allow for the automati on of forward-deployed devices in diverse applications. However, during the last five years, we have seen signif icant introductions of innovative license Ethernet industrial data radio technologies that dramatica lly optimize the performance and reliability of a telemetry net work, while at the same time lowering the total deployment cost of the same. By migrating to these newer technologies, gas companies can now, more than ever, seamlessly monito r and control all of their geog raphically dispersed gas measuring devices and gain unprecedented ac cess to real-time information, to enhance their ability to make just- in-time decisions.
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Document ID: B606277F

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Nathan Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is used to calibrate custody transfer mete rs to establish a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the prover volume during the time taken for a sphere or piston to pass between two detector switches. The prover volume must be accura tely determined by a calibration procedure known as the Water Draw method.
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Document ID: 7E8735A5

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Scott Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
ne of the most difficult problems fa cing the instrument engineer is the a ccurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight te ster or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. The instrument engineer will typically specify the deadwei ght tester and the technician will use the standard. For both parties, it is essential to underst and certain aspects of deadweight tester operation, concepts related to the design and operation, and the best use practices for the instruments.
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Document ID: EE03090A

Flow Calibrating Ultrasonic Gas Meters
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has tr aditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, tech nology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form o f fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularit y in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncerta inty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Mu ltipath Ultrasonic Meters , Second Addition Ref 1, now requires flow calibration for ultrasonic flow meters when being used for custody transfer appli cations.
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Document ID: 446D0689

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Mters And Provers
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement becomes more difficult when the things that we re ly on to do the measuring, meters and provers, are not predictable in their performance. When this happens , quite often the reason for the unpredictability is not apparent. However, because of the value of todays li quid hydrocarbons, the problem must be corrected in a timely manner. Therefore someone must analyze the sit uation and eliminate each possible contributor to the problem until only one remains. This process is called troubl es hooting. Thats what we will be talking about in thi s paper. Because of space constraints and knowledge limitatio ns, especially the later, this paper is not an exhaustive list of problems and solutions. But, hopefully we will discuss something that might be of some help to some people. We will start with the di fferent type of provers in use today.
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Document ID: EB2DC5B2

In-Situ On-Site() Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. James N. Witte Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Comparisons of flow meters in the field have been performed for nearly as long as flow meters have been in existence. For example, Figure 1 shows an orifice meter being compared to three 60-A tin meters (a.k.a., diaphragm meters) in Rosedale, Kansas in 1921. 1 Each tin meter had the flow capacity of 1,800 standard cubic feet per hour. In this particular test, a 1.6% difference in reading was discovered between the orifice meter and the tin meters.
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Document ID: BEC9D656

L.A.C.T. Unit Proving - The Role Of The Witness
Author(s): C. Bynum Vincent
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid hydrocarbons removed from the ground must get to market via one of two ways. They are transported via pipeline or tanker truck from production facilities to pipeline systems, which transport the product to the refinery for processing. Once processed, the liquids are once agai n sent via tanker truck or pipeline to the distribution points downstream. Whether these fluids are purchas ed or consigned to common carriers, there is transaction called a custody transfer conducted to transfer ownership of the product for transportation or distribution. In each of these instances, a representative from each pa rty involved in the custody transfer transaction is generally present to observe or wit ness the events of each transaction
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Document ID: 591E8AAD

Liquid Flow Provers
Author(s): Dave Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of a liquid flow prover is to provide a prec ise means for calibrating flow meters. Provers are most commonly used to calibrate turbi ne, displacement, coriolis an d ultrasonic meters although they may also be used to calibrate other types of meters. A prover provides a known standard for comparison to the meter output, and, in application, is used to establish factors for correction of the indicated volume of th e meter being proved, thereby resulting in more precise measurement. The most common types of provers include
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Document ID: 058792F4

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): T. Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: EBEE2478

Operation & Problems Associated With Prover Detector Switches
Author(s): Warren A. Parr, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In many parts of the petroleum industr y, sphere provers are used to dynamically calibrate volumetric meters. In order to accomplish this, sphere provers are requir ed to be accurate and repeatable. This accuracy and repeatability is largely dependent on performance of the pr over sphere detector. Any operational or design problems associated with the prover detector will affect t he provers performance. This paper will review critical parts of a prover sphere detector that must be checked in order to obtain accuracy reliability and repeatability. The areas that will be covered are:
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Document ID: EECD7F95

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Kevin Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
Small Volume Provers (SVPs) have become the standard in most custody transfer applications. Today, there are over 500 SVPs located throughout the US and abroad. Over 35 years ago, the first small volume prover was placed into service. The small volume prover can be used on multiple fluids and over a wide range of flow rates. One of the most common reasons for choosing a small volume prover is its compact size and large flow rate capacity. Todays SVP can handle rates from 0.01 gpm to 18,000 BPH. With an SVP sized to handle 18,000 BPH, the total prover volume is approximately 120 gallons
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Document ID: D387A811

Proving Coriolis Meters
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters are in use throughout the hydrocarbon industry for the measurement of fluids including crude oil, products such as fuel oil, gasoline, and diesel, and light hydrocarbons such as natural gas liquids, propane, etc. When used for custody transfer, it is most often required by contract between the buyer and seller that the meter be proven in the field on the fluid that is being measured and at the conditions under which it will be operating. This paper will utilize the American Petroleum Institutes Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) as the reference for industry practices for field proving methods and calculations
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Document ID: FA817245

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): David J. Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulse interpolation, by definition, is the ability to estimate values of (a function) between two known values. Therefore, pulse interpolation enables puls e counts to be made to a fraction of a pulse, thus greatly reducing the rounding - off errors that occur when pulse counts are made to the nearest whole number which always happens in the absence of Pulse Interpolation
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Document ID: A12856AD

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Liquid Measurem Ent And Implications Of How Mercury Issues Will Impact These Processes
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the standards from the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Society for Testing and Measurement (ASTM) provided specifications for inst ruments and equipment. Simple compliance with these standards was not enough. Therefore, a system of verification and/or ce rtification of equipment used in measurement of liquids was in stituted. These requirements were written into the standards as they came up for review. An excellent example of such a standard is Chapt er 3.1.A. Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products of the APIs Manual of Petroleum Mea surement. 3.1.A. calls for field verification of working tapes against against a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable master tape when it is new and every year thereafter
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Document ID: B143239D

Witnessing Orifice Meter VERIFICATION/CALIBRATION
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of witness (noun) is: 1. person who has witnessed some thing 2. one who gives testimony. The definition of witnessing (verb) is: 1. to see, hear, or know by perso nal experience 2. to test ify 3. to attest by ones signature. The function of a witness is a very impor tant one for companies involved in physical natural gas transactions, whether a producer, a midstream gathering serv ice provider, a marketer, a transmission pipeline, or a distribution entity. The act of witnessing should be el evated to a high priority for these various entities and the competencies required to carry out this function should be docume nted and developed.
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Document ID: 5FBDBDD6

Improving Flow Measurement S With Improved Calibration And Data Handling Procedures
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas measurement analyst requires a completely diffe rent set of skills to interpret and understand the information documented b y the field regarding testing and calibration proce dures. The task for the measurement analyst is to absorb the wealth of information pres ented, and utilize their extensive knowledge base i n determining when a current month adjustment or even a prior mon th adjustment is warranted. Each time an analyst rev iews data from the field, a question should be asked, D id the technician follow the correct procedures in performing the calibration?
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Document ID: 827D8CF8

Preparing A Prover For A Water Draw Calibration
Author(s): Herb Garland
Abstract/Introduction:
The key to a successful calibration of a prover by the water d raw method is thorough planning and organization followed by good execution of the plan. The primary goal is to get the prover as clean as possible and perf orm any replacements and maintenance needed prior to the arrival of the Cali bration Company. This paper is intended to assist y ou attain an accurate calibration by presenting some things to consider for the planning, organization and execution phases. A m ore detailed Procedure for prover preparation is provided in API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 4- Proving Systems, Section 9, Part
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Document ID: AD6AAC3F

Laboratory Versus In Situ Proving Of Liqu Id Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Terry Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
The first issue to consider is w hat features do USMs claim that make such the concept of non -in situ proiving possible? A turbine meter for example should never be conside red for use as an unproved system for good uncertainty measurement. This is because a turbine meter is so subject to installation effects, that t he chance of the calibration at a laboratory transferring to the operational installation with any degree of confid ence is low. Multi -path ultrasonic meters, however, it is claimed can transfer their calibration with more confidence, th erefore removing the need for in situ proving. In fact at t he introduction of U SMs for custody transfer there was a concerted campaign to use them without provers, lar gely because they were so difficult to prove on sit e. This issue will be discussed in more detail in a later s ection on installation uncertainty
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Document ID: C02210C5

Methods For Certifying Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Scott Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Like any other piece of equipment, a measurement ar tifact must be maintained. Obviously, it has to be in working order in general. However, what is more important i s that it be operating within specified parameters and providing measurements that are traceable to a know n source or sources. Th is paper provides a general overview of calibration and certification. It also discusses some key terminology and methods.
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Document ID: 099949F4

Auditing Gas Laboritories
Author(s): Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, s afety and environmental compliance issues. The acc uracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratorie s responsible for producing th is data is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of proces s improvement, through proper identification of def iciencies and a precise plan for corrective action. The level of confidence in analytical results will increase when the appropriate corrective actions are implemented . The amount of financial and legal exposure can b e reduced from a properly executed audit program
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Document ID: D8935AFF

Compressibility Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Savidge
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate measurement of natural gas an d natural gas related fluids is diffi cult. It requires care, experience, and insight to achieve consistently accurate measurements that can meet stringent fiscal requirements. It is particularly difficult to measure complex fluid mixtures that are exposed to: (1) a range of operating conditions, (2) dynamic flow and fluid property behavior, and (3) changing equipment conditions
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Document ID: 2BF388E1

Managing Changing Flow Requirements At Existing Measurement Stations
Author(s): Ronald Sisk
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive gas market, gas utility companies must meet aggressive market str ategies or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash r egisters, and gas distribution is no exception. Our measuring stations are our cash register. The probl em is, these stations were designed 10, 20, 30 or e ven 50 years ago, and are now performing tasks for which they were not designed . Therefore, changes must be made. Measurement personnel today must be trained and tau ght to manage changing flow requirements. However, modifying a station to meet todays aggressive mark et can be very expensive. Equipment, such as regulators and the primary element (the meter tube, the orifice plate holder, and the orifice plate), must meet A.G.A. 3 requirements. The secondary element (the r ecording device) can increase costs significantly. Sometimes modificat ions cannot be made to deliver the specified volume of gas needed, and replacement of a complete station is even more expensive. Compa nies today must watch costs closely, and work to reduce operating and maintenance costs.
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Document ID: D4C97430

Design Of Distribution Meteri Ng And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Dgar Eddy() Wallace Collins Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
he design of natural gas distributi on metering and/or regulating stations is a mixture of science and art, of knowledge and judgment. The process requires four areas of knowledge: product, application, components, and communication. The goal in design is to use judgment to select and combine compatible components to create a safe, effective, and economical unit.
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Document ID: 0EE2F0A1

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
/HDNDJH DQG XQDFFRXQWHG IRU JDV YROXPHV DUH RI WKH PRVW VLJQLIL FDQW FRVWV RI RSHUDWLRQ IRU QDWXUDO JDV SURGXFHUVJDWKHUHUVSURFHVVRUVWUDQVSRUWHUVDQGGLVWULEXWLRQ VVWHPRSHUDWRUV7KHVHRSHUDWLRQDOFRVWVDUHVR VLJQLILFDQWWKDWVXFKDUHGLUHFWODGGUHVVHGLQWDULIIVUDWHF DVHILOLQJVDQGFRQWUDFWXDODJUHHPHQWVEHWZHHQSDUWLHV LQRUGHUWKDWVXFKPDEHLWHPLHGDVDFRVWRIRSHUDWLRQHTXL WDEO PDQDJHG DQG UHVSRQVLEO PLWLJDWHG &RPPRQDFURQPVGHQRWLQJORVWDQGXQDFFRXQWHGIRUJDVYROXPHVD UH LAUF L RVW A QG U QDFFRXQWHG F RU LUG L RVWDQG U QDFFRXQWHGIRU G DV DQG UAF U Q A FFRXQWHG F RU OORIWKHVHGHVLJQDWLRQVUHIHUWRWKHVDPHLVVXH Product that you believe you should be able to account for but for some reason cannot )R
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Document ID: 33CE367B

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ray G. Durke Edgar B. Bowles, Jr Darin L. George Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most common measurement errors and the most difficult to identify in natural gas metering systems is that caused by pulsating flow. It is important to understand the effects that pulsations have on the common types of flow meters used in the gas industry so that potential error-producing mechanisms can be identified and avoided. It is also essential to understand pulsation control techniques for mitigating pulsation effects. This paper describes the effects of pulsation on orifice, turbine, ultrasonic, and other flow meter types. It also presents basic methods for mitigating pulsation effects at meter installations, including a specific procedure for designing acoustic filters that can isolate a flow meter from the source of pulsatio
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Document ID: 54B22A2B

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accura Cy Of Orifice Measur Ement
Author(s): Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Whenever one focuses on gas or fluid measurement, h e or she will eventually discover an abnormal condition at a measurement station. Invariably someone will ask , What effect will it have on measurement? A student of measurement may spend years answering this question. This and similar questions have generated m any research studies . This research has enabled us to better understand m easurement abnormalities and to improve measurement procedures and standards. Even though we have made great strides in measurement, we will continue to ask this question.
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Document ID: 8FB072EE

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I
Author(s): Douglas Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understa nd gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecu le, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the metho ds and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that they have an understa nding of natural gas chemistry
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Document ID: 89912372

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people should have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc. To understand the fundamentals, one must be familiar with the definitions of the terms that are used in day-to-day gas measurement operations. They also must know how to convert some values from one quantity as measured to another quantity that is called for in the various custody transfer agreements.
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Document ID: 10C9C887

Natural Gas Analysis By Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Dave Curtis
Abstract/Introduction:
The most equitable means of exchange of Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquid products is by the measure of their energy. In order to determine the energy of the pr oduct, the individual components with in the product must be measured. The most common and accepted means of measuring the amounts of each com ponent with a Natural Gas or Natural Gas Liquid sample is by the use of a gas chromatograph (GC) . The following is a description of basic GC operation for energy determination.
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Document ID: EF99696C

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement III
Author(s): Joseph J. Bauer
Abstract/Introduction:
To become proficient in all phases of gas measureme nt, one must fully understand what natural gas is a nd the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natura l gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of s tandard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correct ion factors that are defined by the gas laws
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Document ID: B5548B54

Installation And Operation Errors In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr Thomas B. Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
Installation errors may occur when an instrument is used in a manner different from how it was calibrated. For example, suppose that a temperature sensor is calibrated in a stirred, constant temperature bath. During calibration, the sensor is in thermal equilibrium with the circulating fluid, and the fluid and sensor temperatures are the same. Next, let the same sensor be used to measure the temperature of natural gas flowing through a pipe at low velocity. If the pipe wall temperature is different from the flowing gas temperature, convection heat transfer will occur between the gas and the pipe wall, radiation heat transfer will occur between the pipe wall and the sensor, and convection heat transfer will occur between the sensor and the flowing gas. In this example, the sensor would not be in thermal equilibrium with the flowing gas and the sensor temperature would be different from the flowing gas temperature
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Document ID: 79D3A5F9

Chromatograph Applications And Problems From A Users Standpoint
Author(s): Fred Ryel
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatographs are available for all types of app lications in the natural gas industry. The main applications that this class will discuss are: process monitoring of liquids and gases, environmental flares and ambient air, landfill gas and contaminates. These can also include corrosives such as H2S, CO2 and O2, etc. Regardless of the application, the ma in priority is to capture an accurate sample and not change the properties before it can be analyzed. Maintaining the sample integrity is by far the most difficult process. The procedure of acquiring the sample and the way it is analyzed depends upon the media being sampled
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Document ID: D404FE97

Low Pressure Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ron Carnahan
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate natural gas measurement is challenging for many reasons and uncertainty can be introduced from a multitude of ways. Much has been written over the years abou t how these challenges may reside in the physical design of a measurement station or in meter selection. Uncertainty also can arrive in choices made with regard to which secondary or tertiary devices to use and even choices made on standard pipeline fittings can affect overall measu rement accuracy in some applications such as with torturous tube turns or various combinations of met er tube end treatmen ts.
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Document ID: 8E9FE34C

Mass Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Marc Buttler
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design enhancements in the earl y 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 120 ,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the 2003 publication of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter. Having the ability to bidirectional ly measure almost any gas phase fluid from -400 to +400 degrees Fahrenh eit without concern of error or damage due to flow profile disturbance s, pulsations , regulator noise, surge s, compressibility change , and density change , Coriolis meters are becoming the fiscally respons ible meter of choice in many applications
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Document ID: 9578C140

Chromato Gr Ap H Maintena Nce And Troubleshooting
Author(s): Fred Ryel
Abstract/Introduction:
Welcome to the 90th International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement. This class is going to cover several points that are not necessarily what is called the Chromatograph. This paper is mostly referring to the online Chromatographs but can apply towards a lab or portable analyzer as well. As with the use of any analyzer, the analysis is going to be only as accurate as the sample that is supplied. This is how I start just about all the classes or training I present. It really isnt the Chromatograph but is just as important as any component on the chromatograph. Please feel free to interject with relevant ideas or examples pertaining to what is being discussed at that time. I most always learn something new or different with each presentation or training I d
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Document ID: 7F2E84EE

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Bob Armbruster
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses basic components of the gas chromatograph. It directs the student to Gas Processors Association (GPA) analytical methods 2177 Method for the Analysis of Demethanized Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Gas Chromatography and 2186 Tentative Method for the Extended Analysis of Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxid e by Temperature Programmed Gas Chromatography.
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Document ID: 58F9E7BF

An Optical Hydrocarbon Analyzer For Real - Time Hydrocarbon Gas Speciation And Measurement
Author(s): Duane Sword
Abstract/Introduction:
A unique all -optical , real -time, unattended sensor platform has been developed for hydrocarbon gas co mposition analysis enabling speciation and quantification of the individual light hydrocarbon components such as C1 - nC6 of alkanes , high -range hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide . This all -optical sensor performs real -time speciation without requiring physical separation of the compou nds as perf ormed in traditional chromatography. Moreover the ability to offer fast, accurate and repeatable C1 -C9 total BTU/HHV for natural gas pipeline energy co ntent monitoring can be proven side -by -side with traditional gas chromatograph method
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Document ID: F50C46ED

Crude Quality-What Is Involved And Why Its Important
Author(s): James C. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
crude oil quality can mean different things to different people. A production facility may look at crude oil quality as anything that passes the field tests so the transporter will pick up the load or send it down their pipeline. A pipeline company or transporter may have a similar definition of crude quality, but from a different perspective. A crude oil marketer will also have a different idea of what crude quality is as will an end user, such as a refiner. I will touch on what each of these people think is crude oil quality, and why, and will discuss the testing procedures used to arrive at crude quality from their perspective
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Document ID: 2985DB60

Refined Producr Sampling Systems
Author(s): Josh H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
This brief discusses design considerations for refi ned, multi -product, automated sampling systems. Proper samp ling is an art form, especially in the oil and gas industry. The majority of applications encountered have some sort special condition or unique aspect to the applica tion. Many times this is due to the fact that oil or ga s found in different places behaves differently because the composition is not the same around the world. However, once the hydrocarbons reach the refineries, the sam pling methods used can be much more consistent. Thi s is because the refinery is one of those places in the industry where the hydrocarbon compounds are better known and consistent.
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Document ID: 2C3AE465

Determination Of H2S & Total Sulfur In Naural Gas
Author(s): Byron Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, H2S and total sulfur a re monitored to validate tariff limits or to ensure process specifications are maintained at receipt, sales, an d process control points throughout the system. Ty pical measurement ranges are 0 -20 ppm for H2S and 0 -100 ppm for total sulfur on transmission lines. Wel lhead treating, particularly shale gas development has cr eated the need to measure higher ranges of 1000 to 5000 ppm measurement at H2S treater skid inlet with a target treater outlet of 1 to 5 ppm. Downstream processing plant inlet applications require percentage measurement of 1 -10 % and sulfur plant feed or H2S re -injection ranges of 20 - 60%. Natural Gas gathering systems may blend off -spec gas with spec gas to maintain gas quality spec ificatio ns in the 0 -5% H2S range. Liquid rich shale gas presents a need to measure H2S in condensate or light oil streams. Natural gas streams used as feed stock in fertilize r production or any other sulfur sensitive catalyst bed dependent process requires sub ppm to as low as 10 ppb sulfur measurement. This paper summarizes principles of operation and points to consider when employing available technologies for various applications and concentrations encountered in the gas industry and related downstream facilitie s
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Document ID: 6DD3C7AC

Determination Of Wat Er Vapor Content In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
This is an overview of the main approaches to moisture m easurements for natural gas . Natural gas presents a situation where the stream may have high levels of solid and liquid contaminants as well as corrosive gases present in varying concentrations. Additionally, th e stream composition may change gradually or rapidly over time. This unique situation is a challenge for the measurement of moisture.
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Document ID: E8E27A69

Hydrocarbon Dew Point Effects On Gas Flow Measureme Nt
Author(s): Fred Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
The hydrocarbon dewpoint (HCDP) of interest to the natural gas industry is simply a n operating condition that causes liquids to condense out of the gas stream an d form a liquid phase. Normal condensation occurs when increasing pressure or decreasing temperature cause s liquids to form. Retrograde condensation occurs on a different portion of the phase envelope, wherein increasing temperature or decreasing pressure may cause the gas to cross the phase boundary and produce condens ation. Both processes produce liquids condensing o ut of gas phase streams and are of interest to this prese ntation.
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Document ID: 7C3B3697

D.O. T. Requirements For The Tra Nsportation Of Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government whi ch oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limit ed to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we wil l discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surroundin g sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rule s regarding the movement of these cylinders from po int to point in the United States.
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Document ID: 38A50C6B

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromat Ography
Author(s): Burt Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
The means and methods of transfer of quantities of natural gas between buyers and sellers have been changing for many years. When coal gasification was used to fuel the streetlights in Atlanta, Ga. Ther e was no reason to even measure the commodity. The mu nicipality generated the gas, transported it, and burned it. When Frank Phillips started purchasing g as rights back in the 1930s, every one thought he was more than odd. Natural Gas was considered at th at time a messy by -product of oil production that had to be disposed of. Even during the 1960s natur al gas was still being flared at the wellhead in Oklahoma. During the 1940s, it was said that one c ould drive from Kilgore, Texas to Tyler, Texas at n ight without turning on the head light on your car due t o all the gas flares. In this economic environment, measurement was not an issue if you could sell the gas at all it was considered a business coup. Even then, a good price was 2 cents an MCF.
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Document ID: 90D55DF1

Energy Measurement U Sing Ultrasonic Flow Measurement And Chro Matography
Author(s): Martin Schlebach
Abstract/Introduction:
Martin Schlebach
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Document ID: 12D6AF20

Field And Laboratory Testing Of Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The quantity of sediment and water in crude oil mus t be accurately established as part of the custody transfer process. Purchasers only pay for the crude oil rec eived, and want to minimize the quantity of sedimen t and water they must transport and dispose of. Consequently, m onitoring of the sediment and water content is perf ormed at the production site to prevent excessive sediment a nd water from entering the pipeline system. The quantity of sediment and water a pipeline is willing to accept into their system depends on geographic location, m arket competitiveness and their ability to handle the sed iment and water in the system. Each pipeline publi shes the quantity of sediment and water it will accept. Stat es also may have sediment and water limits as well.
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Document ID: C2BE0F8D

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Ulrich Gokeler
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography is an analytical technique to physic ally separate constituents in multi component mixtu res with the purpose of quantification. Quantification of specific constitu ents is the actual objective of chromatography. Unlike other analytical techniques such as spectroscopy, c hromatography physically separates targeted constituents from each other or interferences prior to actual quantification. Chromatography is one of the most widely used analytical techniques . It is applied in the laboratory environment, as p ortable devices or for on -line and automatic measur ement. This paper discusses gas chromatography, particular ly automatic on -line or process gas chromatography .
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Document ID: 7EC228AC

Design Considerations For Analyzer Enclosure Systems
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Instrument shelters are a necessity. In the Rocky Mountain Region, the decision to provide an Instrument Shelter is not something that is usually debated. The real issue is how sophisticated (read Expensive) they need to be and what should go into them. The decision as to what goes into a Shelter for a project engineer can be a delicate balancing act. Depending on the various adders the cost of a shelter can become quite expensive
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Document ID: 9D936A99

Heat Quantity Calculation Relating To Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion will focus on heating value calcula tions for natural gas mixtures and corrections that are made by the industry to adjust the commercial basis for nat ural gas containing water vapor . Natural gas is sold commercially at defined base conditi ons. The North American Energy Standards Board has recommended that transaction statements for measured quantities be m ade based on a standard cubic foot of commercially dry gas at 14.73 psia and 60F.
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Document ID: 42DBFF80

Validating Laboratory Gas Analyses
Author(s): Brad Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to explore the concepts surrounding effective data validation process es for determining the accuracy of natural gas samples analyzed at a labor atory. The accuracy of gas sample analysis depends upon a variety of parts in the overall measurement process . Understanding the types of errors that can occur in each aspect will aid in the development of an effective validation method
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Document ID: 71851A46

On Line Water Measurement Devices In Liquid Service
Author(s): Craig Mcwhorter
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive energy market there is a tre mendous emphasis on cost saving and produ ctivity at all levels of the industry. Online water detection provides vi tal real -time information regarding water concentrations in hydrocarbons empowering the user with the knowledge necessary to maximize efficiencies and cost saving s while increasing many safety factors at the same ti me.
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Document ID: 1C582163

Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its e nergy content and volume. The energy content and ph ysical constants utilized in determining its volume are co mputed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy.
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Document ID: D82B4B7E

Sample Conditioning And Contaminant Remo Val For Water Vapor Content Determination In Natural Gas
Author(s): Brad Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry experiences numerous opera tional problems associated with high water vapor co ntent in the natural gas stream. As a result several pro blems are experienced such as, equipment freezes, d ilution of physical properties reducing heating value, volume measurement interference, and pipeline corrosion. Contracts and Tariffs usually limit the amount of water vapor content allowed at the custody transfer point. Fo r these and other reasons, accurate Water Vapor Dewpoint measurements are cri tical measurements for all companies involved in natural gas production, gathering, tran smission and delivery.
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Document ID: A16EC757

Techniques Of Gas Composite Sampling
Author(s): Matthew S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
While inaccuracies in measurement can be costly and common, they are also avoidable in many cases. Technicians willing to study the experiences and be st practices of industry leaders can make a world o f difference by applying what theyve learned and sharing this k nowledge with others. Composite sampling is a straightforward method. Whe n managed correctly, samplers are able to take smal l bites of a flowing gas or liquid in such a way that the c omplete sample accurately represents what was in th e pipeline for a given sample period.
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Document ID: ECE2D588

Techniques Of Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discuss es the various approved methods used for spot sampling in the natural gas industry. Proper sampling technique is extremely important because i t impacts both the quantity and quality of the gas being measured. Up until 1978 when congress passed the N atural Gas Policy Act, natural gas was sold based o n volume. The Natural Gas Policy Act implemented sel ling of natural gas based on the energy available i n the gas being sold. Consequently, the importance of sampli ng to determine the BTU content of the natural gas sold became much more important. The energy available i n a gas stream is the product of the volume and the BTU content of the gas sold. In order to determine the BTU content of the gas, a representative sample must be captured and analyzed by a gas chromatograph or cal orimeter. Typically, the industry utilizes gas chromatographs to make this determination.
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Document ID: B339AAC9

Determining Hydrocarbon D Ew Point Per Gas Chromatograph Ic Analysis And Equation S Of State
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of the hydrocarbon dew point ( HCDP ) for natural gas has recently become a critical issue for the natural g as industry because of the rapid expansion of interconnecting p ipelines and the rise of the rich shale gas source of natu ral gas . Where as previously the gas in a pipeline would come from a small number of known producers, the gas flowing through the pipeline today could have co me from many varied sources including traditional gas plant producers (de- hydration, CO2 , H2S and N2 control , and removal of condensates) , coal bed methane producers (98% methane) , low cost producers (de-h ydration only) or global exporters of LNG.
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Document ID: D2555BCF

Fundamentals Of Sampling Natural Gas For Btu Determ Ination
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
It has long been recognized that the largest source of error in the analysis of natural gas is the sample conditioning system (SCS) . The sample conditioning systems consist of all components through which the sample gas travels from its source, typically a pip eline, to the gas chromatograph (GC) inject valve. The purpose of the sample conditioning system is to extract a n atural gas sample that is representative of the sou rce, transport it to an on line gas chromatograph, and in the pr ocess condition it so that it is compatible with the analyzer. Conditioning consist mainly of excluding unwanted l iquids and solids, regulating the pressure and flow , and heating to maintain the sample gas well above its h ydrocarbon dew point temperature (1) . During the entire sample conditioning process the sample gas must not underg o any changes in its composition.
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Document ID: 720F1C25

Moisture Measurement Using Laser Spectroscopy
Author(s): Ken Soleyn
Abstract/Introduction:
Tunable Laser Diode Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is rapidly becoming the measurement technology of choice for continuous online moisture measurement in natural gas. Natural gas is dehydrated and treated prior to transportation and use. The removal of water from natural gas is of considerable cost to the supplier and consumer. Reducing dehydration costs is a tradeoff between profits and the reduction of gas quality. Water increases maintenance cost within the gas pipeline infrastructure.
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Document ID: 145C1607

Reducing Measurement Uncertainty In Process Gas Qua Lity Measurements
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Uncertainty is quantified by engineers and scientists and their very methods and mathematics are knowingly, themselves found to be uncertain. Nevertheless, th e effort continues. The AGA, GPA, ISO along with m any agencies in every industry strives to eliminate or reduce uncertainty by releasing new standards and periodic studies and review and revision to legacy standards. The e fforts are not futile and in fact have led to notab le , useful standards that are helpful and practical. These a re often amended, revised and improved and yet ofte n unwelcome.
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Document ID: B30EF4AA

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure, And Supercritical Natural Gas
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux Shannon m. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
t is a well -established fact that the sample conditioning system (SCS) is t he largest source of error in natural gas analysis. The SCS is comprised of all the componen ts which contact the sample on its journey to the a nalyzer, including those which are designed to protect the a nalyzer from damage by solids and liquids. Its pur pose is to extract a representative sample from a natural gas source, condition it so that it is compatible with the analyzer, then transport it to the analyzer for analysis. Du ring this p rocess, the SCS must maintain the integrity of the sample composition.
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Document ID: EEA79D93

Principles Of Multi Dimensional- Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Gregg Meidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 45 years, multi -dimensional gas chromatography has made a tremendou s impact in the HPI and CPI markets. Process GCs play an important role in the areas of safety, process control, process mon itoring and environmental monitoring. Modern analyzer syst ems have sophisticated PC based electronic controll ers with LCD man -machine interface suitable for hazardous area classificatio ns. Despite the fact that there have been considerable strides in process gas chromatogr aphic technologies and practices, the same basic principals hold true today. This paper will cover the basic structure of a typical process gas chroma tograph from the sample probe, through the sample system, GC sam ple valves, columns and column valves and through t he detector
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Document ID: F591A43E

Sampling Challenges Associated With Unconventional Gas Sources
Author(s): Mark Firmin
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in exploration, drilling and pro duction technologies make it feasible to extract natural gas from sources that in the past have been regarded as unconventional and so, such sources are becoming a larger percentage of the gas supply. The feasibility of producing gas from a so urce is the primary factor in determining whether that source should be categorized as conventional or unconvent ional. What has been unconventional in the past may be considered conventional in the future
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Document ID: 64662B92

Introduction To Measurement Uncertainty
Author(s): Richard Estabrook
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the concepts of both uncertainty and bias in measurement, discusses the need to eliminate bias prior to performing an uncertainty calculation, ou tlines the difference between component uncertainty and system uncertainty, and provides several sample calcul ations. This paper also introduces simple statistical methods such as standard deviation and mean
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Document ID: 92768BE3

The Design And U Ncertainty Of Custody Transfer Sampling Systems Using Field Proving Data And Laboratory Tests Compared With International Acceptance Criteria
Author(s): Gary Potten
Abstract/Introduction:
As sampling applications become more diverse it becomes increasingly cha llenging to achieve a representative sample for use in fiscal, allocation , and custody transfer. It is therefore important that a sampling systems performance is evaluated on a regular basis so that any limitations are identified to mitigate the risks to measurement accuracy a nd uncertainty.
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Document ID: 7AE312A2

Determination Of Trace Oxygen In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The necessity for trace oxygen measurements is in creasing with requirements below 100 or 10ppmv. An understanding of the considerations when choosing techno logy for measuring Oxygen is useful especially for remote locations or locations with high le vels of corrosive contaminants such as CO 2 and H 2 S. This paper discusses a variety of measurement methods used in natural gas such as Galvanic Cell method, the Quench Florescence method and the Gas Chromatograph method.
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Document ID: 8365ACF4

Uncertainties Within The Centrifuge Method
Author(s): Allen Wong
Abstract/Introduction:
The centrifuge method is widely used to determine the amount of water and/or sediment in crude oil as part of the custody transfer process. The parties involved in a tran saction would benefit to minimize the uncertainties involved. Pipeline companies publish the quantity of water and sediment it will contractually accept. Maintaining a balanced system is crucial to the business of a pipeline company
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Document ID: FB092631

Measurement Station Inspection Documentation Progra m And Guide
Author(s): Jeff Mcbride
Abstract/Introduction:
Developing a formal maintenance and inspection prog ram is one of the most important mechanisms to a successful maintenance operation. There are numerou s benefits to having such a program but this paper wi ll focus specifically on regulatory drivers tha t may require a PHMSA -DOT ( Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration - Department of Transportation) regulated facility to maintain a comprehensive maintenance plan and the benefits of a robust maintenance and inspec tion program to protect the comp anys metering and chain of custody related components
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Document ID: 94CE88F2

Inline Color Measurement Of Refined Product And Condensate
Author(s): Steven W Schoenborn
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil refiners and natural gas producers have long used color determination of liquid hydrocarbon streams for manufacturing and quality control purposes. However, the testing methods to determine color were normally conducted manually (offline) by sample analysis, often requiring some level of sample conditioning. Now, advances in process photometry has created devices capabl e of inline color measurement of liquid hydrocarbon streams - all in real time and under process conditions. This ability allows crude oil refineries, natural gas processers, and pipeline owners an opportunity to moni tor/control manufacturing process parameters where it couldnt be done before, and as a result, a real time opport unity to increase product quality, control product manufacture, and monitor product transfer
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Document ID: 909D2A2A

Introduction To Gas Quality Using Spectroscopy
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is aimed at helping beginning level techni cian get a broad overview of this topic. It will cover the fundamentals of optical spectroscopy as applied to natural gas analysis, without the use of rigorous mathematical and physical concepts. The discussion is then followed by each type of spectroscopy that is finding a pplications in natural gas including absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and fluorescen ce quenching spectroscopy. The focus is on field-deployable methods and no t laboratory based techniques.
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Document ID: 63AD34DD

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Steve Ecklund
Abstract/Introduction:
odays presentation is appropriately titled ORIFI CE FITTINGS & METE R TUBES - (proper operation and maintenance) As most of you are aware the orifice fitting has be en around for many decades and is still today, the industrys leading method of accurately and cost ef fectively measuring natural gas. Now we have seen some dimensional changes, tolerance changes, and things of that nature but overall we are still able to use the same technology today as we did decades ago, and with great accuracy. Some of the Key benefits are as follows - The Orifice fitting is Cost Effect ive - Its user friendly and mechanically simplistic - And most importantly, the orifice fitting has prove n to be statistically accurate.
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Document ID: 4271328E

Gas Calibration Standards For Safe And Accurate Pipeline Ana Lysis
Author(s): Russell Wenzel
Abstract/Introduction:
uch time and effort is spent measuring various hydroc arbon related concerns in natural gas and liquid streams and many dollars are exchanged everyday related to the re sults of these measurements. Sometimes little of this time and effort is spent considering pure and calibration gas and liquid mixtures quality, safe use, and cost optimization. The results of these measurements ar e only as good as the quality and accuracy of these calibration standards and pure carrier gases.
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Document ID: 8CCE2833

Causes And Cures Of Re Gulator Instability
Author(s): Paul Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators j ob is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This pa per will not address the mathematical methods of describing th e automatic control system of the pressure reduci ng station, but will deal with more of the components and t heir effect on the system stability.
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Document ID: 9BB4C1A3

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Sharon Mccurdy
Abstract/Introduction:
Controlling surges in liquid hydrocarbon applications is a complex task that requires experienced engineers to dissect every section of the system. They must take into account every what if scenario and design a system that will protect piping, equipment and personnel. This paper provides a basic understanding of transient pressures, how they can occur a nd how they can be controlled.
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Document ID: 2B69704F

Prevention Of Freezing In Measure Ment And Regulatingstations
Author(s): Stephen Palmitier
Abstract/Introduction:
The competitive business environment that exists in the energy industry demands reliable service. Even though it is expensive to change energy companies, customers do have options if they becom e dissatisfied with their service. Significant money can be lost with trading partners through erroneous data used in establishing the value of the trade. The regulatory environment is be coming more strident in demanding safe, controlled operations. Even minor excursions outside prescribed norms can lead to substantial fines, and worse, years of having regulators going over operations with a fine tooth comb looking for any discrepancy
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Document ID: 62B9CDB8

Selection, Sizing And Operation Of Control Valves For Gases And Liquids
Author(s): Will Sjobeck
Abstract/Introduction:
The Instrumentation, Systems, and Auto PDWLRQ6RFLHW ,6 GHILQHVDFRQWUROYDOYHDVDSRZHURSHUDW HGGHYLFH that modulates the fluid flow rate LQDSURFHVVFRQWUROVVWHP 3URFHVVSODQWVFRQWDLQKXQGUHG LIQRWWKRXVDQGV of control loops to help a certain variable reach a desired set point. These loops consis t of sensors, transmitters, and process controllers that receive information and calc ulate necessary action to achieve a set point upon system disturbance. The control valve is one of the most common final control elements that the process controller manages to maintain the set point.
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Document ID: 70A403AB

Turbulence And Its Effects In Measuri Ng And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Terrenace Grimley Edgar B Bowels Jr Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
)!&!+&!)). !.&. &.&!!!/&!)!)) 0&0+!! !&+1!..!&+& ))!!!+)0!!!.!&+1!.)) .!&+&+&!&.&!)!!)0.!.
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Document ID: 8A586663

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
here are many causes for natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations. Many of the sources for meter error are identified in the proceedings of this conference. For instance, er rors can result from an improper installation configuration, calibration of a mete r at conditions other than t he actual operating conditions, or degradation of meter performance over time. Indust ry standards have been developed to help meter station designers and operators avoid situations that would produce gas metering er rors. Typically, gas meter standards address meter design, construction, installation, operation, and maintenance. Most of the standards focus on the flow meter and the piping immediately upstream and downs tream of the meter. Rese arch has shown that many meter types, particularly infer ential meters, are susceptible to errors when the flow field at the meter is distorted. The sources of flow field distortions are many.
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Document ID: 01041C8B

Orifice Meter Primary Elements Standards
Author(s): Hunter Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is the most predominately utilized device for measurement of natural gas. Its dominant presence in the natural gas industry stems from many years of acceptance as the primary means for accurate measurement. In 2000, revised manufacturing an inspec tion standards, along with new technology for flow enhancement have improved the overall ac curacy of orifice metering. Thought other measurement devices an d technologies have made significant impact, the orifice mete r stands as the dominant device for several reasons
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Document ID: A1612F33

Auditing Electronic Gas Measurement Per API Chapter 21.1
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
API 21.1 is recognized as an international indus try standard documenting the Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) system audit and record re quirements for differential and linear meter measurement. This standard is used by the measurement community to reduce the overall EG M system uncertainty and improve measurement data integrity.
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Document ID: 168A320E

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Johna m. Smothermon
Abstract/Introduction:
An audit is an investigation of records to determine t he accuracy of compliance and implementation. Performing an audit or getting audited does not need to be viewed as a negative but as a double check. Since there are human errors and technological errors, double checking or auditing the data is a precaution that is used by companies. Both parties want the gas that is being produced measured with the hi ghest accuracy possible. Auditing does just that and has the ability to benefit ei ther the producer or the buyer of natural gas.
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Document ID: 677CCB3C

Auditing Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Linda A. Larson Lane Hedrick
Abstract/Introduction:
An effective audit of liquid hydrocarbon measurem ent is dependent upon a solid understanding of the measurement process combined with t he application of sound internal auditing principles. The quality of liquid measurement activities is contingent upon (1) the reliability of the measurement equipment and instrumentation used (2) the specific procedures and practices follo wed in performing the measurement activities (3) the adequacy of training and proper performance of the meas urement technician and (4) the proper documentation of transactions based on a measured va lue. All four components must be taken into consideration when auditing liquid measurement. In addition, to ensure the efficiency of the audit process, auditors must identify those areas which present the greatest risk to the organization to ac hieving its goals, and concentrate audit effort on those areas
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Document ID: 72DEFE97

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and positive metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: BDC07809

API Mpms Chapter 22.2 - Testing Protocol For Differential Pressure Flow Measurement Devices
Author(s): Zaki Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
he Manuals of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) by API (American Petroleum Institute) are developed for the devices and systems installed for the measurement of oil, gas, and merchandisable petrochemical products by the oil and gas industry. Historically the API flowmeter standards are developed for devices that are accepted and installed by the industry to achieve precise and repeatable measurement for fiscal, material balance, and/or process control applications. The operating principal of field accepted installed flowmeters are based on laws of physics, where the sensors or transducers are designed to monitor the response of flow to the presence of the primary element in the flow stream or the response of the primary element or transmitted signal to the flow. Some common flowmeters that monitor response of the primary element to the flowing fluid are displacement meters, turbine meter, Coriolis meters, etc. and response of the signal to the flow are ultrasonic flowmeter, Magnetic flowmeter, thermal mass meter, etc
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Document ID: BCCCCE46

Influencing Planning, Operations And Closing Of Commercial Business Through Efficient Measurement
Author(s): Bill Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
Field measurement is the beginning, but not the only part of a complete measurement practice. Measurements are brought in to central locations, and ultimately used to determine customers bills and suppliers payments. But in between the two extremes of field metering and financial calculations, many steps are required to transform the initial data into its final form
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Document ID: E4690770

Overview Of Gpa 2172/API 14.5 Revision
Author(s): Don Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
GPA Standard 2172-09 / API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 14, Section 5, Calculating Gross Heating Value, Relative Density, Compressibilit y and Theoretical Hydrocarbon Liquid Content for Natural Gas Mixtures for Custody Transfer , Third Edition, January 2009 finds wide application in the natural gas gathering and processing business as well as related natural gas handling activities because it provides methods to calculate these often-used parameters from a gas analysis . Several important changes occurred in the recent revision of this standard that became effective January 1, 2009.
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Document ID: 7FD3A273

Combining Intrinsic Safety With Surge Protection In The Hydrocarbon Industry
Author(s): Dan Mccreery
Abstract/Introduction:
Fi rst, many of the areas in and around pumping, custody transfer and storage areas are classified, or hazardous, that must, according to the National Electric Code, be assessed for explosion -proofing. This may be in the form of intrinsic safety barrie rs or isolators, explosion -proof enclosures and conduits, purged enclosures or non -incendive components.
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Document ID: 14920328

Dot Qualification Training For Measurement And Control Technicians
Author(s): Joey Rockett
Abstract/Introduction:
The Operator Qualification Program stems from a mandate in 1992 and continues through present Pipeline Safety Acts. Congress concerns, accidents , and the Pipeline Safety Acts of 1992 and 1996 regulations were developed addressing Operator Qualification. The Pipeline Safety act of 1992 included language for requiring that all personnel responsible for operation and maintenance of pipeline facilities be tested for proof of their qualifications concerning tasks associated with operating and maintaining pipeline facilities.
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Document ID: 0E521E23

Interface Detection In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Craig Mcwhorter
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic concept of interface detection is simple: detect and direct the flow of different fluids, or batches, through pipelines. The implementation, however, can be very complic ated. The goal of interface detection is to time the switching or cut of the product in such a way that deliv ers the maximum quantity of pr oduct to customers without downgrading the quality of the product. In the case of transmix, the goal is to minimize the quantity of fluid requiring re-refining. In order to av oid the potential contamination of any prod uct by the interface, operators tend to be conservative in cutting batches, but this can resu lt in increased product downgrade or sending some on- spec product to the slop tank. With the large mix and hi gh cost of todays specialty fuels, accurate interface detection is key to maximizing profits
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Document ID: 8267EEF0

Multiphase Measurement
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for multiphase flow measurement in the oil and gas production industry has been evident for many years. A number of such meters have been develope d and supplied since the mid-eighties by research organizations, meter manufacturers, oil and gas produ ction companies and others. Different technologies and various combinations of technologies where employed, and prototypes, operating methodology and concepts have been quite dissimilar in their design and function.
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Document ID: BFEEE098

Odorization Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Kenneth S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate . There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and impr oved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todays economic climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly co nsidered essential and a fuel of the future
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Document ID: 8D243E6B

Orifice Meters - Operation And Maintenanc
Author(s): Byron Saunders
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the first test data was published by U.S. Geo logical Survey in 1913, orifice meters have been one of the most widely used devices for measuring gas flow. T he publically available data sets and the relatively s imple technology ensured the growth of an innovative, competitive ma rket that continues to push the boundaries of orifi ce metering applications. While the core principals of orifice metering remain unchanged over the past century, the maintenance and operation continue to evolve to meet the challe nges presented by new meter designs, tighter tolera nces and unnatural, natural gas flows.
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Document ID: 82A8D6C3

Meter Tube Dimensional Tolerances
Author(s): Molly Ryel
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is one of the older devices that is utiliz ed in the measurement and regulation of fluid flow. Romans regulated water flows to their homes by the use of orifice. Bernoulli , Torricelli, and Venturi, discovered the original concept that the pressure of a flowing fluid varies as its velocity changes. When a flowing fluid is made to speed up by restricting the cross -sectional area of the flow stream, a portion of the pressure energy is converted into velocity energy and the pressure drops. Usi ng this relationship with the fact that the quantity of the fluid flowing is equal to the product of t he velocity times the cross -sectional area of the flow stream we can have flow measurem ent in the orifice meter
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Document ID: 4D93798F

Program For Training A Gas Measurement Technician
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many reasons to train Measurement Technic ians. All new measurement technicians will req uire training to obtain the knowledge and skill set necessary to properly perform their important job. Additionally as existing measurement technicians retire or move on to greener pastures they will need to be replaced. Also training is required for the technician to advance in knowledge and capabilities so that they can be p romoted to more demanding specialized skills. The industry standards that cover measurement also change periodically as the industry obtains more knowledge, which requires additional measurement training so that the techni cians understand the changes .
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Document ID: 2D971C16

Thermometry In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jorge A. Delgado
Abstract/Introduction:
Thermometry is the measurement of temperature or th e technology of temperature measure. To understand temperature we must define temperatur e. Temperature is a measurement of the average kine tic energy of the molecul es in an object or system, in other words Temperature is the s pecific degree of hotness or coldness of an object or environment as indicated on, or referred to, a stan dard scale. There are many different scales that m easure temperature those scales are depicted in Figure 1
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Document ID: 133F15F7

The Effects Of Addit Ives On Metering In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays refined fuels are formulated using a recipe of chemical blending a nd complex processing. Current blends that make -up fuel & chemicals introduce new problems that cha llenge product quality and performance. Refined products can be altered or degrade prior use by sec ondary forces such as environment and handling. A w ide ran ge of performance and handling problems are minimiz ed or resolved by use of chemical additives. Additi ves to fuel products are often included in the refining pr ocesses that address these problems. Fuels may requ ire additional blending of additives separate from the refining process. The effect these additiv es have on liquid metering is variable based on their composition and concentration.
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Document ID: B519AD98

The Role Of Blm In Oil And Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard Estabrook
Abstract/Introduction:
BLM manages about 700 million acres of Federal and Indian mineral estate, which contributes a significant portion of domestic oil and gas production. BLMs role in oil and gas measurement is to ensure that volumes and qualities are accurately measured and properly reported, as Federal and Indian royalty is derived from these measur ements. BLMs measurement requirements are dictated by Federal laws, from which BLM develo ps regulations, Onshore Orders, and Notices to Lessees. Most oil and gas measurement functions ar e carried out at the Field Office level through the approval of permits and variance requests.
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Document ID: 8698ADA1

Meter Selection
Author(s): Robert Fritz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide general guideline s & criteria for the evaluation & selection of a high pressure gas meter , including a discussion of the basic operating pri nciples and installation and maintenance considerations. This paper will concentrate primarily on three high pressure/high volume custody transfer flow meters, Orifice, Ultrasonic and Turbine. A short discussion will be provided for other alternative types of flow meters and different gas stream conditions.
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Document ID: 220F6FA8

Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas measurement is becoming widely used in the modern oil and gas market place. The effect of entr ained liquid in gas and its impact on measurement systems is being researched world -wide by various laboratories and JIP working groups. The impact can be very signific ant financially. The subject is quite large and encompasses many dif ferent concepts, meter types and opinions, with man y new ideas brought to the forefront each year as more re search is done. It includes upstream and downstream applications and measurement issues caused by liqui d drop out in the pipelin es w here gas gathering systems are used. The issue of entrained gas is becoming a big issue! Small quantities of hydrocarbon liquid in a gas sa mple stream can have a large impact on the BTU value analysis a nd cause large losses or gains depending on which s ide of the fence you are
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Document ID: 2BB36CCE

Measurement Scene Investigations
Author(s): Casey Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many ways to measure hydrocarbons. Measu rements may be performed on liquids, gases, or multiphase fluids. Measurement may be made utilizi ng orifice plates, ultrasonic meters, Coriolis mete rs, or a host of other meter types. After the actual meter, ther e is secondary instrumentation involved from transm itters to flow computers and SCADA systems. With so many componen ts to a flow measurement system, determining the ro ot cause of measurement discrepancies becomes a forens ic exercise.
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Document ID: 955E41CD

Measurement Policies And Procedures - Development And Implementation Consideration
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
With proper con sideration and with buy -in from stakeholders, well designed and documented measurement practices help reduce company costs. Cost reductio ns include those associated with Lost -and -Unaccounted -for (L&U), asset maintenance, and labor. Furthermore, good measurement procedures help employees perform safely and effectively and help support stable, pre dictable measurement processes.
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Document ID: E041BE12

Flow Conditioning For Fluid Flow Measurement
Author(s): Blaine Sawchuk Rick Rans
Abstract/Introduction:
The most important aspects of flow measurement are the flow conditions within the pipe upstream of a meter. Flow conditions refer to: the velocity profile, irregularities in th e profile, varying turbulence levels within the velocity or turbulence intensity profile, sw irl and any other fluid flow characteris tics which will cause the meter to register flow different than that expected. Installation effects which cause flow conditions within the pipe to vary from reference conditions are: insufficient straight pipe, exceptional pipe roughness or smoothness, elbows, valves, tees and reducers just to name a few. Certainly, a common understanding of how these installati on effects impact the meter is important since devices which create upstream installation effects are common components of any stan dard metering design
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Document ID: 052092EC

Benefits Around Timely Analysis Of Measurement Data
Author(s): Lacey Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to have timely measurement data has grown considerably over the years due to the age of electronic flow measurement, contracts, and competition . Timely data allows companies to more effectively an d efficiently operate their systems, determine shortfalls, and me et the needs of their customers. Electronic flow measurement reviewed on an hourly granularity has 7 44 records per month on a 31 day calendar. If you process approximately 10,000 measurement sit es, you could potentially review some 7,444,000 rec ords.
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Document ID: 8E1D7C71

Measurement Management System
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
The value of hydrocarbon fluids is based upon basic customer expectations for delivery of a certain amo unt of a specific product at a certain time. These are universal customer expectations that apply to all products of value . Such expectations imply a requirement for a system to facilitate product movement and quality co ntrol. The measurement process is a critical component of such a system, providing process feedback data in the f orm of quantity, flow rate, pressure, and temperature for controlling movement . The measurement process also provides product composition for quality control
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Document ID: 906EC966

Contributors To Historical Advances In Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was discovered as seeps, in what is now known as Ira n, b etween 6000 and 2000 bce. When ignited , these seeps produced eternal flames having religious im portance. The first known natural gas well was drilled in Chi na in 211 bce. It was drilled using bamboo poles and primitive percussion bits to a depth of 500 feet, and having the purpose of prod ucing brine and natural gas trapped in limestone formations . By 1900 these wells numbered in the thousands, with depths greater than one -half mile. Produced brine a nd gas were transported via bamboo tubes to a processing site where the brine was emptied into cast iron evaporation pans. The gas was deliv ered to underground wooden facilities where it was mixed with air for use as fuel to e vaporate the brine and produc e salt.
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Document ID: 99D370C2

Application And Fundamentals Of Catalytic Heaters I N Measurement Application
Author(s): Chad Richards
Abstract/Introduction:
Catalytic heaters are used in several areas within the natural gas indus try. They are commonly used to prevent liquid distillation and freezing in natural gas, to heat a work space, to maintain operating temperatur es on equipment or to maintain required measurement condi tions of a natural gas sample. As relevant to measurement applications, this paper will cover the principals of catalytic heater function, installation and operation.
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Document ID: 792CA8B0

Cyber Security
Author(s): Nader m. Rabadi
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays technological advancements in information s ystems (hardware, software, and telecommunication networks) made the availability and accessibility o f data and information to individuals and organizat ions easier. Although the availability and accessibility of data and information contributes to the social and econ omic gl obalization today, it may also pose threats to owne rs and users of data and information. Data that are stored in mobile and fixed storage devices, and that traverse s communication networks, may contain confidential, sensitive, liable and safety -critical in formation. Unauthorized access to and tampering wit h such data by unauthorized entities may have negative impact on p eople and goods such as a loss and a misuse of priv ate information, and in catastrophic events in cases of safety -critical technologies. Cy ber attacks on industrial automation systems could cause catastrophic equipme nt failures, loss of valuable products, serious per sonnel injuries, toxic spills that damage the environment, and negative financial effects
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Document ID: 71AA4CD4

Understanding Hazardous Area Classifications
Author(s): Irvin Schwartzenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
Th e intent of this p aper is to provide a high level understanding of hazardous are a classifications and common protection methods used in the oil and gas industry . This paper is informational only and is in no way m eant to be a substitute for the readers own responsibility to research and correctly follow their applicable gov ern mental, industry and company standards
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Document ID: 030F4709

Creating A Quality Assurance Program For Measurement Package Construction
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
The industry as a whole is operating in a much different environment today, then in years pas t. The new widespread availability of information and the role of social media, has led to a more informed public . This is not a negative for the industry as a whole, but it has in creased the importance o f accountability for every member of an organization. The idea that anything could happen in a vacuum is no longer acceptabl
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Document ID: 510910A5

Conventional Measurement In Unconventional Plays
Author(s): Stephen Anson
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in hydraulic fracturing technology have al lowed access to, and the development of, shale form ations previously considered to be uneconomical (API, 2014 ). This access and development has led to increase d production of oil and natural gas within the United States. As these discoveries and developments gro w, so does the need to rethink how this production is harveste d, gathered and transported. Several factors are c hanging the way we have conventionally produced, measured and s old our crude oil and natural gas in these unconven tional plays which is why we must begin to evaluate the ne ed for changes to our conventional tactics.
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Document ID: AC2BE8EC

Establishing A Development Program For Hydrocarbon Measurement Staff
Author(s): Richard L. Britton
Abstract/Introduction:
With the downsizing of many energy companies in the 1990s, the impending retirement of many of the en ergy industrys expertise, the rapid advancement of tech nologies, and increased world demand for energy, th e development of technical talent within the energy i ndustry has become paramount. Nowhere is the need to develop talent more apparent than in the area of hydrocarbon custody measuremen t. With increased energy prices, inaccurate measuremen t of hydrocarbon transfers between suppliers and customers, and owners and transporters poses a substantially h igher financial risk to all parties involved. Addressing this need is substantially more complex than in many disciplines, as most of the skills needed in t his field must be acquired in the work place rat her than in a university or technical scho
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Document ID: 34357667

Contaminant Accumulation Effect On Gas Ultrasonic F Low Meters
Author(s): Ed Hanks
Abstract/Introduction:
he following paper discusses the effects of accumu lation on natural gas ultrasonic meters. The paper uses four meters, two Daniel meters and two Instromet meters, that were recalibrated at the CEESI Iowa facility. From CEESIs experience with recalibrations of contamina ted meters, the results of these four meters are ty pical. Due to the relative newness of the other brands of mete rs in the US market, CEESI does not have recalibrat ion data available for this paper and thus other brands are not included. The four meters discussed in the paper are labeled meters A through D. Meters A and B are Instromet Q 3 meters. Meter A is an 8 meter and B is a 10 mete r. Meters C and D are Daniel SeniorSonic meters. Meter C is a 10 meter and D is a 12 meter. As with most cle aning and recalibration projects, the process was n ot as simple as collecting as found data, cleaning, and then rec alibrating. The data includes changing a transduce r on the C meter and changing the whole set of transducers on the D meter. The data also includes the effects of debris in front of the flow conditioner on the B meter.
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Document ID: 27D7FFAA

The Impact Of Greenhouse Gas Measurement How Recent Regulations Impact The Measurement Of Greenhouse Gases.
Author(s): Jim Tangeman Jon Torizzo
Abstract/Introduction:
The regulatory environment affecting the oil and gas (O&G) industry over the last few years has been rapidly changing and expanding. Unfortunately, the majority of regulatory changes have generally not been favorable to the industry. Among these regulatory developments, a key one has been the issuance of the first ever federal greenhouse gas (GHG) mandatory reporting regulation (MRR). The first set of these federal regulations was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) on October 30, 2009 under 40 CFR Parts, 86, 87, 89 et al. encompassing a large variety of industries across the country. A subsequent set of regulations was issued on November 30, 2010 and this second set of regulations issued under 40 CFR 98, Subpart W encompasses all sectors of the O&G industry from wellhead to burner tip.
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Document ID: 38C02FA3

Measurement And Regulation Of An Ldc Day-To-Day& Operations Of A Local Distribution Company
Author(s): Philip A Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement has evolved over the years in resp onse to demands to measure new products, measure ol d products under new conditions of flow, or to meet t ightened accuracy requirements as the value of a f luid has increased in value. Over 4,000 years ago, the Romans measured water flo w from their aqueducts to each household to control allocation. The Chinese around the same time measur ed salt water to control flow to brine pots to prod uce salt used in cooking. In each case, control over the fluid process was th e prime reason for the measurement ! Flow - measurement for the purpose of fiscal billing of a products t otal flow was developed later. Natural Gas usage is also an old technology ! O ne of the most famous as fired phenomena a natura l gas fire was discovered by goat shepherd about 1000 B.C. in ancient Greece on the mountain Parnas.
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Document ID: 308438A0

New Differential Pro Ducing Meters - Ideas, Implementatio N, And Issues
Author(s): Casey Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
There are several relatively new differential produ cing meters that are available for end users. Each meter claims to have advantages over other meter types, specific ally orifice meters. Meter types discussed include cone meters, Venturi meters, multi -ported averaging pitot tubes, multi -holed orifice plates, and diagnostic differential meters. This paper is intended to be used by purch asers of these meters to help them obtain the best meter for their application. The operating principles of the se meters will be explored. This paper will look a t the claims that the manufacturers of these meters make in terms of accuracy, required upstream lengths, and diagnostic capabilities. Another important aspect of these me ters is industrys reaction to these meters. Shoul d these meters be included in standards documentation? Wha t data needs to be collected to properly develop st andards, and what standards exist to help develop these mete rs? Additionally, the implementation of these mete rs and metering systems is discussed with the intent of de veloping system uncertainties. From a calibration facility perspective, many issues have been observed with di fferential metering systems. Several of these issu es will be discussed in detail along with their associated imp lications
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Document ID: A8E8F1C5

Basics Of Gas Ultras Onic Meter Diagnosti Cs
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses basic diagnostic features of g as ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal - quality, multi -path USMs and does not cover issues that may be dif ferent with non -fiscal meters as they are oft en single path designs. Although USMs basically work t he same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in A GA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues s uch as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositio nal errors. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse and British Gas configuration s ( both being chordal design s) and the information presented here may or may not be applic able to other path desig ns
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Document ID: 0D16D93E

Advanced Gas Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal - quality, multi -path USMs and does not cover issues that may be dif ferent with non -fiscal meters as they are o ften single path designs . Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnost ics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in A GA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues s uch as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositio nal errors. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse and British Gas configuration s ( both being chordal design s) and the information presented here may or may not be applic able to other path de signs .
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Document ID: 283E0BFA

Thermal Mass Flow For Greenhouse Gas Measurement
Author(s): Thomas Kemme
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many well documented flow meter technologies that are essentially trying to accomplish the same thing: measure fluid flow rate. Some of the technologies that are entrenched in the market, such as flow meters that utilize differential pressure as the measurement principle, are well understood due to the present installed base. However, an evolving technology such as thermal mass flow is often overcomplicated or not well understood. Instead of measuring flow rate by pressure drop, rotor rotation, or a number of conventional methods, thermal mass flow meters measure flow rate by convection heat transfer. Some of the key advantages are direct mass flow measurement, high sensitivity at low pressures and high turndown
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Document ID: 6E2BC9B8

Application Of Turbine Meters In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): David Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring the flow of liquids is a critical need in the Hydrocarbon Industry. Turbine fl owmeters have proven to be an effective means of accurately measuring petroleum liq uids. Its compact size, rangeability, low cost of ownership, superior accuracy, wide temperature and pressure range makes it attractive for liquid hydrocarbon measurement. While there are many advantages there are also weaknesses of a turbine meter such as flow conditioning requirement, back pressure control, high viscosi ty liquids, and susceptibility to fouling and deposits. Turbine meters are often found measuring light crude oils, refined products (g asoline, diesel, jet fuel) and light hydrocarbons (LPG and NGL). This paper will discuss pipeli ne metering utilizing conventional turbine flow meters for liquid measurement.
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Document ID: 17030634

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): John C. Meade
Abstract/Introduction:
Over many years Automated Truck Loading Systems have increasingly evolved into more sophisticated and complex process control and information systems. The design of these ATLSs has brought together emerging technologies in process control and information technology to serve the petro chemical industry. These emerging technologies have included electronic presets, card and fingerprint readers, programmable logic controllers (PLC), broadband communications, tank-gauging systems, SCADA systems and terminal management software. Terminal management systems or terminal automation systems (TAS) as they are often called, have evolved to become the backbone of the ATLS. More and more bulk liquid storage and pipeline companies have come to rely on TAS systems to tightly integrate their ATLSs with their business model and company wide information systems.
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Document ID: F56133B5

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Petroleum industry as hydrocarbons are purchased, sold or transferred there are two key elements that must be determined. These elements are the quantity and quality of the hydrocar bon in question. This paper will address one of those element s, the determination of the quantity of the hydrocarbon in the transaction. The determination of the quantity of hy drocarbon can be further subdivided into: Static quantity determination and Dynamic quantity determination Static quantity is determined when the hydrocarbon is measured under non-flowing conditions, such as when contained in a tank, rail car, truck or vessel. Conv ersely Dynamic quantity det ermination occurs when the hydrocarbon is measured under flowing conditions
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Document ID: 85C1C9C6

Displacement Meters Fo R Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Chris Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
PD meters have existed for over a century. Many of the designs were developed from either pump s or compressors. By the late 1930s, PD meters were bei ng used extensively for custody transfer measurement of petroleum liquids on tank trucks, loading terminals, and pipelines. By the 1960s, PD meters had been developed that could handle flow rates in excess of 12,000 barrels per hour for large pipeline and ship-loading facilities. Most will agree that even today there is not a more accurate mean s of petroleum measurement available than the PD mete
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Document ID: 044F604F

Effects Of Petroleum Properties On Pipeline Measurement
Author(s): Jim Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons in most pipelines is done on a standard volume basis or by mass. These dynamic measurement points typically are custody transfer and are WKHFDVKUHJLVWHU measurements between the two parties involved in the tran sactions. In this application measuremen t accuracy is critical. Additional SURGXFW DFFRXQWDELOLW FDQ EH DFKLHYHG XVLQJ 5HDO 7LPH dynamic measurements. The volume or mass measurements must account for the entire liquid produc t received or delivered in order to track and determine if product is being lost or gained. Several fluid properti es can change the accuracy of this measurement and knowing how they impact the measurement is crucial to its integrity. This paper will focus on dynamic measurement or measurement by metering and discuss several fluid properties and their affects on measured results involving the comm on types of metering technologies used today.
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Document ID: 99E49212

Dense Phase Fluid Measurement
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
Many people in the industry, including probably most measuremen t specialists, have no experience with the measurement of dense phase fluids (if you dont count wa ter). When the un-initiated are asked to develop or operate such a system, they tend to repe at the same mistakes others have made over and over due to trying to treat the streams like natural gas liquids or liquefied pet rol eum gases (NGLs or LPGs). Hopefully, this paper will assist the un-initiated reader av oid some of those mistakes.
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Document ID: E45812B2

Evaporation Loss Measurem Ent From Storage Tanks
Author(s): George L. Morovich
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute Committee for Evapor ation Loss Estimation (API CELE) operates under the Committee on Petroleum Measurement to perform resear ch and produce the Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS), Chapter 19. API CELE is composed of Petroleum Company Representatives, Equipment and Instrumentation Manufacturers, Consult ants, The Energy Institute (Europe) and is attended by the US EPA and State Air/Emission Regulators. The curr ent Chair is Yun Yang of Exxon Mobil. The current API Staff person is Paula Watkins. API CELE is responsible for determini ng evaporation losses (emissions inve ntory) from storage tanks, vessels and transfer operations (loading racks / berths). The API MPMS Chapter 19 Standards are adopted by US EPA to determine Emission Inventory and widely used by petrole um industry and regulators in US, Europe, and other regions of the world
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Document ID: 6E413D57

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement II
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
Dynamic measurement occurs when a liquid is flowing. This pap er discusses the measurement of fluids that are not moving, i.e. in a static condition. Static measurem ent uses various pieces of equipment (tools) to accomplish its mission and involves science and craft. Technicians mu st know not only the sequence in which to perform the prescribed measurements but also the proper toll to use, to make an accurate measurement for the custody transfer of hydrocarbons. This paper will discuss the API and ASTM standards that apply to those steps required to calibrate, gauge and sample tanks.
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Document ID: 8054B201

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement III - Dynamic
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Weve learned when measuring crude oil or any hydrocarbo n that liquids expand and contract with increases and decreases in temperature. The liquid volume also decrease s when pressure is applied. All these effects are part of the physical properties of liquid petroleum fluids. In a ddition to the effects of te mperature and pressure on the liquid and their indicated volume, the container in which the liquid is measured also changes the volume it contains at different temperature and pressures. These changes must also be accounted for in determining the true volume being transferred. We learned in Fundam entals of Liquid Measurement I how these physical properties effect the measurement of liquid hydrocarbons
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Document ID: 5AAE88FE

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): David Dupuis Gary Astle
Abstract/Introduction:
There are numerous metering technologies that can be utiliz ed in the liquid custody transfer market: ultrasonic, Coriolis, positive displacement and both conventional fl at bladed and helical turbine meters. A variety of factors are considered when choosing the best meter for a particula r project: fluid viscosity, flow rate, size, Reynolds numbers, weight, cost of ownership, pr oving requirements and budgetary. Helical turbine meters are an excellent measurement choice as they offer a high accuracy, lo w maintenance and are a cost effective option for a wide range of products and op erating conditions. Conventional turbine meters have typically been used in low viscosity refined products and have limited application in high viscosity applications. Helical turbi ne meters are an excellent option for custody transfer measurement applications in mult i-product applications for both hi gh and low viscosity products.
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Document ID: 38220445

Gauging, Testing And Ru Nning Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): John W Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of the oil gathered in this nation is colle cted from small lease sites that populate the oil rich region s that many of us call home. These lease tanks are a co mmon site, and we often overlook their importance. While our industry has raced forward by adding technology and electronic systems, this one sector has remained steadfast. This great resiliency towards change in met hods used to gauge a lease tank may be at an end. It should be noted that this issue is being looked at by a newly formed API (American Petroleum Institute) Committee with the explicit aim to remove the gauger fr om the top of a tank when hazardous conditions exist, such as H2S (hydrogen sulfide), which is a deadly natural nerve agent.
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Document ID: B82A3490

Helical Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): David Dupuis Gary Astle
Abstract/Introduction:
There are numerous metering technologies that can be utiliz ed in the liquid custody transfer market: ultrasonic, Coriolis, positive displacement and both conventional flat b laded and helical turbine meters. A variety of factors are considered when choosing the best meter for a particula r project: fluid viscosity, flow rate, size, Reynolds numbers, weight, cost of ownership, proving requirements and budgetary. Helical turbine meters are an excellent measurement choice as they offer a high accuracy, lo w maintenance and are a cost effective option for a wide range of products and operating conditions.
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Document ID: 95C1DFB9

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): Michael P. Frey
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many factors that must be considered in order to properly design a liquid measurement station. While many of the components of measurement stations are similar, the criterion that determin es the equipment to utilize for a given application can vary significantly from project to project. This paper will address the most common applications in the liquid hydrocarbon industry for large volume product measurement as it pertains to custody transfer appl ications. Custody transfer measurement includes accurate qu antity measurement through the use of mete ring, though equally important is accurate quality measurement through the use of sampling eq uipment. These custody transfer and/or fiscal metering stations consist of mechanical compon ents and instrumentation on a skidde d system along with flow computers, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a human machine interface (HMI) with customized programming to achieve the required measurement goal.
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Document ID: 61704EFF

Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measurement Systems
Author(s): Harold E. Osborn
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil terminals are very important to our industry. We now import more than 50% of the raw material from which we make our gasoline, crude oil. This means that we mu st import several million barrels of crude oil per day. Since we have no pipelines running across the ocean floors of our planet, we have to transport that crude oil on marine vessels. This means that we have to be able to load and unload large vessels quickly and with a high degree of accuracy
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Document ID: 3BC3A7F8

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Mark Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
While the fundamentals behind the Corio lis meter can be tr aced back to the VWKHILUVWFRPPHUFLDO&RULROLV PHWHUGLGQWKLWWKHPDUNHWWLOOWKHODWHV6LQFHLWVLQW URGXFWLRQLWLVHVWLPDWHGWKDWRYHUFRPSDQLHVQRZ manufacture some form of the Coriolis meter. To better understand how these meters have evolved, LW s important to understand the factors driving its DFFHSWDQFHLQWRGDV marketplace.
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Document ID: 02A0096E

Measurement Accuracy And Sources Of Error In Tank Gauging
Author(s): Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Upright cylindrical storage tanks ar e used not only to store liquid pe troleum between custody transfers for inventory purposes, but to measure the quantities of those transfers. As in all measurements for custody transfer, it is essential to identify the sources of error in th e measurement processes and to keep the impact of those sources to a minimum
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Document ID: 5B51E73E

Shrinkage Losses Resulting From Liquid Hydrocarbon Blending
Author(s): J. H. Harry() James
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline integrity balance and custody transfer accuracy have been the focus of measurement specialists since the industry began trading and transporting liquid hydrocarbon s. Even with the best volumetric measurement equipment, unaccounted for discrepancies still were occurri ng. Temperature, pressure and meter factor corrections were not enough to explain these discrepancies.
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Document ID: 63FA18EC

Measurement Of Cryogenic LNG
Author(s): Alastair Mclachlan
Abstract/Introduction:
With depletion of conventional oil reserves, natural gas is becoming an increasingly important source of energy for many countries. While some of the demand for natural gas can be met by domestic production or pipeline imports, many countries are becoming increasingly dependent on natural gas imports in the form of LNG. In 2013 the global production capacity of LNG was around 240 MT (Million Tonnes) and although this has remained essentially flat year on year for the last 3 years the production capacity currently under construction w ill deliver a 36% growth over the next 5 years
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Document ID: B16B99B1

Measurement Methods For Liquid Storage Tanks
Author(s): Daniel Baldwin
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide, in general terms, an overview of the different technologies available to measure volumes in atmospheric storage tanks. There are ty pically four (4) volumes that are of interest to be calculated for atmospheric storage tanks: Total Observ ed, Gross Observed, Gross Standard, and Net Standard (see Fig 20 page 9). The basic me asurements required for these volu mes are: product level, observed temperature, water level, and the ob served density of the product
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Document ID: 16FBA1A7

Measurement Of Petroleum On Board Marine Vessels
Author(s): Juri Koern
Abstract/Introduction:
The process that calculates the volume of liquid petroleum loaded onto, or received from, a ship or barge is known as Custody Transfer Measurement. It is important to note that the custody transfer measurement is not determined by a single measurement. A series of measurements are taken, tests are performed and calculations are made before, during and after the transfer takes place in order to reach a Custody Transfer Measurement. The transferred volume is usually determined by calculating the difference between the volume measured before and after the transfer
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Document ID: 38990061

Resolving Liquid Measurement Differences
Author(s): Herb Garland
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we begin a discussion resolving liquid measurem ent differences, lets take a quick and very basic look at what measurements are, and why they are so important to our industry. Websters defines measurement as: 1) the act or process of measuring 2) a figure, extent, or amount obtained by measurement. Mr. Webster could not have given us a better description of what we do as petrol eum measurements technicians. Our job is to obtain an accurate amount, or measurement, of a liquid using a proces s of measuring. The process used could be hand gauging a tank to determine liquid level, or using a tu rbine meter in a pipe line system to determine the amount o f a liquid moved. We often say that measurem ents are the cash register of the industry. Lets take a closer look at what is meant by measurements being a cash register
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Document ID: FEC51E5E

Statistical Control Of Meter Factors - A Simplified Approach
Author(s): Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Statistical control is a tool for discer nment and communication. This paper will give a brief ove rview description of a simplified method for monitoring the performance of a flow meter and performing the same exercise on each meter in the system. The idea is to provide graphical assist ance, through the use of meter factor control charts in: (a) developing preventive maintenance programs (b) heightening awareness of a larm situations and, (c) reducing risk to the financial bottom line. Meter factor contro l charts and logs make it easier to prepare reports to maintenance, operations, financial and executive managers from time to time and furthermore, they make it easier for the target audience to digest the points being made
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Document ID: C014FEA2

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gain
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen Michael R. Plasczyk
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays pipelines are multi-dimensional systems providing multiple services for many shippers and customers. Pipeline systems may connect multiple origins and destinations, and carry various products across long distances with changing profiles, pipe dimensions and directions . Monitoring pipeline losses and gains employs tools and analysis methods developed specifically to troubleshoot pi peline variances. Examination of pipeline losses and gains uses basic statistical tools as well as intuitive and creative insight into what controls losses and gains
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Document ID: 70A584EE

Ultrasonic Meters Fo R Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Peter Kucmas
Abstract/Introduction:
Doppler and Transit-time flow meters are both linear velo city measurement devices that utilize the properties of ultrasound as the physical basis for their measurement. Frequency is the only difference between sound and ultras ounds physical phenomenon described in Hz or cycles per second. Sound is a mechanical pressure wave propagat ing or moving through a medium whether its liquid, gas, solid or plasma. Sound is typically defined by the range of human hearing which extends idealistically from 20 Hz (20 cycles per second) to 20,000 Hz (20,000 cy cles per second). Any sound above 20,000 Hz is thus considered ultrasound. As a point of contrast, s ound generated containing frequencies lower than 20 Hz is identified as subsonic, and as an ex ample used by large mammals like elephants to communicate over vast distances. Sound cannot propagate in vacuum
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Document ID: D5759EFB

Viscosity And Its Application In Liquid Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): T. Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of viscosity takes a variety of forms in its relationship to flow measurement. As a general rule low viscosity has less effect on the performance of flowmeters, although this is not totally true, for example, with positive displacement meters. For mo st meters, as viscosity increases it has greater effects on meter performance, both in the operation and in the effect of the fluid passing through the meter. So, for example, as the viscosity of the fluid inc reases the chances of the fluid in the pipe being in the transition region or going into laminar gets greater. This can lead to measurement issues due to the variations in flow profile and turbulent noise affecting the meter performance.
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Document ID: A3EDFF6B


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