Measurement Library

North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop Publications (2015)

Comparisons Of Ultrasonic And Differential Pressure Meter Responses To Wet Natural Gas Flow
Author(s): Richard Steven Josh Kinney Charlie Britton
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet natural gas flow metering is important to natur al gas producers. Whereas there are multiphase wet gas meter designs available, due to economic constraints the majority of wet natural gas flows are still metered by single phase gas flow meter technologies. However, there is limited independent, neutral, third party published information regarding the direct comparison of different gas meter design performanc e in wet gas flow service
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Document ID: C450C2B1

33 Rd International North Sea Fl Ow Measurement Workshop 20-23 October 2015
Author(s): Jean-Paul Couput
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 15 years, multiphase and wet gas metering techniques have been largely deployed by industry for well testing and well metering especially for subsea and unmanned development. The main reasons fo r that were to avoid expensive test separator solutions associated with test lines requirements mainly for CAPEX reduction. TOTAL for instance is operating more th an 150 multiphase flow meters (MPFM) worldwide from several suppliers with a majority located subsea (one meter per well) with minimum access du e to high water depth
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Document ID: 59020130

Practical Experiences Obtained With The Magnetic Resonance Multiphase Flow m Eter
Author(s): Ankees Hogendoorn Mark Van Der Zande Marco Zoeteweij Rutger Tromp Lucas Cerioni Andre Boer*, Rick De Leeuw
Abstract/Introduction:
Magnetic Resonance (MR) is a measurement technology which is well known from its application in medical imaging. Next to this application in Healthcare, MR can also be applied in the upstream oil and gas industry to measure multiphase fl ow of oil/water/gas mixtures upstream of a separator. To this end, an industrial magnetic resonance multiphase flowmeter has been developed. In previous papers 1 ,2 the MR measurement principle is introduced, and explained how the flowrate of oil, wate r and gas are measured . Additionally, experimental results are shown of extensive tests performed at various independent multiphase flow loops. The main conclusion of that study is that MR is a powerful technique for measuring multiphase flow
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Document ID: B76BDB64

Operation And Maintenance Of Multiphase Flow Meters Mpfms() On Bc - 10 In Deepwater Brazil
Author(s): Neil Sleight Lorraine Coelho Casey Brister
Abstract/Introduction:
The Shell operated BC - 10 field located in deepwater, 1650 - 1920m, offshore Brazil produces heavy oil in the range of API 16 - 24. The fields are produced using an entirely subsea development concept tied back to the host FPSO located approximately 8 - 10km from the producing fields. Given the high cost of subsea wells and the associated pipelines and artificial lift pumps, surveillance and optimization of each well becomes increasingly important in the operation of an efficient production system . In the case of BC - 10, the entire development concept was based around having accurate subsea metering as this allowed significant design changes including :
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Document ID: 445ADB47

Case Study Results On Natural Gas Custody Transfer Measurement With Coriolis Meters In Saudi Arabia
Author(s): Mohammed Al-Torairi Chandramohan Mc Marc Buttler
Abstract/Introduction:
Saudi Aramco has conducted a long - term trial of two Coriolis flow meters in an industry gate natural gas custody transfer application. The long - term measurement results of the Coriolis duty meter are compared to both a second reference Coriolis meter and an orifice meter. The trial was conducted employing elements of the of American Gas Association Report No. 11 (AGA 11) Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter - Sec ond Edition that was published in February of 2013 (a.k.a, American Petroleum Institute Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 14.9 (API MPMS 14.9)) .
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Document ID: 85247BB7

Gas Mass Flow Metering An Alternative Approach
Author(s): Eric Sanford, Koichi Igarashi, Kim Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering a fluids mass flow rate in a pipe with me thods that do not require an external fluid density prediction is an attractive option in many flow meter applications. Such meter designs tend to be described as mass flow me ters. The development of a simple, robust and compact gas mass flow meter concept is d escribed here. Gas flow must ultimately be metered by mass flow. A steady gas flow throughout a pipeline has a constant gas mass flow rate but a va rying volume flow rate. A gas mass flow rate reading is an absolute statement of the g as quantity flowing in the system. However, a gas volume flow rate reading is only tru e at the meter location.
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Document ID: D274CEA2

In - Situ Effects On Ultrasonic G As Flowmeters
Author(s): Philip Chan, yvind Storli, Sveinung Myhr, Reidar Sakariassen, Atle Abrahamsen, Kjell - Eivind Frysa, Camilla Stre
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describe s the course of events which led to the discovery of a significant mis - measurement on Gja platforms gas export from the operators point of view. The mis - measurement has persisted since Gjas start - up , almost five years ago . The paper close s with l essons learnt from a two year long investigation and tries to clear up some common misconceptions on ultrasonic gas flowmetering . The gas export on Gja is a cross - border measurement between Norway and UK. There has therefore been a large emphasis on the accuracy, calibration and diagnostic capabilities of Gjas gas export since the beginning, for operators and regulators from both countries alike. The design of the gas export system comprise of two 12 ultrasonic meter runs with 100% capacity to facilitate removal of flowmeters for calibrations without stop of production . The diagnostic capabilities o f the export USM are fully utilised by logging of hourly and daily diagnostic data
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Document ID: D3FBEC59

Installation Effects And Flow Instabilities In Gas Metering Station With Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Camilla Stre Kjell-Eivind Frysa Anders Hallanger Philip Chan
Abstract/Introduction:
The metering station consists of two parallel meter ing tubes, each equipped with a multipath ultrasonic flow meter with an upstream fl ow conditioner. The header upstream of the two metering tubes has T-bends at t he end sections. Through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it will be shown that the T-bends in the upstream header can cause severe distortions of the flow pro files, and that the positioning of the flow conditioners can be essential for preventing f low instabilities. It will be demonstrated that both the pipe geometry upstream t he inlet header and the geometry of the inlet header itself may affect the flow inst ability through the flow meters. The results will to a large extent explain the effects found in practie
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Document ID: 41498A84

Realizing A Class 1 Ultrasonic Gas Meter Without Hp Calibration - An Innovative Approach As Contribution To An Economic Upstream Me Tering Solution
Author(s): Sebastian Stoof, Dr. Andreas Ehrlich, Dr. Volker Herrmann,
Abstract/Introduction:
Diversification in gas production worldwide with an increasing production of unconventional natural gas, such as shale gas, leads to an increas ing amount of gas wells. For the purpose of production control and well monitoring, the gas pro duction from these wells is typically measured by a gas flow meter close to the wellhead or at the gathering station while the gas may contain liquids and contaminants due to limited gas treatment equipment on a wellhead skid. In addition, there is an urgent need for high rangeability, since the output of the well changes over time and is generally not predictable. Since the amount of wells significantly increase with shale gas and coal seam gas productio n, there is also a need for high availability and low maintenance equipment
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Document ID: 8660859A

Uncertainty In Flow Gas Measurement Systems With Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Felipe Matuzenetz Marinho
Abstract/Introduction:
Although there are, in many countries, uncertainty ranges acceptable by law and by contracts signed in fiscal metering of natural gas, in many cases is not defined the methodology for calculation of this uncertainty. These data, in addition t o verify the certainty of the measurement, can be used in management decisions in equipment and process applications. This paper applied the methodology shown in GUM (JCGM, 2008), mapping the uncertainties involved in the metrological process. In the analy sis were verified several parameters that are normally discarded such as the differences between the calibration and process conditions, errors due the heat transfer between the pipe and the thermowell, variations in atmospheric pressure, and chromatograph ic uncertainty.
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Document ID: 9FFA9325

Maximising Economic Recovery - A Review Of Well Test P Rocedures In The North Sea
Author(s): Craig Marshall, Alun Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
In terms of Maximising Economic Recovery ( MER ) in the UKCS, the measurement of well production rates is essential to best optimise the hydrocarbon production strategy from within the well itself. This is achieved during a process called a well test where a snapshot of production is monitored by measurement equipment and instrumentation. The data produced is then used to optimise the wells production rate
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Document ID: F282D748

Ultrasonic Meters In Wet Gas Applications
Author(s): Dennis Van Putten, Henk Riezebos, Rene Bahlman Jan Peters, Rick De Leeuw Joe Shen
Abstract/Introduction:
Oil and gas operators today are facing a number of significant measurement challenges in their efforts to optimize production and generate more from their reservoirs, particularly in wet gas fields. Traditional flow measurement technologies in wet gas fields for well reservoir management (WRM) purposes are Venturi meters or orifice plate meters that involve differential pressure (dp) measurements. The advantage of t hese technologies is that the flow data can be g enerated under almost any wet gas process condition and that correction algorithms are available , refs 7 and 8 . T here are s ome disadvantages in terms of limited rangeability, cost and pressure drop
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Document ID: F7519144

Tie Backs And Partner Allocation A Model Based System For Meter Verification And Monitoring
Author(s): Kjartan Bryne Berg,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is addressing t he operation and management of flow instrumentation in complex subsea and topside infrastructure s . Special attention is given to situations where measurement inaccuracies may i nfluence the allocation process over time and cause significant imbalance in the monetary flow, and eventually lead to legal disputes between partners over the allocated volumes . This paper will offer a description of how a model based system can be used t o overcome the challenges of describing measurement accuracy, need for reallocation, when/what to re - calibrate as well as a total overview of the flow instrumentation status - utilizing information from every instrument and device from subsea and downhole thr ough multip hase meters, separators all the way through the custody transfer metering system
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Document ID: 45F3DD56

Gross Error Detection : Maximising The Use Of Data With Uba On Global Producer III Part( 2)
Author(s): Neil Corbett, Robert Sibbald, Phillip Stockton, Allan Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Validation of input data and results is a key component o f all allocation workflows and applies to a variety of data: metered quantities, well estimates, component fractions, plant operating conditions, and allocation results. Data validation is addressed throughout the length of the allocation data chain by dif ferent stakeholders and by a variety of means. Allocation computer systems are no exception: they normally include validation packages as standard and typically alert users when data or calculated results are, for example, missing, stuck, or lie outside an expected range. Some of the test thresholds can seem arbitrary. This need not be the case knowledge of the uncertainties in an allocation systems input data can be utilised in rigorous statistical tests based on conservation laws and data reconciliatio
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Document ID: 8B727E23

Could Allocation Be Rocket Science? Using The Kalman Filter To Optimise Well Allocation Accuracy
Author(s): Euain Drysdale Phillip Stockton
Abstract/Introduction:
In the 1960s, the Kalman filter was applied to navigation for the Apollo Project, which required estimates of the trajectories of manned spacecraft going to the Moon and back. The Kalman filter is an optimal estimation technique that uses dynamic mathematical models and phy sical measurements to obtain the most probable estimates of underlying variables as they vary with time. It incorporates both the measurement and also model uncertainties into its highly efficient estimation algorithm. Today, the use of the Kalman filter i s extremely widespread throughout many science and engineering applications.
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Document ID: 2CF771BD

Multiphase Flow Quantification Using Computational Fluid Dynamics And Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Author(s): Susithra Lakshmanan Daniel Holland Andy Sederman Mikhail Gurevich Wes Maru
Abstract/Introduction:
We investigated oil - water flow primarily with a vi ew to quantify the mixing efficiency of a newly developed device with a Liquid Jet In Cross Flow (LJICF) configuration but also to predict the resulting flow regime and water droplet size distribution . Such devices are utilised in important applications su ch as liquid sampling in custody transfer, where the degree of homogeneity of the mixture affects the accuracy of the representative sample withdrawn and hence the oil transaction between producers and operators as well as taxation by governments. Despite their importance however, liquid - liquid flows under LJICF configurations have not featured as prominently in the literature as those of gas - liquid flows , resulting in a significant knowledge gap that needs to be address
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Document ID: D88E851D

The Implementation Of m Ultiphase Meters In A High Sulph Ur Envir Onment O N Tcos Tengiz Field, Kazakhstan
Author(s): Ohn Clarke, Kelda Dinsdale, Lars Anders Ruden,
Abstract/Introduction:
High hydrogen sulf ide ( H 2 S ) levels within multiphase flow are a frequent point of discussion relating to multiphase meter performance. This paper will show how the Roxar Multiphase meter from Em erson Process Management is operating reliably and accurately in areas of high H 2 S concen trations on TCOs Tengiz field. The paper will examine the technical challenges seen - in particular unsta ble mixed density measurements and extreme fluctuation s of daytime to night time and winter to summer ambient temperatures
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Document ID: 66B77175

Experiences With The Multiphase Meter System Used For Allocation Of Visund South Tie - In To Gullfaks C
Author(s): Eirik bro, Jan Eskeland, Geir Sanden, Eivind Lyng Soldal, Kare Kleppe, Asbjrn Erdal
Abstract/Introduction:
Visund South field is a subsea tie - in to Gullfaks C in the North Sea. Visund South is developed with one 4 - slots subsea template with 4 producing wells. One 10 flow line is used for transport of Visund South production to Gullfaks C for processing and export. Due to different owner structures between Gullfaks C and Visund South, multiphase metering is used for ownership allocation. Subsea multiphase meters (5) are installed on each individual well and one topside multiphase meter (10) is installed upstrea m the topside choke. In addition Live PVT (software) to handle changes in the PVT is implemented 1 . As part of the Visund South project, one test separator at Gullfaks C was upgraded with additional instrumentation according to NPD Measurement Regulation
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Document ID: F0B20A8A

DP Meter Diagnostics - Multiple Field Results With New Turbulence Diagnostic Techniques
Author(s): Jennifer Rabone, S Andy Smith Kim Lewis,
Abstract/Introduction:
A comprehensive DP Meter diagnostic system (called Prognosis) has been repeatedly proven with successful laboratory tests and field trials in the UK, USA, Russia , Mexico , M alaysia and Middle East . It i s now established with multiple systems in industrial service. The present DP meter diagnostic system employs static pressure field monitoring, i.e. the comparison of a live or averaged pressure field with a baseline expected pressure field. New developm ents include the development of dynamic pressure field monitoring. Named turbulence diagnostics, dynamic pressure field monitoring is the analysis of the pressure field stability over time.
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Document ID: ED97A5F6

Impact Of Using ISO/TR 11583 For A Venturi Tube In 3-Phase Wet-Gas Conditions
Author(s): E. Graham, m. Reader-Harris, N. Ramsay, T. Boussouara, C. Forsyth, L. Wales, C. Rooney
Abstract/Introduction:
Venturi tubes are one of the most common types of d evice used for wet-gas flow measurement as they are a simple, robust and cost-e ffective flow meter. The presence of the liquid in the gas phase causes an increase i n the measured differential pressure and results in the Venturi tube over-predicting the actual amount of gas passing through the meter. This over-reading is usually co rrected using available correlations derived from experimental data to determine the act ual gas mass flowrate. This over- reading trend is observed in all differential-press ure meters. The flowrate of the liquid, which can be a combination of water and hyd rocarbons, is normally determined by an external means such as from test s eparator data, tracer experiments or sampling etc.
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Document ID: 58474696

1 Evaluating And Impro Ving Wet Gas Correct Ions For Horizontal Ventu Ri Meters
Author(s): Alistair Collins, Dr. Mark Tudge, Carol Wade
Abstract/Introduction:
Solartron ISA have collated an extensive wet gas calibration data set for horizontal Venturi flow meters, including over 5 , 000 two - phase and three - phase data points from a range of meter sizes (3 to 10) and beta ratio (0. 55 to 0.7 0 ). This paper utilises the data set to provide an ind ependent evaluation of public domain wet gas corrections for horizontal Venturi meters, including those published by Murdock, Chisholm, de Leeuw and in ISO TR 11583. Furthermore, this analysis has been expanded to suggest improvements to a number of the co rrelation s to reduce the associated wet gas correction error
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Document ID: 20724641

Setting The Standard - Integrating Meter Diagnostics Into Flow Metering Standards
Author(s): Terry Cousins Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
When industry requires to me ter a flow, it requires that flow to be metered correctly. A trusted flow meter which is subsequently found to have given an errone ous flow rate prediction can cause financial penalties, legal arguments, and / or the process to become inefficient. Verification of a flow meter s performance has always been a major aspect of the flow meter engineers art.
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Document ID: A6564677

BS7965 2013 - An Overview Of Updates To The Previous ( 2009 ) Edition
Author(s): Andrew Wrath
Abstract/Introduction:
n November 2013, the current revision of BS7965 was published , Guide to the selection, installation, operation and calibration of diagonal path transit time ultrasonic flowmeters for industrial gas applications. This paper seeks to look at some of the changes made since the previous edition (2009) was issued and the reasons for making the changes
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Document ID: F7917F86

A New Methodology For Cost - Benefit - Risk Analysis Of Oil Metering Station Lay - Outs
Author(s): Astrid Marie Skalvi Ranveig Nyg Aard Bjork Kjell- Eivind Frysa Camilla Stre
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody transfer oil metering stations are traditionally equipped with spare meter runs and proving device with on - site calibration possibilities for the proving device. Such a layout is expensive (CAPEX and OPEX). The gain is that metering uncertainty is low to secure national and company income
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Document ID: A2D4FBB4

Operational Experiences With The Euroloop Liquid Hydrocarbon F Low F Acility
Author(s): Jos G.M. Van Der Grinten Bart Van Der Stap Dick Van Driel
Abstract/Introduction:
The operational experiences obtained during the calibration of several types of liquid flow meter clearly demonstrate EuroLoops ability to test the viscosity dependent performance of these instruments. The temperature as observed during a series of succes sive runs recorded at a constant flow rate , de monstrates a stability that is a factor 5 0 better than originally specified.
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Document ID: BF394675


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