Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2014)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Volume Correcting Devices
Author(s): George E. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting Instruments ensure that measurement Information fairly represents actual volumes. The Instruments save a company capitol and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperature above the normal pressure- base conditions specified In contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters
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Document ID: 34BD2750

Fundamentals Of Pressure Relief Valves In Natural Gas Installation - Operation - Maintenance
Author(s): Gary S. Beckett
Abstract/Introduction:
What: A stand - alone device that opens and recloses at a pre - selected pressure , containing an orifice sized to flow a required capacity to prevent / avoid over pressure. Why: All natural gas equipment (p ipelines, pressure vessels, air - cooled heat exchangers, compressor cylinders, odorant tanks, instrument control lines, valves, underground storage, industria l - residential - commercial system supply) has a maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) rating. Pressure ratings (MAOP) of each piece of equipment may be differen t. Pressure relief valves with proper app lication will prevent over pressure above MAOP. Set point is dictated by the lowest MAOP equipment in the system
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Document ID: 5BCE71BD

Unaccounted - For Gas Study In Distribution Networks
Author(s): Jay Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
I n the Gas D istribution business Unaccounted Gas is referred to by various names or terms such as: Lost and Unaccounted - For , LUG , L&U , and UAF . In simplest terms , Unaccounted Gas is the result of the formula gas receipts minus gas deliveries . For the Measurement G roup the process amounts to a gas i nventory reconciliation based on the recorded volumes into the system (s) le ss the sum of the volumes out of the system (s) . This can be a town by town or a total - system reconciliation
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Document ID: 70343B43

An Overview Of Pipel Ine Leak Detection Technologi Es
Author(s): Jonathan Fiedler
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide you with a fundamental understanding of the operating principles of currently available pipeline leak detection technologies. To start with well have a look at the topics to be covered: Historical development of pipelines Why they are monitored for leaks The requirements and regulations placed on leak detection systems Various ca uses of leaks Different leak detection methods It will also be shown how pipelines are monitored utilizing leak detection systems which are operated
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Document ID: 28A26FB2

Protection Of Natural Gas Measurement Equipment Against Moisture And Corrosion
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry relies very heavily on sensitive electronic equipment utilized in the production, gathering, transportation, and distribution phases. There is an increasing reliance on the use of electronics for performing important tasks relating t o measurement, control, and safety. Coupled with increased reliance is the demand by users for increased reliability
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Document ID: FC239637

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capab ilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meter
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Document ID: BA1A35A2

Ultrasonic Meters For Reside Ntial And Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Orif ice meters use pressure drop to measure velocity to infer volume and turbine meters use the speed of the rotor to measure velocity to infer volume, while ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years in primarily liquid measurement. However, their application in the measurement of natural gas is relatively new, and has become more commercialized over the last decad
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Document ID: C14F43CD

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1 816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company, founded in 18 23, prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometer
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Document ID: BE1F5389

Verification / Calibration Of Devices Used In Static Liquid Measurements
Author(s): Robert Maze
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of verifying or calibrating liquid measurement devices is to ensure the accuracy of quantities being reported. With millions of dollars at stake, fractions of an inch or tenths of a degree Fahrenheit can make quite an impact to bottom line. At its most basic , the static ( as opposed to dynamic , the use of meters ) quantity determination of liquid hydrocarbons is generally obtained by measuring the depth of the liquid in a storage tank and obtaining a representative temperature . Through the use of volume tables and volume exp ansion factors the quantity at a standard temperature can be stated
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Document ID: 49D44F3A

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): David Courtney
Abstract/Introduction:
The history of orifice metering began in the early 1900s. The first test data was done by the U.S. Geological Survey and in 1913 the first Handbook of Natural Gas was published. So as you can tell, orifice metering has been around for over 100 years and in that time much has been learned and improved on.
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Document ID: F900A54B

Fundamentals Of Ngl Sampling Systems
Author(s): Dominic Giametta Jim Klentzman
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of t his paper is to discuss in depth the system s we use as a standard to sample natural gas liquids, or NGLs. Before we discuss the systems and methods used to sample these products, we must first clearly define what NGL s are. NGL s can be a combination of any fluid in liquid form that is taken from t he pipeline under pressure. Typically, NGL refers mainly to ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasolines (pentanes) & condensates . Because of the broad range of products that can be claimed as NGLs, there are many different approaches to the method s by which we sample them. The common thread among all NGLs is that these products in order to be maintained and properly sampled, require the use of specific sampling techniques unique to light liquid and NGL sampling
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Document ID: F61F25F5

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Don Sextro Dan Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
the measurement of natural gas liquids (NGL) is similar in many respects to that of other hydrocarbon liquids but is markedly different in other aspects. The main difference in NGL measurement is the need to properly address the effects of so lution mixing. Measuring NGL by mass measurement techniques will properly address solution mixing effects because the mass measurement process is not sensitive to the effect that pressure, temperature and solution mixing have on the fluid measured
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Document ID: 820054ED

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): J. David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas ene rgy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies.
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Document ID: 2DA4386E

Auditing Liquid Meas Urement Facilities
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
The word Auditing is often used to imply that activities related to a review of general business practices, and procedure s for an asset or business unit, are under way. The objective of those activiti es is to assure compliance with corpo rate policies and procedures, industry and government standards, and sound management principles. Additional objectives may include review of accounting and financial transactions for accuracy, completeness and timeliness. The Institute of Internal Auditi ng defines the process as:
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Document ID: 5A285AE9

Fundamentals Of Pressure And Temperature Measurement
Author(s): Jeff Goetzman
Abstract/Introduction:
The correct measuring of Pressure and Temperature is one of the most important elements in the accurate measurement of Natura l G as. The basic principles were established many years ago by two men, Robert Boyle an Anglo Irish philosopher, chemist, and physicist and Jacques Charles, a French Inventor, scientist and mathematician. Since we are discussing Fundamentals we wi ll try to k eep it as simple possible
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Document ID: 8DD1FF17

Fundamentals Of Electronic Flow Meter Design, Application & Implementation
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow measurement as applied to the natural gas industry has advanced considerably over the last 30 years. Applications to address Upstream, Midstream and Downstream gas measurement technologies have become more complex. Over time it has become necessary to understand the fundaments that make up this ever changing environment. This paper will discuss the important fundamental parameters to consider when designing an Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) system. Please be aware of the many variances to each specific design and understand this is only a fundamental paper to give new gas industry members a first look at the technologies that are required when considering an EFM design
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Document ID: 9118E8AD

Operational Experience With Densitometers And Pycnometers
Author(s): Paul Mullen
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of densitometers is widespread over many different industries . These range from food & beverage industries to petro - chemical and pipeline transmission. This paper will cover the installation and operation of densitometers in the petroleum pipeline industry. It will also discuss pycnometers used to calibrate densitome ters. In using a pycnometer, you must have the correct scales, pressure gauges and thermometers. You will learn the steps necessary to install, operate and calibrate the instrumen
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Document ID: 6C245F22

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ) Systems and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technolo gy and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project
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Document ID: 01240DE6

Fundamental Principles Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement in the U.S. and around the world is dominated by diaphragm, rotary, turbine, and orifi ce meters. Each serves a different segment of the gas industry and each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. These four main types of meters can be broken into two distinct categories: positive displacement, and inferential. Diaphragm and rot ary meters fall into the positive displacement group because they have well - defined measurement compartments that alternately fill and empty as the meter rotates. By knowing the volume displaced in each meter revolution and by applying the proper gear rat io, the meter will read directly in cubic feet or cubic meters
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Document ID: 7CDE08C1

Applied Ngl Metering Station Design
Author(s): Roger Thornton
Abstract/Introduction:
A liquid measurement station can be as simple as a single meter run allocation measurement or as complex as a multi meter run station with a multi - tasking control system. Regardless of complexity the measurement quality is no better than the quality of the system design. Utilizing a state of the art meter technology will not yield any better results than allowed by the system design
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Document ID: 08CDECD9

Funda m E N T A L S O F C O Riol I S m Ete R S AGA R E Port N O . 1 1
Author(s): Stan C Al A m E
Abstract/Introduction:
i n ce t h e ear l y 1980 s , C o r iolis m ete r s h a v e g a i n ed w o rl d w ide acce p ta n ce in g as, l iq u id, a n d s l u r r y a pp licati o n s w ith a n i n s tall e d b ase o f m o re t h an o n e m ill i o n u n i t s . T h r oug h s i g n if i ca n t d es i gn , e nh a n c e m e n ts in t h e ear l y 1990 s C o riolis m ete r s h a v e ra p id l y g a i n ed w o rl d w ide acce p ta n ce in g a s p h ase a pp licati o n s w it h o v er 100 , 0 0 0 m ete r s i n s tal l ed w o rl d w ide a n d m o s t n o ta b l y t h e p u b lic a tion o f t h e s ec o n d e d ition o f A G A Rep o rt N u m ber 11 , Me a s u r eme n t o f N a tu r a l G a s b y C o r iolis Mete
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Document ID: 87F3537E

Small Volume Captive Displacement Provers For Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Alex Ignatian
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Liquid service was among the first applications for CDP o r Captive Displacement Provers. CDPs formerly called SVPs or Small Volume Provers are used widely in natural gas liquid services. This paper will be focusing on operation and history of CDPS and thier advantages over the conventional type of Provers.
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Document ID: 8ACE3978

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is a mixture of many compounds w hich can be classified into three major groups -- hydrocarbons, inerts, and miscellaneous trace compounds. Hydrocarbons are compounds which contain hydrogen and carbon. Most of the hydrocarbons in natural gas are saturated, meaning that each carbon atom is b onded to four other atoms while each hydrogen atom is bonded to only one carbon atom. This group of compounds is also known as alkanes, paraffins, and aliphatics. The most abundant alkane in natural gas is methane, commonly referred to as C1 because it con tains one carbon atom. Next is ethane (C2) with two carbons, followed by propane (C3), iso - butane and normal butane (C4), iso - pentane and normal pentane (C5), and hexanes and heavier hydrocarbons (C6+). The C6+ fraction can contain up to 100 or more compou nds including aromatics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX)
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Document ID: ACCA84B1

Fundamental Overview Of An Ngl Meter Station Design
Author(s): Tony Lockard
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper I will attempt to give a fundamental overview of an NGL meter station design however, it is not a straight forward , one size fit s all scenario. There are multiple consid erations that influence the meter station design and all must be taken into account . M ajor considerations are: what product or products will be measured, what meter technology to utilize, and the process design limitations
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Document ID: 6479C77C

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Tony Petitto
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 4 0 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Trad itionally turbine metes were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and PD meters for higher viscosities. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the fundamental principles of turbine meter measurement as well as new developments including:
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Document ID: 0AD73ECE

Meter Selection For Various Load Require Ments
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate flow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of flow rates or loads, an example is provided on how to address system rangeability while maintaining accurate flow measurement. Detailed technical descriptions of the functionality of the various available gas metering technologies is beyond the scope of this paper, but information of that type can be found in other papers in these Proceedings
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Document ID: EF2987A4

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
While still in use today, the technology has moved increasingly to microprocessor based flow computer s . Such devices allow for greater measurement accuracy , increased control function ality, and are readily integrated into a company s enterprise computer networks
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Document ID: 04A145F2

Overview Of AGA 7 Revision
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
Just when you thought you knew everything there was to know about Turbine meter measurement, wham, out comes a revise d AGA 7 standard. Now those basic principles are all still valid but maybe those operating practices we have built into our operating procedures need a little review. Rather than proceed as gener ations have done before us, research has been completed on th e meters, their installation and operating practices and the way we calibrate and field test them . So now we have some data to back up our methods and madness
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Document ID: B63D0517

An Overview Of Industry Standards Related To Natural Gas Meas Urement
Author(s): Barry Balzer
Abstract/Introduction:
What are the orga nizations that have developed or currently are develop ing standards for the gas measurement industry? The majority of the adopted standards that cover gas measurement have been developed by AGA (American Gas Association), API (American Petroleum Institute) , ISO (International Organization for Standardization), and GPA (Gas Processors Association). Other organizations such as ANSI (American National Standards Institute) and NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) are also involved . Many times these organizations jointly sponsor or indorse a common standard. One example of this is a booklet named Orifice Metering of Natural Gas
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Document ID: D85E5155

Clamp - On Ultrasonic Flow Meter Application And Performance
Author(s): William E. Frasier
Abstract/Introduction:
Clamp - on meters are specified to achieve one to three per cent uncertainty. Manufacturers cannot control the quality of a given field installation and must provide latitude. Lab testing has demonstrated m any installations perform at an accuracy level range of 1%. If a reliable installation technique is maintained, the clamp - on meter will often perform better than manufacturer standards. Further , the meter control units have piecewise linear error correction schemes such that they can be adjusted to reference flow rates as afforded at a flow lab
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Document ID: A782F9BF

Basic Applicatio N Of Flow Computers And Telemet R Y Systems
Author(s): Bill Herndon
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to the evolution of flow computers being commonly used in the measurement of hydrocarbons, most telemetry systems were used to collect control information and rea l time data and provide control commands to a Remote Terminal Unit at major pump and compressor stations. Most of the local metering was being handled by chart recorders and local data colle ction by operations. These charts and reports were sent to a central facility where the information was used to provide custody transfer reports and or operations reports. Most of the commonly used chart recorders used the standard circular chart format an d were mostly pneumatic devices
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Document ID: 2E155D80

Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Basic
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
his paper discusses fundamental principles of ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas and the available basic diagnostic capability to assess meter operation and performance. The basic requirements for obtaining good meter performance, when installed in the field, will be reviewed. Most of this information can be generalized to other manufacturers transit time ultrasonic flow meter s however, these examples provided, particularly with respect to some diagnostic features, are based on the Daniel SeniorSon ic ultrasonic flow meter
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Document ID: 01C89764

Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Advanced
Author(s): Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of u ltrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas which are generally used to assess dynamic meter operation and performance. The basic diagnostic features of most gas ultrasonic flow meters were covered in the companion paper Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics - Basics which covered diagnostics that relate to meter health or validation that the meter is operating properly. Advanced diagnostics are typically those that provide operators informa tion regarding flowing conditions that may affect optimum meter performance
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Document ID: 074F7DA0

Onsite Proving Of Gas Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, and higher natural gas prices buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the error in natural gas measurement . A 6 Turbine or Ultrasonic meter operating at 1,000 Psi will move 100 MMSCF/Day. An error in measurement of only one t enth of one percent (0.1%) on 10 0 Millio n S tandard C ubic F eet (MMSCF) of Natural Gas selling at 4 .00 per Thousand Standard Cubic Feet ( MS CF ) will cause an over or under billing of 4 00 .00. Therefore the error in a year is ( 4 00 X 365) 1 46 , 0 00.00 This will more than pay for a proving or verifyi ng syste
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Document ID: 2AC19B66

Fluid Flow Conditioning For Meter Accuracy And Repeatability
Author(s): Danny Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow conditioning is one of the most critical aspects dealing with any type of volumetric flow metering. Flow conditioning is the final buffer between the flow meter and the upstream piping layout and is responsible for eliminating swirl, restoring flow symmetry and generating a repeatable, fully developed velocity flow profile. Even though modern advancements have resulted in low uncertainty, high repeatability device s that are effective across a range of flow rates, proper utilization of flow conditioner is still required to maximize the meters performance, diagnostics and ens ure the most stable long term flow measurement
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Document ID: 2078D032

A Current Perspective On Measurement The Impact Of Measurement In A Changing Business Environment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of hydrocarbons has evolved significantly through the years, from both a technical and business application perspective. Developments and advances in technology have made the measurement of hydrocarbons more precise, efficient and available. Changes in the energy business environment have placed the measurement of hydrocarbons into a more significant role within organizational and industry business processe
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Document ID: BCF0B9BB

Utilizing Wireless Instrumentation In Well Optimization
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas and Oil industry is continually driven by cost cu t t ing measures and the need to gain more operational efficiencies and visibility to regulatory requirements. This paper summarizes a solution in which wireless instruments integrate with other conventional equipment to offer a rapidly deployable advanced well optimization system. Wireless instrumentation products provide cost - effective and easy to install alternatives to traditional, hardwired sensor sites. These rugged field units are designed for the majority of Oil & Gas applications and for installations ranging from general purpose to Class I Div I hazardous locations with extreme temperature and humidity ranges
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Document ID: DC44BD93

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters
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Document ID: 02357845

Ethics
Author(s): John L. Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
in the discussion of ethics the first issue is always nomenclature. Sadly, this is often the topic that gets the least attention and frequently those involved in the conversa tion conduct deep insightful discourses in which there is virtually no understanding exchanged, although the participants will all agree that the quality of the rhetoric was outstanding
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Document ID: 909D6E25

Orifice Plate Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Dr Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are popular for being relatively simple, reliab le and inexpensive. Their principles of operation are relatively easily understood. However, traditionally there has been no orifice meter self diagnostic capabilities. In 200 8 & 2009 a generic Differential Pressure ( DP ) meter self diagnostic methodology 1 ,2 was proposed. In this paper these diagnostic principles are applied to orifice meters and proven with experimental test results. The diagnostic results are presented in a simple graphical form designed for easy use in the field by the meter operato
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Document ID: 211DD8FD

Improving Flow Measurement S With Improved Calibration And Data Handling Procedures
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas measurement analyst requires a completely different set of skills to interpret and understand the information documented by the field regard ing testing and calibration procedures. The task for the measurement analyst is to absorb the wealth of information presented, and utilize their extensive knowledge base in determining when a current month adjustment or even a prior month adjustment is wa rranted. Each time an analyst reviews data from the field, a question should be asked, Did the technician follow the correct procedures in performing the calibration?
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Document ID: 3106CB8B

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ray G. Durke Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Darin L. George Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most common measurement errors and the most difficult to identify in natural gas metering systems is that caused by pulsating flow. It is important to understand the effects that pulsation s ha ve on the common types of flow meters used in the gas industry so that potential error - producing mechanisms can be identified and av oided. It is also essential to understand pulsation control techniques for mitigat ing pulsation effects. This paper describes the effects of pulsation on orifice, turbine, ultrasonic, and other flow meter types . It also presents basic methods for mitiga ting pulsation effects at meter installations, including a specific procedure for designing acoustic filters that can isolate a flow meter from the source of pulsation
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Document ID: ABDA8409

A Review Of API Mpms Chapter 14.3/AGA Report No. 3 - Part 2
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper described the current contents of the United States orifice flow metering standard - American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleu m Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids, Part 2, Specification and Installation Requirements. 1 This document is also known as American Gas Association Report No. 3, Part 2. 2 As of the writing of this paper (i.e., May 201 4 ), this standard was in its fourth edition, second printing. It was last revised in April 2000 and is in the process of being revised again. The revised document is currently in the ballot process at API a nd it is anticipated that the new version will be published by the end of 2014
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Document ID: 2F77D377

Basic Electrical Concepts For Field Measurement Technicians
Author(s): Gerry Pickens
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficient operation and maintenance of electrical and electronic systems utilized in the natural gas industry is substantially determined by the technician s skill in applying the basic concepts of electrical c ircuitry. This paper will discuss t he basic electrical laws, electrical terms and control signals as they apply to natural gas measurement systems.
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Document ID: 38E02976

Common Control Signals And Communications Protocols For Field Measurement Technicians
Author(s): Gerry Pickens
Abstract/Introduction:
number of control signals have been developed and used as technology has evolved and been applied to the natural gas industry . Control signals are a standardized method of conveying information from one device to another. A control signal is the data sent from one device to another by a specific method. In industrial process instrumentation, transmitted information is data. Data can be transmitted in many formats and over many diff erent types of media. In addition, the data may be analog or digital in form
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Document ID: 7C92E500

Classification Of Locations For Electrical Installations In Gas Utility Areas
Author(s): Gerry Pickens
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Electrical Code (NEC) defines hazardous locations as those areas where fire or explosion hazards may exist due to flammable gases or vapors, flammable liquids, combustible dust, or ignitable fibers or flyings. A substantial part of the NEC is devoted to the discussion of hazardous locations. Thats because electrical equipment can become a source of ignition in these volatile areas. Articles 500 through 504, and 510 through 517 provide classification and installation standards for the use of electrical equipment in thes e locations
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Document ID: 3D7551DD

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Exsisting Metering Stations
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive gas market, utility companies must meet aggressive m arket strategies or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and gas distribution is no exception. Our measuring stations are our cash register. The problem is, these stations were designed 10, 20, 30 or even 50 years ago, and are now p erforming tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made.
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Document ID: 69A356CF

An Overview And Update Of AGA 9
Author(s): Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters 2 nd Edition Ref 1 in April 2007. Report 9 details recommended practice for using multipath gas ultrasonic meters (USMs) in fiscal (custody) measurement applications. This paper reviews some of history behind the development of AGA Report No. 9 (often referred to as AGA 9), key Report contents, which includes information on meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. This paper also discusses changes that will be incorporated in the next revision. At the time of this paper the expected publication date is the Fall of 2015
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Document ID: FA3A7F3E

Calculating The Spee D Of Sound In Natura L Gas Using AGA Report No. 10
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The speed of sound in natural ga s is the velocity a sound wave travels in the gas. There are a number of gas properties that affect the speed of sound and they include the composition of the gas, the pressure of the gas and the temperature of the gas. The American Gas Association Repor t No. 10 Speed of Sound in Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases provides an accurate method for calculating the speed of sound in natural gas and other related hydrocarbon fluids.
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Document ID: F4A4BD54

Real Time Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years now, flow computers have been implemented in gas measurement system s to utilize technology, to improve measurement accuracy, provide far more efficient data acquisition , and provide better control resources for remote interface through telemetry. As the meters functionality has increased, the meter technician has had to become more diverse in his or her knowledge of measurement, control, computers , and electronics. By taking a closer look at the various advanced applications and reviewing the basics, hopefully the technician will have a better understanding of the requir ements of handling, installing , and working with todays advanced flow computers
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Document ID: F81DC005

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry, there are two basic types of regulators used for both pressure reducing and back pressure (relief) control. The two types are: 1.) Self Operated Type 2.) Pilot Operated Type The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss the basic principle of Self Operated and Pilot Operated Regulators including components of the system, principles of operation, advantages and disadvantages, and some maintenance and inspection procedures.
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Document ID: 392415A7

Factors Affecting Digital Pressure Calibration
Author(s): Scott A. Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
1 FACTORS AFFECTING DIGITAL PRESSURE CALIBRATION Scott A. Crone AMETEK Test & Calibration Instruments 8600 Somerset Drive Largo, FL 33773 INTRODUCTION Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is done and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically. In the past it was a standard practice to use a primary standard for pressure calibration. That standard was normally a dead weight tester or a manometer. Today with more accurate secondary standards available there is a larger choice in what can be used for pressure calibration. What is used normally will depe nd on the requirements that have to be met and the equipment that is available
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Document ID: 8B9BED0C

Methods For Certifying Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Scott A. Crone
Abstract/Introduction:
Like any other piece of equipment, a measurement artifact must be maintained . Obviously, it has to be in working order in general. However, what is more important is that it be operating within specified parameters and providing measurements that are traceable to a known source or sources. This paper provides a general overview of calibration and certification. It also discusses some key terminology and methods
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Document ID: C215C02D

Ultrasonic Meter Flow Calibrations Considerations And Benifits
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement in todays natural gas pipeline systems encompasses many challenges. Measurement departments are faced with tighter system measurement balances than they were ten short years ago. Ultrasonic meters are the meter of choice to help with these challenges. Pipeline companies have pushed USM manuf acturers to advance the USM technology to help with the challenges of measurement. Man ufacturers have improved the ultrasonic technology greatly over the past 15 years. Many of these enhancements have been in the form of diagnostics and processing speed and power. This has aided measurement departments in reaching their goals of increased system balances and improved overall measurement uncertainty.
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Document ID: 523864DB

How Not To Measure Gas/Orifice
Author(s): Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring natural gas is both a science and an art. Guidelines a nd industry practices explain how to accurately measure natural gas. The art comes in trying to minimize errors and prevent measurement problems. However, sometime it s easier to explain how not to measure gas when reviewing measurement errors .
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Document ID: 0213F95B

Auditing Electronic Gas Measurement Per API Chapter 21.1
Author(s): Keith Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing evolved as a business practice as owne rs began to realize a standardized form of accounting must exist to prevent fraud. Financial audits made their way into businesses during the late 1700s. The industrial revolution brought about the separation of job duties beyond what a sole proprietor o r family could oversee . Managers were hired to supervise the employees and the business processes. Businesses began to expand geographically where previously they were all local. Owners, who could not be in more than one place at a time or chose to be a bsent, found an increasing need to monitor the accuracy of the financial activities of their growing businesses
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Document ID: 4623B1E6

Differential Meters Other Than Orifice
Author(s): Kenneth Reed, III
Abstract/Introduction:
Cone Meters differ from other differential pressure type meters, such as Orifice Meters and Venturi Met ers, basically by design only. They are all required to meet API Chapter 22.2 test criteria developed and published in 2005 and still being updated today. The Cone Meter is designed to measure liquid or gas. Cone Meters are proprietary in design and have limited third party testing due to patented designs and length of use in the Industry. The Orifice Meter is the oldest meter of the three that we will discuss and has the most third party flow lab test data available
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Document ID: D93508EE

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Leon Blac
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communicat ion equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are ra re. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day - to - day basis without we, the user, even knowing.
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Document ID: C3620A54

Wellhead Liquids Measurement, Whats An Industry To Do?
Author(s): Mark V. Goloby
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquids measurement in the oil patch is suddenly getting a lot of attention. Some are dismayed at the low level of technology used to measure liquids. Today, custody transfer of 80 to 85% of onshore crude and condensate production is still documented by a hauler climbing to the top of the tank a nd strapping it. That would be a fair estimate, concurs Mark Davis Staff Engineer Shell Exploration and Production. The hauler straps the tank before loading his truck and again when he finishes. The producer is paid on whatever that hauler writes on the ticket
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Document ID: 08A1DA9F

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
this paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and linear metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: FAC7E904

Pressure, Temperature, And Other Effects On Turbine Meter Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper explains the general working principle of gas turbine meters and the common causes for metering errors. Field observations and laboratory test examples are presented in this paper to demonstrate these phenomena. The author also sugges ts methods to optimize the measurement performance of turbine meter installations
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Document ID: C8362766

Continuous Monitoring Of Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Randy Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many in our industry who would consider the advancement of the ultrasonic meter to be the greatest improvement in gas measurement in the past twenty years. Its my opinion that the immense improvement in gas measurement is not so much the ultrasonic meter its elf . Instead , I believe it is the meters ability to detect conditions that would compromise its own accuracy an d ability to communicate those conditions to the user. It is in the area of communicating those conditions , that we often under - utilize the meters capabilities.
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Document ID: 837F4A87

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Rick Heuer
Abstract/Introduction:
try this at home. We are professionals. If you are able to install your own TV dish satellite system and a wireless home network for PCs, you have a head start on installing and maintaining electronic field measurement equipment. Todays Meas urement Technicians and Engineers are required to operate and maintain a variety of Hi - Tech field measurement equipment. Most of the field instrumentation is tightly integrated in a complete system functional environment. The larger the metering station, t he more complex the system
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Document ID: 0DDC9672

Problems Unique To Offshore Gas Measuremet
Author(s): Jackie R. Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurem ent on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the measurement facility. Pr oper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measuremen
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Document ID: BFD909B9

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The knowledge base expectation that exists today for the measurement technician is extremely demanding. From the latest in electronic controls to pneumatic controls...from communication system support to dual- disciplined or even tri-disciplined technicians...from the measurement equipment they support to the procedures that must be followed...from the regulatory requirements governing the facilities to the training of field personnel... all create a tremendous and ongoing challenge to meet these demands.
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Document ID: 408E841A

Control Room Managem Ent And Related Best Practices
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarizes a SCADA implementers perspective regarding the intent of the Pipeline Hazardous Materials Safety Administrations (PHMSA) Control Room Management (CRM) rule. In addition, this paper provides a fresh approach to CRM, describing why companies should use the CRM process to go beyond compliance requirements and implement operati ng best practices that would significantly enhance operations reliability and pipeline safety
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Document ID: 3442A5AA

Measurement Data Collection Methods, Hurdles And Efficiency Improvements
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
To understand and improve success in the collection of SCADA and EFM data you must first understand whats in the field their frequencies and communication methods . Frequency ranges typically utilized in the field are 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz. These frequency ranges were released as junk band or public use by the FCC in the 1980s and 1990s. These frequencies were adopted by everything from cell phone manufacturers, wireless home phones, two way handheld radios and many more
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Document ID: 592EF123

An Overview Of The AGA Gas Quality Management Manual
Author(s): Terrence A.Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of the recently released Gas Quality Manag ement Manual 1 that w as develop ed by the American Gas Association Transmission Measurement Committee over a period of roughly seven years. The manual pulls together a wide range of information and provides context that allows both the expert and the novice to understand the why, how and what needed to develop a plan for managing gas qu
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Document ID: 35F6C5A1

Design And Installation Of A Complete Measurement & Control Facility
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of installers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentatio
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Document ID: DDD0AEF5

Advance Communication Designs
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
We say Advanced Wireless Data Radio Communication Systems Design Process not because this is a more in- depth and more technical process, but because the systems involved are complex in nature and must be carefully designed and programmed. If anything, what I want to do is teach you a more simplified approach and technique to design a SCADA or Telemetry project, but one which you do the same whether the system is large or small
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Document ID: C7E936C7

Get It Right The First Time - Field Data Capture Without Paper Forms
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter inspections, configuration changes, calibration verification , troubleshooting, and gas sampling generate important subset s of measurement data . Automated computer systems capture, process, store, and report this data better than manual, paper - based systems minimizing effort, time, resources , and error for field a nd office workers
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Document ID: F76A2032

Understanding The Advantages Of Ip Networks
Author(s): Burke P. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
odays oil and gas industry faces increasing pressure to max i mize the capability of its wireless infrastructure while minimizing operational and developmental costs. Unprec e dented uncertainty and business volatility are transforming the landscape, as the oil and gas industry becomes more compet i tive, profit - oriented, and responsive to a fickle and s avvy cl i entele. The key to developing a successful enterprise - wide networking strategy is to recognize that it is only part of a larger strategy - one in which modern oil and gas facilities must literally rei n vent themselve
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Document ID: 098A11C2

Ami For Gas Utilities
Author(s): David Anglin
Abstract/Introduction:
here was once a time when you could get a car in any color...as long as it was black. They had frames, running boards and 15 horsepower engines . Who could ever need more? Just like the auto industry has adapted from this original approach to meet the demands of consumers, regulators and shareholders, the gas industry must do the same. Automated meter reading - also known as AMR or AMI - provides that opportunity. This paper will compare and contrast AMR and AMI for gas utilities and provide importa nt areas for gas utilities to consider when adopting or upgrading wireless meter technology
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Document ID: DCFA04DC

Gas Contracts I Mpact On Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): T. Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
uch effort is spent to achieve accurate measurement. Up to date measurement standards, modern meter station d esign, high quality equipment, and proper measurement operations are all necessary for measurement accuracy. Unfortunately these processes do not ass ure measurement accuracy if the contract does not also support accurate measurement. The contract impacts measurement accuracy by what it addresses and what is left unaddressed. More focus needs to be applied to the measurement sections of the contracts. Hopefully this paper will help the reader better understand the relationship between the contract and ac curacy
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Document ID: 7F4BF5ED

Communication Between The Office And Field
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Evaluating periodic data, testing, and calibration procedures requires two different skills sets depending on if you are a field technician or a cement analyst . The task for the measurement analyst is to absorb the wealth of information presented, and utilize their extensive knowledge base in order to determin e when a current month adjustment or even a prior month adjustment is warranted
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Document ID: E21E44F0

Training Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Exper i ence is the best teacher . Weve all heard that sayi n g, but , what if there aren t any experienced personnel left to hire? After years of downsizing, mergers, and attrition, the industry finds itself in a shortage of good trained personne1. The only way to overcome thi s problem is to provide the new employee with comprehens iv e tra i n in g. S uc cess ful training is paramount to the success of the gas measurement department and you r company
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Document ID: D81E9D5E

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic Gas Measurement or EFM auditing is a very important process of the natural gas industry. Only a few short years ago, the dry recording device for custody gas measurement. All that has changed with the advent of the flow computer volumes are re corded and generated at the field level, and imported to the measurement system. Careful review of meter data should be part of the monthly close process
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Document ID: FD11C4B3

Upstream Natural Gas Sales Verification
Author(s): Mark B. Fillman Jayson A. Payne
Abstract/Introduction:
Within the upstream sector of the oil and gas indu s- try, the custody transfer of natural gas is usually d e- termined by orifice measurement which is governed by a sales agreement between the producer and pipeline company. In most cases, the gas sales agreement references a combination of American Gas Association (AGA), American Petroleum Inst i- tute (API), and Gas Processors Association (GPA) standards which are to be incorporated into the cu s- tody measurement procedures. Verification that the physical deliveries of natural gas are accurate and accountable, for both parties, is fundamental to the business cycle that occurs ea ch month.
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Document ID: 525B80C2

Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): R. Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has adopted EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained. This has created the need for an electronic data management system. These systems, if not properly designed and implemented, could potentially render the entire process useless. Therefore, it is essential that the system add functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post - FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges
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Document ID: EC93B791

Use Of Equation S Of State And Equation Of State Software Packages
Author(s): Adam G. Hawley Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Determination of fluid properties and phase condition s of hydrocarbon mixtures is critical for accurate hydrocarbon measurement, representative sampling, and overall pipeline operation. Fluid p roperties such as compressibility and density are critical for flow measurement and determination of the hydrocarbon due point is important to verify that heavier hydrocarbons will not condense out of a gas mixture in changing p rocess condition
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Document ID: F853D641

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure, And Supercritical Natural Gas
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux Shannon m. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
his paper discusses the problems encounter ed when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for on - line BTU analysis, and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagram s in the design and operation of a natural gas sampling system
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Document ID: 4E994567

Techniques For Natural Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): David J. Fish Collin Pawlak
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. Sampling can be accomplished by primarily three techniques spot, continuous composite or continuous on - line sampling systems. The various spot sampling methods that are available and the implementation of these methods are briefly investigated in this paper, as well as the most appropriate equipment to use
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Document ID: 4CED03FA

D.O.T. Requirements For The Tra Nsportation Of Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government whi ch oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories . As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States
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Document ID: B14EA357

Effects Of Wet Gas Flow On Gas Orifice Plate Meters
Author(s): Josh Kinney Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that le d to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meter s to be installed in application s where the flow s are actually wet gas flow s , i.e. flows where there is some liquid entrain ment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the systems conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter it is by default the most common wet gas flow m eter
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Document ID: 1BDE3851

Calibration Standard Gases
Author(s): Gina Mastrantoni
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays natural gas industry, it is imperative that the standards used to calibrate are made to the utmost qualit y. Calibration standards are mixtures of known concentrations of components used to confirm or determine concentrations in samples. Calibration standards are needed for quality assurance/quality control, measurement and balance, quantitative sample analysi s, and custody transfer. Preparation, blending, and final analysis are all crucial factors which will determine the integrity of the calibration standard. Several guidelines, such as ISO, GPA, and API must be followed in order to produce a calibration st andard that is accurate and consistent
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Document ID: F849DB2F

Auditing Gas Laboritories Asgmt
Author(s): Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
The data produced by G as C hromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safet y and environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratories responsible for producing th is data is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of process improvement, thro ugh proper identification of deficiencies and a precise plan for corrective action. The level of confidence in analytical results will increase when the appropriate corrective actions are implemented . The amount of financial and legal exposure can be red uced from a properly executed audit program
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Document ID: 5AEAAA70

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted - For Gas Program
Author(s): Na
Abstract/Introduction:
Many (likely most) gas pipeline companies s truggl e with l ost - and - unaccounted - for - gas (L&U ) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom line as shown below. As shown in this inset, by reducing L&U from 0.6 percent to .25 percent, a typical company with a 2 BCF daily throughput could save Over 10 million dollars annually based on 4 . 00 gas prices, w hich is a daily loss of 28 ,000
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Document ID: 0FEFAD58

Principals Of Odorization
Author(s): Kenneth S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natu ral gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and i mproved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todays economic climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly considered essential and a fuel of the future
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Document ID: EDFCFCE3

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Donald Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The en ergy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy. The largest source of analyt ical error in natural gas is distortion of the composition during sampling. Sampling clean, dry natural gas, which is well above its Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) temperature is a relatively simple task
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Document ID: 056101A9

Techniques Of Composite Sampling
Author(s): Matthew S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
While inaccuracies in measurement can be costly and common, they are also avoidab le in many cases. Technicians willing to study the experiences and best practices of industry leaders can make a world of difference by appl ying what theyve learned and sharing this knowledge with others. Composite s ampling is a straightforward method. When managed correctly, s ampler s are able to take small bites of a flowing gas or liquid in such a way that the complete sample accurately represents what was in the pipeline for a given sample period
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Document ID: 299327DC

Devices For Field De Termination Of H 2 O In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
H 2 O vapor is an undesirable component of natural gas. It takes up space in the pipeline and provid es no fuel value. In higher concentrations it can condense into liquid water in the pipeline and cause corrosion, especially in the presence of carbon dioxide or H 2 S. Liquid water can also cause damage to turbines. Because of this, most gas transfer tariff s include a limit on the acceptable concentration of H2O in the gas stream. This paper reviews the devices that can be used in the field to determine the amount of water vapor present in a natural gas stream.
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Document ID: 50DF9BA2

Determining Proper Odorization Levels
Author(s): Paul D. Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
Over 300 people died in an explosion on March 18, 1937 in a New London, Texas public school building. The natural gas that was being delivered to the school building was not odorized. At that time the natural gas was odorless, and there wasnt a law on record to mandate Odorization . As a direct resu lt of this incident the United State Government passed a law that the chemical Mercaptan be put into natural gas to give it an identifying smell
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Document ID: 83724427

Operations Of On Line Gas Chromatographs
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
The g as c hromatograph (GC) is an integral component of the natural gas custody metering stati on and has a large impact on the accuracy of the fiscal flow calculation. For this reason it is imperative that you install , operate and mai ntain the GC with the goal of maximum reliability and accuracy
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Document ID: 128F7AC7

Accurate Measurement Of Hydrocarbon Dewpoint In Natural Gas Streams
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian Mahmood Moshfeghian
Abstract/Introduction:
Extraction of natural gas from shale formation s has increased the focus on determining the quality of the gas extracted and processed. One of the key attributes of natural gas during its various stages of processing is its Hydrocarbon Dewpoint. This figure refers to the temperature at whi ch the gas stream undergoes a phase transition to liquid at a given pressure. The knowledge of this figure is essential in the operation of natural gas pipelines , storage, as well as gas - powered turbines
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Document ID: EB295444

Lessons Learned From The API Mpms, Chapter 14.1 Gas Sampling Research Project
Author(s): Dr. Darin L. George Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Between 1999 and 2005 , the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API), the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), and the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) co - sponsored an extensive natural gas sampling r esearch program at the Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for the most recent revisions to the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.1, Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer . The research supported revisions that produced both the 5 th edition of the standard, published in 2001, and the 6 th edition, published in February 20
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Document ID: DB633787

Production Equipment Effects On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Stormy Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
The condition of gas as it presents itself in the pipeline is often not ideal fo r accurate measurement, by an orifice flow meter. It is the requirement of the American Gas Association (AGA) that the natural gas be in a single phase and with a swirl - free fully developed profile as it passes across the orifice plate to meet the standard of measurement to provide acceptable uncertainty for the flow calculation. Thus it is often necessary to condition the gas prior to measurement. Using the basic laws of gases we can control these conditions by altering the temperature, pressure, or comp onent makeup of the gas
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Document ID: EDB3AC88

Periodic Inspection Of Regfulators And Relief Valves
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspections and tests on regulators and relief valves is a Department of Transportation Co mpliance rule. The sections within the DOT manual stating the rule include 192.351 through 192.359, 192.751, 192.479, 192.481, 192.739, and 192.741 . K eep in mind these rules are the minimum required tests. Your Company or Regulatory Agency may be more stringent and require more or detailed testing. You must also keep in mind that the Manufacturer of your equipment will also provide a guideline pertaining to maintenance . These tests are not only required for safe, reliable service to your Customers, bu t also could be used in any legal proceeding for documentation and purpos
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Document ID: 5F49E80B

Comparing Plug & Seat Regu Lators & Control Valves
Author(s): Lamar Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper will be to compare a plug and seat regulator to a control valve for high-pressure natural gas installations such as: pow er plants, city gate stations, large industrial customers, compressor stations, and storage fields. The featur es, benefits, capabilities, and differences of both devices will be outlined, to enable the reader to make an educated selection. In addition, acceptable design practices will be reviewed concerning sizing, gas velocities, noise levels, equipment layout, and performance. The ball valve is the most commonly used type of modulating valve for natural gas pipeline applications, for that reason, we will limit this discussion to comparison between the plug and seat regulator and versions of a 1/4 turn ball valve
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Document ID: 2A43C80E

Scada And Telemetry In Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA systems provide are combinations of field devices, communications infrastructure and software integrated into a system that provide s for safe, reliable, and effective operation of remote facilities. Producers, gatherers, midstream operators and pipelines use SCADA system for operations. In addition, SCADA gathers data used by a dvanced application s such as measurement accounting. SCADA is key for highly profitable operation
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Document ID: CB0985C3


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