Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2013)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Network Analysis - Part 1 Gas Flow Equation Fundamentals
Author(s): Tim Bickford
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 25 years engineers in the natural gas industry have come to depend on the computer as a tool to perform complex hydraulic network analysis. Analysis, which would take weeks to perform by hand or by punchcard machines 30 years ago, can now be accomplished in mere hours or sometimes seconds. Today gas network analysis software, though complex and extremely sophisticated, has become very user friendly. Low cost PCs, inexpensive software and flexible software licensing now make it possible for almost anyone to have access to these powerful engineering tools
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Document ID: 287B34EC

Pro Ject Management Fundamentals
Author(s): John Jay Gamble, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a Project? A temporary, non-routine endeavor to create a unique product or service limited by time, budget, and specifications. How does it differ from Operations? Operations are on-going, permanent, and repetitive. The purpose of operations is to sustain or maintain the business
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Document ID: B8BC7BC7

Fundamentals Of Pressure Control
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natural gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to balance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures.
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Document ID: C4EF3C90

Using Gps Technology To Enhance Pipeline Safety
Author(s): Sam Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Goal: have a conversation about the capabilities, expectations, and feasibility of GPS technology for pipeline safety. Discuss: The case for GPS GPS grades, accuracy, and cost Barriers to deployment Expectation management Example of GPS field deployment for gas records
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Document ID: 74A0CB01

Underground Storage Of Natural Gas An Introduction
Author(s): Andrea I. Horton
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas storage is playing a continually growing role in the United Stated energy industry. As more and more interstate pipelines bring natural gas to the high gas-demand areas, such as the Northeast, from the high production areas, such as the Gulf, the Rockies, and Canada, energy companies seem to all be scrambling to find potential new storage reservoirs to hold and cycle gas being transported to high market areas. What started in 1915 as an experiment and grew into an important sector of the natural gas industry by the 1950s was a fairly regular operation of injecting gas into the ground during summer when demand was low and withdrawing it in the winter when demand was high
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Document ID: 622EAEDA

Reducing Methane And Voc Emissions
Author(s): Mark Sommer
Abstract/Introduction:
Why Reduce Methane and VOC Emissions? The reduction of methane and VOC emissions is both a necessary and desirable activity. Firstly, in many regions VOC emissions are limited by regulation because VOCs combine with NOx to produce ozone in the nearby region. Secondly, any venting of methane and VOC is throwing away energy that can be used
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Document ID: 40E6A8B3

Horizontal Drilling
Author(s): Ellen Montgomery
Abstract/Introduction:
Options and Potential Benefits of Horizontal Wells in CBM Projects Benefits of Horizontal Wells Higher production rates, cutting more pay zone Flexibility of surface location Fewer surface locations Smaller environmental footprint Less surface equipment Fewer pipelines and right-of-ways Allows access to inaccessible development acreage Potential for increased recovery/drainage per acre Fracture stimulation options Faster dewatering Diminished water coning
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Document ID: AA06D328

Basic Properties Of Natural Gas
Author(s): John H. Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automobiles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right? While it is true that the above mentioned materials are all made up of the same basic components, each has its own physical and chemical characteristics
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Document ID: F0AECE73

Gas Sampling And Gas Sampling Systems
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
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Document ID: 8225A1D3

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
techniques for analyzing hydrocarbon mixtures. Some of the advantages of chromatography are the range of measurement (from ppm levels up to 100%), the detection of a wide range of components, and the repeatability of the measurements. Chromatography is used in the laboratory, in permanently installed online systems, and in the field with portable systems. No matter the location, style or brand, all gas chromatographs are composed of the same functional components that are the sample handling system, the chromatograph oven, and the controller electronics (refer Figure 1).
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Document ID: 18BF78C7

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates.
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Document ID: 2C51A68C

Fundamentals Of Water Vapor Measurement
Author(s): Thomas Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas, as defined by ASTM, is a naturally occurring mixture of the hydrocarbons and inert gases. Before Natural Gas is processed, methane usually comprises over 80% of the mixture. Processing to pipeline quality creates a higher methane concentration by removing other naturally occurring components, which is desired for delivery to the burner tip. The next most common component of natural gas is ethane, which is typically stripped from mixture and used to produce petrochemicals. Following ethane, the next most common components are propane and butane
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Document ID: 33580B00

Basics Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company founded in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers
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Document ID: 6872FD67

Fundamentals Of Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement
Author(s): Jack Herring
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas fired turbines for compressing gas must burn clean fuel as specified by the turbine manufacturer. Failure to do so can significantly increase maintenance and operational costs. Condensate in the pipeline can damage equipment and risk contract violations and shut-ins. Poor analysis techniques or a less than optimum choice of instrumentation will significantly add to the risk associated with the operation. This paper focuses on identifying the costs, risks and major factors that contribute to best practices for measuring the hydrocarbon dew point (HCDP) of the natural gas fuel
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Document ID: 7C652421

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter Basics
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter, however, many of these issues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others
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Document ID: 3BC6CF2B

Rotary Displacement Meters Basics
Author(s): Todd Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them
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Document ID: 0E59D4A9

h2s And Total Sulfur Measurement Applications
Author(s): Byron Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, there are thousands of continuous analytical systems, ensuring H2S and total sulfur tariff limits are not exceeded at receipt and sales points on the transmission line. Typical measurement ranges of are 0-20 ppm for H2S and 0-100 ppm for total sulfur. There are also a fast growing number of sites with continuous H2S monitoring on field gas treating gas systems where the target is 1 to 5 ppm as a result of the more recent shale gas development . The industry standard for these low level applications is the lead acetate tape analyzer. This mature technology is specific to H2S and is a cost effective solution compared to other technologies
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Document ID: 351BF13D

Clamp-On Gas Flow Technology Advancements Increase Performance And Diagnostic Capabilities For Check Metering And Custody Transfer Applications
Author(s): Mark Imboden
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent buzz created by the clamp-on wide beam technology in the gas measurement world has compelled even the gas industry skeptics among us to take notice. Rapid acceleration of successful installations across the globe and the surprising performance results being obtained (as shown in the following pages) has only added fuel to the excitement. Field clamp-on gas flowmeters provide a unique tool for solving flow related challenges without interrupting the operation of a gas pipeline
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Document ID: 1D8A004E

Basic Electron Ic Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Ken Pollock
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent several years have shown remarkable changes in the communications field. New methods and digital techniques have allowed the Communications Technician to solve communications problems that previously required unusual solutions or required manual data collecting. There are now methods to get the required data automatically and without human intervention that are proving to be reliable and cost effective without requiring high costs or constant maintenance. This paper will discuss the basics of many of these concepts and provide a basic knowledge of solutions that may be employed to provide telemetry for data collection
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Document ID: 66087C54

Ultrasonic Meters For Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years, primarily in liquid measurement. However, we are seeing more and more applications in the natural gas industry
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Document ID: D19E4C4D

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the first practical gas meter in England in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843. It consisted of two diaphragms, sliding valves and linkage. T. S. Lacey patented the pre-payment meter in 1870. The most significant change to diaphragm meters over the years has been in the materials of construction. Brass parts have been replaced by plastic, and leather diaphragms have been replaced with synthetic rubber
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Document ID: 57575326

In-Situ On-Site() Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Field provers have been developed for operation at high line pressures and flow rates. For purposes of this discussion, a high gas flow rate is any flow greater than 3,000 actual cubic feet per hour or (85 m3/h) at pressures to 1,440 psig (10 MPa).
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Document ID: 11487B5F

The Proper Application Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate them-where applicable-into my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics
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Document ID: 84682820

Lo W Volume Metering Using Differential Pressure Cone Technolo Gy
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
The north east region of the USA has many natural gas wells that are declining in flow due to extensive exploitation and production over many years. These traditional wells are showing reduced flow-rates that may require changing the scope and design criteria of the metering station which usually is designed to the API 14.3 - AGA 3 orifice plate measurement standard designed for pipeline quality gas
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Document ID: E25D5AB7

Understanding OPC-Open Connectivity Via Open Standards: The Opc Foundation
Author(s): Russel W. Treat Tony Paine
Abstract/Introduction:
In the mid-1990s, a group of vendors convened to address the growing concern regarding connectivity to the plant floor-referred to as the Device Driver Problem. At that time, HMI and SCADA vendors were responsible for building their own driver libraries. This approach created great solutions when it all the connectivity requirements were provided by a single vendor. However, often when multiple vendors were involved, solutions were incomplete or unreliable across vendors. The vendors were faced with a decision: they either needed to invest resources to develop application-level functionality or extend connectivity.
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Document ID: 39E80286

Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
modern oil and gas market place. The effect of entrained liquid in gas and its impact on measurement systems is being researched world wide by various laboratories and JIP working groups. The impact can be very significant financially. The subject is quite large and encompasses many different concepts, meter types and opinions, with many new ideas being brought to the forefront each year as more research is done
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Document ID: 7039736F

Scada Data Collection And Data Distribution
Author(s): Phillip Heim
Abstract/Introduction:
Different data collectors such as Mechanical Chart meters, Electronic Measurement with and without communications, Hand Held devices, and smart phone technology are just a few data collectors used by ECA. Including chart integrators, third party, sales points (think pipeline interconnects). Gathering is only the beginning, sharing (breaking old habits), integrators and third party requirements along with owner reporting are but a few of the data wants and needs. One aspect of data collection that should not be overlooked is of course, the visual one. Our well tenders can input comments in a hand held computer about observations they make while on location
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Document ID: E9915455

Fro m The Wellhead To The Burner Tip: A System Overview
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the first year student to understand the basic flow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by consumers. Specific focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution systems.
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Document ID: 76651FB8

Wifi Ip Communications For Improved Field Support And Scada
Author(s): Dave Kimberling
Abstract/Introduction:
Have you ever stopped to consider just how dependent we all are on instantaneous communications? Or, how as different generations we communicate with each other? Both subjects are hot topics in business today. Now, stop for a minute and consider how many different pieces of equipment, and how many different forms of communications you as a person carry around with you on the job every day. And then ask yourself these questions - Who is the U.S. Postal Service anyway? and Why do I still have a land line telephone?
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Document ID: 9399DDB4

Gas Meter Proving : The Equipment And Methodology Used Today In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine the accuracy of a natural gas meter, a known volume of air is passed through the meter, and the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters.
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Document ID: 28EAC4D2

Automated Rotary Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Kevin Beaver Roman Artiuch
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of rotary gas meters in the 1920s, gas companies have been using differential testing to assess meter condition. By measuring the pressure drop across a rotary meter gas companies use the differential test as a means of determining whether or not meter accuracy has changed. When used in accordance with manufacturer recommendations, and gas industry standards like ANSI B109.3, differential testing is a cost effective method for assessing meter condition while a rotary meter is in-service
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Document ID: 4BF24CA0

Flow Calibrating High Volume Ultrason Ic Flo Wmeters- Considerations And Benefits
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters, Second Addition
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Document ID: 351CF290

12 Rules For Specifying A Successful Scada System
Author(s): Steve Hill
Abstract/Introduction:
As a supplier of SCADA Systems and Software, we see a lot of specifications for SCADA systems. We also often help customers in determining their requirements as they develop specifications. The specification is probably the most important part of your SCADA system - it determines the products and services you are going to receive, and it will be the reference against which you measure the final delivered product
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Document ID: 50371C63

Diagnostics For Large High Volume Flow Orifice Plate Meters
Author(s): Mark Skelton Simon Barrons Jennifer Ayre Richard Steven,
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2008/9 DP Diagnostics disclosed a proprietary differential pressure (DP) meter diagnostic methodology 1,2. Swinton Technology (ST) has subsequently developed software named Prognosis in partnership with DP Diagnostics. Prognosis allows these generic DP meter diagnostic methodologies to be applied in flow computers thereby making these principles available for field applications
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Document ID: B7B452E3

Understanding Gas Ultrasonic Diagnostics - Basic
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identified in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors.
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Document ID: C4E447F4

Radio Path Studies 101
Author(s): Dan Steele
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of computer generated software to predict radio frequency (RF) path studies has been around for several years. Combined with the latest GPS and Google map data you can determine how well your network will work, RF path link reliability, link budgets, Fresnel zones, multipath and if you may need to invest in different towers, use more repeaters or add additional technologies to try to cover the area you need communication. The following is a discussion of the real benefits of the software. Like anything else regarding computers and GPS coordinates, the best information will provide the best results and poor information will provide poor results
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Document ID: ECCDA2F4

Understanding Gas Ultrasonic Meter DIAGNOSTICS-ADVANCED
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USMs), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscalquality, multipath USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1.
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Document ID: 20D0A1D6

Lte : Paving The Way For Innovation
Author(s): Bob Slevin
Abstract/Introduction:
LTE is an evolution of the UMTS system defined by the 3G Partnership Project (3GPP), which is an offshoot of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Key Features as defined by 3GPP Significantly increase peak data rates, scaled linearly according to spectrum allocation Improving spectral efficiency Improving services Making use of new spectrum opportunities Improved quality of service Better integration with other open standards
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Document ID: 8ACF020E

Calculating The Speed Of Sound In Natural Gas Using AGA Report No. 10
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The speed of sound in natural gas is the velocity a sound wave travels in the gas. There are a number of gas properties that affect the speed of sound and they include the composition of the gas, the pressure of the gas and the temperature of the gas. The American Gas Association Report No. 10 Speed of Sound in Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases provides an accurate method for calculating the speed of sound in natural gas and other related hydrocarbon fluids.
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Document ID: 42ABB592

Expert Systems In Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Jonathan Fiedler
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody transfer ultrasonic gas flowmeters are the cash registers of companies. These cash registers should measure accurately. To determine the accuracy, the change in uncertainty of the ultrasonic flow meter while in operation, is often overlooked. For example minimal fouling on the bottom of the meter can give an additional uncertainty of 0.2% or more. Other aspects like sever flow profile changes due to a partially blocked flow conditioner, damaged transducers, or high levels of ultrasonic noise can also play an important role over the operational lifetime of an ultrasonic flowmeter
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Document ID: E90AD71E

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): Robert E. Braxton Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization injection and monitoring technology has advanced dramatically in the past 15 years. A former Chairperson of the Appalachian Short Course, Harold Englert of Columbia Gas Virginia, used to refer to odorization as, A little bit of science, and a whole lot of magic. The intent of this paper is to provide the reader with practical solutions to develop a solid Odorization program, even in dense urban environments, in the hope of removing the, Magic, to a successful Odorization program
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Document ID: B914542E

High Volume Measurement Using Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
For over one hundred years the turbine meter has been servicing large volume applications of the natural gas market. During this time the turbine has continuously evolved into a device that offers the industry new and unique features. This paper will focus on the significant advancements of this technology as well as how they are applied in the field today
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Document ID: 0FFCF568

Regulator Sizing And Application
Author(s): Rick Schneider
Abstract/Introduction:
The first step in properly sizing a regulator is to understand the design parameters for the application where it is being installed. This requires knowledge of the customers requirements and the limitations of the distribution and transmission system in the area that are feeding it. It is especially important to understand what the flow and pressure requirements are of the customer and to make sure that the distribution and transmission system can satisfy those requirements.
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Document ID: 4716E734

Guidelines For Evaluat Ing Scada Syst Ems
Author(s): Joe Castillo
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA has the ability to perform an immense complex number of functions. Given the sheer volume of SCADAs potential benefits, how do you ensure your organization receives the full extent of SCADAs value? The evaluation of complex systems is both difficult and risky this is especially true if you are learning the new technology while at the same time keeping up with daily responsibilities
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Document ID: EF5DDCE7

Fro m The Wellhead To The Burner Tip: A System Overview
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the first year student to understand the basic flow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by consumers. Specific focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution systems
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Document ID: 9F96E760

Odorant Spills: Prevention And First Response
Author(s): John Beighle Juraj Strmen
Abstract/Introduction:
The day after an odorant spill 1. Station shutdown - business disruption 2. Public at risk - negative perception 3. High environmental cleanup costs Sources of odor leaks and spills Storage/burial of contaminated material Equipment malfunction (leaky gaskets, seals, corrosion) Decommissioning of odorization stations Odorant transfers, filtration, transport of odorization equipment Maintenance of odorization systems Natural disasters (hurricanes, floods) Operator error Construction projects involving odorization equipment
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Document ID: FBE4CD7C

Indirect Heaters Basic Overview And Practical Application
Author(s): Cris Buckley
Abstract/Introduction:
In the oil and gas industry there has been a long history for the need to heat combustible products for many applications. These applications range from heating of crude oil to maintain its temperature above paraffin point to heating of a flowing well stream to maintain it above its hydrate forming temperature. There are several types of heaters, for purposes here we will limit our discussion to the Indirect Water Bath Heater i.e. Indirect Heater
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Document ID: 2C243229

High Pressure Services
Author(s): George Levesque
Abstract/Introduction:
The code governing pressure control of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems is 192.197. This part of the code has been updated several times (11/07/1970, 07/13/1998, and 09/15/2003) since its inception on August 19, 1970. 192.197 details when overpressure protection is required and lists some acceptable methods of overpressure protection. For distribution systems with MAOPs over 125 PSIG, the code is pretty clear on the requirement for, and the application of, overpressure protection. For MAOPs below 125 PSIG, there are several factors that are looked at like the design of the service regulator, whether the gas is free from materials that could interfere with the proper operation of the regulator, the body size of the regulator, as well as other factors. For the purpose of this class, we will focus on applications above the 125 PSIG MAOP which is covered by 192.197.c.1 & 2
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Document ID: C4962453

Gate Station Design
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
The City Gate or, Take, Station, is the interchange of natural gas between: Two interstate pipelines An interstate pipeline and a local gas distribution company (LDC) An interstate pipeline and a large industrial end user (usually a power plant) The City Gate station is one of the more complex designs a natural gas engineer will deal with in the course of a career. Like all projects, a properly designed and constructed gate station begins with good preliminary engineering
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Document ID: 3741F87E

Fundamentals Of District Regulator Station Design
Author(s): James P. Davis Scott A. Laplante
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the fundamental steps necessary to begin and complete a district regulator design. It will focus on the techniques NSTAR uses to develop target locations and the subsequent designs. This paper will cover replacements and new installations
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Document ID: B706B424

Gas Odorants - Safe Handling , Health , And Environment
Author(s): Daniel E. Arrieta Eric Van Tol
Abstract/Introduction:
Thiols (i.e. mercaptans), sulfides, and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liquefied petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. Mercaptans, for example, have proven to be very effective in odorizing because of their low odor threshold and therefore, immediate impact on the olfactory system (Roberts, 1993).
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Document ID: E40C7916

Basic Application Of Flo W Computers And Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Bill Herndon
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to the evolution of flow computers being commonly used in the measurement of hydrocarbons, most telemetry systems were used to collect control information and real time data and provide control commands to a Remote Terminal Unit at major pump and compressor stations. Most of the local metering was being handled by chart recorders and local data collection by operations. These charts and reports were sent to a central facility where the information was used to provide custody transfer reports and or operations reports
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Document ID: 395CC197

Self-Operated Regulator Basics
Author(s): Trent Decker Steve Ludtman
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation
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Document ID: 2FE85776

Real Time Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years now, flow computers have been implemented in gas measurement systems to utilize technology, to improve measurement accuracy, provide far more efficient data acquisition, and provide better control resources for remote interface through telemetry. As the meters functionality has increased, the meter technician has had to become more diverse in his or her knowledge of measurement, control, computers, and electronics
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Document ID: 91F5301D

Measuring And Monitoring Odorant Levels In The Pipeline: The Sniff Test Versus Analytical Instruments
Author(s): Ed Flynn
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Producers, Mid-Streamers, Transmission and Distribution companies are rapidly installing new steel pipelines at record breaking pace throughout the United States due to the availability of newly found gas supplies. This is due mainly to the abundant supply of shale gas. Its well documented that new steel piping can cause odorant to absorb into the pipe walls creating an odor fade condition. To prevent this from occurring utility companies will add additional odorant into the pipeline (AKA Pre-Pickling) prior to putting the pipe in service
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Document ID: A8127B0F

Basics Of Using Modbus Rtu In Monitoring And Control Production
Author(s): Ed Smigo
Abstract/Introduction:
MODBUS is a common industrial Communication protocol that has been around for decades. It is widely available either as a standard or option in industrial control and monitoring equipment and can be easily utilized. While it is simple, it is slow in comparison to some of todays available networking architecture, but has been so widely adopted because that simplicity
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Document ID: 967D0926

Basic Gas And Instrumentation For Gas Detection
Author(s): George Lomax Eric Six
Abstract/Introduction:
In this class we will review what we need to know about how natural gas, and other gases, works in order to better understand how to detect leakage and unintended releases. We will then look at the operation, maintenance and calibration of the instrumentation available for gas detection. The class will conclude with a demonstration of the Explosion Chamber
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Document ID: 081FEB5A

Decommissioning Of Obsolete Odorization Equipment
Author(s): Juraj Strmen Wesley Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
Why decommission and dispose? Natural Gas industry is a fast growing segment of our energy industry and there is a need to keep the operations safe and environmentally friendly. Obsolete odorization equipment needs to be removed and disposed of in an environmentally sound and odor-free manner in order to avoid business disruption or potential liquid/vapor odorant leaks from obsolete equipment.
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Document ID: 90CA2BA9

The Use Of Flow Conditioning To Help Improve Flow Meter Accuracy And Repeatability
Author(s): Danny Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow conditioning is one of the most critical aspects dealing with any type of volumetric flow metering. Flow conditioning is the final buffer between the flow meter and the upstream piping layout and is responsible for eliminating swirl, restoring flow symmetry and generating a repeatable, fully developed velocity flow profile. Even though modern advancements have resulted in low uncertainty, high repeatability devices that are effective across a range of flow rates, proper utilization of flow conditioner is still required to maximize the meters performance, diagnostics and ensure the most stable long term flow measurement
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Document ID: 1985ED86

Wireless Tank Level Measurement
Author(s): Jeff Russo
Abstract/Introduction:
While wireless networks for laptops and smart phones are part of our assumed culture today, the use of this technology for industrial process measurement and control is relatively new. As the technology has advanced and the price has dropped, the number of places where it can affordably deployed has grown significantly. Wireless process transmitters for pipeline flows and pressures are common today, facilitated by the development of low-power RTUs and increases in solar panel efficiency. Tank level monitoring presents another opportunity for improvement because of its nature, battery operated devices are a costeffective option. This talk will explore the technology and its benefits
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Document ID: 37DC6C91

Condition Based Monitoring - A Fully Automated Station Solution
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The traditional method of verifying whether the USM is operating accurately essentially requires using the USM manufacturers diagnostic information to help understand the meters health. This is usually accomplished by having a technician visit the site periodically (typically monthly) to collect a maintenance report. This report is analyzed by the technician while onsite, and often analyzed a second time by office measurement specialists at a later date. However, if a problem has occurred during the month, and isnt present at the time of the site visit, added measurement uncertainty may be the result
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Document ID: 9BE790D2

Marcellus Shale Measurement Station Design Considerations
Author(s): Dan Manion
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of the Marcellus Shale play has generated a significant increase in the need for an expanded gas takeaway system. As the pipeline system continues to expand, so does the need for custody transfer measurement stations. This significant increase in demand is impacting station design parameters and the means by which they are constructed. This paper is intended to explore the current trends and challenges associated with the Marcellus development, review how those trends have affected station design and investigate potential future trends that may impact future station design.
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Document ID: 14C76D2F

Type Approval Of An Usm Using Oiml And ISO Perturbation Testing
Author(s): Martin Schlebach, Klaus Zanker
Abstract/Introduction:
Advancements in metering technology, in particular gas and liquid ultrasonic meters, have greatly increased the range of applications for them, while reducing the uncertainty and improving installation effects immunity. However testing requirements to substantiate these claims have only recently been addressed in applicable standards and recommendations. ISO 17089 -1 (2010) and OIML R137 -1&2 (2012) specify a group of perturbation and performance tests that ensure meters installed in custody transfer applications perform within the specified uncertainty limits
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Document ID: A2CF95F7

Determining Lost And Unaccounted For - Product Loss
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Every company involved in the natural gas industry must deal with the issue of determining lost and unaccounted for gas loss. Production, gathering, midstream, pipeline and distribution companies are all impacted with managing the unaccounted for (UAF) gas loss. For years, the cost and impact of the UAF was passed directly to the customer with no direct requirements to manage and reduce the costs associated with this loss. Now, numerous individual companies strive to manage the impact of UAF for their customers
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Document ID: 13FE9151

New Technologies In Gas Detection For Oil And Gas
Author(s): Kurt Stridinger
Abstract/Introduction:
With the discovery of large shale reserves that have been touted to be large enough to supply national gas needs for years to come, drilling and exploration have naturally increased. As drilling and exploration increase, so do the hazards that accompany dangerous emissions in this environment. This paper explores gas detection instrumentation and technology, and how it can be helpful in the Oil & Gas industry
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Document ID: E8C5D4B2

Basic Principles Of Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Michael Garvey
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators are capable of providing very accurate control in natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines. The Pilot Operated Regulator provides advantages over both self-operated regulators and control valves. Primary benefits include simplicity of operation and elimination of any fugitive emissions caused by atmospheric bleed gas. However, it is important to recognize the limitations of the pilot operated flexible element regulator and apply it accordingly. The original Flexible Element Regulator, the Flexflo , was developed by the Grove Valve and Regulator Company circa World War II.
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Document ID: 2A2A14DD

Fundamentals Of Control Valves And Pressure Controllers
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas flow. The first is the regulator and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform flow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the fundamentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: CD61807B

Measurement Of Natural Gas By Coriolis Flow Meter AGA Report No. 11
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design, enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the publication of the second edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter
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Document ID: 2C4B2733


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