Measurement Library

FLOMEKO (An IMEKO Conference) Publications (2013)

Establishment Of New Air Velocity Standard In Nim
Author(s): Cui Lishui Wang Chi Li Chunhui
Abstract/Introduction:
New air velocity standard facility is established at NIM. The facility is constituted of wind tunnel with outlet diameter of 200mm and LDA that works as standard to calibrate anemometer. In the velocity range of (0.230) m/s, the velocity stability and the deviation of velocity distribution along profile are both less than 0.35%. To realize traceability of LDA the spinning-disc is developed. The wire with diameter of 5 is mounted on the edge of spinning disc to simulated tracing particle in air flow. The calibration results and analysis suggest that the expanded uncertainty of fringe spacing is evaluated to be: Urei0.3%, k2.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: BD7D8A44

Metrological Analysis Of Smart Heat Meters
Author(s): L.Celenza1 M-DellIsola1 R-DAlessio1 G.Ficco1 P.Vigo A.Viola
Abstract/Introduction:
Nowadays heat meters only measure the consumptions of thermal energy and they normally do not allow remote transmission of measurement data for subsequent management purposes. Furthermore, thermal energy measurements are normally performed without evaluating the real quality of the supplied thermal energy. On the other hand, the typical features of smart metering could allow to continuously transmit energy data, also interacting with supply and management issues
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: CC82C6B8

Metrological Analysis Of Smart Heat Meters
Author(s): L.Celenza M.DellIsola1 R.DAlessio1 G.Ficco1 P.Vigo A.Viola
Abstract/Introduction:
Nowadays heat meters only measure the consumptions of thermal energy and they normally do not allow remote transmission of measurement data for subsequent management purposes. Furthermore, thermal energy measurements are normally performed without evaluating the real quality of the supplied thermal energy. On the other hand, the typical features of smart metering could allow to continuously transmit energy data, also interacting with supply and management issues
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 7A4AE206

Primary Standard For Nanoflow Rates
Author(s): Peter Lucas Maria Mirzaei Harm Tido Petter Maurice Heemskerk
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper is discussed a novel primary standard which is based on volumetric expansion due to a temporal temperature gradient. The principle, required corrections, traceability and preliminary results are discussed
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 42230388

Applicability Of Ultrasonic Pulsed Doppler For Fast Flow-Metering
Author(s): Stephane Fischer Claude Rebattet Damien Dufour
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of fluctuating flows in hydraulic machines is an ongoing challenge for which classical flow meter technologies (Differential pressure, Magnetic, Turbine and Propeller) are not well adapted. The ultrasonic pulsed Doppler technique allows to measure instantaneous velocity profiles in a very short time. This paper presents the performances of the ultrasonic velocity profiler UB-Lab to achieve faster velocity flow measurement through hydraulic pipes.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 6189484C

Dynamic Characteristics Of A Hydraulic Wheatstone Bridge Mass Flowmeter
Author(s): A. Svete J. Kutin I. Bajsic
Abstract/Introduction:
A hydraulic Wheatstone bridge represents a potential solution for a direct mass flow meter with a linear measuring characteristic. In order to investigate the dynamic performance of the flowmeter, a dynamic physical-mathematical model was built. Since the flowmeters characteristic is linear, it was found to be unaffected by the square root errors, which is the case with standard differential pressure flowmeters. On the other hand, the flowmeters frequency characteristic exhibits a typical resonance. The theoretical results were also confirmed experimentally. Experimental studies of the water flow pulsation effects on the flowmeter were conducted in a test rig with a diaphragm-type flow pulsator
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 7AD3002B

Effects Of Flow Disturbance On Multi-Path Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Author(s): Liang Zhang Heming Hu Tao Meng Chi Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
Experimental study of multi-path ultrasonic flowmeters measurement accuracy in complex flow fields was carried out in the water flowrate standard facility of National Water Large Flowrate Measurement Station. Several muti-path ultrasonic flowmeters with different path arrangement were studied. The flow disturbances were created by bend, tapered pipe, diverging pipe and butterfly valve. By studying the measurement errors of different types of ultrasonic flowmeters, it is confirmed that the cross plane ultrasonic flowmeter is more adaptable to the complex flow field. The installation angle of flowmeter affects measurement accuracy. The sources of measurement error were analysed by CFD simulation.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 7E866DE3

Evaluation Of Coriolis Flowmeters For Hydrocarbon Volumetric Flow Measurement
Author(s): T. Shimada R. Doihara Y. Terao
Abstract/Introduction:
Some types of Coriolis flowmeters has been calibrated using the large and medium hydrocarbon flow calibration facilities at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) in order to investigate the effect of the liquid pressure, temperature and properties, which are viscosity and density on volumetric and mass flow rate. Furthermore, the density measurement using the Coriolis flowmeters has been discussed in detail using these calibration results
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 414FB4A8

Evaluation Of Coriolis Flowmeters For Hydrocarbon Volumetric Flow Measurement
Author(s): T. Shimada R. Doihara Y. Terao
Abstract/Introduction:
Some types of Coriolis flowmeters has been calibrated using the large and medium hydrocarbon flow calibration facilities at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) in order to investigate the effect of the liquid pressure, temperature and properties, which are viscosity and density on volumetric and mass flow rate. Furthermore, the density measurement using the Coriolis flowmeters has been discussed in detail using these calibration results
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 0F36719F

Blow-Down Calibration Of A Large 8 Path Ultrasonic Flow Meter Under Quasi-Steady Flow Conditions
Author(s): A. Johnson E. Harman J. Boyd
Abstract/Introduction:
We used an array of critical flow venturis (CFVs) in a blow-down facility to calibrate a large (D 89.5 cm) 8 path ultrasonic flow meter at atmospheric pressure. The calibration was performed with dry air spanning the flow range 2 kg/s to 36 kg/s. At the largest flows, pressure transients associated with the blow-down system resulted in quasi-steady flow conditions. The quasi-steady conditions were measured using a high speed data acquisition system that scanned 66 instruments (i.e., pressure and temperature sensors) every 1.8 s. Corrections were made for thermal lag of the RTD temperature sensors, and for mass storage effects in the 230.3 m3 connecting volume between the CFV array and the ultrasonic flow meter
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: F2196EC3

Ultrasonic Flow Measurement With Integrated Temperature Measurement Compensation
Author(s): Benjamin E. Mcdonald Lei Sui
Abstract/Introduction:
Compensation for ultrasonic flow measurement has increasingly become the trend for applications that call for higher accuracy and tighter repeatability. Temperature is a variable that tends to have a significant impact on performance. Geometric dimension changes due to thermal expansion and contraction, as well as fluid dynamics, are impacted by temperature and thus have an influence on overall system accuracy. This paper presents a new method for measuring temperature by taking advantage of well characterized material properties that change with temperature and utilizing existing system capability. Integrated temperature measurement can be included as part of the diagnostic support package and used for compensation by using existing capability
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: BCB51DB6

Theoretical Analysis On The Effect Of Divergent Section With Laminar Boundary Layer Of Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): Hongbing Ding Chao Wang Yakun Zhao
Abstract/Introduction:
ISO toroidal-throat nozzle with a divergent section differs from the nozzle used for the theoretical research of Hall & Geropp and is highly likely to affect the flow field and discharge coefficient. In this paper, the influence of ISO-type conical divergent section on discharge coefficient was analyzed basing on inviscid transonic flow model and laminar boundary layer respectively. Two coordinate systems namely cylindrical coordinates and curvilinear coordinate were applied to research the velocity distribution of core flow and calculate displacement thickness. The results indicated the influence of conical divergent section decreases with increasing of diffuser angle and Reynolds number, while increases with divergent section length increasing. It meant that the discharge coefficient is significant influence by diffuser angle and divergent section length when the Reynolds number decreases to a certain value. The sonic nozzle which is miniaturized or applied to low Reynolds number flow should be carefully designed.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 358C0F69

Experimental Investigation Of Discharge Coefficient And Tapping Error Of Ptc 6 Flow Nozzle Using High Reynolds Number Calibration Rig
Author(s): N. Furuichi K.H. Cheong Y. Terao K. Fujita K. Shibuya
Abstract/Introduction:
A tap effect of a discharge coefficient of a throat tap flow nozzle based on PTC 6 is investigated by measuring the discharge coefficient in 1.8x105ed 1.4x107. The measurement error of the differential pressure, when it is normalized by a wall shear stress including the effect of roughness caused by the hole of a tap, is described as a function of tap Reynolds number based on the friction velocity and the tap diameter. The equation of the discharge coefficient of the flow nozzle is proposed, which consists of the two terms that can be physically evaluated, the theoretical discharge coefficient and the measurement error of differential pressure.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 42CBDCAF

Experimental Investigation Of Discharge Coefficient And Tapping Error Of Ptc 6 Flow Nozzle Using High Reynolds Number Calibration Rig
Author(s): N. Furuichi K.H. Cheong Y. Terao K. Fujita K. Shibuya,
Abstract/Introduction:
tap effect of a discharge coefficient of a throat tap flow nozzle based on PTC 6 is investigated by measuring the discharge coefficient in 1.8x105ed 1.4x107. The measurement error of the differential pressure, when it is normalized by a wall shear stress including the effect of roughness caused by the hole of a tap, is described as a function of tap Reynolds number based on the friction velocity and the tap diameter. The equation of the discharge coefficient of the flow nozzle is proposed, which consists of the two terms that can be physically evaluated, the theoretical discharge coefficient and the measurement error of differential pressure
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: B8718FFB

Reynolds Dependence Of Four Different Flow Meters Used For Feed Water Flow Measurements
Author(s): P. Klasona O. Bukera P. Laua O. Penttinena K. Mattiassona T. Ledererb K. Tawackolianb J. Frederiksenc A. K. Niemannc P. Milotad
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Metrology for improved power plant efficiency project the Reynolds dependence of four flow meters used for feed water flow measurements were investigated. The four flow meters were ultrasonic, inductive, orifice plate and Venturi tube flow meter. The measurements were performed up to 90 C to study the temperature dependence of the meters. An extrapolation model up to 230 C was developed to measure the feed water flow with an uncertainty in the range of 0.3 % - 0.5 %. The influence of a double bend out of plane disturbance on the meters was also investigated. Some meters showed a significant dependence
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 69A619C4

Study On Geometric Parameter Measurement And Weight Coefficient Correction Of Ultrasonic Flowmeter
Author(s): He-Ming Hu Tao Meng Feng Gao Liang Zhang Chi Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
Geometric parameter measurement system for multi-path ultrasonic flowmeters based on Leica total station has been established, which can directly measure the 3D coordinates of the conduit points and sensor points and automatically calculate geometric parameters of the flowmeter. Compared with the traditional method using the theodolite and steel tape, the first advantage of this system is the high efficiency and good accuracy, and the second is the path heights can be re-measured after the sensor mounted. Cylinder fitting is its key problem. Lukacs algorithm is introduced for the cylinder fitting, and Monte-Carlo simulation method is introduced for its uncertainty estimation.To illustrate the rationality and validity of this measurement system, the calibration data and its uncertainty of 3 flowmeters in three gorges power station have been comparative analysed. Besides, the influences of the water temperature and pressure on the diameter of three gorges steel penstock and then on the other parameters have be estimated
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: DF81E2D0

Study On Geometric Parameter Measurement And Weight Coefficient Correction Of Ultrasonic Flowmeter
Author(s): He-Ming Hu Tao Meng Feng Gao Liang Zhang Chi Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
Geometric parameter measurement system for multi-path ultrasonic flowmeters based on Leica total station has been established, which can directly measure the 3D coordinates of the conduit points and sensor points and automatically calculate geometric parameters of the flowmeter. Compared with the traditional method using the theodolite and steel tape, the first advantage of this system is the high efficiency and good accuracy, and the second is the path heights can be re-measured after the sensor mounted. Cylinder fitting is its key problem. Lukacs algorithm is introduced for the cylinder fitting, and Monte-Carlo simulation method is introduced for its uncertainty estimation.To illustrate the rationality and validity of this measurement system, the calibration data and its uncertainty of 3 flowmeters in three gorges power station have been comparative analysed. Besides, the influences of the water temperature and pressure on the diameter of three gorges steel penstock and then on the other parameters have be estimated
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: B64FC85B

System And Methodology For Liquid Ultrasonic Flow Measurement Within Laminar To Turbulent Transitional Zone
Author(s): Paththage Priyadarshana1 Drew Weaver Dale Goodson Peter Syrnyk4
Abstract/Introduction:
Applications for liquid ultrasonic Custody Transfer flow measurement are traditionally limited to flow ranges within the meters performance capability related to the viscosity of the fluid, particularly in the low Reynolds number region where the flow range is across the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes. This paper discusses new methodology by which the flow meters performance can be extended into lower ranges of Reynolds numbers for viscous flows while maintaining the close tolerances needed for Custody Transfer measurement applications. The methodology includes the ability to dynamically measure the Reynolds number as well as the fluids kinematic viscosity within the laminar to turbulent transition zone
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: CC01535A

The Specification, Selection And Use Of Liquid & Gas Flow Rate Measuring Devices
Author(s): Richard Fertell
Abstract/Introduction:
Description of an international standard that is complied with as part of the CE Mark or certified by factory audit for product safety marks, to ensure all liquid, gas & LPG/LNG flow rate measurement technology specifications are consistent for evaluation and comparison as well as to document and advance the stateof- the-art of flow rate measurement technologies. The standard will cover all liquid, gas & LPG/LNG flow rate technologies, error sources, fluid and temperature applications, and expected measurement uncertainties. The standard includes all improvement suggestions from the CFM 2011 presentation participants
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: C885B6F8

Micro Flow Facility For Traceability In Steady And Pulsating Flow
Author(s): Hugo Bissig Martin Tschannen Marc De Huu
Abstract/Introduction:
Micro and nano flow calibrations are important in several medical applications such as drug delivery where the knowledge of the exact amount of the delivered drug is crucial for efficient health care treatment and safety of the patient. However, international traceability in the micro and nano flow is not validated up to date for flow rate ranges below 33 l/min. METAS develops in the framework of the EMRP project HLT07 Metrology for Drug Delivery a primary standard to cover the flow rate range from 1 ml/min down to 100 nl/min. The setup of the facility and the working principle are addressed in this paper.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: B6A086F2

The Upgraded Control System Of Primary Liquid Flow Measurement Standard At Nimt
Author(s): T. Chinarak1 K. Leetang T. Changpan3
Abstract/Introduction:
The liquid piston provers have been widely used as the primary standard for liquid flow measurement. There are many flowmeters which can be used with the prover such as turbine flowmeters, variable area flowmeters, electromagnetic flowmeters, etc. The flowrates from the prover are measured by volumetric method. Thus, the displaced volume of water and the moving distance of the piston during measurement are the key factors. In order to receive the accurate volume, the efficient system for gaining pulses from the linear encoder is needed. Also, temperature and pressure of liquid inside the piston cylinder and the environmental conditions are involved with the measurement.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: BCA88ED7

Fluid Metering For Peristaltic Pumping
Author(s): Y. Feng C.M. Jiang W.H. Deng
Abstract/Introduction:
Peristaltic pumping is a common process in chemical, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. However, the actual measured flow is frequently found to be erroneous with an accuracy no better than 10%. In this paper we present a design of the precise fluid metering sensing technology using MEMS thermal time-of-flight principle in a close loop with the peristaltic pumping for the bio-fluidic analyser. The data indicate that the MEMS fluidic meter could significantly improve the accuracy and control of the fluid delivery within 5% which not only substantially reduces the cost but boosts the performance of the instrument by better controlling the sample to carrier liquid injections
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 1B9BFEFF

Low Cost Digital Flow Meters For Industrial Process Applications
Author(s): K. Peng C.Q.Zhouand W.H. Deng
Abstract/Introduction:
Variable area flow meters or rotameters have been widely used for flow monitoring of industrial process, particularly where the cost is the first priority. However, with the constant demands for process digitization, remote data transmission, data log, flow level register and alarm triggered automation have been highly demanded. These characters are not available for the rotameters while the low cost barrier prevents other existing technology to provide the same solution. MEMS mass flow technology on the other hands, is ready to emerge for these applications. In this paper we present the working principle, design and performance of a series of MEMS flow meters that can be used to replace the rotameters. The all new digital flow meters meet all current digitization requirements while excel in performance at a very competitive cost.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 7A6BE515

Determination Of Conversion Curves Of Flow Scale Of Gas Variable Area Flowmeters Using A Single Liquid
Author(s): Horia Mihai Motit
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper presents the solving of the necessity of the analytical calibration of gas variable area flowmeters (VAF) according to an original methodology to determine experimentally the conversion curves of flow scale of gas VAF using only a single liquid instead of a lot of gases. The analytical bases are obtained starting from the principles of theory of hydraulic similitude applied to VAF and after an adequate processing of the analytical equation of Reynolds number for VAF. This methodology uses only the cheapest fluid (water) and the cheapest installation instead of a lot of gases and a complex and very expensive installation
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 10556D77

Investigation Of Optimal Chord Topology For Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters In Distorted Flows
Author(s): Gryshanova, P. Pogrebniy A. Rak
Abstract/Introduction:
this study a theoretical investigation of performance of multipath ultrasonic flow meters under distorted flow profiles is proposed. The velocity distribution depends on the pipe configuration, which will produce an asymmetric flow profile and as a result will affect the accuracy of measurement. So, we discover how to minimize the effect of distorted flows on measuring process of ultrasonic flow meters due to number of chords and their arrangement. In order to evaluate the performance of the multipath ultrasonic flow meters the measurement error is determined for various asymmetric flow profiles with different chord configurations. As a part of the work it was obtained strategy that can reduce the error associated with different flow disturbances. Using CFD analysis interesting conclusions have been derived. These conclusions can be applied to specific individual situations and a significant reduction in error can be achieved.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: D1AA39F4

A New Approach For The Parameter Measurement Of Fluid Conductivity In An Electromagnetic Flow-Meter
Author(s): Wenhua Cui Bin Li
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper introduces a new approach for the parameter measurement of fluid conductivity in an electromagnetic flow-meter. Based on dual excitation method, one magnetic excitation is used for flow rate measurement, and the other electric excitation is for fluid conductivity measurement. Dual-frequency electric excitation is employed to get fluid conductivity in a wide range with high precision. A calculation model for fluid conductivity is proposed. A dual-excited electromagnetic flow-meter based on photovoltaic(PV) Cell was designed and verified. Simulation experiment based on resistors and experiment based on different fluid conductivity were carried out
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 0CD5F431

Evaluation Of The Volumetric Method With Application To Low Head Hydraulic Machines
Author(s): J. Sundstrom1 M.J. Cervantes
Abstract/Introduction:
The present work presents an evaluation of a flow measuring method known as the volumetric method. The method consists in running a turbine at a constant load during an extended period of time which depends upon the reservoir geometry. The flow rate through the turbine is determined from the volume change in the reservoir(s) by measuring the water level change. Through a pilot study in a full scale machine it is shown that the method reproduces reasonable results
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 94405F02

Evaluation Of The Volumetric Method With Application To Low Head Hydraulic Machines
Author(s): J. Sundstrom1 M.J. Cervantes
Abstract/Introduction:
The present work presents an evaluation of a flow measuring method known as the volumetric method. The method consists in running a turbine at a constant load during an extended period of time which depends upon the reservoir geometry. The flow rate through the turbine is determined from the volume change in the reservoir(s) by measuring the water level change. Through a pilot study in a full scale machine it is shown that the method reproduces reasonable results
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 810B261B

A Piv Examination On The Performance Of Ultrasonic Heat Meter Related To Installation
Author(s): Wang Sun Luhai Wang Jiming Yang Yujian Zhu
Abstract/Introduction:
An experimental investigation was carried out on the performance of an ultrasonic heat meter with interference of non-uniformity from the upstream installation of a ball valve, which it is partly opened. It was found that the existence of the ball valve may under-report the flow, especially when the flow rate is low. From the measured PIV results, it can be found that the velocity distribution is obviously non-uniform inside the meter, and the change is remarkable when the inlet is added with a ball valve. The time resolved PIV results also demonstrate that the flow field becomes unsteady when slow down the flow rate, which might be responsible for the measurement deviation
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: AF5291FF

Micro Flow Facility For Traceability In Steady And Pulsating Flow
Author(s): Hugo Bissig Martin Tschannen Marc De Huu
Abstract/Introduction:
Micro and nano flow calibrations are important in several medical applications such as drug delivery where the knowledge of the exact amount of the delivered drug is crucial for efficient health care treatment and safety of the patient. However, international traceability in the micro and nano flow is not validated up to date for flow rate ranges below 33 l/min. METAS develops in the framework of the EMRP project HLT07 Metrology for Drug Delivery a primary standard to cover the flow rate range from 1 ml/min down to 100 nl/min. The setup of the facility and the working principle are addressed in this paper
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 103AA149

Dynamic Temperature Effects In A Clearance-Sealed Piston Prover For Gas Flow Measurements
Author(s): J. Kutin G. Bobovnik I. Bajsic
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with the dynamic temperature effects in a high-speed, clearance-sealed realization of a piston prover. A dynamic mathematical model was built to study the temperature variations and to estimate their influence on the flow measurements. The mathematical model is formulated on the basis of lumped-element models of the piston and the gas cavity. The energy balance for the gas cavity includes the convective heat exchange with the surroundings. One of the potential effects results from the temperature differences between the inlet gas flow and the cylinder wall. In addition, the piston provers operation generates dynamic temperature variations, which are mainly related to the pressure change due to the flow redirection and to the pressure oscillations due to the pistons resonance effects
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: EDD7DCE8

Temperature Effect On Shear Flow And Time Dependant Modelling Of Cutting Oil Emulsion
Author(s): L. Hammadi1 N. Boudjenane1 m. Mekkaoui1 m .Belhadri1
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of temperature and shear rate on rheological behaviour of cutting oil emulsion was investigated in this work. The model of Herschel-Bulkley was used to fit the shear stress dependence of the shear rate for temperatures between 20C and 100C. The temperature increase induced not only a decrease in the yield stress and the consistency index of cutting oil emulsion but also an increase of the flow index of cutting oil emulsion. For constant shear rate applied on the cutting oil emulsion at 20C a thixotropic behaviour was observed and analyzed using a modified model of Herschel-Bulkley
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 5EBB9760

Experimental Investigation To Calibrate Pitot-Tube By Lda
Author(s): Cui Lishui Hu Heming Li Chunhui
Abstract/Introduction:
Pitot -tube is widely used to measure the air velocity. The coefficient a must be calibrated to correct the measurement result. LDA (laser Doppler anemometer) can be applied to calibrate Pitot-tube to acquire the coefficient a . During the process, the calibration result is influenced by the flow round the probe of Pitot-tube and air velocity distribution deviation in long axis. The experiments are conducted to evaluate or correct this influence. The results show (1) the calibration results will be different due to the interference of probe mounted in flow field. So, the proper measurement position for LDA is required to reduce the influence as much as possible. (2) The air velocity distribution deviation that is inherent along axis also influences the result of calibration coefficient a . This influence can be corrected by actual measurement
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 2F1C229E

Experimental Investigation To Calibrate Pitot-Tube By Lda
Author(s): Cui Lishui1 Hu Heming Li Chunhui
Abstract/Introduction:
Pitot-tube is widely used to measure the air velocity. The coefficient must be calibrated to correct the measurement result. LDA (laser Doppler anemometer) can be applied to calibrate Pitot-tube to acquire the coefficient a. During the process, the calibration result can be influenced by the flow round the probe of Pitot-tube and air velocity distribution deviation in long axis. The experiments are conducted to evaluate or correct this influence. In ideal condition, the velocity measured by Pitottube can be calculated by:
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 1586BC7B

Experimental Investigation To Calibrate Pitot-Tube By Lda
Author(s): Cui Lishui1 Hu Heming Li Chunhui
Abstract/Introduction:
Pitot-tube is widely used to measure the air velocity. The coefficient must be calibrated to correct the measurement result. LDA (laser Doppler anemometer) can be applied to calibrate Pitot-tube to acquire the coefficient . During the process, the calibration result can be influenced by the flow round the probe of Pitot-tube and air velocity distribution deviation in long axis. The experiments are conducted to evaluate or correct this influence. In ideal condition, the velocity measured by Pitottube can be calculated by:
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 47E1B161

Inter-Laboratory Comparisons Between Nmij And Accredited Laboratories For Water Flow In Japan
Author(s): N. Furuichi K.H. Cheong Y. Terao
Abstract/Introduction:
Inter-laboratory comparisons between NMIJ and four JCSS accredited laboratories in Japan for water flow are carried out for wide flowrate range from 0.005 m3/h to 5000 m3/h using five type transfer flowmeters. The deviations of test results between NMIJ and the accredited labs are within approximately 0.1% and the averages of the deviations for each accredited labs are within 0.025%. These results indicate a high capability of the calibration facilities in the accredited labs. To investigate the reason of the deviations in the comparisons, influences of temperature, density and measurement time are observed
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: C98CB954

Improvement Of Accuracy Of Natural Gas Metering By Household Gas Meters
Author(s): Prof. Y. Pistun Assoc. Prof. F. Matiko Assoc. Prof. R. Fedoryshyn
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper deals with the new technique for calibration of the household gas meters according to the working conditions in order to reduce the error caused by non-conversion of gas volume to base conditions. To apply this technique the studies of gas pressure and temperature variations in household gas meters during a year were carried out, the ratio of gas volumes consumed by household consumers during the cold and warm seasons of the year is defined. Based on the studies the average annual gas temperature and pressure weighed by the consumed gas volumes are defined. Based on the weighed values of gas temperature and pressure the nominal values of gas temperature and pressure are defined in order to convert the readings of the gas meters to these nominal values. Application of the developed technique provides reduction of unaccounted volume of gas and reduction of unbalances in gas distributing companies
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 32CF6EFF

New Mathematica Functions For Uncertainty Analysis
Author(s): m. D. Mikhailov V. Y. Aibe I. Yasuda
Abstract/Introduction:
The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) 1 describes the standard approach for assessing uncertainty. By considering the law of uncertainty propagation, it tells us how to compute variance of functions of several random variables. Although the method is straightforward, it can became rather involved depending on the complexity of the model. In this work we develop a package for Mathematica 1 software system which aims to render the procedure of calculating uncertainty simple and transparent for the end user
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 0A57763B

Ultrasonic Flowmeter For Coal Seam Gas Application
Author(s): Lei Sui Randy S. Pfenninger Toan H. Nguyen Nicholas A. Hobbs Isaac Sadovnik Liguo Su James E. Matson
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of ultrasound to measure flow is now well established with many installations worldwide in chemical and petrochemical plants, and refineries. In general, it is more challenging to apply ultrasonic techniques to gas flow measurement than liquid due to a variety of reasons, including the much lower acoustic impedance, higher Mach numbers, higher turn-down ratios, and larger pressure variations, associated with gas flow measurement. In this paper, ultrasonic flowmetering of Coal Seam Gas (CSG) or Coal Bed Methane Gas (CBMG) is investigated and reported. A theoretical model has been developed to understand how the received ultrasound signal strength changes with temperature, pressure and gas contents.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 31BEE5D0

Metrological Characterization Of A Capillary Type Thermal Mass Flowmeter Cttmf() For Natural Gas Metering
Author(s): Furio Cascetta Aline Piccato Francesco Rampazzo Giuseppe Rotondo Pier Giorgio Spazzini
Abstract/Introduction:
Nowadays, smart static gas measurement technologies are available on the market and are used for metering natural gas consumption of final consumers. Both ultrasonic and thermal-mass flow metering technologies are considered today as new electronic gas meters. Such new digital meter- s require an adequate knowledge of the measurement principle in order to carry out correct calibration procedures. In other words, we are in the digital age o f the gas measurement: digital meters require digital calibrations. The calibration procedures in use to calibrate a traditional (mechanical) analogue gas mete (such as a diaphragm meter or a rotary piston meter) are not fully adequate for the calibration of an electronic, digital meter
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 5FBBBDC0

Flow Metrology Standard For Microfluidics
Author(s): L.J. Huang L. Lei B. Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
Many current chemical, medical and pharmaceutical applications require precise measurement of fluidic flow in microfluidic regime where traditional flow metrology standards are obsolete or unavailable. It is often mandatory on the other hand for the flow metrology agency to provide certifications of any possible products in services. In this paper we present a systematic study from liquid from below 150L/sec in the flow channels smaller than 800m in diameter.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 78747566

Air Speed Measurement And Simulation In Fan-Pad Greenhouse With Orchid Crop
Author(s): C.C. Li J.Y. Chen C. m. Su J. W. Chen
Abstract/Introduction:
In this study, the effects of circulating fan setting conditions, such as number of fans and installation position and angle, on the distributions of air speed and temperature in the agricultural greenhouse, were investigated experimentally and numerically. The environment data of air speed, temperature, humidity and thermal radiation of a demonstrative greenhouse acquired via continuous automated measurement were integrated with microclimate CFD simulation to reveal the optimal control rule of the air-conditioning instruments
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 696BFC26

The Development Of A New WATER/OIL Mixture Facility For Testing Sampling Techniques And Flow Meters
Author(s): T. Cousins C. Hodges R. Steven Damon Myer
Abstract/Introduction:
From a recent investigation by CEESI, it is clear that the independent data available on the performance of custody transfer metering systems to operate with high water content, 5-90%, is both scattered and sparse. As a result of the investigation, CEESI were commissioned to produce a water in oil test facility, aimed at carrying out experimental work on both the direct metering and sampling of high water cuts. It is designed to be able to change the oil viscosity, to look at the effect of viscosity variation on the performance of the measuring instruments
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 55012C8E

The Development Of A New WATER/OIL Mixture Facility For Testing Sampling Techniques And Flow Meters
Author(s): T. Cousins C. Hodges R. Steven Damon Myer
Abstract/Introduction:
From a recent investigation by CEESI, it is clear that the independent data available on the performance of custody transfer metering systems to operate with high water content, 5-90%, is both scattered and sparse. As a result of the investigation, CEESI were commissioned to produce a water in oil test facility, aimed at carrying out experimental work on both the direct metering and sampling of high water cuts. It is designed to be able to change the oil viscosity, to look at the effect of viscosity variation on the performance of the measuring instruments
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 31017D7A

Primary Standard And Traceability Chain For Microflow Of Liquids
Author(s): Miroslava Benkova1 Ivan Mikulecky
Abstract/Introduction:
To enlarge calibration capacity of existing liquid flow test bench in CMI - Czech Republic to lower flows a new primary test bench using gravimetric method at atmospheric conditions is being established. The range of flow is (0,001 - 100) mL/min. With accuracy increasing of offered flow meters, of course, requirements to reduce the uncertainty of the primary or secondary standard has been rising. Detailed design of the CMI primary standard equipment and experience with used measuring methods are subject of the article. The main focus of the paper are gap analysis for different dynamic testing methods (weighing, volumetric with piston) as well as detailed uncertainty analysis. Also a traceability chain to the end users flow meters is presented
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: DA819358

Design And Experimental Analysis Of Transfer Standard In Water Flow Comparison
Author(s): Tao Meng Chi Wang Feng Gao Chao Xing Liang Zhang
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of transfer standard is one of the most important factors of the success of comparison. 13 legal metrology laboratories participated in the recent Chinese water flow standard facility comparison. The transfer standard consisted of a velocity flowmeter transfer standard package (TSP) and a Coriolis mass flowmeter TSP were designed by the pilot laboratory. The velocity flowmeter TSP included one turbine flowmeter and one electromagnetic flowmeter which were assembled in series, and two types of flowmeter with different principle played a complementary role to ensure the reliability of the transfer standard
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: EDB0A39E

The New Inrim Primary Standard Of Water Flow Rate
Author(s): Carlo Marinari
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2011, INRIM opened a noteworthy upgrading work to plane an extensive renovation of the national water flow rate primary standard, to get better its structural features and to increasing its metrological performance. The paper presents the main activity of revamping of the INRIM liquid flow calibration rig in order improve its flow rate range and, mainly, to update its ancillary instrumentation towards a more modern approach to signal conditioning, by introducing automatic and userfriendly control of the measurement-taking process.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 93BC306F

Practical Method To Detect The Repeatability Of A Gravimetric Flow Test Rig By Using The Timing Error
Author(s): m. Leopoldo Cordova Thomas Lederer
Abstract/Introduction:
The present paper presents an improved method for the diverter error determination method according to the international recommendation ISO4185. By extending this test it is possible to make a qualitative test of the overall status of a gravimetric flow test rig. The proposed method has been successfully applied to results of diverter tests of the large water flow calibration facilities of the PTB in Braunschweig and Berlin. It is shown that by applying this method also the repeatability of the flow meter used, and of the test bench alone can be estimated
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 0B2182A1

A Practical Method To Detect The Repeatability Of A Gravimetric Flow Test Rig By Using The Timing Error
Author(s): m. Leopoldo Cordova Thomas Lederer
Abstract/Introduction:
The present paper presents an improved method for the diverter error determination method according to the international recommendation ISO4185. By extending this test it is possible to make a qualitative test of the overall status of a gravimetric flow test rig. The proposed method has been successfully applied to results of diverter tests of the large water flow calibration facilities of the PTB in Braunschweig and Berlin. It is shown that by applying this method also the repeatability of the flow meter used, and of the test bench alone can be estimated
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 25E8E444

A Practical Method To Detect The Repeatability Of A Gravimetric Flow Test Rig By Using The Timing Error
Author(s): m. Leopoldo Cordova Thomas Lederer
Abstract/Introduction:
The present paper presents an improved method for the diverter error determination method according to the international recommendation ISO4185. By extending this test it is possible to make a qualitative test of the overall status of a gravimetric flow test rig. The proposed method has been successfully applied to results of diverter tests of the large water flow calibration facilities of the PTB in Braunschweig and Berlin. It is shown that by applying this method also the repeatability of the flow meter used, and of the test bench alone can be estimated
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: C1E8B9D3

The BEV/E+E Elektronik Air Speed Reference
Author(s): Mathias Rohm
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper presents a detailed description of the calibration equipment and procedure of the new Austrian reference laboratory for air speed in the range from 0.04 m/s to 40 m/s. Calibrations of pitot tubes, rotating wheel, vane, ultrasonic, and thermal anemometers are made as comparison measurements with a Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) in a homogenous reproducible wind tunnel flow
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 45C720E3

A Practical Method To Detect The Repeatability Of A Gravimetric Flow Test Rig By Using The Timing Error
Author(s): m. Leopoldo Cordova Thomas Lederer
Abstract/Introduction:
The present paper presents an improved method for the diverter error determination method according to the international recommendation ISO4185. By extending this test it is possible to make a qualitative test of the overall status of a gravimetric flow test rig. The proposed method has been successfully applied to results of diverter tests of the large water flow calibration facilities of the PTB in Braunschweig and Berlin. It is shown that by applying this method also the repeatability of the flow meter used, and of the test bench alone can be estimated
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: D8AC9D45

Quantifying Impacts On The Measurement Uncertainty In Flow Calibration Arising From Dynamic Flow Effects
Author(s): Rainer Engel Hans-Joachim Baade
Abstract/Introduction:
Traceability of the measurement units in fluid flow metering, as the state-of-the-art approach, is practiced as a so-called element-by-element method which relies upon the idealistic assumption that the measurement process in a flow calibration facility can be run under exact steady-state conditions, i.e. absolutely no fluctuations of the flow quantities are assumed to occur during the flow measurement process. Practical experiences, combined with a model-based analytical view of the measurement process in a flow standard, have revealed that dynamic impacts on the measurement uncertainty due to flowrate fluctuations have to be taken into account, in addition to the steady-state traceability chain.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 0157A5AA

Uncertainty Estimation Of A Liquid Flow Standard System With Small Flow Rates
Author(s): Sejong Chun Byung-Ro Yoon Hae-Man Choi
Abstract/Introduction:
liquid flow standard system has been used to calibrate liquid volume of a fuel-oil flow meter at small flow rates between 50 L/h and 700 L/h. However, the system has not been used to calibrate volume flow rate because the system runs at the standing-start-and-finish mode. To calibrate the volume flow rate of the fuel-oil flow meter, a flow diverter was installed and its performance was estimated in terms of measurement uncertainty
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 88A60319

In-House Comparison Between Small Hydrocarbon Flow Facility And Small Water Flow Facility At Nmij
Author(s): K-H. Cheong N. Furuichi R. Doihara T. Shimada Y. Terao
Abstract/Introduction:
Continuing efforts to expand the calibration flow range of small liquid hydrocarbon flow facility at NMIJ is being carried out. To justify the calibration capability of the facility in the flow range of 1 L/h 10 L/h, an in-house comparison with small water flow facility at NMIJ was conducted. Two Coriolis flowmeters were used as transfer meters. Effect of zero instability of the transfer meters on calibration results in flow range near zero was found significant and compensation of zero point flowrate was applied to reduce the effect. Sufficient number of measurements were done to reduce the uncertainty due to the reproducibility of transfer meters
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 6C7AE596

A New Facility For Calibration Of Flow Meters For Cooling Applications
Author(s): Anders Niemann John Frederiksen Jan Nielsen1
Abstract/Introduction:
A new test set-up for calibration of flow meters used in cooling applications has been established at Danish Technological Institute. The calibration set-up is based on reference metering with a Coriolis type flow meter. It consists of a closed conduit by means of a piping system for circulating a coolant mixture (e.g. 60/40 ethylene glycol/water mixture)in series through the reference flow meter and the meter under test. The coolant mixture is cooled through a pipe-in-pipe exchanger using CO2 as refrigerant
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 54777996

Removing The Hydrocarbon Liquid From Hydrocarbon Liquid Flow Standards
Author(s): Jodie G. Pope Christopher J. Crowley
Abstract/Introduction:
NIST and other laboratories calibrate meters that measure the flow of valuable liquids such as petroleum products. Historically, these calibrations have been conducted using Stoddard solvent. Laboratories using Stoddard solvent for liquid-flow calibrations must contend with flammability, inhalation toxicity, and hazardous waste disposal requirements. In response to health and safety concerns, we modified NISTs piston-prover flow standards so that calibrations are now conducted with mixtures of propylene glycol and water (PG + W). In this paper, we describe the modifications to NISTs calibration systems and our experiences in using the modified systems to calibrate turbine, positive displacement, and coriolis meters
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: DC9E032B

Investigation On Calibration Of Fuel Ethanol Flow Meter
Author(s): R. Doihara T. Shimada N. Furuichi Y. Terao
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibrations with ethanol, water and kerosene have been conducted by using a transferable test package which consisted of positive displacement (PD), turbine (TB), Coriolis (CMF) flowmeters and a small volume prover (SVP). Flowmeter performances and establishment a temporary ethanol flow standard have been investigated. It is founded that liquid replacement in the PD and the TB induced transitions of K-factor over several days. Performances of mass and volume flow output of CMF were also evaluated
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: B5C85655

Investigation On Calibration Of Fuel Ethanol Flow Meter
Author(s): R. Doihara T. Shimada N. Furuichi Y. Terao
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibrations with ethanol, water and kerosene have been conducted by using a transferable test package which consisted of positive displacement (PD), turbine (TB), Coriolis (CMF) flowmeters and a small volume prover (SVP). Flowmeter performances and establishment a temporary ethanol flow standard have been investigated. It is founded that liquid replacement in the PD and the TB induced transitions of K-factor over several days. Performances of mass and volume flow output of CMF were also evaluated
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 5DE569E2

Gas Oil Piston Prover, Primary Reference Values For High(- Pressure) Gas-Volume, Results
Author(s): M.P. Van Der Beek R. Van Den Brink
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper describes the design, measurement results and uncertainty analyses of the hydraulic driven piston-prover system which is in operation at VSL since 2008. The 12 meter long, 0.6m bore piston-prover is used for the realization of Reference Values for Gas-Volume at pressures between 1 and 65 bar(a) and any type of Gas. The principle is based on the displacement of a piston acting as a Gas-Oil separator. The standard has a flow-rate range from 5 to 230 m3/h. The system is designed to calibrate reference meters. The Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC) of the system is proven smaller than 0.1% (k2). The paper also explains the coherence between the Gas-Oil Piston-Prover and other traceability generators and flow rate bootstrapper systems
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: BE355264

Systematic Comparison Of The Westerbork And Euroloop High-Pressure Gas Flow Facilities
Author(s): Jos G.M. Van Der Grinten Frans Doorman
Abstract/Introduction:
the Westerbork and EuroLoop calibration facilities. In a period of two and a half years more than 100 meter calibrations were performed with 7 meters divided over 4 packages. The target of the intercomparison was a normalized deviation of 0.5 applied to the WME (weighted mean error). Due to the drift of the meters in the packages this criterion was applied to the trend of the calibration results. Out of 104 calibrations 90 results (86.5%) met this criterion, 13 results (12.5%) met 0.5 E n 1.0, and 1 result (1%) exceeded 1.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 31AF6B61

Development Of New High Air Speed Standard In Japan
Author(s): Tatsuya Funaki Aya Iwai Masahiro Ishibashi
Abstract/Introduction:
NMIJ is developing a new standard system for high air speed over 90 m/s. The system is based on flowrates up to 1000 m3/h generated by the primary standard facility of Japan. The flowrate is converted into air speed through a subsonic conversion nozzle whose outlet diameter is 60 mm, which is opened to the atmosphere
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 583990DE

Study Of Thermal Effect On Calibration Of An Ultrasonic Flow Meter
Author(s): Ching-Yi Kuo Jiunn-Haur Shaw Chun-Min Su
Abstract/Introduction:
primary high pressure air flow measurement standard was constructed at Center for Measurement Standards (CMS) in Taiwan with a capacity of 18000 m3/h and pressure range of 1 to 60 bar. With present calibration setup, the temperature of air flowing through the meter under test (MUT) decreased significantly during a test. To reduce thermal effect during meter calibration, improvements have been made by expanding the upstream air storage tank from 19 m3 to 34 m3, and installing a new compact sonic nozzle array (CSNA) downstream of the MUT as a new working standard (WS). A re-circulating loop at CMS was retrofitted and completed at the end of 2012
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: EC11D79C

Reducing The Uncertainty Of A Gravimetric Primary Standard
Author(s): Thomas Kegel William Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
CEESI operates a gravimetric primary standard for high pressure compressible flow measurement. A program is underway to reduce the uncertainty. A knife edged balance requires human position observation an optical sensor will provide an electronic indication. A set of ball valves transfer the flow source from a start-up supply to the gravimetric pressure vessel. The upgrade will include monitoring pressure and temperature transients while the valves reposition. A series of trapped volumes contain fluid that is not included in the direct mass determination, but flows through the test section. Improved volume, pressure and temperature measurements are being implemented.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 1CCF5260

The New Pvtt Facility In Nim
Author(s): Chunhui Li Lishui Cui Chi Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
In NIM, the old 2 m and 20 m pVTt facilities were built in 1986. The temperature stability of the collection tank was easily influenced by the surroundings. So, the new O.I m and 2 m pVTt facilities were built in 2010. The collection tanks were covered with water bath. The uncertainty for the new pVTt facilities were analyzed, and the measurement capability was verified by comparisons among the new pVTt facility, the old pVTt facility and the gas flow facilities in PTB with 14 sonic nozzles.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 8A9DAEF2

Results Of Ccm And Euramet Comparisons Of Primary Standards Of Low Pressure Gas Flow
Author(s): Miroslava Benkova1 Bodo Mickan Stefan Makovnik Ivan Mikulecky
Abstract/Introduction:
A key comparison of the gas flow standards of the National Institutes of Metrology was conducted from December 2010 to December 2012. A rotary gas meter type Delta S-Flow G 65 was selected as transfer standard. Laboratories were compared in low pressure gas flow in the range (2 - 100) m3/h. Eleven NMIs took part in this key comparison and the KCRV was determined. The results demonstrated degrees of equivalence to the KCRV.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 23736374

Development Of A Gas Micro Flow Transfer Standard
Author(s): J. Barbe F. Boineau F. Dijoux T. Mace P. Otal
Abstract/Introduction:
LNE has ability to calibrate micro gas flow rates using the dilution method in the range from 2 g/s to 200 g/s of nitrogen or 0.75 g/s to 30 g/s of helium. In addition, a primary constant pressure flowmeter for leak rates measurements from 0.05 g/s to 35 g/s is also available. In order to compare these reference facilities and to validate the dilution method below 30 g/s, LNE is developing a micro flow transfer standard (FTS) with the collaboration of ATEQ France, manufacturer of control equipments for leak test. The owmeter consists mainly of an array of three stainless steel capillaries designed to cover the ranges from 0.035 g/s to 0.35 g/s, 0.35 g/s to 3.5 g/s and 3.5 g/s to 35 g/s of nitrogen (0.1 ml/h to 100 ml/h). A dynamic model of the FTS determines the mass ow rate from the input pressure, the differential pressure of the capillary, the gas temperature, the gas properties (viscosity and density) and the dimensional parameters of the capillary (length and radius). The comparison of both reference methods was carried out with the FTS from 0.35 g/s to 35
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 422E2B1F

Critical Flow Sonic Nozzles Gas Flow Facility With Medium-Pressure And Closed-Loop Pipelines
Author(s): Sun Lijun Feng Qianqian Li Shengjie Tang Bing Zhang Tao
Abstract/Introduction:
The requirement of gas flow facility with high pressure is increasing. But, the experiences of development the closedloop high pressure facility are not enough. Critical flow sonic Nozzles gas flow facility with medium-pressure and Closed-Loop pipelines at Tianjin University Flow Lab was presented in the paper. The performance indexes, the flow loop, the uncertainty analysis of the facility were described. Discharge coefficient correction of nozzles at medium pressure and the flow rate stability control were shown in detail. The pressure of the facility is 0.31.6 MPa, the flow rate is 0.5120 m3/h at working status, the uncertainty is better than 0.3% (2).
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 5F5FA652

Evaluation Of The Effect Of Relative Humidity Of Air On The Coefficients Of Critical Flow Venturi Nozzles
Author(s): K. Chahine m. Ballico
Abstract/Introduction:
At NMIA, volumetric standards such as Brooks or bell provers are used to calibrate critical flow Venturi nozzles or sonic nozzles. These nozzles, which are extremely stable, are used by both NMIA and Australian accredited laboratories to establish continuous flows for the calibration of gas flow meters. For operational reasons, sonic nozzles are generally calibrated using dry air but later used with standard atmospheric air at various humidity levels either drawn or blown through the meterunder- test
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 6F699CC0

Conformity Assessment Using Monte Carlo Methods
Author(s): Jos G.M. Van Der Grinten1 Alex m. Van Der Spek
Abstract/Introduction:
Conformity assessment is the activity to determine whether specified requirements relating to a product, process, system, person or body are fulfilled. Often measurements are used to show that the measurand is within (legal) tolerances. Currently analytical methods are available to test whether tolerances are met with a preset level of confidence, e.g. 95%. The test requires the availability of the overall measurement uncertainty and the statistical distribution of the measurand. In absence of better information this distribution is assumed to be Gaussian
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 37C8FA20

Key Comparisons And The Ultimate Transfer Standard
Author(s): K. Mattiasson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Working Group for Fluid Flow (WGFF) (a part of CIPM) has established the key comparisons for measurement of flow and volume covering volume, water, oil and gas flow measurement. This paper discusses the methodology of key comparison performed within flow and volume measurement and present the ultimate transfer standard package consisting of two different measuring principles. This opens the possibility to obtain Youden plots to distinguish between uncertainty contribution from the transfer standards and the facility.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 8FFFF285

Experimental And Numerical Investigations Of Factors Effect On The S-Type Pitot Tube Coefficients
Author(s): Woong Kang Nguyen Doan Trang Jae Sig Shim Hee Soo Jang Yong Moon Choi
Abstract/Introduction:
In the greenhouse gas emission monitoring from industrial stacks, S-type Pitot tube is the most commonly used to measure the stack gas velocity. Various factors such as Reynolds number, misalignment of installation angle can be additional error sources for the S-type Pitot tube coefficients due to harsh environments. In present study, wind tunnel experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various factors on the S-type Pitot tube coefficients. Numerical simulations were also used to understand flow phenomena around S-type Pitot tube when misalignment and distortion of geometry happen
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 32393483

Improvements To Nists Air Speed Calibration Service
Author(s): Losif I. Shinder Christopher J. Crowley B. James Filla Michael R. Moldover
Abstract/Introduction:
We discuss five significant improvements to the Air Speed Calibration Service conducted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): 1. Reduced-uncertainty calibration of the secondary standard Laser Doppler Anemometer, (LDA) using a spinning disk, 2. Reduced-uncertainty LDA measurements that account for the position-dependence of the air speed in the test section and for window effects, 3. Improved repeatability, precision, and ease of calibrations by using automated data acquisition and PID air speed control, 4. Optical Character Recognition data acquisition system for anemometers lacking electrical outputs 5. Up-to-date uncertainty budget of the LDA
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 421EA16D

Flow Features In A Renewed Wind Tunnel
Author(s): A. Piccato P.G. Spazzini R. Malvano
Abstract/Introduction:
about a renewed wind tunnel are described. The test rig was deeply reviewed during these last two years. The works were performed focussing on the aim of improving the metrological features of the device in view of its use within the definition of an airspeed standard. Measurements of maximum airspeed and flow fluctuation along the test chamber axis are presented here
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 1A500ADE

On The Impact Of Anemometer Size On The Velocity Field In A Closed Wind Tunnel
Author(s): I. Care m. Arenas
Abstract/Introduction:
In the present paper, experimental and numerical investigations of the flow around different types and sizes of anemometers are presented and discussed. The measurements of the flow field at different distances upstream to the anemometer are performed with a laser Doppler Anemometer. The computational results are in rather good agreement with the experimental ones and show that anemometers may induce a strong distortion of the velocity field, even far upstream the anemometer
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 22405DAE

Development A Mobile Laboratory For Metrological Assurance Of Quality And Quantity In Natural Gas Custody Transfer In Colombia
Author(s): Henry Abril Luis E. Garcia Juan m. Ortiz John F. Velosa
Abstract/Introduction:
The relevance of providing traceability to gas quality and quantity in field increases every day. However, this task is expensive, generates risks related to equipment transport, demands adequate logistics and the required time to fulfill the measurement assurance process (calibration, confirmation and correction) may be long, causing disagree among agents involved in the natural gas custody transfer process
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: CBE0CE51

Monitoring The Repeatability And Reproducibilty Of A Natural Gas Calibration Facility
Author(s): T.M. Kegel W.R. Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
The high flow system of the Iowa natural gas facility has been in place for 14 years. A number of programs are maintained to monitor the random effects. Traditional control chart techniques have been adapted for the measurements of pressure, temperature, gas composition and flowrate. Turbine meter calibration standards have traditionally been monitored using ultrasonic check meters. A new low flow system has recently been installed that makes use of ultrasonic meters as both calibration standards and check meters. This paper will describe the development and interpretation of some monitoring techniques for the various flowrate standards
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: D9844500

Design Of A Large-Capacity Flow CALIBRATION/TEST Facility For Natural Gas Flow Meter
Author(s): Young-Cheol Ha Kyung-Am, Park Seung-Jun Lee Jae-Young Her
Abstract/Introduction:
A new large gas flow calibration facility, which will be owned by Kogas (Korea Gas Corporation) and operated by Kogas and KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science), has been designed. The facility employs the closed loop, master meter method. The flow range is 20-24 000 m3/h, the pressure range is 10-50 bara, and the expected calibration and measurement capability (CMC) is 0.22-0.24% for all pressure ranges. As of June 2013, the design of the new calibration facility is almost completed, except for the detailed design of the circulation compressor unit and the heat exchanger. It is scheduled to be finished by the end of 2015.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 41AEC76D

Euramet Interlaboratory Comparison Of 1000 L Proving Tank
Author(s): N. Almeida1 E. Batista1 E. Filipe1 F.M. Smits M.P. Van Der Beek
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to verify the agreement of results and procedures between eleven European National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) for large volume instruments, a EURAMET comparison Inter-comparison of 1000 L proving tank, was performed. This paper describes the transfer standard, the calibration methods and equations for the determination of the volume, the experimental conditions and the measurement results with the correspondent associated uncertainties. This comparison made it possible, within EURAMET, to have a comparison for large volumes. Before this comparison EURAMET comparisons where arranged in the L range and volumes like 100 mL, 5 L and 20 L.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: A7E37CD0

Numerical Investigation Of Temperature Distributions In Large Storage Tanks
Author(s): S. Schmelter R. Model1 G. Wendt2, m. Bar
Abstract/Introduction:
Using storage tanks for commercial transactions, the precise determination of the quantity of the liquid stored in the tank is required. Whereas the identification of the actual volume is realized by measuring the filling height by level gauges, for mass calculations the mean temperature of the liquid has to be additionally known. To ensure the reliable conversion of the liquid volume measured into mass temperature are investigated by numerical simulations for different fluids employing timedependent boundary conditions and considering various initial situations. For all boundary condition studied the temperature inside the tank always exhibits a stratified distribution.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 73F50435

The Progress Of Gravimetric Primary Standards For Liquid Flow Calibration At The Danish Technological Institute From 500 m3/h To 1E-9 m3/h
Author(s): C. Melvad J. Frederiksen
Abstract/Introduction:
The Danish Technological Institute has extended their primary lab liquid calibration range from 5 l/h and down to 1 l/h using gravimetric set-ups. The calibration uncertainty is between 0.05 % and 0.5 %, but the uncertainty still needs to be validated by an intercomparison. A secondary objective when building the standards was to enable dynamic measurement, enabling characterization of varying or pulsating flows. In the paper the design details of the systems going from large flow rates to small flow rates are discussed. Evaluation measurements made to assess the performance of the set-ups as well as the uncertainties are presented
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: DCC627A2

The Progress Of Gravimetric Primary Standards For Liquid Flow Calibration At The Danish Technological Institute From 500 m3/h To 1E-9 m3/h
Author(s): C. Melvad J. Frederiksen
Abstract/Introduction:
The Danish Technological Institute has extended their primary lab liquid calibration range from 5 l/h and down to 1 l/h using gravimetric set-ups. The calibration uncertainty is between 0.05 % and 0.5 %, but the uncertainty still needs to be validated by an intercomparison. A secondary objective when building the standards was to enable dynamic measurement, enabling characterization of varying or pulsating flows. In the paper the design details of the systems going from large flow rates to small flow rates are discussed. Evaluation measurements made to assess the performance of the set-ups as well as the uncertainties are presented
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 49A58AF1

Research Inter-Comparison For Small Liquid Flow Rates
Author(s): Christopher David Claus Melvad Hugo Bissig Elsa Batista
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the results obtained in a research inter-comparison organized in the framework of the development of traceable micro flow facilities for liquids within the EMRP project HLT07 Metrology for Drug Delivery 1. The paper presents the protocol of the comparison and the first results revealing some discrepancies between the laboratories
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: C912ECD4

Improvements To Nists Air Speed Calibration Service
Author(s): Losif I. Shinder Christopher J. Crowley B. James Filla Michael R. Moldover
Abstract/Introduction:
We discuss five significant improvements to the Air Speed Calibration Service conducted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): 1. Reduced-uncertainty calibration of the secondary standard Laser Doppler Anemometer, (LDA) using a spinning disk, 2. Reduced-uncertainty LDA measurements that account for the position-dependence of the air speed in the test section and for window effects, 3. Improved repeatability, precision, and ease of calibrations by using automated data acquisition and PID air speed control, 4. Optical Character Recognition data acquisition system for anemometers lacking electrical outputs 5. Up-to-date uncertainty budget of the LDA
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 74B5F720

Research Inter-Comparison For Small Liquid Flow Rates
Author(s): Christopher David Claus Melvad Hugo Bissig Elsa Batista
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the results obtained in a research inter-comparison organized in the framework of the development of traceable micro flow facilities for liquids within the EMRP project HLT07 Metrology for Drug Delivery 1. The paper presents the protocol of the comparison and the first results revealing some discrepancies between the laboratories
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 7FEB8CC5

Drop Volume Estimation Of Intravenous Set Using Gravimetric Method
Author(s): K. Leetang P.Samanpiboon T.Chinarak
Abstract/Introduction:
Intravenous Administration Set (IV Set) is one of medical devices that have been generally used in hospitals. Then, the primary standard calibration system appeared in this paper was set according to the IEC60601-2-24. The flow rate, volume and mass of distilled water which flowing through different IV sets are measured by using 1 mg resolution weighing balance, photoelectric sensors and data acquisition system. This is paper presents drop volume estimation compared with three different methods surface tension calculation, drop counted by photoelectric sensor and gravimetric method. The results show comparison of the drop volume with the three different methods and error less than 5% for each IV set type. The uncertainty of measurement is 0.752% of reading (2).
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 3233DFAD

A General Approach Using The Thermodynamic Efficiency Method For Absolute Flow Measurements
Author(s): J. Lanzersdorfer L. Gotsch
Abstract/Introduction:
Manufacturers of large-scale hydraulic machines face high liquidated damages if they can not meet performance guarantees due to contractual stipulations. Accurate determination of efficiency, power and flow is therefore of major interest. For plants exceeding heads of 100 m, the thermodynamic method represents the standard method. We present a mathematical refinement that uses additional power measurements to yield an analytical solution of the flow. Under favorable conditions, the measurement uncertainty is lower compared to that of other absolute flow measuring methods. With higher heads an even lower uncertainty can be expected.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: B442DEE1

Low Pressure Verification Of Gas Ultrasonic Flow Meters As An Efficient Solution To The Metrological Confirmation Process Suggested In ISO 10012
Author(s): Henry Abril Jose A. Fuentes Jorge Reyes Juan m. Ortiz John F. Velosa
Abstract/Introduction:
The metrological confirmation process applied to gas ultrasonic flow meters, according to the terms specified by the technical standard ISO 10012, represents a high challenge for natural gas transmission companies which, as TGI, are interested in establishing a Measurement Management System based on such standard. In this paper, a metrological control proposal is described for exclusive application to ultrasonic flow meters (USMs) operating at low (atmospheric) pressures. This is based on tests performed on 2 new flow meters DN150 (6) which were calibrated at first in PIGSAR (Germany) using natural gas at high pressure, as test fluid, and later characterized by air at atmospheric pressure in CDT de GAS (Colombia
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: A3B23756

Tank Prover Calibration In Locus
Author(s): V.Y.Aibe
Abstract/Introduction:
One principle of tank calibration is the weighing method. When the balance capacity this not big enough, the liquid mass is measured partially in many steps. In order to simplify the procedure, new calibration system was constructed. It permits calibrate simultaneously flow meter and tank. The flow meter is used as standard to calibrate great volume tanks. This calibration system is transportable and it is used to realize tank provers calibration in locus
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 003826C8

New Design For A Transfer Standard Method Flow Stand
Author(s): Dean m. Standiford
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2000, Micro Motion, Inc. presented a paper at FLOMEKO introducing a new system for calibrating its flow meters referred to as a Transfer Standard Method (TSM) liquid calibration system. The transfer standards for this system are Coriolis reference meters installed in parallel. The stability of the reference meters is one of the largest contributors to the overall measurement uncertainty in this system.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 973DA063

LNG Energy Transfer Uncertainty- Sensitivity To Composition And Temperature Changes
Author(s): Emmelyn Graham Asaad Kenbar
Abstract/Introduction:
Determining and reducing the measurement uncertainty of LNG energy transfer in custody transfer operations is considered extremely important and challenging for industry. The European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project has been focusing on reducing the uncertainty in the evaluation of LNG energy transfers by improving existing measurement methods, validating new measurement methods and development of new traceable calibration systems. Part of this project was to produce realistic measurement uncertainty budgets and to determine the sensitivity of the overall LNG energy transfer uncertainty to changes in the composition and temperature of different LNG cargoes
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 9FC229BB

LNG Flowrate Measurement Using Laser Doppler Velocimetry
Author(s): A. Strzelecki A. Ouerdani Y. Lehot C. Windenberger J.P. Vallet
Abstract/Introduction:
A very promising alternative to the state-of-the-art static volume measurements for Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) custody transfer processes is the dynamic principle of flow metering. In the frame of the Joint Project Research METROLOGY for LNG, CESAME EXADEBIT explored a novel cryogenic flow metering technology using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), as alternative to ultrasonic and Coriolis flow metering. The study focused on the technological challenges and solutions for extending the LDV method to cryogenic temperatures, and on the estimation of the uncertainty that can be realistically achieved with such a measurement system to measure the LNG flowrate
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 9DA9CF27

Cavitation Of LNG In Ultrasonic Flowmeters - CFD Modelling
Author(s): J. Sluse J. Gersl
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper a possible cavitation of LNG in ultrasonic flowmeters is investigated. The cavitation is an unwanted effect which can occur especially near the ultrasound transducer mountings where sharp edges at the wall can appear. By means of numerical modelling we predict pressure drops which can occur near the pockets in front of the ultrasound transducers. We then calculate a minimal sub-cooling of LNG below the bubble point temperature for which the cavitation can be avoided for various velocities and pressures in the fluid
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: CC6CF839

Unaccounted For Gas In Natural Gas Transport Networks
Author(s): F-Arpino1 L.Celenza1 R-DAlessio1 M-DellIsola1 G.Ficco1 P.Vigo A.Viola
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the main issues in the natural gas (NG) transport networks management is represented by the Unaccounted for Gas (UAG). UAG is the quantity to be considered in the balance equation to take into account the unavoidable errors due to measurements and estimations. The resulting problem is twofold: on one hand fiscal and contractual, on the other hand the unavoidable pressure from the national authorities to reduce UAG.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 521732F3

Improvements To Nists Air Speed Calibration Service
Author(s): Losif I. Shinder Christopher J. Crowley B. James Filla Michael R. Moldover
Abstract/Introduction:
We discuss five significant improvements to the Air Speed Calibration Service conducted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): 1. Reduced-uncertainty calibration of the secondary standard Laser Doppler Anemometer, (LDA) using a spinning disk, 2. Reduced-uncertainty LDA measurements that account for the position-dependence of the air speed in the test section and for window effects, 3. Improved repeatability, precision, and ease of calibrations by using automated data acquisition and PID air speed control, 4. Optical Character Recognition data acquisition system for anemometers lacking electrical outputs 5. Up-to-date uncertainty budget of the LDA
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: EF547C01

Flowmetring And Acoustic Study Of A Gas Flowrate Limiter
Author(s): Fares Ben Rayana Gdf Suez
Abstract/Introduction:
The CRIGEN had realized a wide experimental study on gas flowrate limiter used on compact meter station for measuring gas flow at variable pressure. This device is used to control and limit, for a specified pressure, the flowrate of the meter station. It is a perforated plate with a constant holes size. Each hole is functioning as a sonic nozzle. The number and size of the hole are defined by the meter station maximal flowrate
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 93DA2C2F

Crude Biogas Flowmetering
Author(s): Fares Ben Rayana Gdf Suez
Abstract/Introduction:
The Biogas, also known as digester gas, is the gaseous product of anaerobic digestion (decomposition without oxygen) of organic matter. It is considered as a renewable energy source. GDF SUEZ is working actively on the development and recovery of this energy, drawing on synergies with the natural gas industry
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 534F0517

Investigation Of Methane Losses During The Caloric Upgrading Of Biogas For Grid Injection
Author(s): H.-B. Bockler R. Kramer B. Mickan
Abstract/Introduction:
In the last years a large number of bio gas plants were build which generate gas mixtures of methane and carbon dioxide usually up to 1000 m3/h in a single plant. Often this gas is used as fuel for electrically power generation but there is also an interest to inject the gas into the public gas grid. For this purpose a purification is needed which increases (upgrades) the methane partition of the injected gas in order to realize gross caloric value similar to the natural gas in the grid. An important issue of CO2 - separation is the emission of methane into the atmosphere by losses which is dependent from the applied technology
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: EB26EAC3

Crude Biogas Flowmetering
Author(s): Fares Ben Rayana Gdf Suez
Abstract/Introduction:
The Biogas, also known as digester gas, is the gaseous product of anaerobic digestion (decomposition without oxygen) of organic matter. It is considered as a renewable energy source. GDF SUEZ is working actively on the development and recovery of this energy, drawing on synergies with the natural gas industry
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 5BCBF606

Improvement Of Accuracy Of Natural Gas Metering By Household Gas Meters
Author(s): Prof. Y. Pistun Assoc. Prof. F. Matiko Assoc. Prof
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper deals with the new technique for calibration of the household gas meters according to the working conditions in order to reduce the error caused by non-conversion of gas volume to base conditions. To apply this technique the studies of gas pressure and temperature variations in household gas meters during a year were carried out, the ratio of gas volumes consumed by household consumers during the cold and warm seasons of the year is defined
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 6EBD27A2

Numerical And Experimental Investigation Of Flow Fields In Critical Flow Small Size Nozzles
Author(s): E. Von Lavante J. Allofs F. Winzosch R. Kramer B. Mickan
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to their long term stability, well understood flow behaviour and very low uncertainty, standard critical flow Venturi nozzles (CFVN) are enjoying great popularity as a calibration tool and flow metering device. Their application to very small flow rates beyond the ISO 9300 Standard, however, leaves many questions unanswered. The present work aimed at detailed investigation of flow fields within CFVNs of diameters between 15 m and 80 m. The present numerical flow simulations were validated by corresponding experimental work carried out at the PTB.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 9D0A5A6F

The Upstream Installation Effect On The Cbpr Of Sonic Nozzle
Author(s): Lifen Wan1 Chunhui Li Yan Li Lishui Cui
Abstract/Introduction:
The test for the critical back pressure ratio (CBPR) of a sonic nozzle by using an orifice plate is established, and six types of upstream conditions are set up. Preliminary experimental results show that the upstream conditions have almost no effect on the CBPR at throat Reynolds number larger than 1.1x105, but better upstream conditions or the longer lengths of upstream straight pipe can improve flow stability when throat Reynolds number smaller than 1.1x105, the upstream installation condition would have a significant impact on the CBPR, because of the occurrence of the premature unchoking phenomenon. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the CBPR in use for small throat diameter nozzle.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: F68195EC

Boundary Layer Transition In High Precision Critical Nozzles Of Various Shapes
Author(s): Masahiro Ishibashi Tatsuya Funaki
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration results of accurately machined critical flow Venturi nozzles are summarized and a single fitted curve of the discharge coefficient against the Reynolds number were obtained that covers from the laminar to the turbulent boundary layer regimes. Possibility to use critical flow Venturi nozzles with smaller inlet curvature such as R1.0D is discussed. Effects of diffuser length, inlet curvature, inlet diameter and inlet shape are also discussed. It is shown that theories will fail to predict discharge coefficient correctly when R is small
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: C150E06B

Choking Pressure Ratio Guidelines For Small Critical Flow Venturis And The Effects Of Diffuser Geometry
Author(s): Michael S. Carter Bradford W. Sims, Charles L. Britton, Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The ratio of maximum exit static pressure to inlet stagnation pressure that maintains sonic velocity at the throat of a Critical Flow Venturi (CFV) is referred to as the Maximum Back Pressure Ratio (MBPR). Current standards only provide MBPR equations for CFVs operated at throat Reynolds Numbers ( R e n t ) above 200,000. This paper will provide MBPR guidelines for operating CFVs below a R e n t of 200,000. Additionally this paper will examine the causes of premature unchoking and how diffuser geometry contributes to this effect
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 45A6535E

Detailed Study Of Flow Structure In Cfvn And Its Effects On The Flow Rate
Author(s): E. Von Lavante H. Kaya F. Winzosch S. Brinkhorst
Abstract/Introduction:
The flow fields in a toroidal Venturi nozzle shaped according to the ISO 9300 Standard, have been investigated using numerical flow simulation. The present study aimed at clarifying some of the phenomena associated with the unchoking of the throat. To this end, the shock structure has been studied for different Reynolds numbers and exit pressure ratios. The flow simulations were carried out in two and three dimensions. The flow fields were always unsteady, displaying a complex shockboundary layer interaction
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 7F79F5D8

Improvements To Nists Air Speed Calibration Service
Author(s): Losif I. Shinder Christopher J. Crowley B. James Filla Michael R. Moldover
Abstract/Introduction:
We discuss five significant improvements to the Air Speed Calibration Service conducted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): 1. Reduced-uncertainty calibration of the secondary standard Laser Doppler Anemometer, (LDA) using a spinning disk, 2. Reduced-uncertainty LDA measurements that account for the position-dependence of the air speed in the test section and for window effects, 3. Improved repeatability, precision, and ease of calibrations by using automated data acquisition and PID air speed control, 4. Optical Character Recognition data acquisition system for anemometers lacking electrical outputs 5. Up-to-date uncertainty budget of the LDA Also, we present the results (with uncertainties)
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 5DC3FB91

Detailed Study Of Flow Structure In Cfvn And Its Effects On The Flow Rate
Author(s): E. Von Lavante H. Kaya F. Winzosch S. Brinkhorst
Abstract/Introduction:
The flow fields in a toroidal Venturi nozzle shaped according to the ISO 9300 Standard, have been investigated using numerical flow simulation. The present study aimed at clarifying some of the phenomena associated with the unchoking of the throat. To this end, the shock structure has been studied for different Reynolds numbers and exit pressure ratios. The flow simulations were carried out in two and three dimensions. The flow fields were always unsteady, displaying a complex shockboundary layer interaction
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 3666E88B

Mems Mass Flow Meters With In Situ Gas Composition Compensation
Author(s): L.J. Huang Y. Feng K.S. Ling W.T. Wong M.F. Sham
Abstract/Introduction:
Thermal mass flow meters for gas metering with complicated gas composition are often a challenge as it requires the real gas calibration. In many cases, particularly for gases with dangerous or harmful components the calibration is very costly and sometimes even not feasible for re-calibration at field. It is even worse that at the time gas composition varies, the calibration would be erroneous. In this paper, the design, theory and experiments for a MEMS thermal mass flow meter that is capable to dynamically compensate the gas composition variation during measurement are discussed. The meter can also provide in situ measured gas thermal values.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 15063221

Gas Flow Measurement & The Impact Of Contaminants In The Gas Stream
Author(s): D. J. Pack A. B. Chesnoy J. Bosio
Abstract/Introduction:
Significant advances have been made over the past couple of decades with respect to flow metering technology applicable to natural gas transmission measurement. Current flow meter technology is characterised by high reliability, excellent turndown and very low measurement uncertainty. However, the environment in which these flow meters are being placed is becoming more demanding on the meters operation and performance. This is because of the trend to operate pipelines at higher pressures and transport varying gas composition from multiple pipeline system inlet points. These conditions are conducive to the formation of unwanted contaminants within the gas stream
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: A504234D

Interactions Between Gas Flow Measurement Instruments And Gas Flow Sources
Author(s): Edward Morrell
Abstract/Introduction:
The interconnections and procedures followed when using gas flow measurement instruments are critical to obtaining accurate flow measurements. Errors can be introduced from interactions between flow sources and flow measurement instruments, interconnecting plumbing, thermal instabilities and pressure variations. The introduced uncertainties can be especially large when measuring gas flow in situ at industrial installations. Many end users have little knowledge or appreciation for these effects and as a result measurement errors are often introduced in gas flow measurements. In this paper, we report and quantify measurement errors when using a positive displacement piston prover to calibrate gas flow in industrial installations
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 2B6F4DDE

Mems Thermal Mass Flow Meters For Humidified Gases
Author(s): L.J. Huang C.C. Chen Y.N. Liu J.L. Ruan W.H. Deng
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of gas with high humidity or gas converted from liquid phase is frequently encountered. Accurate metering is always a challenging process as the remaining liquid vapors may significantly affect the performance of the measuring unit. In this paper, we presented a novel design of a mass flow meter which is utilizing a single MEMS calorimetric mass flow sensor chip integrated with a substrate micro-heating circuitry. The results indicated that the design can effectively work for the gas flow measurement under the presence of high humidity or liquid vapors with no requirement of additional external heating assistance to avoid condensation that alternates the measurement results
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 4FC9C87F

A New Flow Conditioner For 4-PATH Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Author(s): G J Brown B W Griffith
Abstract/Introduction:
There are benefits, limitations and trade-offs to be taken in to account when considering using a flow conditioner with an ultrasonic meter. These include aspects such as the pressure loss, the risk of fouling and the influence on meter repeatability, as well as the ease and reproducibility of manufacturing. This paper discusses different flow conditioner designs and introduces a new design intended for use with 4-path ultrasonic flowmeters
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: B6DF0FBF

Development Of A New Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flowmeter
Author(s): Takafumi Abe1 Takuya Hayashi1 Natsuya Kikawa1 Daisuke Tsuruta1 Yoshiaki Kobayashi1 Masaki Takamoto1 Takashi Shimada Ryoji Doihara Yoshiya Terao
Abstract/Introduction:
Feasibility study on a new type clump-on ultrasonic flowmeter with a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) tube as a meter body is presented in the report. Recently, CFRP is widely used in transportation industry because of its excellent characteristics. Also, non-destructive inspection of CFRP is increasingly important for safety reason and one of the important methods is to detect microscopic defects by use of ultrasound. Characteristics of ultrasonic propagation in CFRP have been well investigated. The paper reports a new type clump-on ultrasonic flowmeter with CFRP by use of the characteristics. One of the main advantages of the flowmeter is very high S/N ratio.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 3466BCB7

Accuracy Enhancement Of A Combined V/Z Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flow Meter
Author(s): Sejong Chun Byung-Ro Yoon Woong Kang Hyu-Sang Kwon
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic flow metering with clamp-on type transducers is a promising method when portability in flow metering is necessary. Nevertheless, the clamp-on ultrasonic flow meter has low measurement accuracy as flow speed in the pipe decreases. If the two types of clamp-on ultrasonic flow paths, namely, Zshaped and V-shaped ultrasonic paths, are combined, measurement accuracy can be increased because the metering output becomes robust. In the present study, the measurement accuracy of the combined clamp-on ultrasonic flow meter was within +2 % at 50 m3/h, which was smaller than those of the Z-shaped and the V-shaped clamp-on ultrasonic flow meters at the same flow rate. This can provide an advantage for water resource management because a general guideline for the water resource management is less than +2 %.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: D8CC2506

The Gap Discharge Transducer As A Sound Pulse Emitter In An Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter
Author(s): Kristoffer Karlsson Jerker Delsing
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper the gap discharge transducer is used as a sound pulse emitter in an ultrasonic flow measurement setup to determine its capabilities to measure a gas flow. An industrial fan and a 3 m long pipe with diameter 62 cm was used to create a flow scenario. The gap discharge transducer was placed between two standard piezoelectric receivers to mimic an ultrasonic flow meter setup. A hot-wire anemometer was used as reference. The gap discharge transducer shows good potential as a sound pulse emitter in a flow measurement setup if more care is taken in aligning the system.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 628E8F32

Turbine Flowmeter And Viscosity Effects Of Liquid Hydrocarbons
Author(s): Valmir Ruiz Marcos Tadeu Pereira1 Nilson Massami Taira
Abstract/Introduction:
The article presents the results of tests carried out in turbine meters to investigate the effects of different viscosities in the curves, and to explore mathematical ways to express the low flow rate part of the curves in order to use them as a functional part of the flow meter curve, with some loss of uncertainty, but even so useful in a number of cases. The turbine meters have diameters of 25 mm, 40 mm and 50 mm, and the tests were carried out with three different viscosities of fluids (7cSt, 17cSt and 34cSt
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: C7E0085A

Traceability In Anemometry: A Rotating Arm As Airspeed Primary Standard
Author(s): A. Piccato P.G. Spazzini R. Malvano
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last WGFF meeting (2012) the question of what kind of facilities can be considered as primary standard for airspeed has been discussed. The final decision about dragging facilities that can be accepted as primary standards at a NMI, from the viewpoint of the CIPM 2009-24 (Traceability in the CIPM MRA) 1, clearly limits the possible use of the INRIM facility for anemometer calibration. LDA measurements of airspeed induced by the arm rotation at the measurement position and a definition of actual capabilities of this facility as primary standard according to the WGFF decision are presented in this paper
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 970F5BAC

Fluid Mechanical Optimization Of A DN25 Vortex Flow Meter With Novel Vortex Detection
Author(s): E. Von Lavante S. Brinkhorst A. Gedikli H. Krisch
Abstract/Introduction:
In the present investigation, a new design vortex flow meter with novel pressure detection chamber has been optimized and investigated numerically as well as experimentally. Instead of implementing the standard configuration with paddle for vortex detection, a pressure chamber of optimized size and position has been investigated, allowing much higher temperatures of the metered fluid. Whereas the standard design is limited to 240 C, the new design allows temperature in access of 500 C. The present paper describes the results of numerical simulation of the corresponding high temperature flow field
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 00194682

Investigation Of Turbine Flowmeter Response In Vertical Air-Water Two-Phase Flow
Author(s): Luhai Wang Fengshou Xiao Tao Li Yujian Zhu Jiming Yang Jun Li Shuilong Ma
Abstract/Introduction:
Response of turbine flow meter in a vertical airwater two-phase flow is experimentally investigated. The flow field and the transient response of turbine are captured through a high speed camera, and the crosssectional phase distribution is recorded by arrayed ERT. The experiment reveals that the rotational rate of the turbine drops when air intrudes into the rotor, and the relative fluctuation amplitude of the rotation decreases with the water flow
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 658D9751

Influence Of The Design Parameters On The Installation Effects In Coriolis Flowmeters
Author(s): G. Bobovnik J. Kutin N. Mole B. Stok I. Bajsic
Abstract/Introduction:
A computational study of the installation effects in Coriolis flowmeters positioned downstream of different flow disturbance elements (a single elbow, closely coupled double elbows out-of-plane and an orifice) is presented. The mass-flow sensitivities are estimated using the results of a fully threedimensional, coupled and partitioned numerical model that accounts for the fluid-structure interactions. The results show that the mass-flow sensitivity can vary for different circumferential positions of the motion sensors in a straight-tube fullbore meter. Because of flow splitters and the averaging of the response of both measuring tubes, the installation effects are reduced in a twin-tube design
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 78D58CA3

Cone DP Flow Meters - Comments & Lessons From 15 Years Of Calibration Experience
Author(s): R Steven W. Johansen K. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
Cone DP meters are popular generic differential pressure (DP) meters that are used in many industries. There are as yet no cone meter standards documents. Each cone meter is individually calibrated to characterize the meters performance. CEESI has calibrated many cone meters over the last 15 years. This paper shows some massed data sets on cone meter performance and reviews the likelihood of a cone meters performance being predicted without a dedicated calibration. The paper then reviews in detail the calibration data of a large 48, 0.616 beta ratio cone meter, and introduces a new DP Diagnostics DP meter diagnostic system that was included in the CEESI calibration procedure of this 48 cone meter
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: B93602E3

Orifice Plates With Drain Holes
Author(s): Dr Michael Reader-Harris David Addison
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents new data and shows that the existing drain-hole equation in ISO/TR 15377 is unsatisfactory: it leads to flowrate errors up to nearly 2% in magnitude. The data on drain holes have a surprisingly strong dependence on the circumferential location of the pressure tappings. However, a new analysis takes this into account and has produced a formula for d, the corrected orifice diameter taking account of the drain hole. It is very desirable to amend ISO/TR 15377:2007
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: B7B203BD

Investigations On The Effect Of Thermal Inertia On Sonic Nozzle Discharge Coefficient
Author(s): Bulent Unsal Kyung Am Park Hakan Kaykisizli
Abstract/Introduction:
Experiments and CFD analysis were performed to investigate the effect of thermal inertia of the sonic nozzle body on the discharge coefficients. Two identical 5 mm toroidal throat critical flow Venturi nozzles with different body weight and geometry were used for the experiments and CFD investigations. Results indicate that thermal inertia of the nozzle body alters the discharge coefficients especially for higher Re
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 703E68B9

Analysis Of High Pressure Tests On Wet Gas Flow Metering With A Venturi Meter
Author(s): P. Gajan Q. Decaudin J.P. Couput
Abstract/Introduction:
This work deals with the flow metering of wet gas issued from high pressure natural reservoirs. Some recent results obtained from tests performed on the CEESI facilities are presented. They are performed at 75 bars with 0.6 beta ratio Venturi meter installed in horizontal pipe configuration. Correction factors obtained are compared to predictions deduced from the flow modelling inside of the meter. These results are analysed in order to explain the agreements or disagreement obtained between the experiments and the flow modelling
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 6157A62D

Three-Phase Flow Measurement Using Coriolis Mass Flow Metering
Author(s): m. Henry m. Tombs F. Zhou m. Zamora
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a new three-phase flow metering technology, combining Coriolis mass flow and water cut readings and without applying any phase separation 1. The system has undergone formal laboratory trials at NEL, UK and at VNIIR, Kazan, Russia a number of field trials have taken place in Russia. Results from the NEL trial will be described in detail. Initial experiences from field trials will also be described. Together, these results demonstrate the potential for using Coriolis mass flow metering combined with water cut metering for three-phase (oil/water/gas) measurement
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: E67D6DF3

Performance Of Turbine Flowmeter In Horizontal Oil-Water Flow
Author(s): Guifu Zhang Luhai Wang Yujian Zhu Jiming Yang Jun Li Shuilong Ma
Abstract/Introduction:
The response of turbine flowmeter in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow is experimentally investigated. The flow patterns in pipe as well as the turbine behavior are captured via high speed videography. Varied incoming flow rates up to 30md are tested. It is found that the turbine response in oil-water flow deflects from that in pure water. The deflection direction and extent depend on respective flow rates rather than flow pattern
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: AC5B966B

Results Of Testing An Orifice Meter Diagnostic System At A Mexican Government Water Flow Facility
Author(s): Dr. Richard Steven Kim Lewis Por M.C. Diego Moncada M.C. Ivan Juarez M.C. Cesar Gutierrez M.C. Jose De Jesus Casillas
Abstract/Introduction:
In August 2012 CIATEQ tested a new DP meter diagnostic system (called Prognosis) on 4, 0.5 beta ratio, flange tapped orifice meters. These comprehensive tests, at the CIATEQ water flow laboratory at Aguascalientes, Mexico, were the first third party organized liquid flow tests of this technology. CIATEQ considers this DP meter diagnostic system potentially compliant with new Mexican government flow metering regulations. Official authorities were present to witness these tests. In this paper the latest developments of the working principles of the diagnostic system are described. The operators interface with the diagnostics is also described
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: A41E07FD

Development Of A Microflow Primary Standard
Author(s): Elsa Batista Luis Ribeiro Nelson Almeida Eduarda Filipe Joao Gala Rui F. Martins
Abstract/Introduction:
The Volume Laboratory (LVO) of the Portuguese Institute for Quality (IPQ), in cooperation with the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (DEMI) of the Faculty of Science and Technology of The New University of Lisbon (FCT/UNL), developed a gravimetric 1 microflow standard with a range between 10 mL/min and 100 nL/min. The design of the microflow standard was based on three main elements: a flow generator (syringe pump), a collector device and a data acquisition computer program. The microflow standard was tested and validated by means of an ongoing intercomparison, at different flow rates, with uncertainties in the range of 0,1 % up to 0,5 %.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 2ACE3CC8

A New Approach To Improve Reproducability Of Ultrasonic Flow Meters Used In Fully Developed Flows
Author(s): m. Cordova, T. Lederer
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to its high repeatability ultrasonic flow meters are ideal instruments for interlaboratory comparisons. The present paper attempts to improve the performance UFM for interlaboratory comparisons by estimating weighing factors that reduce the intrinsic erros of this technology.
Request Document From www.imeko.org
Email Reference
Document ID: 877234A9


Copyright © 2017