Measurement Library

North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop Publications (2011)

The Performance Of Coriolis Meters In Two-Phase Liquid/Gas Flows
Author(s): Amy Ross, Richard Harvey
Abstract/Introduction:
A wide variety of industrial products are measured and traded on the basis of volumetric flowrate, but a disadvantage of this approach is that fluid volume is not a conserved physical quantity varying with both the pressure and temperature of the product. Conversion of the measurements to a common standard (such as base or stock-tank conditions) requires input of the fluids PVT behaviour, which itself introduces an additional uncertainty. Furthermore, the presence of secondary components - such as entrained gas within a liquid stream - can further distort the volumetric flow measurements.
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Document ID: 6AA79E76

Blind Testing Of A Dual Mode Multiphase/Wet Gas Meter At The Alaska Alpine Oil Field And The CEESI Wet Gas Test Facility
Author(s): Andrew Hall, Gordon Stobie
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes two blind tests of a multiphase flow meter performed by ConocoPhillips and BP during 2010. The first test was at the Alpine oil field in Alaska, and the second was at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc. (CEESI) wet gas flow facility in Colorado. The same 74 mm MPM multiphase flow meter was used for both tests.
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Document ID: 45053E95

Subsea Multiphase Measurements: Where We Are And What S Next From An Oil & Gas Operator Perspective
Author(s): Jean-Paul Couput
Abstract/Introduction:
Access to oil & gas reserves is becoming more and more complex and difficult. This is resulting for operators in more and more technical and economical constraints to develop fields and produce hydrocarbon in an safer way. Technical solutions developed so far rely more and more on multiphase schemes which obviously do require measurements & monitoring solutions usable in multiphase conditions to give data users and customers the information they require.
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Document ID: 26C11C28

Gross Meter Error Detection And Elimination By Data Reconciliation
Author(s): Euain Drysdale, Helen Little, Phillip Stockton, Allan Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
In some allocation systems, it is not uncommon to experience a persistent apparent bias in the mass balance across systems, and in particular, pipelines. This loss of mass balance may be small enough to be explained by the legitimate uncertainties in the measurements of streams entering and leaving the pipeline or system. The question is: how do you tell if this is the case or not?
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Document ID: 5B8961D2

Real-Life Experiences, And Lessons Learned Implementing The New European Measuring Instruments Directive
Author(s): Jim Mccabe, Alister Mcghee
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically, the design, construction and operation of metering systems for fiscal or custody transfer purposes was carried out in accordance with national laws and regulations. The new Measuring Instruments Directive, 2004/22/EC, (M.I.D), is part of the E.U New Approach? initiative intended to standardise the metrology requirements across the E.E.C 1.
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Document ID: 7C2FE3F1

A Proposed Ultrasonic Meter Recalibration Interval Tool
Author(s): Thomas Kegel, Stephen English
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes data, discusses analytical results and presents a mathematical model that relates recalibration shift, meter size, velocity, and recalibration time interval. The results can be applied as a tool to assist in determining an appropriate recalibration interval for an ultrasonic meter. The database supporting this project is a result of twelve years of history in the operation of an ultrasonic gas flow calibration facility. The database includes 95 recalibration events, recalibration time intervals from less than one year to nine years, meter sizes from DN100 to DN500, and gas velocities between 3 and 30 m/s.
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Document ID: A505DBE9

Velocity Profile Sampling In Large Stack & Flare Gas Piping
Author(s): Eric Harman
Abstract/Introduction:
Large stacks and flare gas lines are commonly measured using path-averaging technologies (ultrasonic meters) and discrete point-averaging meters (averaging pitot tubes). These flow meters are calibrated and verified insitu using pitot traverse sampling. Theoretical velocity profiles are numerically integrated and compared to Centroid-of-equal-areas, Chebyshev, and Gauss Legendre Quadrature averaging techniques. The number of sampling points, sampling methodology, and uncertainty analyses are plotted against Reynolds number dependent powerlaw profiles. Swirling and skewed velocity profiles are also included in the analyses.
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Document ID: E13275FF

Operational Experience With Liquid Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Dag Fllo, Jostein Eide, yvind Heggholmen, Maron Dahlstrm, yvind Risa
Abstract/Introduction:
Statoil have 8 to 12 years experience from several metering stations using liquid ultrasonic meters: One metering station comprising two ultrasonic meters in series operated on a very light condensate at inlet separator conditions (Operated at very low flow rates). One metering station comprising two ultrasonic meters in series and a prover used to measure low viscosity fluid at inlet separator conditions. One metering station comprising one ultrasonic meter with a turbine master meter which is calibrated on site using a compact prover at a yearly interval One metering station comprising one ultrasonic meter with an ultrasonic master meter which is calibrated on site using a compact prover at a yearly interval using a turbine meter as calibration transfer. One export metering station with five metering runs and a bidirectional prover used for high viscosity crude at a stable flow rate One metering stations comprising two ultrasonic meters in series and a prover used for high viscosity crude. The company experience with liquid ultrasonic meters will be investigated.
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Document ID: 79F06156

How Accurate Are Ultrasonic Flowmeters In Practical Conditions Beyond The Calibration
Author(s): Jankees Hogendoorn, Herman Hofstede, Peter Van Brakel, Andre Boer
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Oil and Gas industry, tens of thousands Custody Transfer Flowmeters are in operation for many decades. These flowmeters have been carefully calibrated on-site or in accredited laboratories. Furthermore, they are verified on a regular basis.
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Document ID: D36BB4F3

Worldwide Review Of 10 Years Of The Multiphase Meter Performance Based On A Combined Nucleonic Fraction Meter And Venturi In Heavy Oil
Author(s): B. G. Pinguet
Abstract/Introduction:
70% of the oil in place around the world is classified as Heavy Oil ( 22.3 API). Heavy Oil has one common characteristic that is to be viscous and very challenging to produce. It is therefore essential to have the adequate equipment to first monitor and then be able to optimize the production. The gravity contrast being smaller between oil and water any system based on separation is then strongly challenged in this environment. Most of the time the fluid is going through pipe restriction (valves, elbows) and often stable emulsion is created. On the other hand, the operation of in-line multiphase flow meter (without any separation) can sidestep most of these issues, as no separation is required and therefore have the benefit of being compact, with lower CAPEX and OPEX.
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Document ID: DF56AA38

Field Experience Proving Liquid Ultrasonic Meters Using A Small Volume Prover And Master Meter
Author(s): Peter Syrnyk, Dave Seiler
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of liquid ultrasonic meters for liquid petroleum applications such as custody transfer or allocation measurement is gaining worldwide acceptance by the oil industry. Ultrasonic technology is well-established, but the use of this technology for custody transfer and allocation measurement is relatively new, and users often try to employ the same measurement practices that apply to turbine technology. There are some similarities between the two approaches, such as the need for flow conditioning and upstream and downstream piping requirements, but there are also differences, like the proving technique or field validation procedure. This paper will discuss the various in-situ proving methods that can be used for successful field calibration of a liquid ultrasonic meter.
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Document ID: C6FBFB83

The Influence Of Flow Conditioning On The Proving Performance Of Liquid Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Gregor J Brown, Bobbie Griffith, Donald R Augenstein
Abstract/Introduction:
For oil custody transfer applications turbine meters are commonly used in conjunction with pipe provers or small volume (piston) provers in order to achieve traceable calibration in the field. With the increasing use of liquid ultrasonic meters in these applications, there is often a desire to calibrate ultrasonic meters in the same fashion.
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Document ID: 8B797474

Venturi Meters And Wet Gas Flow
Author(s): Rick De Leeuw, Richard Steven, Hans Van Maanen
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas measurement is becoming essential for the oil and gas industry. Venturi flow meters are often used for this purpose. As the produced liquids also contribute to the measured differential pressure a correction is required to determine the actual gas flow rate. Recently, ISO has issued TR 11583 containing a new Venturi wet gas correlation. This paper presents a review of this ISO report. The conclusion of this review is that it is in the interest of the oil and gas industry that this ISO report should be ignored, preferably withdrawn, for several important reasons. In this paper these reasons will be explained. Using this ISO report in real life situations could lead to errors with the equivalent of millions of US per application.
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Document ID: 1F9397A0

Are Coriolis Mass Meters Suitable For Fiscal Liquid Applications
Author(s): Ole iestad, Steinar Fosse, Steinar Vervik
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is addressing the use of coriolis meters for liquid applications in the Petroleum industry. It is focusing on the Ormen Lange condensate case as that was the reason for the technical concerns and additional testing that has been done. It is, however, so that the findings and conclusions should be of general nature and thereby be applicable for the use of Coriolis meters for liquid applications.
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Document ID: 2FD9FBCF

Experience With Compact Provers On Cold Products
Author(s): Ole-John Melkevik
Abstract/Introduction:
Karst gas processing plant was built in 1984 and started up in 1985. The export were either by pipeline, Statpipe, or by boat. Therefore there were installed one gas metering station and four liquid metering stations.
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Document ID: 1DC099F6

Measurement Of Flow In Viscous Fluids Using A Helical Blade Turbine
Author(s): Christopher Mills, Robert Belshaw
Abstract/Introduction:
It is now widely accepted that world oil reserves are split approximately into 70% high-viscosity and 30% (low-viscosity) conventional light oils. Exploitation of these viscous deposits is growing rapidly, buoyed by occasional high oil prices and an increasing demand for security of energy supply.
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Document ID: 89C451E5

Field Implementation Of Virtual Flow Computer Systems For Fiscal Measurement And Allocation Calculations On The Centrica Energy Upstream Offshore Production Facilities In The Netherlands
Author(s): Blaza Jovanovic, Jacek Krawaczynski
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 2010 all fiscal and non-fiscal streams flow measurement and allocation calculations on the operated Centrica Energy Upstream (CEU) offshore facilities in the Dutch continental shelf of the North Sea are implemented by the virtual flow computer (VFC) based systems.
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Document ID: 73E404B7

Sampling, Mixing And Quality Measurement: Comparing 35 Years Of Field Experience With The Measurement Standards
Abstract/Introduction:
The commercial value of the uncertainties caused by poor sampling has never been more evident originally developed in the 1980s the API, IP/EI and ISO standards are under review. The philosophy and techniques for sampling hydrocarbons needs to change to correlate poorly understood best practices developed between users and vendors with practical reality.
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Document ID: 5821CB80

A Diagnostic System For Venturi Meters In Single Phase And Wet Gas Flow Applications
Author(s): Deverapalli Vijay, Ben Glover, Jennifer Ayre, Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Venturi meters are popular for single phase and wet gas flow metering applications. Traditionally the Venturi meter with single phase or wet gas flow has little diagnostic capabilities. However, in the last three years a diagnostic system for generic Differential Pressure (DP) meters has been developed. In this paper this diagnostic system is discussed with the focus particularly on Venturi meters in use with dry and wet gas flows.
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Document ID: 21CF185D

Gas And Liquid Ultrasonic Transducer Technology
Author(s): Skule Smrgrav, Atle K. Abrahamsen
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic flow meters continue to gain recognition in the oil and gas industry worldwide. Since the first multipath gas ultrasonic meters were introduced in the early 1990s they have now become the preferred technology for most custody transfer and non-custody transfer installations on all 5 continents.
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Document ID: 555E79BA

Considerations On The Influence Of Deposits Or Changes In Wall Roughness On The Validity Of The Calibration And Long Term Accuracy Of Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): Thomas Horst, Alexander Jakschik, Toralf Dietz, Henk Riezebos, Volker Herrmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to refined diagnostic capabilities and the lack of moving mechanical parts, ultrasonic flow meters (USMs) provide excellent reliability and long-term stability. These properties lead to high accuracy and low costs of operation in the field. Recent studies 2 have shown how meter performance changes after electronics or transducers are replaced. This demonstrates the high precision of time-of-flight measurement with up-to-date components. Nevertheless,some installation parameters relevant to meter accuracy may change after a long period ofoperation. For instance, in many situations in the field, inner pipe wall corrosion andcontamination can occur. These pollutions of the inner pipe wall may influence thegeometrical parameters and/or wall roughness of the pipe and consequently the shape of theflow profile.
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Document ID: 57D4DBF5

Further Developments In The Design & Implementation Of An Advanced Online Condition Based Monitoring System & A Dirty Meter Prediction Model For Custody Transfer Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): James N. Witte, Mike Thackray, Jeff Tilden, Peter Kucmas, Martin Novak
Abstract/Introduction:
After installation a calibrated ultrasonic flow measurement meter may begin to experience minute changes in measurement accuracy due to accumulation and deposition of foreign material in the meter tube, meter runs and piping. Even in pipeline quality gas, foreign materials may still be present. These are often carried over from processing, compression, or formed due to chemical and biological reactions between the natural gas, its constituents and the gas transport system. Any measurement device in the natural gas stream begins to be coated from the moment of installation until the moment it is taken out of service. The nature and character of the coatings continues to be a vast field of study. It should be understood that the coating material, thickness and apparent roughness does not need to remain constant over the service period of the flow meter nor of a consistent composition. It is also postulated that a dirty meter may or may not be fouled symmetrically thus adding to the over all complexity and understanding of this phenomenon.
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Document ID: 7D118FF4

Horizontally Installed Orifice Plate Meter Response To Wet Gas Flows
Author(s): Richard Steven, Gordon Stobie, Andrew Hall, Bill Priddy
Abstract/Introduction:
The research and development of multiphase wet gas flow meters for natural gas flows with entrained hydrocarbon liquid (HCL) and water is important to industry. However, the performance of single phase flow meters, such as orifice plate meters, with multiphase wet gas flows is also of importance. Nevertheless, in recent years research into orifice meter wet gas flow response has been relatively underplayed.
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Document ID: F18D1E35

Multi-Phase Flow Measurement By Using Multi-Path Ultrasonic Flow Meter
Author(s): Shirley Ao, Claudio Barreiros, Luiz Augusto De Andrade, Cleber Barreto Taranto
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the study of an ultrasonic liquid custody transfer flow meter in a multiphase flow lab in Aracaju, Brazil where the flow conditions were changed from 0 to 100% water cut of crude oil. Gas volume fraction was varied from 0 to 80%. The purpose of the study was to identify the application boundaries for the liquid flow meter in real applications where water cut can be high and gas carry over is unavoidable.
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Document ID: F249D29D


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