Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2011)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted For - Gas Program
Author(s): John Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many (likely most) gas pipeline companies struggle with lost and- unaccounted-for-gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom line as shown below.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FA88A032

Principals Of Odorization
Author(s): Kenneth S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas as a energy source.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7AD23C67

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate flow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of flow rates or loads, an example is provided on how to address system rangeability while maintaining accurate flow measurement. Detailed technical descriptions of the functionality of the various available gas metering technologies is beyond the scope of this paper, but information of that type can be found in other papers in these Proceedings.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 956ADE00

Periodic Inspection Of Regulators And Relief Valves
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspections and tests on regulators and relief valves are a Department of Transportation (DOT) compliance rule. The sections within the DOT manual stating the rule include 192.351 through 192.359, 192.751, 192.479, 192.481, 192.739, and 192.741. Keep in mind these rules are the minimum required tests. Your company or governing regulatory agency may be more stringent and require more detailed testing. You must also keep in mind that the manufacturer of your equipment will provide guidelines pertaining to maintenance of the equipment. These tests are not only required for safe, reliable service to your customers, but the results could also be used in any legal proceeding for documentation purposes.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 44C39032

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F42E0D62

Overview Of AGA 7 Revision
Author(s): Angela Floyd, Dairy Ashford
Abstract/Introduction:
Just when you thought you knew everything there was to know about Turbine meter measurement, wham, out comes a revised AGA 7 standard. Now those basic principles are all still valid but maybe those operating practices we have built into our operating procedures need a little review. Rather than proceed as generations have done before us, research has been completed on the meters, their installation and operating practices and the way we calibrate and field test them. So now we have some data to back up our methods and madness.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C8BBB9FB

Determining Proper Odorization Levels
Author(s): Paul D. Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
Over 300 people died in an explosion on March 18, 1937 in a New London, Texas public school building. The natural gas that was being delivered to the school building was not odorized.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6E263BC9

Unaccounted Gas Study In Distribution Networks
Author(s): Jay Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Gas Distribution business Unaccounted Gas is referred to by various names or terms such as: Lost and Unaccounted-For, LUG, L&U, and UAF. In simplest terms, Unaccounted Gas is the result of the formula gas receipts minus gas deliveries. For the Measurement Group the process amounts to a gas inventory reconciliation based on the recorded volumes into the system(s) less the sum of the volumes out of the system(s). This can be a town by town or a total-system reconciliation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3355B91B

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Volume Correcting Devices
Author(s): George E. Brown III
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. The instruments save a company capitol and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperature above the normal pressurebase conditions specified in contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 96E73BDA

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know:
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 63788BA6

Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flow Meters Operation And Application
Author(s): William E. Frasier
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is aimed at ultrasonic natural gas meters that use transit time across the gas pipe as the measurement variable. Custody transfer meters using sensors wetted with gas are the more familiar meter format. Clamp-on meters are quite similar.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D1D0D9B2

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 61E3B25E

Fundamentals Of Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Eric Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principles and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principles and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation, and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the SICK ultrasonic flow meter, however many of these issues can be generalized to other meter manufacturers.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6B6795F7

Characteristics Of Rotary Meter Performance
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate them-where applicable-into my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7390DD71

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are rare. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day-to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9953018A

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AF6614D8

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Bob Carlson
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the oil and gas industry, there stems the need for accurate and economical measurement of process fluids and natural gas. Orifice Meters, sometimes referred to as Orifice Fittings, satisfy most flow measurement applications and are the most common flow meter type in use today. The Orifice Meter, sometimes also called a head loss flow meter, is chosen most frequently because of its long history of use in many applications, versatility, and low cost, as compared to other available flow meter types.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8003AF4D

Fundamentals In LNG
Author(s): Tom Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
The following discusses the historical use and future opportunities relating to natural gas, LNG and geological gas storage. New opportunities are presented by the nonlinear 23.5 tcf/y US gas use and declining production. This fact has created a significant need for LNG imports and LNG distributed assets in the US. In addition it has created a need for market based and production based geological storage with services ranging from firm contracts, wheeling and hub based park and loan.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5C669101

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Michael Hiefner
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. It is only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for 3 new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C2A865A5

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): John Culp
Abstract/Introduction:
If you are able to install your own TV dish satellite system and a wireless home network for PCs, you have a head start on installing and maintaining electronic field measurement equipment. Todays measurement technicians and engineers are required to operate and maintain a variety of Hi-Tech Field measurement equipment. Most of the Held instrumentation is tightly integrated in a complete system functional environment. The larger the metering station, the more complex the system. The goal of this paper is to provide an introduction to electronics based on current field measurement technology.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FC87ABFA

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators and some piping configurations are Known to cause significant errors in gas measurement. In recent years the Pipeline-and Compressor Research Council (PCRC) now know as GMRC) Gas Machinery Research Council, a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute SWRI) in San Antonio. Texas.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D0E0637F

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems) and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technology and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7FB8F064

Fundamentals Of Electronic Flow Meter Design, Application & Implementation
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow measurement as applied to the natural gas industry has advanced considerably over the last 30 years. Applications to address Upstream, Midstream and Downstream gas measurement technologies have become more complex. Over time it has become necessary to understand the fundaments that make up this ever changing environment.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CC5621C8

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter station piping installation configuration is one of a number of effects that may adversely affect meter accuracy. Some piping configurations can distort the flow stream and produce flow measurement bias errors (i.e., offsets in the meter output) of up to several percent of reading. Valves, elbows, or tees placed upstream of a flow meter are just some of the piping elements that can distort the flow stream. In this paper, installation effects are discussed with respect to two of the four main components of a flow measurement system: the meter, or primary element, and the secondary (pressure and temperature) instrumentation. The effect of the velocity profile of the flow stream on orifice, ultrasonic, and turbine flow meters is discussed next. Installation conditions that may adversely impact the accuracy of pressure and temperature measurements are discussed after that. The gas chromatograph and the flow computer, the third and fourth components, are treated in separate courses.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 35EB13BE

Protection Of Natural Gas Measurement Equipment Against Moisture And Corrosion
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation addresses problems associated with moisture and corrosion caused by high relative humidity and airborne contaminants. By controlling moisture and corrosion long-term, many problems associated with sensitive field electronics can be avoided.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F9EA046A

Ultrasonic Flow Meter Calibration - Considerations And Benefits
Author(s): Terrencea. Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
Since their introduction to the natural gas industry in the mid-1990s, multipath ultrasonic flow meters have developed a large installed base and have become the meters of choice for a variety of reasons. While one of the initial goals of the manufacturers was to develop a meter that did not require flow calibration, the accuracy requirements of most measurement applications dictate that ultrasonic flow meters need to be flow calibrated. This paper provides an overview of the calibration process and elements that should be considered by those responsible for the calibration.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 481C2813

Orifice Plate Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are a popular for being relatively simple, reliable and inexpensive. Their principles of operation are easily understood. However, traditionally there has been no orifice meter self diagnostic capabilities. In 2008 & 2009 a generic Differential Pressure (DP) meter self diagnostic methodology 1,2 was proposed. In this paper these diagnostic principles are applied to orifice meters and proven with experimental test results. The diagnostic results are presented in a simple graphical form designed for easy use in the field by the meter operator.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E48D5B85

An Overview And Update Of AGA 9
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1 in June 1998. It is a recommended practice for using ultrasonic meters (USMs) in fiscal (custody) measurement applications. This paper reviews some of history behind the development of AGA Report No. 9 (often referred to as AGA 9), key contents and includes information on meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. This paper also discusses changes that will be incorporated in the next revision. At the time of this paper the expected publication date is the Fall of 2006.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 04687C41

Utilizing Wireless Instrumentation In Well Optimization
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas and Oil industry is continually driven by cost cutting measures and the need to gain more operational efficiencies and visibility to regulatory requirements. This paper summarizes a solution in which wireless instruments integrate with other conventional equipment to offer a rapidly deployable advanced well optimization system.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 665995BA

Continuous Monitoring Of Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Randy Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Pipeline industry has seen tremendous changes in the past 20 years including a smaller multi skilled workforce. The reality of todays pipeline work force is fewer technicians performing a wide range of tasks. Much of their measurement work is performed with less frequency, and on more complex equipment than ever before. Gaining the proficiency needed to recognize and troubleshoot ultrasonic meter problems, let alone subtle changes that can provide an eye into potential measurement inaccuracies, requires time and experience to learn. By bringing the meters diagnostic data into our SCADA system, we can provide alarms and trending capabilities that are not dependent on the frequency at which a Technician can visit a measurement facility. Furthermore it is not dependent on whether a Technician has necessary expertise to recognize potential meter problems.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 708A9F1A

Production Equipment Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): David Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
American Gas Association states that measurement of natural gas by an orifice meter requires a single-phase hydrocarbon through the metering area, which allows an accurate measurement of differential pressure across the orifice plate, flowing temperature, and component analysis at a metering station. Some gas contracts state that the producer shall condition the gas for metering which would allow accurate measurement of gas flowing through the metering station. To meet the AGA and Contract requirements personnel need to have a knowledge and operational understanding of production equipment used to condition gas prior to the point of measurement. To achieve this condition, field personnel should have an operational understanding of production equipment by which they can perform maintenance on and make adjustments to achieving an optimum flowing condition within the metering tube.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DB9AB1E4

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology in the field of gas measurement and control is constantly evolving. While many are well trained in the specific equipment used in their own companys operation, it is also important to have a solid understanding of the fundamentals and theory of operation of the mechanical and physical processes involved. Therefore, the training of field measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be continually educated to have the most current knowledge of the latest equipment, electronics, communications, and metering devices on the market. Also, it is essential that this type of instruction be taught in a controlled environment where the technicians can learn and develop the necessary skills with the least amount of interruptions from external sources.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 84ACD1E5

How Not To Measure Gas
Author(s): Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring natural gas is both a science and an art. Guidelines and industry practices explain how to accurately measure natural gas. The art comes in trying to minimize errors and prevent measurement problems. However, sometime its easier to explain how not to measure gas when reviewing measurement errors.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 504CDB13

Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identified in the past. It primarily discusses fiscalquality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper is based upon the Westinghouse configuration (also knows as a chordal design) and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other manufacturers.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 39C00F92

An Overview Of Industry Standards Related To Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Barry Balzer
Abstract/Introduction:
Merriam-Webster dictionary defines standard as: 1) a conspicuous object (as a banner) formerly carried at the top of a pole and used to mark a rallying point especially in battle or to serve as an emblem 2) something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example 3) something set up and established by authority as a rule for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value, or quality 4) the fineness and legally fixed weight of the metal used in coins 5) the basis of value in a monetary system 6) a structure built for or serving as a base or support
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 743B5848

Improving Flow Measurements With Improved Calibration And Data Handling Procedures
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The knowledge base from a field measurement technician to a back office volume analyst is extremely demanding. Every field technician is tested in both knowledge and skills on a daily basis for: electronic controls to pneumatic controls communication system support multiple disciplines support of measurement equipment procedures that must be followed regulatory requirements governing the facilities ongoing training of field personnel These factors and many more create a tremendous and constant challenge for every organization.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 56B96270

A New Perspective On Measurement The Impact Of Measurement In A Changing Business Environment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of hydrocarbons has evolved significantly through the years, from both a technical and business application perspective. Developments and advances in technology have made the measurement of hydrocarbons more precise, efficient, and available. Changes in the energy business environment have placed the measurement of hydrocarbons into a more significant role within organizational and industry business processes.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9BF777AF

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and linear metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4E0A9755

Pressure Effect On Turbine Meter Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure sensitivity of turbine gas meters has been a well observed phenomenon since the inception of these devices for use in the natural gas industry. However, very little published experimental data was available for study until the recent years. Due to ever increasing energy costs, the natural gas industry is paying much more attention to improving the accuracy of natural gas flow measurement. Regulators in many countries either mandate or recommend that turbine gas meters shall be calibrated dose to their intended operating pressures in order to minimize measurement error caused by pressure variation. This paper explains the dependency of the kfactor of turbine gas meters on pressure, and the relationship between operating line pressure and the error performance of turbine meters.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F6FDEE38

Efm Data Communications - Problems And Solutions
Author(s): Edward H. Smyth
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas companies in all segments - upstream, midstream, transmisssion and distribution - have deployed Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) devices on a massive scale. Since the information contained within the EFMs is crucial to the companys operations, robust and reliable systems to communicate with EFMs are required.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 57283324

Problems Unique To Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jackie R. Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the technicians ability to verify the accuracy of the gas measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0ABF6B83

Electronic Calibrators
Author(s): Roger Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is done and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically. In the past, it was a standard practice to use a primary standard for pressure calibration. That standard was normally a deadweight tester or a manometer. Today, with more accurate secondary standards available, there is a larger choice in what can be used for pressure calibration. What is used normally will depend on the requirements that have to be met and the equipment that is available. This paper discusses issues that should be taken into consideration when choosing a pressure calibrator from the many that are available today.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F0374D87

Ultrasonic Meters For Residential And Commercial Applications
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferential meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that capture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Orifice meters use pressure drop to measure velocity to infer volume and turbine meters use the speed of the rotor to measure velocity to infer volume, while ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years in primarily liquid measurement. However, their application in the measurement of natural gas is relatively new, and has become more commercialized over the last decade. A significant contributor to the commercialization of ultrasonic meters in gas is affordable, highly accurate timing devices, that are being mass produced for computers and digital devices. Since changes in the speed of sound are much less in gas than in liquids, measurement of these timing changes needs to be measured to greater precision.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CF1EDF83

Application And Verification Of Coriolis Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than 600,000 units. Through significant design enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 40,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the 2003 publication of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter. technologies i.e. the flow area trough a turbine meter is area not displaced by the turbine internals and rotor, the flow area of an orifice meter is that of the orifice diameter. Because of this relationship, a Coriolis meter will typically be one pipe size smaller than a turbine meter and several sizes smaller than an orifice while having similar pressure drops at flowing pressures in the 300 ANSI class and above.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 043DB76B

Flow Conditioning And Effects On Accuracy For Fluid Flow Measurement
Author(s): Blaine D. Sawchuk, Dale P. Sawchuk, Danny A. Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the last several years research has shown that by improving on the flow conditioners used in natural gas metering applications, measurement is improved and installation cost can be reduced. The standards developed for orifice meters (AGA 3/API 14.3 and ISO 5167) addresses the question of flow conditioner design and testing to ensure the meter performance when subjected to various flow perturbations. This paper reviews testing carried out by Southwest Research Inc. and the NOVA Research and Technical Centre performed on the CPA 50E flow conditioner in accordance with AGA 3/API 14.3 and ISO 5167.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 74A0618C

Effects Of Wet Gas Flow On Gas Orifice Plate Meters
Author(s): Josh Kinney, Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e. flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the systems conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter it is by default possibly the most common wet gas flow meter.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3E5A2502

A Review Of The Revisions To API.3/AGA 3, Part 2
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
API Chapter 14.3 is a living document, constantly reviewed and considered for revision as new information and/or research data become available relative to the design and operation of orifice metering systems. In spite of this scrutiny within the API, AGA and ISO, the latest recommendations and revisions are not well known in many areas of our industry - and they were changed again during 2011. Many companies are still designing to AGA 3 1985 standards or internal standards that do not meet current API recommendations.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CD75AA35

Ag A Calculations - 1985 Vs 1992
Author(s): Brent Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
In late 1992 and early 1993 new standards relating to the determination of flow rates through concentric square-edged orifice meters were published. In some ways, these standards represent a departure from older publications and as such, additional explanation will prove beneficial to some users of the older standards. As presented in this document, a description of changes brought on by these new standards is made. Background information is provided to assist those more familiar with the older factored form of the equation. The new and old standards are compared and differences are expounded as they affect implementors of the new equation. Additionally, several example implementation procedures for the new equations are provided, one of which is the implementation chosen by Total flow.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 396374A6

Onsite Proving Of Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, higher natural gas prices, and the new federal regulations, buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the amount of natural gas that is unaccounted for. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 MMSCF/D Natural Gas selling at 5.50/MCF will cause an over or under billing of 200,750.00 in one year. This will more than pay for a proving system. If the company undercharges it has lost money and if it over charges it has the risk of lawsuits later for huge amounts of money.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7E75CD86

Training Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Experience is the best teacher. Weve all heard that saying, but, what if there arent any experienced personnel left to hire? After years of downsizing, mergers, and attrition, the industry finds itself in a shortage of good trained personnel. The only way to overcome this problem is to provide the new employee with comprehensive training. Successful training is paramount to the success of the gas measurement department and your company.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4C09962E

Gas Contracts Impact On Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): T. Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Much effort is spent to achieve accurate measurement. Up to date measurement standards, modern meter station design, high quality equipment, and proper measurement operations art all necessary for measurement accuracy. Unfortunately these processes do not assure measurement accuracy if the contract does not also support accurate measurement. The contract impacts measurement accuracy by what it addresses and what is left unaddressed. More focus needs to be applied to the measurement sections of the contracts Hopefully this paper will help the reader better understand the relationship between the contract and accuracy.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1283AF08

Methods Of Gathering Egm Data
Author(s): Ronald Sisk
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays natural gas industry, it is of paramount importance that we focus on the accuracy and timeliness for the transfer of gas measurement data from the field measurement sites to a centralized gas measurement database to be verified, edited, and shared with all applicable groups. Measurement of wellhead deliveries, pipeline interconnects to town plants, city gates, and ultimately the end-user must be efficient and verifiable. To achieve this goal, various methodologies for gathering EGM data have evolved and improved over the past few years.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1809AB3A

Get It Right The First Time - Field Data Capture Without Paper Forms
Author(s): Bruce Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Field data capture describes the retrieval, storage, and reporting of data generated from measurement asset maintenance and configuration activities. Equipment inspections, configuration changes, calibration verification, troubleshooting, and gas sampling provide important subsets of measurement data. To Get it right the first time means capturing and distributing this data with minimal effort, error, time, and resources. Leveraging automated field data capture tools is one step companies can take to help technicians Get it right the first time.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3BCC87F3

Communication Between The Office And Field
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Transferring the knowledge base from a field measurement technician to a back office volume analyst can be extremely challenging. A Field technicians skill set is tested on a routine basis therefore, the technician must be knowledgeable in: electronic controls to pneumatic controls communication system support multiple disciplines support of measurement equipment procedures that must be followed regulatory requirements governing the facilities ongoing training of field personnel Each organization is constantly facing challenges due to these factors as well as many others.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DA4917E3

Understanding The Advantages Of Ip Networks
Author(s): Burke Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays oil and gas industry faces increasing pressure to maximize the capability of its wireless infrastructure while minimizing operational and developmental costs. Unprecedented uncertainty and business volatility are transforming the landscape, as the oil and gas industry becomes more competitive, profit-oriented, and responsive to a fickle and savvy clientele. The key to developing a successful enterprisewide networking strategy is to recognize that it is only part of a larger strategy-one in which modern oil and gas facilities must literally reinvent themselves.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 92D1061D

Wireless Communication To A Plunger Lift Well
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
Artificial lift is a process that allows oil and gas producers the ability to optimize well production while also minimizing overall maintenance and life cycle costs. Plunger lift control is a form of artificial lift used by natural gas producers who experience heavy downhole fluid loads. In many cases, when a gas well produces excessive fluid volumes, the natural gas pressure of the well is unable to overcome the weight of the fluid trapped inside the tubing. That means that the well is unable to produce the natural gas because, essentially, it is blocked by the fluids.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AEE7B300

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic Gas Measurement or EFM auditing is a very important process of the natural gas industry. Only a few short years ago, the dry flow chart recorder was the state of the art recording device for custody gas measurement. All that has changed with the advent of the flow computer volumes are recorded and generated at the field level, and imported to the measurement system. Careful review of meter data should be part of the monthly close process.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 37519906

Web Solutions For Orifice Measurement And Monitoring
Author(s): Matt Diese
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline and production companies are continually faced with the challenge of obtaining operational data and making it available to their employees. In recent years the convergence in the advances in the technologies of the Internet, PCs, client/server technology, and IP ready communications have brought forth a new lower cost alternative to traditional SCADA systems. With the growing numbers of experienced and reputable suppliers of web based data monitoring and control systems in the market today, the feasibility of automating locations has changed. No longer do only the most productive wells or gathering systems receive consideration for automation. In todays technologically advanced environment even marginal producing wells can now benefit from the data monitoring and management services previously economical on only the more productive locations.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D9FDDD3B

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): David Haydt
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur bearing compounds exist naturally in many natural gas fields throughout the world. It is generally necessary to remove these sulfur bearing compounds from the gas in order to preserve public safety, reduce corrosion in pipelines, meet contractual agreements and to control odor in the gas. Thus the determination of hydrogen sulfide and total sulfur in natural gas is critical to the natural gas industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A33F0834

Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point Accurately And Its Financial
Author(s): Jack C. Herring
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) accurately is critical to the profitability of producing/processing natural gas. End users want a quality product and for good reason. When HCDP limits are written into the gas contract the producer/processors and pipeline operators each play a role in delivering that quality product. Accurately measuring HCDP in order to satisfy the customer touches every link in this vital supply chain.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F5C44648

Operation Of On-Line Gas Chromatographs
Author(s): Steve Lakey
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography is one of the most widely used means of performing chemical analyses in the world. Russian botanist Mikhail Tswett is credited with discovering the technique of chromatography. Using alcohol as a mobile phase and chalk as a stationary phase, Tswett was able to separate various plant extracts.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 813C94CC

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included is industry acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the instrumentation and systems involved in traditional and newer, more progressive forms of gas measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0F9FC422

Considerations For Sampling Wet, High Pressure, And Supercritical Natural Gas
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux, Shannon m. Bromley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the problems encountered when sampling wet, high pressure and supercritical natural gas for on-line BTU analysis, and provides solutions and comments on how they relate to the API and GPA industry standards for natural gas sampling. It also discusses the use of phase diagrams in the design and operation of a natural gas sampling system.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6C8497B3

Use Of Equations Of State Eos() Software
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper sample conditioning is essential to providing a representative sample of natural gas to the analyzer. Sample conditioning consists of extracting a sample from a process stream, transporting it to an analyzer, and conditioning it so that it is compatible with the analyzer. Conditioning generally consists of controlling the gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate. It also includes the removal of contaminates which may alter the sample composition and/or damage the analyzer. It is imperative that the gas sample composition is not altered or distorted during the conditioning process.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 497BE641

D.O.T. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2A8A70D0

Verifying Gas Chromatographs At Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): J. David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography is a Greek term meaning chroma color and graphein to draw and will encompass several analytical techniques to physically separate various components in an individual sample so they can be individually measured and assigned values. As these individual gas constituents values are calculated to determine an overall value such as heating value or relative density therefore this methodology will referred to as a indirect measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A1A87F3A

Micro Gas Chromatography For Liquid Petroleum Gass
Author(s): Amorin A., Dagostaro L.,Diersche Y., Gonzalez, A
Abstract/Introduction:
For years, micro GC analysis has been useful as a powerful tool for the fast and reliable analyses of natural gas and other gaseous matrices but, it is yet to prove its capabilities for liquid samples. In this paper, we present a a unique gasifying system for volatile liquid sample introduction in a micro GC. The system has been tested with a wide range of different samples: liquefied gases (ethane/propane blends, volatile liquids (natural gasoline from fractionation plants), butane blends and samples with olefins and C6+s. Due to the different nature of the samples, a single point calibration was used. The system was designed for simple operation and maintenance, reducing time and increasing ease of operation when compared to regular Gas Chromatography analyses. All the samples were handled in the same way with the only variation being the response factors applied to each type of sample. Repeatability data will be presented from both calibration standard blends and from real world samples. Also presented are comparisons of the micro GC results with conventional GC data.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3A0297A3

Understanding AGA Report No. 10, Speed Of Sound In Natural Gas And Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith, Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The speed of sound in natural gas is the velocity a sound wave travels in the gas. There are a number of gas properties that affect the speed of sound and they include the composition of the gas, the pressure of the gas and the temperature of the gas. The American Gas Association Report No. 10 Speed of Sound in Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases provides an accurate method for calculating the speed of sound in natural gas and other related hydrocarbon fluids.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 383D47C9

Lessons Learned From The API Mpms, Chapter 14.1 Gas Sampling Research
Author(s): Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Between 1999 and 2005, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API), the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), and the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) cosponsored an extensive natural gas sampling research program at the Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for the most recent revisions to the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.1, Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer. The research supported revisions that produced both the 5,h edition of the standard, published in 2001, and the 6th edition, published in February 2006.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3658DE3C

Devices For Field Determination Of H2O In Natural Gas
Author(s): Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
H2O vapor is an undesirable component of natural gas. It takes up space in the pipeline and provides no fuel value. In higher concentrations it can condense into liquid water in the pipeline and cause corrosion, especially in the presence of carbon dioxide or H2S. Liquid water can also cause damage to the equipment utilizing the gas, for example turbines. Because of this, most gas transfer tariffs include a limit on the acceptable concentration of H2O in the gas stream. This paper reviews the devices that can be used in the field to determine the amount of water vapor present in a natural gas stream.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CD2E4994

Calibration Standard Gases
Author(s): Fred Deangelo
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration Standards are known concentrations of components of interest used to confirm or determine component concentrations in samples. Calibration standards are used for quality assurance, quality control, measurement and balance, quantitative sample analysis and custody transfer. They should be used anytime it is important to know the composition of your samples and to determine if your process is performing as expected.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8C1F6C04

Techniques For Natural Gas Sampling
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
Since a gas sampling system can be referred to as a cash register it is very important that the correct sampling method be selected and the appropriate industry standard be followed. Methods reviewed by this paper will include spot sampling, composite sampling, and on-line chromatography. In addition, Gas Processors Association (GPA) 2166-86 and American Petroleum Institute (API) 14.1 will be described.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1CEC1E60

Techniques Of Composite Gas Sampling
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The level of interest in effective and accurate gas sampling techniques is currently at a very high priority within the natural gas industry. With the fluctuating ranges in natural gas prices, exploration interests, profitability, deregulation and consolidation of the work force, recoverable revenue must be accounted for. At large volume delivery points, a 3-5 BTU error in energy determination can cost companies tens of thousands of dollars within a very short time period. Accurate sampling techniques must be implemented with equal interest as is given to accurate volume measurement. MMBTU is the total of volume and energy. Sampling is the energy determination delivery system for this equation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A42E4AAE

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Donald Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy. The largest source of analytical error in natural gas is distortion of the composition during sampling. Sampling clean, dry natural gas, which is well above its Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) temperature is a relatively simple task. However, sampling natural gas that is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature is challenging. For these reasons, much attention is being focused on proper methods for sampling natural gas which have a high HCDP temperature.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E1735DE9

Design And Installation Of A Complete Measurement & Control Facility
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of installers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentation. This presentation focuses on the following items: Developing a project perspective Establishing a sound baseline from which to proceed Examples of actual designs Typical design deliverables Conclusion
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 320B4376

The Importance Of Discerning The Impact Of New Measurement Technolgy
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
With the current demand for improved technologies in the area of fluid measurement, the rush to the market place is raising as many questions as it is answering. In the last 30 years, the natural gas pipeline industry has transitioned from the supplier of clean, dry gas to the mover of billable gas energy clean and dry or dirty and wet. The LNG market has impacted the operations of the typical gas supply systems worldwide. The demand for more and more crude oil has put pressure on old measurement designs to become increasingly flexible to a variety of crude oil deliveries. Designing and creating improved products for the measurement of volume and quality has provided new challenges as the marketing and transportation of oil and natural gas has changed. This paper will focus on the natural gas sector, however, the lessons can be transferred to the entire industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E898A8FA

Understanding DOT/PSM Operator Qualification Program
Author(s): Butt Mcneely
Abstract/Introduction:
The Operator Qualification (OQ) rule has greatly impacted pipeline operations for all major pipeline system operators. For Panhandle Energy, the efforts to satisfy all segments of the rule have required a significant investment in money and manpower, with many changes to most aspects of field operations. Several key efforts are worthy of further explanation concerning the companys approach to the rule. The first effort by the company dealt with writing a general OQ compliance procedure that outlined how the company would comply with all aspects of the OQ rule. Next was the task of establishing Panhandles interpretation of a Covered Task List, which is guided in the rule by the four part criteria listed in Subpart N 192.801 (b) (1), (2), (3) and (4). Since the rule also applies to contractors performing OQ tasks on the system, we determined that it would be best to use an Industry Standard task list numbering system (developed by Veriforce, an OQ contractor qualification firm, and multiple pipeline operating groups) to reduce confusion in the task identification for the field.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A9C586A5

Advance Communication Designs
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
We say Advanced Wireless Data Radio Communication Systems Design Process not because this is a more indepth and more technical process, but because the systems involved are complex in nature and must be carefully designed and programmed. If anything, what I want to do is teach you a more simplified approach and technique to design a SCADA or Telemetry project, but one which you do the same whether the system is large or small.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A3B0491C

Freeze Protection For Natural Gas Pipeline Systems And Measurement Instrumentation
Author(s): Tom Fay
Abstract/Introduction:
One way businesses in todays natural gas industry can be certain to maintain a presence in a competitive market is to be able to deliver a consistent supply to their customers. To ensure a reliable supply, companies must be aware of potential problems that could lead to interruptions or shutdowns in service and the procedures that can prevent these costly situations. Freezing is a major culprit not only in these pipeline shutdowns and interruptions, but it can also affect the accuracy of gas measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8C635A4C

Scada And Telemetry In Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Edward H. Smyth
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA systems provide for safe, reliable, semi-efficient operation of gas transmission systems. Advanced applications and interfaces to business systems provide the keys for highly profitable operation. This paper introduces the basic building blocks of the SCADA system, including field devices. The SCADA host and advanced applications are discussed in detail. The paper concludes with a discussion of SCADA trends.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 18BBBB36

Comparing Plug & Seat Regulators & Control Valves
Author(s): Lamar Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper will be to compare a plug and seat regulator to a control valve for high-pressure natural gas installations such as: power plants, city gate stations, large industrial customers, compressor stations, and storage fields. The features, benefits, capabilities, and differences of both devices will be outlined, to enable the reader to make an educated selection. In addition, acceptable design practices will be reviewed concerning sizing, gas velocities, noise levels, equipment layout, and performance. The ball valve is the most commonly used type of modulating valve for natural gas pipeline applications, for that reason, we will limit this discussion to comparison between the plug and seat regulator and versions of a 1/4 turn ball valve.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F1606F85


Copyright © 2017