Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2010)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the discovery of oil and gas and the advent of commercial conveniences, which use oil and gas, companies have been confronted with the need to accurately measure the oil and gas bought and sold in the marketplace. And, as usual, the technology available at the time was brought to bear on the measurement process.
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Document ID: 3BC9B1F2

Network Analysis - Part 1 Gas Flow Equation Fundamentals
Author(s): Tim Bickford
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 25 years engineers in the natural gas industry have come to depend on the computer as a tool to perform complex hydraulic network analysis. Analysis, which would take weeks to perform by hand or by punchcard machines 30 years ago, can now be accomplished in mere hours or sometimes seconds. Today gas network analysis software, though complex and extremely sophisticated, has become very user friendly. Low cost PCs, inexpensive software and fexible software licensing now make it possible for almost anyone to have access to these powerful engineering tools. Today, more and more non-technical persons are using this cutting edge technology to perform analyses that were once performed by specialists
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Document ID: 48A08DF5

Grounding Techniques At Plants And Gate Stations With( Section On Power Line Shared Rows)
Author(s): Donald R. Long Matthew G. Esmacher
Abstract/Introduction:
A thorough review of common electrical and instrument grounding techniques employed by the natural gas industry especially where power lines share the Right of Wayand practical suggestions for improvement
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Document ID: CFEE4265

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted-For Gas Program
Author(s): John Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many (likely most) gas pipeline companies struggle with lost-and-unaccounted-for-gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom line as shown below. As shown in this inset, by reducing L&U from 0.6 percent to .25 percent, a typical company with a 2 BCF daily throughput could save almost 18 million annually based on 7.00 gas prices, which is a daily loss of 49,000.
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Document ID: 98421DE0

Corrosion Control Consi Derations For M&R Stations
Author(s): Michael J. Placzek John Otto Jay Keldsen
Abstract/Introduction:
Corrosion control for a measurement/regulation station can be very challenging. The majority of scenarios that can cause corrosion occur at M&Rs. Corrosion at an M&R can be broken into three major categories: External (external surface of the piping in contact with the soil or water electrolyte), Atmospheric (external surface of the piping in contact with the air) and Internal (internal surface of the piping exposed to liquids, bacteria or other contaminants in the product or gas flow).
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Document ID: AC8FA7AA

Proper Operation Of Gas Detection Instruments
Author(s): George Lomax
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the operation, maintenance and calibration for a number of instruments available today for the detection of combustible and toxic gases. The applications for these various instruments will also be discussed. This will include the investigation of odor complaints on a customers property, leakage survey applications, and other safety requirements
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Document ID: BE56EAA4

Elements Of Proper Chart Integration
Author(s): Charles T. Tom() Hunter R . L . Laughlin
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart Integration is the process of measuring (interpreting) the amount of natural gas recorded on a chart. It is a manual process that has been around for decades and is a MAJOR COMPONENT of the gas industry. A large part of sales are based upon proper measurement as well as royalty payments to land and lease holders. Chart Integration information becomes the basis for ultimately how revenue is received and paid. This session will explain the process of CHART INTEGRATION and show examples of GOOD and BAD charts.
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Document ID: F6607CE6

Odorant Spill Response Plans
Abstract/Introduction:
WHat happened? An O-ring failure in the Odorant flter caused the spill The spill flled the absorbent material in the base of the cabinet and over-fowed through a small hole onto the building foor. Estimate of 1 liter
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Document ID: 6A0BA7B4

Gas Odorants: Health, Environment And Safe Handling
Author(s): David C. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Mercaptans are the most effective chemical substances for odorizing natural and liquid propane gas. Their extremely low odor threshold and powerful olfactory impact make them ideal warning agents. Mercaptans unique physical properties, including flammability, present unique challenges to personnel, communities, and emergency response services. In addition, mercaptans health and environmental concerns have prompted further studies and assessments to better understand how to protect the public and ensure that these materials are handled safely. This paper is an overview of current hazard information and recommended safe handling procedures as applicable to natural and liquid propane gas odorants
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Document ID: C493D6DE

Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas measurement is becoming more prevalent in the modern oil and gas market place. The effect of entrained liquid in gas and its impact on measurement systems is being researched world wide by various laboratories and JIP working groups. The impact can be very significant financially.
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Document ID: 149199A5

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters.
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Document ID: 19779457

Coriolis Expands The Capabilities F O R Measuring Natural Gas
Author(s): Keven Conrad
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass fow measurement for natural gas proves to minimize the uncertainties associated with volumetric fow measurement. The installation requirements and overall cost can be greatly simplifed and reduced. The need for proper straight run and fow profle dependencies are shown to be virtually eliminated. While simulating such high level perturbation and installation effects, Coriolis continues to perform well within the accuracy specifcation of custody transfer. Engineering and manufacturing enhancements allow for Coriolis to now measure gas over an extended range of fow while maintaining a very precise method on inline, in-situ meter verifcation. The sensor itself and the electronics can also be tested periodically for defned tolerances and provide a preventative maintenance plan. Advanced diagnostics in Coriolis fowmeters today can allow one to monitor the quality of measurement and detect at an early phase trace amounts of liquid or condensate entrainment in the gas fow.
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Document ID: F67B563E

Rotary Displacement Meters Basics
Author(s): Todd Willis Larry Nielsen
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifce and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas fow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them.
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Document ID: 80EBA1BB

Orifice Meter Basics
Author(s): Kevin Finnan
Abstract/Introduction:
This class is going to be faithful to the title and focus on basics of orifce meters. It is intended as an introduction to any gas company employees who are interested in gaining a working knowledge of orifce meters, including where they are used and why. We will also briefy discuss the orifce meter from an operation and maintenance point-of-view
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Document ID: 26D9C80F

Data , This Is Your Life
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the realization by many famous thinkers, physicists and mathematicians over the course of history that everything in the world can be represented by groups of 1s and 0s. The foundation of almost all information can be broken down into a simple true/false, yes/no, 1/0 over time. (Quantum Mechanics theories can prove the writer wrong someday, but for the purposes of this paper, Im safe) Information (or data) can be represented by electronic, mechanical, printed text or smoke signal and the objective of distributing it over any communication medium is the key to its existence.
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Document ID: 175D6A0C

Fro m The Well Head To The Burner Tip: A Syste m Over View
Author(s): John Rafferty Pat Callahan
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the first year student to understand the basic flow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by consumers. Specific focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution systems
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Document ID: 539162CF

Basics Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Bob Bennett Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
The frst gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with fnancial and technical problems while operating on a fat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority
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Document ID: 60476534

Multipath Ultrasonic Meters For Custody Transfer Of Natural Gas
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
over the past 15 years, gas ultrasonic meters have transitioned from the engineering lab to wide commercial use as the primary device of choice to measure gas volume for fscal accounting. Wide acceptance and use by gas pipeline companies has occurred during this time due to the devices Reliability Accuracy Repeatability Capacity (rangeability) Commercial availability that translates into product support, and Adoption of industry standards for fscal measurement applications
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Document ID: 7D95C5BE

Fundamentals Of Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement
Author(s): Jack Herring
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon Dew Point is becoming a critical tariff parameter but it has always been a vital operational parameter for the pipeline industry. Measuring it must be done properly or serious errors can jeopardize tariff compliance resulting in shut-ins. If liquids build up, especially if water condensates are present allowing hydrate formation to occur, in the pipeline, that can damage compressors, valves and other in-pipe devices. Overcompensation for poor analysis techniques, or a less than optimal choice of instrumentation, will also add signifcantly to operational costs. The focus of this paper is to identify the major factors that contribute to best practices for measuring the hydrocarbon dew point (HCDP) in natural gas. The three most popular methods for measuring this parameter will be discussed. These three techniques
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Document ID: FECEA9A1

Basics Of Self-Operated And Direct-Acting Spring Regulators
Author(s): Rick Schneider
Abstract/Introduction:
Spring operated gas regulators are force balanced mechanical devices that operate everything from your gas grill at home to large transmission systems. Regulators are often referred to as a control valve, governor, or pressure reducers. The system designer uses regulators for several reasons, frst comes safety, economics, and to improve the efficiency of utilizing the gas. With gas fred equipment becoming more sophisticated due to efficiency and emissions, proper selection, application and understanding of spring operated regulators is becoming more critical
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Document ID: AA1CD415

Basic Properties Of Natural Gas
Author(s): John H. Batchelder Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automobiles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right? While it is true that the above mentioned materials are all made up of the same basic components, each has its own physical and chemical characteristics.
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Document ID: 641493E5

Prevention Of Freezing In Measurement And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Tom Fay
Abstract/Introduction:
One way businesses in todays natural gas industry can be certain to maintain a presence in a competitive market is to be able to deliver a consistent supply to their customers. To ensure a reliable supply, companies must be aware of potential problems that could lead to interruptions or shutdowns in service and the procedures that can prevent these costly situations. Freezing is a major culprit not only in these pipeline shutdowns and interruptions, but it can also affect the accuracy of gas measurement
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Document ID: 6A4867BB

Basic Pressure And Flow Control
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas fow. The frst is the regulator and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform fow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the fundamentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: 35C1062E

The Proper Application Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate them-where applicable-into my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics. Heres the performance characteristics Ill discuss
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Document ID: 5BBEE471

Basics Of Using Modbus Rtu In Monitoring And Control Production
Author(s): Walter Flasinski
Abstract/Introduction:
MODBUS is a common industrial communication protocol that has been around for decades. It is widely available either as a standard or option in industrial control and monitoring equipment and can be easily utilized. While it is simple, it is slow in comparison to some of todays available networking architecture, but has been so widely adopted because that simplicity.
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Document ID: BAF2221F

Applying Wireless To ETHERNET/IP Automation Systems
Author(s): Gary Enstad & Jim Ralston
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Ethernet for industrial networking is growing rapidly in factory automation, process control and SCADA systems. The ODVA EtherNet/IP network standard is gaining popularity as a preferred industrial protocol. Plant engineers are recognizing the signifcant advantages that Ethernet-enabled devices provide such as ease of connectivity, high performance and cost savings.
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Document ID: 2DCCD331

Interchangeability And The Gas Quality Tari Ff Process
Author(s): John R. Hand
Abstract/Introduction:
In the recent past, the term gas quality usually referred to a gass corrosive effect on the pipeline integrity of the pipeline. Most of these corrosion-related gas quality issues are well known by the natural gas industry. Gas quality now has taken on a new meaning for the industry as new sources of gas enter the national pipeline system and traditional sources decline.
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Document ID: EED90380

Components Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that they have an understanding of natural gas chemistry.
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Document ID: 4641607C

Pid Control - Fundamentals And Tuning
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
It is not very easy to start talking about PID controllers. But, once we get started we will go over many aspects of control and how PID controllers help us. Do we start with what they are used for, or how they work? Or for that matter, what is PID? That might be a good place to start. Proportional - Integral - Derivative. Thats it! PID.
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Document ID: EFD98436

Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Jeff Randolph
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss communication basics and communication options for the gas industry. An overview of communications basics and communication technologies available to the Gas Industry will be discussed
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Document ID: 58C3E741

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Derrill Meyer
Abstract/Introduction:
Btu is the three letter acronym for British thermal unit. One Btu is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 58.5F to 59.5F (about 1055.056 joules (SI)). Heat (Btu), is gained from the burning of Natural Gas otherwise known as Oxidation, which is shown in the chemical equations below: CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O + HEAT (1010 Btu/CF) 2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O + HEAT (1769 Btu/CF) C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O + HEAT (2516 Btu/CF) This HEAT is the valuable commodity that makes Natural Gas production, transmission and distribution proftable as an enterprise. The purpose of this paper is to describe how this heat amount can be obtained from the gas composition. The method for attaining this composition will also be discussed
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Document ID: 28FEF244

Life Of An Appalachian Gas Well
Author(s): Timothy L. Altier
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was once an unwanted byproduct of oil production. Since it is the gas that pushes oil and brine to the wellbore, the gas was fared, sometimes in great quantities in order to produce the oil. No effort was made to conserve the gas so, ironically, the feld pressure would decline rapidly and most of the oil would be left in the reservoir. Its frst use as a fuel was in the immediate areas the surrounding oilfelds and even then many times it was fared in the town square as a source of lighting and entertainment. No effective transportation system was in place to distribute the gas from the remote felds to metropolitan areas. It was not until after World War II that cross country pipelines were laid and large and reliable supplies of gas were available for residential, commercial and industrial consumers. The natural gas industry as we know it has developed in approximately 50 years. Im sure the wildcatters of the early 1900s would be amazed that today you could buy and sell 100 million BTU of gas from a computer screen in any given day!
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Document ID: 117A3C60

Well Testing Using Non-Intrusive Ultrasonic Flow Measurement Technologies
Author(s): Kevin Gross
Abstract/Introduction:
A variety of well test procedures are currently utilized in the natural gas industry. All include a requirement to measure flow during test periods. Measuring flow rates from gas wells has been conducted almost exclusively using orifice plates and related electronics. Orifice measurement, while accurate and proven, can present several challenges and problems for periodic or temporary measurement of gas wells. New, non-intrusive ultrasonic gas measurement technology allows for faster, simpler and more environmentally friendly testing of flow rates in gas wells
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Document ID: A4520B9B

Stee L Pipeline Pickling Using T He Wisconsin Public Service Methodology
Author(s): Patrick J. Callahan
Abstract/Introduction:
New pipeline construction provides for many opportunities to enhance the safety of the installers and the owners and the public. All throughout pipeline construction we look for areas of improvement, the excavation, installation, backflling, restoration and public relations, but once the pipeline is fnished and ready for commissioning everyone wants the gas to start fowing. The introduction of natural gas into a pipeline means the job is complete and the new line is in service. But during the frst few hours, days, weeks and months can be a worry for pipeline operators until the natural gas is at the proper odor level. Is odor fade real or just a rare occurrence and is it much ado about nothing. It is real and it is even documented by various entities such as odorant vendors and pipeline operators
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Document ID: D725F492

Basic Electronic Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Ken Pollock
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent several years have shown remarkable changes in the communications feld. New methods and digital techniques have allowed the Communications Technician to solve communications problems that previously required unusual solutions or required manual data collecting. There are now methods to get the required data automatically and without human intervention that are proving to be reliable and cost effective without requiring high costs or constant maintenance. This paper will discuss the basics of many of these concepts and provide a basic knowledge of solutions that may be employed to provide telemetry for data collection.
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Document ID: 19B4469C

High Volume Measurement Using Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
For over one hundred years the turbine meter has been servicing large volume applications of the natural gas market. During this time the turbine has continuously evolved into a device that offers the industry new and unique features. This paper will focus on the significant advancements of this technology as well as how they are applied in the field today
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Document ID: 58764575

Advancements In Scada And Flow Measurement Technology
Author(s): Michael Rozic
Abstract/Introduction:
The ability to perform accurate and reliable measurement and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) was a daunting task for anyone prior to the invention of microprocessors in the early 1970s. Most natural gas measurement, control and communication prior to this were done pneumatically. Differential measurement in combination with mechanical driven chart recorder were one of the frst devices used in the feld and is still used today to measure and record natural gas through pipelines and at well heads. Pneumatic equipment was used not only because of the limited technology available at that time, but it:
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Document ID: 873D0087

Flow Calibrating High Volume Ultrasonic Flowmeters- Considerations And Benefits
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters, Second Addition Ref 1, now requires flow calibration for ultrasonic flow meters when being used for custody transfer applications
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Document ID: 8D3E742F

The Phenomenon Of Odor Fade & Associated Risk
Author(s): Ed Flynn
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent Natural Gas explosions have raised the awareness of the deadly phenomenon known as odor fade. Utility managers and regulators are going back to the drawing board to see what action should be taken to prevent these catastrophic accidents. As a former manager of a large utility in the Northeast responsible for the odorization program and a project manager/Odorization Specialist in the private sector, Ive had an opportunity to witness the whole picture regarding the odorization of gas. In this paper well take a look at some tragic incidents that have occurred, mistakes that have led to these incidents and what preventive steps can be taken to minimize the potential.
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Document ID: 602F5A3E

Operation And Maintenance Considerations For Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identifed in the past. It primarily discusses fscal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked fow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper is based upon the Westinghouse confguration (also knows as a chordal design) and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other manufacturers
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Document ID: 1643886B

Cc-Csi CEESI Crime Scene Investigat Ion
Author(s): William E. Frasier
Abstract/Introduction:
This case is real. The names have been changed to protect the innocent. Examine the evidence photograph below. The view is the meter tube inlet of an ultrasonic meter retrofit. A ten-inch Daniel chordal meter was installed in place of an orifice meter. Flow is from left to right. Everything needed to define the crime and solve it is in the picture. Our task is to solve the crime.
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Document ID: 7AD1BCDA

Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy Methodology F O R Measuring Water Vapor And CO2 In Natural Gas
Author(s): Thomas Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
Water is a naturally occurring component of natural gas. Too much water in natural gas can cause serious problems for transmission and processing, so the gas must be dried to acceptable levels. If the gas is not dried properly the following problems may occur
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Document ID: 04802FC2

Natural Gas Dehydration
Author(s): Scott Glascock
Abstract/Introduction:
All produced natural gas contains water. Some of this water is free, in a (liquid form and may be removed by passing the gas through a separator or scrubber. After passing the gas through the separator removing the free water, the gas will still contain water in a vapor phase. The capacity to hold water is a function of the gas composition itself, but is also affected by the pressure and temperature of the gas. (See appendix A).
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Document ID: D9E920E7

Self-Operated Regulator Basics
Author(s): Trent Decker
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation
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Document ID: 48C4AB38

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifce, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and fow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A signifcant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and confgurations have become available over the past 50 years of production.
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Document ID: D4331A02

Basic Principles Of Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Michael Garvey
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators are capable of providing very accurate control in natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines. The Pilot Operated Regulator provides advantages over both self-operated regulators and control valves. Primary benefts include simplicity of operation and elimination of any fugitive emissions caused by atmospheric bleed gas. However, it is important to recognize the limitations of the pilot operated fexible element regulator and apply it accordingly. The original Flexible Element Regulator, the Flexfo , was developed by the Grove Valve and Regulator Company circa World War II. The original intent for the regulator was to regulate water in submarine ballasting systems. However, Grove quickly recognized that the Flexfo regulator product was ideally suited for pressure control applications in natural gas pipelines. Many advances have been made since the original Flexible Element was created more then ffty years ago, but the same basic operational advantages and principles of operation remain unchanged
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Document ID: E5EE6586

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the frst practical gas meter in England in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843. It consisted of two diaphragms, sliding valves and linkage. T. S. Lacey patented the pre-payment meter in 1870. The most signifcant change to diaphragm meters over the years has been in the materials of construction. Brass parts have been replaced by plastic, and leather diaphragms have been replaced with synthetic rubber.
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Document ID: 83AF2F37

Control Valve Noise
Author(s): Ross Turbiville
Abstract/Introduction:
Noise has always been present in control valves. It is a natural side effect of the turbulence and energy conversion inherent in control valves. This paper will address how noise is created, why it can be a problem, and methods to attenuate noise created in control valves.
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Document ID: 00A39F72

Integrating Metering, Billing, Security And Control Processes
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and process control equipment has been on a progressive trend over the past decade. Due to continuous improvements, products have developed from pneumatic to electronic processes, reduced in physical size and increased in overall functionality. While the core AGA flow/energy equations have not altered, the electronic equipment calculating these equations has undergone dynamic changes. These changes will dramatically affect the gas industry, bringing new ideas, concepts and realities.
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Document ID: A0F6D123

Automated Rotary Meter Diagnostics
Author(s): Kevin Beaver And Roman Artiuch
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of rotary gas meters in the 1920s, gas companies have been using differential testing to assess meter condition. By measuring the pressure drop across a rotary meter gas companies use the differential test as a means of determining whether or not meter accuracy has changed. When used in accordance with manufacturer recommendations, and gas industry standards like ANSI B109.3, differential testing is a cost effective method for assessing meter condition while a rotary meter is in-service.
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Document ID: 72129FBE

AGA 10 - Understanding The Measurement Report For Speed Of Sound In Natural Gas And Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith Joel Clancy,
Abstract/Introduction:
The speed of sound in natural gas is the velocity a sound wave travels in the gas. There are a number of gas properties that affect the speed of sound and they include the composition of the gas, the pressure of the gas and the temperature of the gas. The American Gas Association Report No. 10 Speed of Sound in Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases provides an accurate method for calculating the speed of sound in natural gas and other related hydrocarbon fluids. Purpose of AGA Report No. 10 The development of ultrasonic flow meters
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Document ID: C0FF7EAC

Freeze Protection For The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Thomas And David Kerr
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing in regulating and measuring equipment is a problem affecting all phases of the natural gas industry from the wellhead to the final customer. Internal freezing is caused by the formation of hydrates, which are frost-like unstable, complex, crystalline solids formed from hydrocarbon gases and water vapor under certain conditions of pressure and temperature. Most natural gas purchase agreements limit the amount of water to pounds per million cubic feet of gas. External freezing is caused
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Document ID: A03C9167

Clamp On- Gas Flow Technology Advancements Increase Performance And Diagnostic Capabi Lities For Check Metering And Custody Transf Er App Lications
Author(s): Mark Imboden Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent buzz created by the clamp-on wide beam technology in the gas measurement world has compelled even the gas industry skeptics among us to take notice. Rapid acceleration of successful installations across the globe and the surprising performance results being obtained (as shown in the following pages) has only added fuel to the excitement. Field clamp-on gas flowmeters provide a unique tool for solving flow related challenges without interrupting the operation of a gas pipeline.
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Document ID: 99C7C853

Basic Electronics And Calibration For The Gas Measurement Technician
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
These basic topics will be discussed. Electronic Terms Measurements using a Multi-Meter Using a Pressure Calibrator Using a Temperature Calibrator Electronics plays a major role in todays gas measurement and control. The following basic information will better prepare the measurement technician for the tasks related to electronic measurement and control.
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Document ID: 580BF07C

High-Pressure Calibration Of Gas Turbine Meters In Alternate Fluids
Author(s): Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent research has confirmed that the error performance of gas turbine meters are significantly affected by their operating conditions. The AGA 7 report recommends that a gas turbine meter should be calibrated at or near its operating conditions in order to provide the best measurement accuracy. This paper describes the concept of gas turbine meter proving by matching the Reynolds number and density of a natural gas flow to pipeline conditions using alternate fluids. Experimental data are used to demonstrate the validity of this method.
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Document ID: 185C9A2F

Pressure Control Basics
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natural gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to balance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures. Pressure control is used in all phases of the delivery system as follows: Production Wells Up to 5,000+ psig Compressor Stations Pumping into Storage or Boosting Transmission Supply. City Gate Stations Reduce Transmission Pressures to Distribution Pressures. District Regulation Stations cutting pressures for safe delivery End User Regulation Providing a safe pressure for end user appliances.
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Document ID: E2772E95

Application Of Common Conversion Factors
Author(s): Alfred Wettemann
Abstract/Introduction:
Purpose of this program is to review some basic conversion factors used in Measurement, and how they are used in everyday Measurement applications in the natural gas industry. 2. This chart shows that even in measurement systems that are closely related there are changes that have been made over time. Both American and British systems are the same to one million then, denominations change after that point The American billion equals the British milliard Above a billion, American denominations are 1000 times the preceding one. Above a milliard, British denominations are 1,000,000 times the preceding one. (Merriam- Webster Dictionary) Unit conversions are always a common issue we must deal with.
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Document ID: 4E78C2AA

Gas Meter Proving : The Equipment And Methodolog Y Used Today In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine the accuracy of a natural gas meter, a known volume of air is passed through the meter, and the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters. The belltype meter prover - though still commonly used in the industry - is not the only kind of meter prover used today. The advancements and developments in electronics and computer technology has lead to an evolution of meter proving equipment - far from the manual proving methods that were commonplace only a few decades ago. Many utilities have replaced the bell-type prover with sonic nozzle and transfer provers. Provers can now store and retrieve information from a utilitys meter management system, reduce the human error factor in the proving operation, and provide self-diagnostics to assist the prover operator in maintenance and in troubleshooting problems.
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Document ID: 34D73662

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter Basi Cs
Author(s): James W. Bowen Ron Lamont
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter, however, many of these issues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others.
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Document ID: C98EDD39

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Water Vapor Measurement
Author(s): Samuel C. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will introduce the basic approaches to trace moisture measurements for natural gas and provide some advantages and disadvantages of each approach. There are many applications where trace moisture measurements are necessary such as in clean dry air, hydrocarbon processing, heat treatment processes, pure semiconductor gases, bulk pure gases, insulating gases such as those in transformers and power plants, and in natural gas pipelines. Natural gas presents a unique situation where the gas can have extremely high levels of solid and liquid contaminants as well as corrosive gases present in varying concentrations
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Document ID: 5971F941

In-Situ On-Site() Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Field provers have been developed for operation at high line pressures and flow rates. For purposes of this discussion, a high gas flow rate is any flow greater than 3,000 actual cubic feet per hour or (85 m3/h) at pressures to 1,440 psig (10 MPa).
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Document ID: DDB20302

Practical Considerations Of Gas Sampling And Gas Sampling Systems
Author(s): David J. Fish Sean Stevens
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
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Document ID: AEEAB221

Fundamentals Of District Regulator Station Design
Author(s): James P. Davis And Scott A. Laplante
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the fundamental steps necessary to begin and complete a district regulator design. It will focus on the techniques NSTAR uses to develop target locations and the subsequent designs. This paper will cover replacements and new installations
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Document ID: 5CEAD1E3

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization injection and monitoring technology has advanced dramatically in the past 15 years. A former Chairperson of the Appalachian Short Course, Harold Englert of Columbia Gas Virginia, used to refer to odorization as, A little bit of science, and a whole lot of magic. The intent of this paper is to provide the reader with practical solutions to develop a solid odorization program, even in dense urban environments, in the hope of removing the, Magic, to a successful odorization program.
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Document ID: 895DAC22

The Evolution Of Data Collection For Ga S Measurement
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
Evolving communication technologies are revolutionizing SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems just as new technology in drilling and production are revolutionizing the way oil and gas wells are produced. The new high volume pad wells and horizontal production techniques demand: Faster data collection Systems that provide more detailed information Greater polling speed More remote control Ability to optimize production to lower operating costs Equipment that is lower cost, and easier to install than ever before
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Document ID: 0D8405BC

Wifi Ip Communications For Improved Field Support And Scada
Author(s): Wifi Ip Communications For Improved Field Support And Scada
Abstract/Introduction:
Have you ever stopped to consider just how dependent we all are on instantaneous communications? Or, how as different generations we communicate with each other? Both subjects are hot topics in business today. Now, stop for a minute and consider how many different pieces of equipment, and how many different forms of communications you as a person carry around with you on the job every day. And then ask yourself these questions - Who is the U.S. Postal Service anyway? and Why do I still have a land line telephone?
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Document ID: 3A785240

High Pressure Servi Ces
Author(s): George Levesque
Abstract/Introduction:
The code governing pressure control of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems is 192.197. This part of the code has been updated several times (11/07/1970, 07/13/1998, and 09/15/2003) since its inception on August 19, 1970. 192.197 details when overpressure protection is required and lists some acceptable methods of overpressure protection. For distribution systems with MAOPs over 125 PSIG, the code is pretty clear on the requirement for, and the application of, overpressure protection. For MAOPs below 125 PSIG, there are several factors that are looked at like the design of the service regulator, whether the gas is free from materials that could interfere with the proper operation of the regulator, the body size of the regulator, as well as other factors. For the purpose of this class, we will focus on applications above the 125 PSIG MAOP which is covered by 192.197.c.1 & 2
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Document ID: F6CCFE15

Prop Er Groundin G Techni Ques At Plants And Gate Station S
Author(s): Donald R. Long Matthew G. Esmacher,
Abstract/Introduction:
Grounding is defined as electrical equipment connected directly to mother earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth, such as the steel frame of a high-rise building on a concrete footing. Proper grounding is an essential component for safely operating electrical systems. Improper grounding methodology has the potential to bring disastrous results. There are many different categories and types of grounding principles. This papers focus is to demonstrate proper grounding techniques for low voltage Instrument and Control Systems (IACS) that have been proven safe and reliable when employed in natural gas facilities.
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Document ID: 0DD36A48

Gate Station Design
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
Introduction The City Gate or, Take, Station, is the interchange of natural gas between: Two interstate pipelines An interstate pipeline and a local gas distribution company (LDC) An interstate pipeline and a large industrial end user (usually a power plant) The City Gate station is one of the more complex designs a natural gas engineer will deal with in the course of a career. Like all projects, a properly designed and constructed gate station begins with good preliminary engineering. In preliminary engineering, all of the major project goals and hurdles are defined. If the preliminary engineering document is written properly, it will serve as the backbone for the entire project
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Document ID: 5ADEC246


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