Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (2007)

Evaluation Of Flowable Fill Around Utility Pipes
Author(s): George Ragula,Khalid Farrag,
Abstract/Introduction:
Backfilling of excavations in pavement restoration is a continuous challenge for utility companies and municipalities. Many options exist for choosing a backfill material that will provide a strong, long-lasting pavement repair. Flowable f i l l , a Controlled-Low Strength Material (CLSM), is being used as an alternative to traditional backfill materials. Flowable fill has the advantages of uniform distribution, self-leveling, and adequate strength. However, the increase in the use of the flowable fill is not matched by the development of quality control procedures to insure that the performance of this material is according to the requirements of backfills around utility lines.
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Document ID: 5E0C3D93

Mechanical Fittings And Small-Hole Technology - Perfect Together
Author(s): Thomas W. Coleman III,Dr. William Hutton,
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays economy there has never been a more concentrated effort to reduce costs and find more efficient methods of completing day-to-day tasks. Mechanical fittings and small-hole technology are the perfect combination for addressing those needs. Together they can offer savings to utilities totaling thousands of dollars per installation
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Document ID: 8343F84C

Value Of And Requirements For The Success Of A Strategic Alliance In A Natural Gas Utility
Author(s): Jim Sanders,Padma Tata,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the motivation for creating and the evolution of the Strategic Distribution Alliance at Enbridge Gas Distribution Inc. (Toronto, Ontario). The introduction of Performance-Based Regulation in the late 1990s at Enbridge Gas Distribution Inc., and the anticipation of Comprehensive Performance- Based Regulation motivated the organization to find and implement additional measures to manage costs. In 2003, Enbridge Gas Distribution Inc. formed a strategic alliance with two construction and two service contractors, an expedient to achieve operational efficiencies. Now in year four of five, the alliance has encountered several challenges, learned many lessons, and achieved great benefits - these are all presented in this paper. The important factors for the success of an alliance are also discussed. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that, if managed correctly, there is value in forming an alliance for a natural gas utility.
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Document ID: 3F746D38

Measurement Scene Investigations
Author(s): Chris Spriggs,
Abstract/Introduction:
Oklahoma Natural Gas Company, one of three companies that make up the Distribution Division of ONEOK, Inc., provides natural gas distribution services to 80% of Oklahoma or approximately 850,000 total customers. This customer base includes service to more than 50,000 commercial and industrial customers. Many of these commercial and industrial customers now have the opportunity to buy their gas on the open market. Oklahoma Natural Gas currently allows any customer, (other than residential), that uses over 1,000 Dth/year to be eligible to participate in our gas transportation program. At this time about 5,000 customers participate. In the future, the company is considering the expansion of this opportunity to all customers
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Document ID: CFC69150

Natural Gas Sampling Recommendations And Common Deficiencies
Author(s): Fred Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
The current scope of API Chapter 14.1 is directly related to commitments made to the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in the late 1980s. At that time, Ray Thompson with the BLM pointed out to me (as the lead industry spokesperson negotiating with the BLM on allocation measurement and other issues) that the industry had many gaps in its standards. He asked if we would close the gaps or if the BLM should plan on closing them for us. On behalf of the industry, and with full support from several API member companies and their representatives, I committed to Ray that we would close the gaps
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Document ID: 83A1F65E

Atmos L&U Reporting
Author(s): Olaf Von Sehrwald
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2005 Atmos Mid-Tex Division initiated a project with Atmos Information Technology (IT) to develop an information system to calculate and report Lost and Unaccounted for Gas (L&U) using data from the divisions new billing system or Customer Information System (CIS). An entirely new L&U Reporting System was needed due to the replacement of the CIS in October 2005
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Document ID: 6F343C4E

The Value Of Asset Management In The Gas Industry
Author(s): Charles Hince
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we can determine the value of asset management its necessary that we define what we mean by asset management. It seems that that there are as many definitions as there are vendors, experts, authorities, and gas companies. This dilemma of classification exists because there is no definitive or over arching definition of this still maturing discipline. Is asset management about inventory, financials, warehousing, wires and pipes, or people? What exactly is an asset? More and more utilities are deciding that its all of the above. It seems that nearly everything a utility has can be considered an asset and needs to be managed
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Document ID: C9C145C3

Drip Water Management
Author(s): Janet Fox
Abstract/Introduction:
Con Edisons drip water treatment units treat benzene contaminated drip water by stripping out the benzene and rendering the drip water non-hazardous. The treated water is then discharged into a combined sewer instead of having to treat and dispose of it as hazardous waste
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Document ID: 527FAE4B

Mathematical Models For Short Term Natural Gas Demand Forecasting
Author(s): Ronald H. Brown, Brian m. Marx, George F. Corliss, Thomas F. Quinn
Abstract/Introduction:
A Local Distribution Company (LDC) faces many challenges in the business of supplying gas to its customers. The LDC must operate its systems to assure delivery of gas in adequate volumes at required pressures under all circumstances. For efficient, economical, and safe operation, the daily gas demanded by the customers must be known a few days in advance with some degree of accuracy. This paper discusses methods to predict aggregate daily demand of the customers of an LDC. Similar models may also be used to forecast hourly demands, as well as monthly and longer-term demands
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Document ID: 2D7EBFC3

Appliance Population Issues In Gas Interchangeability Testing
Author(s): H.B. Levinsky
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to declining local production, combined with (inter)national deregulation, the supply of natural gas is becoming progressively more diverse. Thus, LNG from all over the world is being introduced into the US market, while pipeline gas from Russia and LNG from the Middle East are becoming increasingly important for Western Europe. The change in geographical origin of natural gas is often accompanied by a change in gas composition for example, compared to lean pipeline gases, most LNGs are rich in higher hydrocarbons, yielding increased higher heating values (HHV) and Wobbe Indices. Another cause of variations in natural gas composition is the fluctuation in the degree of gas processing being done, caused by fluctuations in gas and feedstock prices.
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Document ID: 6E632883

Effect Of Elevated Ground Temperature From( Electric Cables) On The Pressure Rating Of Pe Pipe In Gas Piping Applications
Author(s): Dr. Gene Palermo,Z. Jimmy Zhou,Robert Farnum
Abstract/Introduction:
New underground high voltage electric cables can increase the average annual temperature of the soil at typical burial depths of about three feet. Older electric cable systems were designed with significant margin, therefore, they operated at a level significantly lower than their maximum capacity. Operating at such a lower level resulted in a significantly lower conductor temperature, and because of this lower conductor temperature, there was a lower heat flux to impact surrounding utilities. To reduce overall costs, while maximizing circuit ratings, todays electric cable systems are designed to operate much closer to their limit. Therefore, the actual conductor temperatures are closer to the maximum value, and this is what is causing the increased heat flux to the surrounding utilities. If these electric cables are near buried PE gas pipes, this increased ground temperature could decrease the pressure rating of the PE pipe. This paper will explain how these calculations can be made
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Document ID: 257A0DB7

Cost Effective Method For Repairing In-Service Old Generation Pe Self Tapping Tees
Author(s): Perry Sheth, Greg Brzozowski, Scott Beloff
Abstract/Introduction:
Sustaining safety, reliability and efficiency of our aging gas distribution network assets have become challenging for operating engineers. This requires a radical change in our approach and thinking in ensuring how we continue to provide safe and reliable service to our customers in the most cost effective manner. This paper focuses on a novel cost effective live repair method, for leaking in-service Delrin insert polyethylene tapping tees, installed in the seventies without the interruption of gas service.
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Document ID: 396D622C

Title: Polyethylene Valves For Natural Gas Distribution
Author(s): Richard W. Conley
Abstract/Introduction:
In case you havent noticed, there has been a quiet revolution in the distribution of natural gas throughout our nations cities and towns. Instead of the traditional cast iron and steel pipelines, distribution lines are now almost exclusively made of polyethylene (PE).
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Document ID: 2575AF0B

The Next Generation Of Sub-X Vaporizers Peakshaving Multi-Burner Scv Replacements
Author(s): Frank m. Maupay
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a joint effort between Selas Fluid /T-Thermal, the original equipment manufacturer and Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison), operator of a peakshaving plant in Queens, NY. In 2002, Con Edison became the first company to begin a vaporizer replacement project which commenced with the order of two Sub-X 48-60 submerged combustion vaporizers (SCVs). This paper presents a constructive evaluation of that project along with three similar projects executed at other North American peakshaving plants where operators have begun replacing their vaporizers with the Next Generation of SCVs. The paper will focus on the lessons learned from these companies as well as the improvements to the reliability and safety of their plants
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Document ID: 22D7F784

Evaluation Of LNG Facilities For Aging
Author(s): Richard A. Hoffmann, P.E. Kevin Ritz
Abstract/Introduction:
Aging is the deterioration associated with the passage of time. Aging is not obsolescence. Obsolescence is a condition that occurs when equipment becomes inefficient to operate, is no longer supported by the manufacturer, no longer meets code requirements, or is no longer wanted, although it is still in good working order. This can be outside the control of the owner or operator of the facility.
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Document ID: 9B14ADE2

New Techniques For Estimating Flow In Areas Of Poor Communication
Author(s): Bill Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses solutions to the problem of poor communications, or other situations that lead to measurement data not being available to dependent business processes. Where communication to field devices has failed, is erratic, or is infrequent, the goal of timely monitoring, analysis and balancing of volumes in a measurement system cannot be met
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Document ID: 774362B3

Statistical Method Verified By Experimental Data For The Determination Of Dense-Phase Natural Gas Quality
Author(s): Kamal K. Botros, John Geerligs, Stephen Hall,
Abstract/Introduction:
Several techniques to determine the criconden-therm of natural gas in the dense-phase have been evaluated. This paper focuses on a practical solution that could be used to manage a hydrocarbon cricondentherm specification in real-time. The method is based on a statistical analysis of the hydrocarbon dew point of gas mixtures of varying compositions at a given constant pressure. It offers a fundamentally sound and cost effective technique to determine the quality of the gas in the dense-phase. A brief summary of the basis for this method is described supported by numerical analysis of over 1000 different gas mixtures with individual alkane components varying between expected lower and upper bounds
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Document ID: 8EB937CB

Measuring High Frequency Control Valve Noise To Evaluate The Interaction With Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): Frederick W. Catron, Allen C. Fagerlund1
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic gas flow meters are installed in pipe lines with particular concern on the location of flow noise sources, such as control valves, tees, and other piping components. While the operating frequency range of the gas flow meter is far above the typical range of the controlling noise being generated by control valves, there is good evidence showing there are noise sources from control valves in the operating frequency range of the ultrasonic gas flow meter. Measurements were taken to evaluate control valve noise and the interaction that noise had on the operating frequencies of an ultrasonic gas flow meter. The test program utilized an ultrasonic gas flow meter in a pipe line with various types of control valves in operation.
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Document ID: CA4EBF03

A Method For Performance Testing Of Natural Gas Sampling Systems
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux,
Abstract/Introduction:
The analysis of natural gas (NG) plays a key role in determining its monetary value. The NG BTU content value and the physical properties utilized in computing its volume, both of which directly impact its value, are derived from compositional analysis
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Document ID: CD57DB69

Novel Design Of A 12 Chords Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter With Specific Diagnostic Functions
Author(s): Jan G. Drenthen, Martin Kurth & Jeroen Van Klooster
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 15 years, thousands of ultrasonic flow meters have been successfully employed in the natural gas industry and in particular in the upstream and transmission segments. Here, the users take the full advantage of the non-intrusive measurement technology, the absence of pressure drop and the virtual maintenance free operation almost to the level of install-and-forget
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Document ID: 73512431

Ultrasonic Meter Condition Based Monitoring - A New And Simplified Solution
Author(s): Mr. John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past several years the use of ultrasonic meters (USMs) has gained world-wide acceptance for fiscal applications. The many benefits of USMs have been documented in several papers at virtually every major conference. As the cost of gas continues to increase, the importance of knowing that the ultrasonic meter is operating accurately has never been more important. The use of diagnostics to help identify metering issues has been discussed in several papers over the past few years Ref 1 & 2.
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Document ID: 77018F11

Diagnostics For Reflective Multipath Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Jim Robertson
Abstract/Introduction:
PG&E has installed over 30 reflective path ultrasonic meters since 1995. For these meters, eight diagnostic indicators determine ultrasonic meter health and accuracy. This paper examines these diagnostic indicators in terms of theory, effectivenes,, and field experiences. In addition, we describe developing a baseline template with diagnostic criteria for determining meter condition
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Document ID: 4B2F0841

Analysis Of Processes Occurring In Manual Chilled Mirror Hydrocarbon Dew Point Equipment
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
An analysis is presented of processes which occur during measurements of natural gas hydrocarbon dew points using manual chilled mirror devices based on the ASTM D-1142 method. Approximations are used to estimate non steady state rate processes such as heat transfer which take place during the measurement process.
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Document ID: AB72DB95

Estimating Overall Measurement Uncertainty At Todays Meter Stations
Author(s): Warren Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to advancements in technology and heightened business expectations, operating companies are expressing renewed interest in measurement uncertainty. Practical methods are available for evaluating overall measurement uncertainty at complex gas measurement facilities
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Document ID: ECCA8ADF

Meter Verification Techniques For Coriolis Meters
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
It has long been recognized that the ability to verify a flow meters accuracy without initiating a flow validation test against a reference is a cost saving attribute. Many regulatory agencies and flow meter users recognize verification methodology, with certain technologies, as effective in demonstrating a meters performance. The users of Orifice meters have long benefited from this ability and most recently, developments in Ultrasonic meter diagnostics and inspection techniques have allowed the technology to make similar claims
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Document ID: 2948EB12


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