Measurement Library

South East Asia Flow Measurement Conference Publications (2006)

The Use Of An 8 Path Ultrasonic Meter As A Reference Meter Standard
Author(s): Volker Herrmann, Matthias Wehmeier, Toralf Dietz, Andreas Ehrlich, Markus Dietzen
Abstract/Introduction:
The following paper describes an advanced configuration in the acoustic path layout of an ultrasonic flow meter. The four acoustic paths of the FLOWSIC600 meter are symmetrically intersected by four additional acoustic paths. The intersecting second plane of ultrasonic transducers extends the capabilities of the established FLOWSIC600 flow meter significantly. Non-axial velocity components can be identified, and thus a more precise measurement of flow rate under adverse conditions is possible. Furthermore, the analysis of velocity components leads to additional diagnostic functions to identify flow pattern like swirl and asymmetry. The paper will introduce the new 8-path flow meter under different points of view.
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Document ID: BDF6BAA6

Operating Gas Ultrasonic Meters After The Project Team Goes Home
Author(s): Keith Roberts
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper shares operational experiences and presents data from a variety of installations and operators throughout Asia Pacific. It will compare results from the meters, share some of the observations and discuss the use of control charts in an attempt to set out bench mark values for the operational uses of these meters. All data presented is from operational meters but shall be presented blind for the purpose of confidentiality. The first section contains a discussion on the uses of the Speed Of Sound data from the meter diagnostics to provide a confidence level of the meter performance by establishing a meter Footprint. Section two will concentrate on meter profiles and the evaluation of meter performance after installation.
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Document ID: 3349E14A

Developments Of Transducer Technology And Reciprocity In Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Skule Smrgrav, Atle Abrahamsen, Per Lunde, Reidar B, Magne Vestrheim
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic transit time flow meters for gas and liquid (USMs) are gaining increased popularity for custody transfer and allocation metering of gas and oil. AGA recommendations on gas USMs were issued in 1998 1 (this document is presently under revision), a handbook on uncertainty evaluation of gas USM metering stations was prepared in 2001 2,3, an API standard on liquid ultrasonic meters was issued in February 2005 4, an ISO standard on gas USMs is under development 5, etc.
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Document ID: E3F6661C

Presentation Of Water Fraction Metering Outlined In Handbook Of Water Fraction Metering By Norwegian Society For Oil And Gas Measurement
Author(s): Georg Johnsen
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last few years the oil and gas industry have seen an increased need of continuous, real time and precise measurement of water fraction in hydrocarbon liquids. This is due to increased use of water injection in oil reservoirs, the possibilities of reducing separator systems, and thus save both weight and need of space on particularly offshore installations, but most of all, a general wish of to utilize modern technology for having better measurement of both the hydrocarbons and the water in crude oil export and allocation. The Norwegian Society for Oil and Gas Measurement recently published the second revision of Handbook of Water Fraction Metering.
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Document ID: 62755701

Measurement Uncertainty As A Business Tool For Reducing Equity Exposure
Author(s): David Stewart, Mark Hay
Abstract/Introduction:
The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is, or should be, a key requirement in any flow measurement system, whether it be for fiscal purposes or any other purpose, such as allocation or simply process control. In all measurement systems, it is generally the case that the lower the required measurement uncertainty, the higher the financial cost required to achieve it. Thorough evaluation of the system uncertainty helps ensure that the metering system is properly designed, cost effective and fit for purpose, meeting any uncertainty constraints specified legally, through partner agreements or through internal procedures.
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Document ID: B152E994

Perturbation Tests And Performance Evaluatin On A 6 Nb Turbine Meter As Per Oiml Standards
Author(s): Muhammed Asharaf, K. Sivaprakas, R. Mascomani, S. Saseendran
Abstract/Introduction:
As a part of the in-house research program, to study the influence of upstream perturbations on a turbine flow meter, a series of perturbation flow tests were carried out at Fluid Control Research Institute (FCRI), Palakkad, Kerala, India. These research oriented tests were carried out as per the recommendations of OIML Standard OIML R32 : Rotary piston gas meters and turbine gas meters1 The above tests were carried out on a brand new 6NB Turbine flow meter with a built in vane type of flow straightener, with a specified flow range of 80-1600 m3/h. The perturbation tests were carried out with an upstream straight length of 2D and 5D configurations with different direction of swirl with respect to turbine wheel rotation. The swirl was generated with different bend configurations at the inlet piping.
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Document ID: FEA08A2B

A Standard For Allowable SHIP/SHORE Volume Measurement Variances For Marine Tankers
Author(s): Youssef Basrawi
Abstract/Introduction:
We Cannot Be Held Accountable For What We Cannot Measure. If we are to have accurate flow measurements we need to have precise measuring instruments and proper procedures. This is especially necessary when dealing with custody transfer flow measurements. The paper talks about the constant ship/shore volume measurement variances for marine tankers and the potential costly claims, between suppliers and consumers, resulting in improper and non compliance with accepted standards. The paper also highlights the operational accepted and approved procedures to minimize and/or eliminate contractual disputes between contractual parties dealing in crude cargo export, transit and delivery. To this effect a new procedure was developed to address these issues.
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Document ID: 87D4C4D7

Coriolis Meter For Custody Transfer Application Performance Of The Foxboro CFS20 Coriolis Meter And CFT50 Transmitter With Small Volume Prover
Author(s): Robbie Lansangan, Michael Reese
Abstract/Introduction:
In the oil & gas industry, custody transfer is a form of transaction that involves the hand-off of the physical commodity from one operator to another. A custody transfer transaction, for instance, is performed between the well operator and the first transportation operator. Examples of the first transportation operator include pipeline, truck or ship. Subsequent custody transfer transactions for the crude commodity may take place until the product arrives at the refinery. Flow meters used in custody transfer measurements normally require a means of performance verification. This is generally referred to as meter proving.
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Document ID: E0260AEB

Field Experience In Gas Well Testing: The Benefit Of The Vx Technology From 0 To 100% Gvf
Author(s): Bruno Pinguet, Nadge Hopman, Sebastian Perez, Paul Guize
Abstract/Introduction:
The multiphase flow meters in field operations have now become a widely accepted practice especially in the range of Gas Volume Fraction (GVF) from 0 to 85%. There is still some doubt for some oil and gas companies about the performance of this type of device especially in the High (92-96%) or Very High GVF (96-98%). Users often put a cut off in the range of 85-92% GVF following the type of technology. Sometimes these criteria are based on past experience or special cases, which may not reflect recent developments. A split in terms of naming is commonly accepted in the multiphase community between Multiphase Flow Meter and Wet Gas Meter.
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Document ID: FE748DA3

Field Trial Of A Separated-Flow Multiphase Meter At High Gvf Conditions In Offshore Operation
Author(s): Joe Shen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the results of a field trial of a new multiphase meter skid operating under high gas volume fraction (GVF) conditions on a platform in the Gulf of Thailand. The high GVF condition, typically encountered in gas-lift operations or high GOR crude production, is generally known to be difficult for in-line type multiphase meters to accurately measure the net oil volume simply because oil makes up only a small portion of the total production flow. Separated-flow type multiphase meters tend to perform better under such conditions by separating the gas from liquid stream before measurement. However, the difficult part for separated-flow multiphase meters is to have a very compact configuration for offshore operation where space and weight are at a premium.
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Document ID: 5B6FD17E

Extending Gas Ultrasonic Meter Re-Calibration Intervals Through Diagnostics
Author(s): Dan Hackett, John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic flow meters for natural gas custody transfer measurement have met with wide acceptance by the user community in Asia Pacific over the past several years. However, regulatory bodies and weights and measures authorities are very conservative entities. As the value of the products transferred is considerable, these authorities often insist on physical recalibration of the meters at a recognized third party calibration laboratory. This has meant installations have required spare metering lines, removal of the meters, transportation and costs associated with recalibration services.
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Document ID: E45474AF

The Use Of Ultrasonic Meters At M&R Stations
Author(s): Jan Drenthen, Martin Kurth, Marcel Vermeulen
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and regulation stations have traditionally been one of the more difficult and challenging applications for ultrasonic meters. One of the main reasons for this are the ultrasonic noise generated by the regulation valves and with the M&R stations being at the end of the transmission line, the possible problems due to the fouling of the measurement section. For the operator it is essential to be assured that the USM, once in service, will continue to meet the expected performance requirements. In contrast to many other meters, USMs can deliver extended diagnostic information through which it may be possible not only to verify the functionality of an ultrasonic gas flow meter, but also several other components within the system, such as the gas chromatograph and the pressure and temperature transmitters. Due to this, most of the new M&R stations are equipped with automated performance monitoring systems providing the operator with a continuous verification of the USMs performance and functionality of the station.
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Document ID: 926ED3EF

Influences Of Fluid Properties On Liquid Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Crude Oil Measurement
Author(s): Raymond Kalivoda, Per Lunde
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid Ultrasonic Flow Meters (LUFMs) are gaining acceptance in the petroleum industry for a wide range of applications. Initially they were used for non-custody applications but with advances in microprocessor, transducer and electronic technology multipath LUFMs can provide highly accurate flow measurement. They are now recognized in many European countries and in North America, with publication of the API Standard Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Ultrasonic Flow meters Using Transit Time Technology 1, for custody transfer measurement. Ultrasonic meters, like turbine meters are inference meters. They infer the volumetric through-put by measuring the velocity over the flow area. As with all velocity meters, they are Reynolds Number depend, that is, they are more or less affected by the relationship between velocity and viscosity. They may also be affected by entrained solids, gases, waxes and chemicals which are contaminants contained in the crude oil.
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Document ID: C9028BE5

Gas Ultrasonic Meter: Master Meter Series Validation
Author(s): Haridas Bhaskaran, Jong Chin Foh
Abstract/Introduction:
The usage of ultrasonic meters for custody (fiscal) applications has grown substantially over the past 8 years. This is primarily due to the confidence operators have gained in the performance and reliability of ultrasonic meters as primary measurement devices and also various standards released by metrology agencies in the world. As with any type of metering technology, design and operational issues need to be addressed in order to achieve optimum performance. It is well understood that the best technology will not provide the expected results, if it is not installed or maintained correctly. This paper details out the validation methodology adopted for Gas Ultrasonic Meter in order to attain optimum performance while ensuring that accuracy, reliability and maintainability of the meter is not compromised in an installation in Shell Sarawak Berhad in Miri, Sarawak. One of the most significant benefits was the reduction in calibration requirement, due to the fact that the USMs accuracy can be diagnosed without taking the meter out of service using a master meter. In addition remote maintenance can also be achieved using dial-up phones, radios, or other communication techniques. These benefits and others provide the operator with significantly lower Operating and Maintenance costs.
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Document ID: A754BA52

The Relative Merits Of Ultrasonic Meters Employing Between Two And Eight Paths
Author(s): Gregor Brown, Don Augenstein, Terry Cousins
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic meters based on the transit time principle have a number of recognised benefits relative to more traditional methods of flow measurement. In recent years a new generation of ultrasonic meters have emerged and the technology is now being widely accepted for custody transfer applications in the oil and gas industry. It is generally understood that improved meter performance can be achieved by employing more ultrasonic measurement paths. However, there are also practical and financial limitations to consider, and this will influence the decisions that the flow meter designers, buyers and users must make. It is not always obvious to the user or buyer of ultrasonic flowmeters what is to be lost or gained in terms of performance by decreasing or increasing the number of measurement paths. This is because the issues are complex are further confused by differences in competing designs. This paper provides a review of the influence of the number of paths, and path configuration, on the performance of transit time ultrasonic flow meters for oil custody transfer duties. The paper considers the importance of profile changes with both Reynolds number and with upstream pipe configuration. The data presented is taken from an analytical evaluation of various path configurations chosen to represent a range of meters that employ between two and eight paths. Where appropriate, experimental data has been included in support of the analytical results.
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Document ID: 019058ED

Challenges In The Flow Measurement Engineering Study Phases
Author(s): Jean Monnet, Liv Marit Henne, Aker Kvrner
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 478D3B70

Venturi Tubes In Different Gases
Author(s): Michael Reader-Harris, David Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
With gas production scenarios now frequently involving multiple gas fields, it is important that confidence in the measurements made by wet-gas meters is increased, as ultimately this will help to increase the viability of marginal gas fields. There is an increasing desire to use Venturi tubes for wet gas measurement, but to ensure accuracy in wet gas it is necessary to understand their behaviour in dry gas first.
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Document ID: 38C939DD

2-PHASE Wet Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Martin Kurth, Geeuwke De Boer, Martin Van Werven, Jan Drenthen
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper a newly developed wet gas flow meter is presented and some recent test results are discussed. The principle of this flow meter is based on the combination of differential pressure and ultrasonic flow measurement technology. In fact, the wet gas meter described here has two ultrasonic flow meters integrated in a Venturi ?P meter and provides continuous and simultaneous flow rates of both gas and liquid phases to the user. Making use of, at least, two totally independent measurements in wet gas flow conditions has shown to be a very effective way to derive gas and liquid flow rates. This makes the measurement less dependent on empirical correlations. Furthermore, using a single ?P device in the meter design the total pressure loss will be moderate. As a result of direct measurement of the gas velocity in the wet gas flow the achieved accuracy in the measurement of the gas phase is generally excellent. The results presented in this paper show that this wet gas meter is capable to perform within the target specifications and that the accuracies of the measurement meet allocation requirements.
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Document ID: 89B6944D

Experience Within Conocophillips With Multiphase Meters
Author(s): Gordon Stobie
Abstract/Introduction:
ConocoPhillips has over the past 15 to 20 years been involved with the development and deployment of Multiphase Meters (MPMs) through oil and gas developments, in house and Joint Industry Projects. The Company has deployed about 100 MPMs over the past decade or so and currently has about 85-90 MPMs in service. As the technology becomes more developed and gains acceptance more projects and operations are looking to reduce capital and operational costs whilst maintaining their production goals by implementing MPM technology. This paper will review some of the experiences gained in the past 15 years and highlight some of these experiences, and point out where more work may be required to improve the existing technology.
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Document ID: 1FBEA545

Field Applications Of New Flow Measurement Technologies
Author(s): Youssef Basrawi
Abstract/Introduction:
We Cannot Be Held Accountable For What We Cannot Measure. If we are to have accurate flow measurements we need to have precise measuring instruments and proper procedures. This is especially necessary when dealing with custody transfer flow measurements. The paper talks about the technology and operations of the new ultrasonic and mass flow metering devices using advanced sensor technology. It highlights the operations, current research, field test studies and their possible applications in fluid flow measurements.
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Document ID: 2F978362

ISO Standards On Differentialpressure Flow Measurement: Developments
Author(s): Michael Reader-Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Differential-pressure meters are commonly used in many areas of flow measurement, but particularly in the measurement of large gas flows. The principal ISO standard, ISO 5167, was published in 4 parts in 2003: general (ISO 5167-1), orifice plates (ISO 5167-2), nozzles and Venturi nozzles (ISO 5167-3), and Venturi tubes (ISO 5167-4) 1-4. The changes were described in 5. The main areas of change are summarized below. Following the publication of ISO 5167 three documents that depend on it are being revised: the guidelines in ISO/TR 9464 6, ISO/TR 12767 7 on the effect of not complying with ISO 5167, and ISO/TR 15377 8 on nozzles and orifice plates beyond the scope of ISO 5167. At the same time ISO 2186 9 on impulse lines is being revised. The main changes are described below.
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Document ID: 719E49BE

Metering System Accuracy: Never-Ending Story
Author(s): Wan Hassan Wan Mamat
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering system is one of the essential parts of a plant or offshore platform. This is the point where the product quantity and quality are determined prior to custody transfer. There are many types of metering systems available in the market depending on the types of product to be metered ie.either oil or gas and the choice of technology being applied. As the metering system involves the measurement of the hydrocarbon product, which is directly translated into the amount of money involved, everyone has a great interest in the metering system accuracy. The operator will ensure that the specification will be thoroughly reviewed by the expert prior to issuing to the supplier, and the supplier or manufacturer on the other hand will ensure that the system will meet the most stringent requirements in term of its accuracy. This paper will discuss about the commonly observed measurement accuracy of any type of metering systems and to examine whether the contributing factors can be addressed and accepted by all parties. Should the issue still persist than there must be a way to avoid any dispute and the measurement results can be recognised as the acceptable basis for business deal.
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Document ID: 6C1856C0

Well Testing Using Multiphase Meters
Author(s): Karl Frantzen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes one of the first major roll-outs of multiphase meters in the Middle East area. The project started in 1998 and after trial installations and technology evaluation it was decided to install a series of multiphase meters on unmanned wellhead platforms. A total of 9 meters have been installed and has presently been in service for up to 2 years. Another 7 meters will be put in service on new-built platforms. The background for considering multiphase meters as an alternative to well testing by traditional methods is multifaceted. One angle is the opportunity to test a higher number of wells as an MPFM is easier to install, requires less space and are comparably cheaper than a test separator.
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Document ID: CE833475

Validation Of A 16 Bulk Meter For Allocation Metering
Author(s): Salim Al-Sibani, Daniel Sequeira
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Coriolis based mass flow meters and turbine meters is well known in the oil industry for measurement of bulk fluids (two and three phase) exported from their central processing facilities. Large flow rates and the presences of gas in the flow affect the measurement accuracy and performance of these meters. A typical solution for the same is to use a large sized three phase multiphase meter as done by PDO in its Amal field.
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Document ID: EFE418B1


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