Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (2005)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 2005 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Basics Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): E. D. Rusty Woomer, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
There is more to the design of a measurement facility than the word measurement suggests. Generally, the measurement arena may include any or all of the following broad categories: Metering Primary devices Secondary devices Tertiary devices Control Pressure regulation Flow control Overpressure protection Gas Quality Chromatography Spot or composite sampling Analytical instrumentation Other Odorization Filtration / Separation Heating
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Document ID: CD7A6E77

Applications Of Portable Computers And Software
Author(s): Cameron R. Spitzer
Abstract/Introduction:
Laptops, handhelds, palmtops and PDAs are becoming common in the Natural Gas Industry to perform a variety of portable computer functions. Applying these different technologies to fit a given task is sometimes not immediately apparent. Portable Computers do make the field users job easier to perform, if time is taken to assure that they are selected to fit the application. Emphasis in this paper will be on mobile computing as it relates to the Natural Gas Industry.
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Document ID: 169C2B96

Compressibility Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Savidge
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate measurement of natural gas and natural gas related fluids is difficult. It requires care, experience, and insight to achieve consistently accurate measurement results to meet stringent fiscal demands. It is particularly difficult to measure complex fluid mixtures that are exposed to: (1) a range of operating conditions, (2) dynamic fluid properties, and (3) changing equipment conditions. Conservation equations for energy and mass flow provide the theoretical foundation required for flow measurement. The conservation equations are the basis for establishing a theoretical flow rate. In addition to the conservation equations, mathematical correlations are required to achieve acceptable measurement accuracy.
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Document ID: AC36833E

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Tommy Mitchell
Abstract/Introduction:
Human society is based on communication. Since the earliest times this communication has taken two forms, which today we would call Digital - taking on definite and discrete states and Analog - having a continuous range of values. Ask a small child her age and she will hold up fingers. Fishermen have long held their hands some distance apart to indicate the size of their catch. The former is digital communication, the latter is analog. This paper will focus on basic telemetering principles as they apply to some areas of the Oil and Gas Industry.
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Document ID: CD80481D

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Existing Meter Stations
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
Deregulation, competition, and increased share earnings. Do these terms sound familiar? Seems as though in todays market of the Oil and Gas Industry those terms are the basis companies must contend with. Companies must be firm and meet aggressive market strategies, or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and ours is no exception. Our measuring stations that measure our products are our cash register. These stations were designed ten, twenty, thirty even fifty years ago and are now are performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made.
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Document ID: 8951A32F

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Edgar Eddy Wallace Collins Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of natural gas distribution metering and/or regulating stations is a mixture of science and art, or knowledge and judgment. The process requires four areas of knowledge: product, application, components, and communication. The goal in design is to use judgment to select and combine compatible components to create an effective, safe, and economical unit.
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Document ID: C8AC15AD

Scada Systems
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems) and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technology and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project.
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Document ID: 52FC71DF

Communication Syatems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): Gary P. Menzel
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this presentation is to discuss issues involved in establishing communications with field devices, referred to here as RTUs (remote transmission units). While this paper focuses on Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) devices, the information may be applied to other measurement and monitoring devices, as well. In order to customize a communication system, it is important to determine the specific needs of a given operation. What kind of information is needed and for what purpose? Where is the data needed? Who will want the data and how often will they want it? For example, the field office needs current operational parameters along with alarm and cry-out status. This information must be obtained the first thing each morning (and anytime they ask) in order to concentrate their efforts on sites that need attention. The home office requires cumulative production for the contract month, on a daily basis. Volume control needs both. The measurement department needs complete AGA data logs (API 21.1) for volume verification, recalculation, and audit trail purposes. Gas accounting wants finalized volumes from measurement and marketing needs current, accurate daily totals. Every department benefits from timely information.
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Document ID: 28AB45E8

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas - Transmission Lines
Author(s): Scott Farthing
Abstract/Introduction:
With the rewrite of 49 CFR 192 and 49 CFR 195, a different philosophy toward maintaining pipeline integrity has been introduced. Prior to the 1999, regulations were geared toward a more prescriptive approach, than risk based. Over all the safety record for product and gas transmission pipelines were excellent. Events in 1999 at Bellingham and at Carlsbad created a paradigm shift in how pipeline integrity was achieved and maintained. The focus of this course will be an introduction into the realm of internal corrosion. The basic causes and mechanisms of internal corrosion will be addressed. The influences of flow, materials, and other factors will be covered for introductory purposes.
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Document ID: 6A4C9FAF

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate gas measurement has always been important in the Natural Gas Industry and is even more essential in todays operating environment. Flow meters not only determine how much energy is bought and sold but how much a company is paid for transporting the gas. The value of accurate flow metering has seldom been higher than it is today. One of the most common and difficult to ident
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Document ID: 55CC8371

Communication To Measurement Equipment At Gas Distribution Locations
Author(s): Chris Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
Deregulation of the natural gas business has increased the number and type of economic decisions being made as well as the number of individuals making them. With the unbundling of services, customers of all sizes are opting to choose their own gas suppliers, and when people need to make choices they demand information on which to base those choices. This new environment has created a widespread need for gas volume information on a more frequent basis to multiple parties.
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Document ID: 8692C2DD

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Thomas B. Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1971 E. J. Burgin of Florida Gas Transmission Company presented a paper at ISHM entitled Factors Affecting Accuracy of Orifice Measurement (Primary Element). Burgin noted that A.G.A. Report No. 3 (of that time) claimed that an orifice meter with flange taps and with a diameter ratio, , between 0.15 and 0.7, fabricated and operated in accordance with the specifications in the standard, would have a discharge coefficient value within 0.5% of the value calculated from the orifice equation. The purpose of Burgins paper was to examine some of the specifications in the orifice meter standard and to review the effect upon measurement accuracy when the specifications are ignored.
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Document ID: 4C1FF892

Economics Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Shawn Kriger
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow computers (EFM) or chart recorders? Old technology or new? These are two basic questions energy companies must answer when planning the short and long term goals for the measurement and control of their production, gathering or transmission systems. Many companies have already made the switch to electronics. They are using EFMs on every new field installation. They are also in the process of replacing existing charts that already exist in the field. Other companies have not made the switch. Chart recorders continue to be the main component of their gas measurement systems. Back in the early 1980s, electronic flow meter technology was still relatively new to the gas industry. Chart recorders were the standard and many companies were skeptical of the new electronics technology. Over the past twenty years, electronic technology has consistently become better and more reliable. Battery and solar panel technology has improved. Microprocessors are faster and more reliable. Flow Meters continue to gain additional functionality, which enable operators to perform total well site automation all out of one box. And most important, cost has come down.
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Document ID: 8944E600

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people should have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc. To understand the fundamentals, one must be familiar with the definitions of the terms that are used in day-today gas measurement operations. They also must know how to convert some values from one quantity as measured to another quantity that is called for in the various custody transfer agreements.
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Document ID: F60AF206

Effects Of Cathodic Protection And Induced Signals On Pipeline Measurement
Author(s): James Coats
Abstract/Introduction:
The effects of Cathodic Protection on measurement facilities have been discussed for several years. These effects can be profound but can be easily recognized and resolved. The author contends there are other factors that can cause more profound effects on measurement systems. These factors my not be as easily recognized or resolved. This paper and class will discuss the effects of cathodic protection and other induced signals on measurement systems. The effects of induced signals can be varied based upon the type of signal the electronic noise is induced upon. We will discuss the effects of induced signals on analog, frequency and digital signals. We will also touch on voltage referencing and ground loops
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Document ID: CD765A65

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meter Chart Recorders
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an orifice meter? The answer usually depends upon whom you are talking to. The term orifice meter is used to mean every thing from the orifice meter chart recorder to the entire meter station. American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit comprised of primary and secondary elements. The primary element consists of an orifice meter tube constructed to meet the minimum recommended specifications of the measurement authority contractually agreed upon by two or more parties. The secondary element consists of equipment that will receive values produced at the primary element. The values may be measured and recorded onto circular charts or received by electronic flow computers that calculate a volume onsite, to be retrieved as desired.
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Document ID: EAC7068D

Ethernet For Scada Systems
Author(s): m. Atwood And E. Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the utilization and installation of Ethernet based communications for the purpose of gathering and distilling plant measurement data. Also discussed are the various pros and cons along with the pitfalls one can expect when installing such a system.
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Document ID: 27C36154

Online Computers For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Matthew A Diese
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of Electronic Flow Measurement came a variety of calculation, auditing and calibration algorithms. Each manufacturer wrote software to meet either a producers requirement or their own proprietary algorithms. These algorithms, while being effective, were by nature vastly different from one manufacturer to the next. These differences made it necessary to develop a standard for custody transfer meters so that regardless of the manufacturer, the measurement data will be consistent from one meter to the next. This standard became API Chapter 21 - Flow Measurement Using Electronic Metering Systems, Section 1 - Electronic Gas Measurement.
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Document ID: C6702B3E

Real Time Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): King Poon
Abstract/Introduction:
With natural gas production in the United States peaked and demand rising, natural gas prices will go from 1.50 / MCF in the past decade to 5.00 or more in the coming years. With this in mind, accurate gas measurement is paramount and the delivery of this measurement data must be on time (i.e. accurate real time data). Production, engineering, gas nomination, billing and various administrative functions are just a few of the departments now requiring real time information. Electronic flow computers are now used, instead of charts, by the natural gas industry to automate the data collection and control process. Host computer systems periodically collect data from the flow computers and send control commands, gas analysis data and configuration information to the flow computers as part of daily operations. The success of real-time measurement is the coordination of many functions, including measurement and control, communications, data collection, archiving, post processing, reporting, and the sharing of this information. Breakdowns in any of these functions affect the integrity of the entire system that prevents the data from being distributed to the end users in a cost efficient manner.
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Document ID: 98C54A14

Installation & Operation Errors In Gas Measurment
Author(s): Johnnie Jarred
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to meet three primary objectives. 1) Outline some of the most popular/common installation and operation errors in various primary elements. 2) Outline some installation and operation errors in the various secondary and tertiary devices. 3) Provide some guidance on overall application of natural gas measurement standards and provide sources for gaining additional knowledge and expertise in this area. The real question that we are continually asked is What is the error? If we know the answer to this we can determine the economic value of replacing the legacy facilities. This economic impact is generally reflected in lost and unaccounted for gas.
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Document ID: 95AAD1CC

Basic Scada Communication Design
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of many aspects of SCADA systems. It begins with defining the systems while also covering communications technologies, system design and radio equipment.
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Document ID: D7EF4622

Smart Transmitter Selection, Calibration And Installation
Author(s): Amanda Richardson
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past three decades, pressure and temperature transmitters have continuously improved from simple process variable generators to increasingly sophisticated microprocessor-based field transmitters. This continuous improvement has resulted in upgraded device capabilities, including improved device repeatability, stability, reliability, and diagnostics - to name a few. More importantly these device feature improvements have allowed users to change existing plant instrument standards to reduce field device time and effort expenditures. In short, todays better pressure and temperature transmitters have enabled New Best Practices for field device selection, installation, and maintenance. This paper will provide a guideline of these New Best Practices for selecting, installing, and maintaining pressure and temperature transmitters.
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Document ID: 1C601213

Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): Gene Herron
Abstract/Introduction:
The Electronic Flow Computer is now a major component in the gas measurement process. Testing, maintenance and operation are a primary focus for todays field technician.
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Document ID: 132B9586

Transient Protection
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are rare. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day-to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing. With the advent of the transistor and today when surface mount electronics is the norm and not the exception, transient suppression has become a science of necessity. Tight tolerances of voltage requirements and limited current carrying capabilities makes the new compact integrated circuits much more susceptible to many types of transients.
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Document ID: D92A1E49

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): William R. Young
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is used to calibrate custody transfer meters to establish a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the prover volume during the time taken for a sphere or piston to pass between two detector switches. The prover volume must be accurately determined by a calibration procedure known as the Water Draw method.
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Document ID: 12B55D2C

Effective Use Of Dead Weight Tester
Author(s): Roger Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. This paper describes methods to select deadweight testers and gauges. Also included are procedures for using pneumatic and hydraulic deadweight testers.
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Document ID: A053B19C

Ultrasonic Meter Flow Calibrations Considerations And Benifits
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. Although AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1, technically does not recommend flow calibration for ultrasonic flowmeters, the next revision will likely do so for all ultrasonic custody transfer applications. What considerations then, should be taken when choosing to flow calibrate an ultrasonic flowmeter? What are the benefits to the user? What should a user expect from a flow calibration? What kind of performance should the customer expect or accept from an ultrasonic meter? What are the diagnostic capabilities inherent in an ultrasonic meter? These areas, as well as others will be explored and considered.
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Document ID: 119FB3F4

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Meters And Provers
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with problems commonly experienced with meters and provers. It is general in nature and cannot cover every problem with either meters for provers. We will confine our discussion to displacement and turbine meters and pipe and tank provers. We will also discuss problems experienced with proving meters with different types of proving equipment.
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Document ID: 0E234BA9

In-Situ On-Site() Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Field provers have been developed for operation at high line pressures and flow rates. For purposes of this discussion, a high gas flow rate is any flow greater than 3,000 actual cubic feet per hour or (85 m3/h) at pressures to 1,440 psig (10 MPa).
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Document ID: 84954171

Lact Unit Proving - The Role Of The Witness
Author(s): Art Casias, Terry Ridley
Abstract/Introduction:
Witness, as defined by the New Websters Dictionary, 1.n, a person who has observed a certain event, the unwilling witness of a quarrel a person who testifies to this observation, esp. in a court of law, and esp. under oath a person who testifies to the genuineness of a signature on a document by signing his own name to the document an authentication of a fact, testimony public affirmation of the truths of a religious faith something taken as evidence, to bear witness to declare, on the strength of personal observation, that something is true to give as evidence, to bear witness, knowledge, testimony. The role of the witness, in the proving of a LACT unit, requires you to understand the operations of both the LACT and ACT units and the device used in proving their accuracy.
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Document ID: EAEF2326

Liquid Flow Provers
Author(s): Bruce L. Ers
Abstract/Introduction:
The petroleum industry has used conventional pipe provers for on line calibration of liquid flow meters for over 30 years. With the widespread use of turbine meters and other primary inference-type meters for custody transfer, accurate measurement is more dependent on frequent proving. Thus the industry will continue to demand advanced provers and proving techniques. The author will discuss the aforementioned subject with regard to both bi-directional and unidirectional pipe provers. In the last several years, a number of innovations have come to the forefront that enhance the reliability of pipe provers, reduce their size, make them more accurate, and increase their value to the end users.
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Document ID: 4CA2E3C0

Low Pressure Gas Measurement Using Ultrasonic Technology
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of natural gas as a fuel, higher natural gas prices, and new federal regulations, all buyers and sellers of natural gas are looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce maintenance and the unaccounted for natural gas.
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Document ID: DD622E41

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): J. H. Harry James
Abstract/Introduction:
Producers and shippers are becoming more and more aware of the importance of accurate measurement. Their bottom line depends on it. As a result, measurement accuracy is being scrutinized more vigorously than in the past. Companies are being required to Verify their metering accuracy. Therefore it is essential that all procedures and auxiliary equipment be operated in a defendable manner. In addition, meters are not always in clean product service and could be subject to severe wear. Even meters in clean service will experience wear over time. To ensure meters give accurate results requires regular precision calibration by a prover operated by a competent individual.
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Document ID: 0767098F

Operation & Problems Associated With Prover Detector Switches
Author(s): Warren A. Parr
Abstract/Introduction:
In many parts of the petroleum industry, sphere provers are used to dynamically calibrate volumetric meters. In order to accomplish this, sphere provers are required to be accurate and repeatable. This accuracy and repeatability is largely dependent on performance of the prover sphere detector. Any operational or design problems associated with the prover detector will affect the provers performance. This paper will review critical parts of a prover sphere detector that must be checked in order to obtain accuracy reliability and repeatability. The areas that will be covered are: Prover detector accuracy. Prover detector mechanical repeatability. Prover detector electrical repeatability. Prover detector performance due to prover sphere contact length. System accuracy and repeatability.
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Document ID: 68AE319C

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
Small Volume Provers (SVPs) were introduced decades ago and are now common technology. There are numerous publications providing empirical data and outlining the technical operation of this equipment. However, the following document will focus on the authors experience, addressing common concerns and questions regarding SVPs.
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Document ID: FFB90A71

Proving Coriolis Meters
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters are in use throughout the hydrocarbon industry for the measurement of fluids including crude oil, products such as fuel oil, gasoline, and diesel, and light hydrocarbons such as natural gas liquids, propane, etc. When used for custody transfer, it is most often required by contract between the buyer and seller that the meter be proven in the field on the fluid that is being measured and at the conditions under which it will be operating. This paper will utilize the American Petroleum Institutes Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) as the reference for industry practices for field proving methods and calculations.
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Document ID: 01D5BAA4

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the standards from the American Petroleum Institute and the American Society for Testing and Standards provided specifications for instruments and equipment. Simple compliance with these standards is not enough. Therefore, a system of verification and/or certification of equipment used in measurement of liquids is being instituted. These requirements are being written into the standards as they come up for review. An excellent example of such a standard is Chapter 3.1.A. Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (December, 1994.) This standard is currently being revised.) of the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement. 3.1.A. calls for field verification of working tapes against against a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable master tape when it is new and every year thereafter. This is an example of requirements to insure the instrument and the equipment meets the specifications of each standard. The most important things to understand before going into each item are the definitions of traceability, verification, and certification.
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Document ID: 881287C4

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibrtations And Field Testing
Author(s): Dan Willson
Abstract/Introduction:
Some may ask, is witnessing orifice meter calibrations and field testing still as important in this age and time as it was in the past. There have been many changes in the natural gas industry and with natural gas measurement itself over the past 15 to 20 years. Many companies, both those buying and those selling have seen mergers, acquisitions and reorganization over the past 5 to 10 years. Also technology has changed or improved making the meters more compact, user friendly and able to do more. Many companies, if not most are in the process or have already changed from dryflow to electronic measurement. While both dryflow and electronic meters are good devices for gas measurement, keep in mind that they are only the secondary devices. The meter tube and plate or ultrasonic measurement are the primary measurement devices.
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Document ID: FCE5567B

Mass Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in liquid applications since the early 1980s with an installed base of more than 400,000 units. Newer designs have increased low-flow sensitivity, lowered pressure drop, and increased noise immunity enabling performance characteristics that are similar or better than traditional metering technologies. Coriolis also has attributes that no other fluid measurement technology can achieve. Some of these attributes are the meters immunity to flow disturbances, fluid compositional change, and it contains no wearing parts. With more than 25,000 meters measuring gas phase fluids around the world, many national and international measurement organizations are investigating and writing industry reports and measurement standards for the technology.
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Document ID: A864D4C5

Auditing Gas Laboritories
Author(s): Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
The data produced by Gas Chromatograph (GC) laboratories is used for many purposes, including product specification, accounting, safety and environmental compliance issues. The accuracy of this data has direct impact on all of these areas. Auditing laboratories responsible for producing this data is prudent business practice. The audit will provide a means of process improvement, through proper identification of deficiencies and a precise plan for corrective action. The level of confidence in analytical results will increase when the appropriate corrective actions are implemented. The amount of financial and legal exposure can be reduced from a properly executed audit program.
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Document ID: 919A0415

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Chromatograph
Author(s): Paul Kizer
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography is one of the most widely used means of performing chemical analyses in the world. Gas Chromatography has become the preferred method of determining the Btu value of natural gas. The analysis also supplies composition data necessary for gas rate and volume per AGA3, AGA7, AGA 10 and AGA8. (Refs. 1,2,3) Gas Chromatographs are asked to perform in a variety of different environments. The principal types of Chromatographs are laboratory, and At Line.
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Document ID: 31E70366

Measurement Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, lets discuss an important phase of everyday planning for the Measurement personnel. A test and inspection guide is a corporations plan to meet government regulations. DOT requires pipelines to have a written operating and maintenance plan. This plan must meet the minimum federal standards and cover various phases of operations. A company may include items above the minimum federal standards but they must operate according to the plan they prepare. In plain words, what you write you must be ready to live and operate by whether they just meet the DOT minimums or exceed the DOT requirements and this becomes the company bible. The last item to remember is that as field personnel you must perform the required inspections, complete properly the administrative records to document and prove that required tests were made. This is an important item as it involves personal honor and your signature is your statement the work was done. Government penalties applied to companies can be very high if the required work is not done, or has not been properly documented. If the work is not done, admit an error was made. It helps with DOT inspections if an explanation is in the file as to why the specific test was not performed, such as weather prevented transportation offshore or station shut in because well is dead.
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Document ID: 978689C3

Chromatograph Maintenance And Troubleshooting
Author(s): Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy measurement of natural gas is comprised of two components volume measurement and energy determination. Energy content is typically determined by the use of gas chromatographs. These devices can provide accurate compositional data and physical properties of the gas. To assure accurate and reliable operation, it is necessary to properly maintain these instruments.
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Document ID: 2B00862E

Crude Quality - What Is Involved And Why Is Quality Important
Author(s): D. Pat Morgan
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude Quality - What is Involved and Why is Quality Important is a major issue in the petroleum industry today. A Crude Quality Oversight program is designed to monitor the ongoing quality of a crude supply by measuring certain key properties which directly correlate to quality, value and performance. There are many benefits to this type of monitoring program. It: Keeps suppliers honest Allows ongoing valuation of individual crude streams, used in trading crudes for refinery supply Supports refinery operations & optimization efforts Identifies possible contamination sources Supports regulatory compliance efforts
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Document ID: 272D2B12

Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Joseph Baumoel, Robert Schaefer
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas and Oil are quite different from each other in their physical, chemical, and ultrasonic properties. Nevertheless, it has been found that each fluid state is able to utilize technology that improves measurement performance by turning the pipe wall into a Sonic Waveguide, permitting highly accurate and reliable non-intrusive flow metering. This paper explains the similarities and difference between liquid and gas ultrasonic metering and provides field and laboratory test data that testifies to the ability of WideBeam Clamp-On Transittime Ultrasonic flow meters to provide highly accurate Check Metering and Custody Transfer performance in both application classes.
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Document ID: 5CC8770C

Determination Of Water Vapor Content In Natural Gas
Author(s): John Kerney
Abstract/Introduction:
Moisture analysis is essential to the natural gas industry for a variety of reasons. This article will present a brief overview of problems associated with moisture in natural gas, as well as different means of controlling the moisture content. Additionally, we will discuss some of the problems encountered with measuring moisture and some of the different technologies used to make the moisture measurement.
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Document ID: CD134EDB

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Hugh Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most important principles in physics which is applied to the measurement of flowing fluids is the relation between rate of flow of the fluid, and the loss in pressure in flowing through a restriction in the line of flow. We can state this relation simply by saying that the pressure loss so caused is proportional to the square of the velocity of the fluid. Later we shall have occasion to determine this relation mathematically and to study the modifications and limitations which must be observed in making practical applications of this fact to measurement problems. For the present we can accept it as a simple physical fact, and consider its importance to the science of measuring the flow of liquids and gases.
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Document ID: 1F7C0114

Determination Of Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Andrew J. Benton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper considers the requirements for control of hydrocarbon dew point in natural gas and how measurement of this important gas quality parameter can be achieved. A summary of the commercially available on-line instrumentation is provided covering: Manual, visual technique with cooled mirror dewpointmeter Equation of state calculation from extended composition analysis by gas chromatograph Determination of liquid to gas ratio of cooled sample flow Automatic, optical condensation dewpointmeter The role of each measurement technology is described and assessed in terms of the effectiveness of the measurement method utilized together with other technical considerations as well as initial and operating cost implications.
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Document ID: CFF15AB8

Orifice Meters Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Ken A. Hudgeons
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice Meters are an integral part of the total process in determining the value of Natural Gas that is being bought and sold. Any part of the system which is outside the AGA 3 or Manufacturers tolerances can lead to inaccuracies and additional uncertainties which in turn lead to incorrect revenues. With the market prices being paid for Natural Gas, errors which in the past may have been deemed insignificant, are now reason for concern. The job of the measurement technician is to maximize the return on investment while utilizing the equipment in place. This in turn insures both the producer and the purchaser are receiving fair value for the product being measured. With proper operating and maintenance procedures in place, accurate results through the use of orifice measurement can be achieved.
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Document ID: 1881A14D

Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): John Buetow
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon dew point measurement in natural gas is a challenging, and increasingly important measurement to make. More and more tariffs are being written in terms of hydrocarbon dew point, with the result being improved gas quality. In this paper, several very important reasons and locations to measure hydrocarbon dew point are discussed. The difference between water dew point and hydrocarbon dew point is detailed. Important sampling requirements are outlined. Different measurement methodologies are compared.
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Document ID: D37F41BB

Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough
Abstract/Introduction:
The hydrocarbon dew point temperature is one of many parameters that must be monitored as a part of controlling the overall quality of the gas. Other parameters that are typically monitored include gas composition, heating value (BTU content), and relative density (specific gravity) just to name a few. The Hydrocarbon Dew Point Temperature in natural gas will vary for a variety of reasons. There are various methods used to control the hydrocarbon dew point temperature in the gas and there are also different instrument types and methods available to measure the hydrocarbon dew point temperature. In this paper, we will discuss the requirement for control of the Hydrocarbon Dew Point in Natural Gas and will summarize the various techniques and devices used for the determination of the Hydrocarbon Dew Point.
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Document ID: 6F975386

Problems Unique In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
First, we need to clear up a few common misperceptions. Measurement is Measurement is Measurement. Natural gas compounds dont think, metering and analytical systems dont care whether they are over water or dirt, and measurement standards are not only relevant to specific time zones. These are not intellectual beings that choose to exhibit behaviors based upon geography, culture, socio-economics, political doctrine or the pursuit of spiritual fulfillment. Hydrocarbons are Hydrocarbons, Meters are Meters and Standards are Standards.
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Document ID: 80227A40

D.O.T. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States.
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Document ID: F9374667

Thermometry In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of temperature in natural gas metering applications is not as easy as it might first appear. In fact, temperature is sometimes one of the more difficult variables to correctly quantify. Temperature plays an important part in flow calculations for orifice meters, turbine meters, displacement meters, ultrasonic meters, and many other types of meters.1,2,4 Depending on the selected meter and its function, temperature is used to
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Document ID: CA759906

Ishm Class Number 5130 Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography
Author(s): Burt Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
The means and methods of transfer of quantities of natural gas between buyers and sellers have been changing for many years. When coal gasification was used to fuel the streetlights in Atlanta, Ga. There was no reason to even measure the commodity. The municipality generated the gas, transported it, and burned it. When Frank Phillips started purchasing gas rights back in the 1930s, every one thought he was more than odd. Natural Gas was considered at that time a messy by-product of oil production that had to be disposed of. Even during the 1960s natural gas was still being flared at the wellhead in Oklahoma. During the 1940s, it was said that one could drive from Kilgore, Texas to Tyler, Texas at night without turning on the head light on your car due to all the gas flares. In this economic environment, measurement was not an issue if you could sell the gas at all it was considered a business coup. Even then, a good price was 2 cents an MCF.
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Document ID: 6D1E12A5

Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Joshua J. Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, proper flow measurement is one of the key elements in providing accurate allocation of revenue. Natural gas may have some liquid content. This liquid may be water, hydrocarbons, compressor oil or a mixture of all three. When a flow meter is subjected to wet gas, large errors in flow measurement may occur with undesirable results to the bottom line.
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Document ID: B79CDCA5

Flow Conditioners For Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Klaus J. Zanker
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipe fittings such as: bends, Tees, reducers, headers, valves, filters, strainers, heat exchangers, etc, affect the velocity profile in the downstream pipe. These profile distortions are known to affect the performance of flow meters. The magnitude of the effect depends upon both the severity of the distortion and the sensitivity of the meter (Ref. 1). One solution to these problems is to use long straight lengths of pipe upstream of the meter. Friction effects on the wall of the pipe will eventually extend to the center of the pipe to produce a fully developed velocity profile, which no longer changes with any additional pipe length. Unfortunately in certain applications this can take very long lengths (hundreds of diameters), which is often neither practical nor economic.
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Document ID: 7343F529

Field And Laboratory Testing Of Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The quantity of sediment and water in crude oil must be accurately established as part of the custody transfer process. Purchasers only pay for the crude oil received, and want to minimize the quantity of sediment and water they must dispose of. Consequently, monitoring of the sediment and water content is performed at the production site to prevent excessive sediment and water entering the pipeline system. The quantity of sediment and water a pipeline is willing to accept into their system depends on geographic location, market competitiveness and their ability to handle the sediment and water in the system. Each pipeline publishes the quantity of sediment and water it will accept.
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Document ID: 68F84219

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Mike Pritchard
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the types of density meter in common use in the petrochemical industry, their advantages and disadvantages. It then deals more specifically with the vibrating element density meters and their general uses. The paper then goes on to deal with specific liquid applications in crude oils, refined products, liquefied gasses, etc. The paper is not a grand opus, but deals with basic terms usage and rules of thumb of density measurement in real process applications.
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Document ID: 135B4E8F

Measurement Of Liquefied Petroleum Gases Lpgs()
Author(s): Brent H. Palmer
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquidified Petroleum Gas (LPG) is defined as butane, propane or other light ends separated from natural gas or crude oil by fractionation or other processes. At atmospheric pressure, LPGs revert to the gaseous state. This paper is intended to provide an overview of metering systems used for the volumetric measurement of LPGs. Operational experiences with measurement systems that degrade the performance of these systems will be addressed. It includes information for turbine and positive displacement meters used in volumetric measurement systems. The basic calculations and industry standards covering volumetric measurement will also be covered.
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Document ID: 7D6044AC

Online Water Measurement Devices In Liquid Service
Author(s): James m. Strawn
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the online, real-time measurement of water in crude oil and other hydrocarbon products flowing through a pipeline. As noted in the former American Petroleum Institute (API) Draft Standard, Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS), Chapter 10.11, this device is referred to as an Online Water Device (OWD). For over 40 years, the OWD has been used as a BS&W monitor to detect water in crude oil. As of the date of this paper, these devices are being tested to determine if they are suitable for custody transfer i,e, the measurement of both the quality (water, only) and quantity of water in crude oil transported through a pipeline. Most of the authors experience has been with crude oil therefore this paper will deal with crude oil and the OWD.
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Document ID: EF1FB473

A Review Of API Chapter 14.1
Author(s): Eric Kelner, Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past nine years, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS) have co-sponsored an extensive natural gas sampling methods research program at the Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for the revision of Chapter 14.1 (Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer) of the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS). The revision is complete and was published in 2001. The API Chapter 14.1 Working Group, a research steering committee consisting of natural gas sampling experts from major oil and gas companies, provided input that helped focus the project on improving current field practices. The research identified several causes of natural gas sample distortion, as well as techniques for avoiding gas sample distortion. The research data illustrated how errors in calculated gas properties, such as heating value and density, can occur as a result of poor sampling techniques.
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Document ID: FFFB1D5C

Application Of Turbine Meters In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Don Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters are found around the world measuring crude oil, intermediate and finished products, and light hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gas liquids (NGL) mixtures. Their performance and durability have enabled turbine meters to be used for custody transfer, check and operational measurement in the petroleum industry. In custody transfer applications, there are a number of industry standards to guide a user in the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the turbine meter and its associated equipment. This paper presents the issues associated with applying turbine meters in liquid hydrocarbon measurement from the perspective of a user who needs to select and install a meter for custody transfer purposes. For non-custody transfer applications, a user may consider following the standards and practices applied to custody transfer meters to achieve accurate results and reliable operation
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Document ID: F6DDBDAF

Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy. The largest source of analytical error in natural gas is distortion of the composition during sampling. Sampling clean, dry natural gas, which is well above its Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) temperature is a relatively simple task. However, sampling natural gas that is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature is challenging. For these reasons, much attention is being focused on proper methods for sampling natural gas which have a high HCDP temperature. This presentation will address problems associated with sampling natural gas which is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature. Various approaches for solving these problems will also be discussed.
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Document ID: D60FD1C8

Sample Conditioning And Contaminant Removal For Water Vapor Content Determination In Natural Gas
Author(s): Brad Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry experiences numerous operational problems associated with high water vapor content in the natural gas stream. As a result several problems are experienced such as, equipment freezes, dilution of physical properties reducing heating value, volume measurement interference, and pipeline corrosion. Contracts and Tariffs usually limit the amount of water vapor content allowed at the custody transfer point. For these and other reasons, accurate Water Vapor Dewpoint measurements are critical measurements for all companies involved in natural gas production, gathering, transmission and delivery. The industry continues to experience problems in obtaining accurate water vapor dewpoint measurements, primarily due to interference problems associated with contaminants and poor sampling techniques. Various types of analytical equipment are being used to determine Water Vapor Dewpoint Measurements. All are susceptible to contaminate interference or poor sampling techniques being utilized. Proper design and utilization of the correct type of sample conditioning devices or improved sampling techniques will provide much more reliable results, regardless of the equipment being utilized.
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Document ID: 9A1A0EB2

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Petroleum industry as hydrocarbons are purchased, sold or transferred there are two key elements that must be determined. These elements are the quantity and quality of the hydrocarbon in question. This paper will address one of those elements, the determination of the quantity of the hydrocarbon in the transaction. The determination of the quantity of hydrocarbon can be further subdivided into: Static quantity determination and Dynamic quantity determination Static quantity is determined when the hydrocarbon is measured under non-flowing conditions, such as when contained in a tank, rail car, truck or vessel. Conversely Dynamic quantity determination occurs when the hydrocarbon is measured under flowing conditions.
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Document ID: A5280511

Techniques Of Natural Gas Composite Sampling
Author(s): Regional Manager
Abstract/Introduction:
The one of the most important aspect of gas sampling is where it is taken and how it is taken a sample can be taken as a spot, composite, or as a continuous sample connected to a chromatograph. Inaccuracies arising from poor gas sampling methods or gas analyses will affect the accuracy of the energy flow rate calculation, and ultimately, a companys profitability.
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Document ID: 720CD87E

Techniques Of Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): Josh H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas spot sampling is the act of taking a representative sample of the fluid flowing in a pipeline at a particular point in time. Today, two major groups within the natural gas industry take samples. These are the gas measurement groups and the corrosion prevention groups. The gas measurement groups need samples to get the British Thermal Unit (BTU) value and the specific gravity of the gas. The corrosion groups need samples to determine what is in the flowing fluid so that they can prevent the pipeline and associated instruments from corroding.
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Document ID: 9B7B1E8E

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): M.J.Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss several field measurement methods that are presently in use to calibrate upright, above ground, cylindrical, cone and floating roof steel storage tanks.
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Document ID: 35E7D1CC

Crude Oil Blending
Author(s): Kevin B. Macdougall
Abstract/Introduction:
There are a number of applications that require blending of crude oil or other hydrocarbons and they include transportation needs, pipeline capacity, product value and refining efficiency. Crude oil blending is accomplished by two methods: on-line blending and tank blending.
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Document ID: CCAC3490

Utilizing Equation Of State Eos() Software In Sample Conditioning Of Natural Gas Applications
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper sample conditioning is essential to providing a representative sample of natural gas to the analyzer. Sample conditioning consists of extracting a sample from a process stream, transporting it to an analyzer, and conditioning it so that it is compatible with the analyzer. Conditioning generally consists of controlling the gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate. It also includes the removal of contaminates which may alter the sample composition and/or damage the analyzer. It is imperative that the gas sample composition is not altered or distorted during the conditioning process. Equations of State (EOS) software programs are useful tools for modeling the behavior of natural gas as it flows through a sample system. With the use of an EOS program one can determine if conditions in a particular sample conditioning system are conducive to the proper sampling of a specific natural gas composition.
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Document ID: 774BB950

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): William H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their affect on the system stability.
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Document ID: 40C86017

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Gregg Schneider
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. It is only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 54A7BFED

Overpressure Protection Methods
Author(s): Gregg Schneider
Abstract/Introduction:
Over-pressure protective devices are of vital concern to the gas industry. Safety codes and current laws require their installation each time a pressure reducing station is installed that supplies gas from any system to another system with a lower maximum allowable operating pressure. The purpose of this article is to provide a systematic review of the various methods of providing the over-pressure protection. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are evaluated, and engineering guidelines are provided.
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Document ID: 4AE53B11

Prevention Of Freezing In Measurement And Regulating Stations
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The failure to supply natural gas upon demand can cause irreparable damage to a companys corporate image in the 21st Century. Consistent and continuous pipeline operations are key and critical factors in todays natural gas pipeline industry. The competitive nature of the business, together with the strict rules and regulations of natural gas supply, mandate that companies stay on top of all operational parameters that could cause interruption or complete shut-down of the natural gas supply to customers. Identifying what may ultimately cause problems is a first step to controlling and eliminating those problems for the supplier.
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Document ID: A3F3F59D

Selection, Sizing, And Operation Of Control Valves For Gases And Liquids
Author(s): John Mangan
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper control valve sizing and selection in todays industrial world is essential to operating at a costeffective and highly efficient level. A properly selected and utilized control valve will not only last longer than a control valve that is improperly sized, but will also provide quantifiable savings in the form of reduced maintenance costs, reduced process variability, and increased process availability. An undersized valve will not pass the required flow, while a valve that is oversized will be more costly and can cause instability throughout the entire control loop. In order to properly size a control valve, one must know the process conditions that a given valve will see in service. Proper valve selection is not based on the size of the pipeline, but more importantly, the process conditions and a combination of theory and experimentation used to interpret these conditions.
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Document ID: 2834038D

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measurement And Regulator Stations
Author(s): Tracy D. Peebles
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of turbulence on measurement and regulator stations can cause erroneous measurement as well as pipe fatigue, noise levels that are not healthy for the human ear, and a host of other undesirable elements.
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Document ID: 64A1AA0F

Liquid Allocation Measurement
Author(s): Raymond Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
An allocation meter is one whose purpose is to determine which portion of the royalty meters volume is attributable to a particular lease, well, or measurement point. Some allocation points fall under federal guidelines, while others fall under other regulatory bodies. Individual contractual agreements must meet and will often exceed regulatory guidelines. Therefore, certain accuracy and procedural standards are set. These standards are intended to treat all producers uniformly, to be fair to the small producer as well as the larger ones. In September 1993, the American Petroleum Institute published MPMS chapter 20, Section 1, entitled Allocation Measurement. Chapter 20 is a document outlining a set of recommended standards, to be used as a general guideline in all allocation applications.
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Document ID: A9880F78

Audit Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jeffrey T. Harvey
Abstract/Introduction:
Industry is placing more emphasis on auditing electronic gas measurement. Business cost justifications continue to change along with the price of natural gas and with the cost of measurement equipment. In general, industry is using auditing and witnessing as a way to either reduce cost or avoid costs. These additional costs can be associated with check measurement purchases and annual maintenance cost on check meters. Today, in 2005, measurement technology is changing the way natural gas in being measured with the accuracy, reliability and repeatability. Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) devices have become the industry standard for making on site calculations and storage. Federal regulatory agencies and state agencies have become increasingly aware of this industry change and are changing to adopt Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) regulations. Contracts are being written to incorporate newer advancements and advantages EFM devices bring between two parties. Companies are more aware of what measurement is on a real time basis because data is moving electronically in real time. As a result, companies are utilizing more audit reviews.
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Document ID: 4BD5D226

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Martin B. Norris
Abstract/Introduction:
For the purposes of this paper we will use a hypothetical gas gathering system of five (5) wells and a single (1) sales point. With the aid of this we will illustrate a complete system audit and deal with the most common factors encountered in the auditing process.
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Document ID: D3119BA1

Auditing Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Linda A. Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
An effective audit of liquid hydrocarbon measurement is dependent upon a solid understanding of the measurement process combined with the application of sound internal auditing principles. The quality of liquid measurement activities is contingent upon (1) the reliability of the measurement equipment and instrumentation used (2) the specific procedures and practices followed in performing the measurement activities (3) the adequacy of training and proper performance of the measurement technician and (4) the proper documentation of transactions based on a measured value. All four components must be taken into consideration when auditing liquid measurement. In addition, to ensure the efficiency of the audit process, auditors must identify those areas which present the greatest risk to the organization to achieving its goals, and concentrate audit effort on those areas.
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Document ID: C42EE592

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and positive metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: 50B89C90

Combining Intrinsic Safety With Surge Protection In The Hydrocarbon Industry
Author(s): Donald R. Long
Abstract/Introduction:
The Hydrocarbon Measurement Industry faces a rather unique combination of problems. First, many of the areas in and around pumping, custody transfer and storage areas are classified, or hazardous, that must, according to the National Electric Code, be assessed for explosion-proofing. This may be in the form of intrinsic safety barriers or isolators, explosion-proof enclosures and conduits, purged enclosures or non-incendive components. The second challenge facing the industry is the physical exposure of most of the electronic control and measuring systems, communications, and power subsystems, each with their own sensitive, highperformance microprocessors, etc., to potentially devastating lightning and electrical surges. The goal of this discussion is to explain just how to achieve both safety and surge protection in hazardous areas using nearly identical engineering techniques.
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Document ID: 4495A928

Development Of Orifice Meter Standards Past(, Present And Future)
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Standards are developed in order to provide uniformity of action, improve efficiency, and to minimize litigation. If standards did not exist, one would have to know the dimensions (diameter, depth, thread pattern, etc.) of the socket prior to purchasing a replacement light bulb. Can you imagine the difficulties that would exist between companies if the purchaser had a set of company standards which requires that the orifice plate be installed with the sharp edge downstream and the producer had a set of company standards which requires that the orifice plate be installed with the sharp edge upstream? Measurement agreements would be very difficult to achieve in this scenario. Consequently, an orifice metering standard was necessary to avoid frequent disagreements and litigation. There are many areas of concern such as plate thickness, surface roughness, dimensional tolerances, etc that have been specified by the orifice measurement standard. If this were not the case each company would be tempted to implement whatever would benefit their company the most. Different requirements might even be employed based on whether the company was buying or selling. Thus the need for a standard was recognized many years ago.
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Document ID: 7E68FC94

Odorization Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Ken Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and improved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todays economic climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly considered essential and a fuel of the future.
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Document ID: 8A5AA972

Orifice Meter Tube Dimensional Tolerances
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Reliable orifice meter performance depends on a properly designed, precisely fabricated, and correctly maintained meter tube. Any orifice meter tube not fabricated and maintained to specific dimensional tolerances (geometry) will increase measurement uncertainty, and can cause a measurement bias. Orifice meter tube dimensional tolerance verification is essential in confirming the accuracy of an orifice meter. Even the most modern electronic flow computers, smart transducers, highspeed communication systems, and elaborate editing programs cannot provide reliable results without a geometrically correct orifice meter tube.
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Document ID: EAC029C0

Crude Oil Gathering - Metering Versus Manual Gauging
Author(s): Charles R. Myers
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements made for the custody transfer of crude oil at lease stock tanks are at present performed by manual gauging. API Chapter 18 describes the methods of obtaining quantitative and qualitative values for volumetric measurement of tank contents. The second edition, published in April 1997, specifically describes the process for taking measurement readings to determine the amount of merchantable oil transferred from the tank to the transporting truck. Delivery of the same transfer of product is more accurately measured by a metering system than by tank gauging. The factors affecting the volumetric measurements obtained by metering and tank gauging are discussed.
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Document ID: 87BDE7EA

Program For Training A Gas Measurement Technician
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
The once common title of Measurement Technician is quickly disappearing from the gas industry. Instead, what some call Super Techs are now responsible not only for gas measurement, but also for other tasks and a broad range of instruments and equipment. This means that effective training of technicians responsible for gas measurement is more important today than ever, for the following three basic reasons. 1. Technicians have more direct control over final measured gas quantities (the bottom line) than ever before. 2. Technicians perform multiple tasks involving more than one discipline, and no longer have years to learn the ropes from more experienced personnel. 3. Total personnel count is down, resulting in less time for technicians to do their work and a need to improve efficiency. The advent of newer and more sophisticated measurement technology would seem to simplify the training process. After all, has the tec
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Document ID: D1134C16

Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): James Henderson
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the design, construction and accuracy theory of positive displacement (PD) meters for liquid measurement. It will provide the reader with the history and background of the PD meter along with an explanation of operating principles and parameters, application considerations, and an explanation of accuracy theory and considerations for achieving good measurement.
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Document ID: 8E77E6CA

Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): Curtis Gulaga
Abstract/Introduction:
Vortex meters have proven to be repeatable, accurate and reliable flow meters for liquid, steam, and gas measurement applications. They provide turn down ratios as high as 30:1, low-pressure drops and no moving parts resulting in calculated mean time between failures (MTBF) exceeding 250 years. Recent advances in technology have dramatically improved meter performance, including those applications with inherent noise, making the vortex meter a viable choice for industry, and one of the fastest growing meter technologies in the world.
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Document ID: 75B70CDC

Effects Of Flow Conditioning On Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Klaus J Zanker
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipe fittings such as: bends, Tees, reducers, headers, valves, filters, strainers, heat exchangers, etc, affect the velocity profile in the downstream pipe. These profile distortions are known to affect the performance of flow meters. The magnitude of the effect depends upon both the severity of the distortion and the sensitivity of the meter (Ref. 1). One solution to these problems is to use long straight lengths of pipe upstream of the meter. Friction effects on the wall of the pipe will eventually extend to the center of the pipe to produce a fully develop velocity profile, which no longer changes with any additional pipe length. Unfortunately this can take very long lengths (hundreds of diameters), which is often neither practical nor economic. Other possible solutions are to design meters that are less sensitive to velocity profile distortions, or design flow conditioners that produce good velocity profiles in very much shorter lengths of straight pipe.
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Document ID: 3FF9401C

The Effects Of Additives On Metering In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays refined fuels are formulated using a recipe of chemical blending and complex processing. Current blends that make-up fuel & chemicals introduce new problems that challenge product quality and performance. Refined products can be altered or degrade prior use by secondary forces such as environment and handling. A wide range of performance and handling problems are minimized or resolved by use of chemical additives. Additives to fuel products are often included in the refining processes that address these problems. Fuels may require additional blending of additives separate from the refining process. The effect these additives have on liquid metering is variable based on their composition and concentration. Pipeline and terminal metering systems must adjust to the varying properties the additives introduce to the liquid. This paper highlights the effects some common & not-so-common fuel additives have on liquid metering systems.
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Document ID: A39F752C

Polymer-Grade Ethylene Measurement
Author(s): James E. Gallagher, Henry James
Abstract/Introduction:
An ethylene transportation system consists of a pipeline network and salt dome storage facility linking producers and consumers. Since producers and consumers are not equipped with on site storage, the systems are designed with maximum flexibility to satisfy the continually changing demands of the operations (Figure 1). Ethylene pipeline and storage systems are operated in either the gaseous or dense phase fluid region. Systems designed prior to the mid 1970s were designed to operate in the gaseous fluid region and comply with DOT regulations for gas pipelines. Systems designed over the last two decades were designed to operate in the dense phase region for several reasons - lower transportation cost, lower metering cost and compliance with the DOT HVL regulations.
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Document ID: EBDBD629

Evaporation Loss Measurement For Storage Tanks
Author(s): Warren A. Parr
Abstract/Introduction:
In the 1950s hydrocarbon evaporation loss from storage tanks was studied to develop emission estimating equations. At that time, the primary driver for knowing the evaporation rate was system loss control. During the early 1990s, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began programs for stricter record keeping and reduction of storage tank emission. This forced industry to scrutinize the accuracy of existing evaporation loss estimating equations and to develop improvements to various tank appurtenances in an effort to lower hydrocarbons emissions. Much of the EPA activity was focused on floating roof tanks. This paper will review:
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Document ID: 247C479A

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement - Part 1
Author(s): Ralph S. Papesh
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate liquid measurement is an important aspect of the petroleum industry. With regard to commerce, it is the basis of custody transfer between producers, pipelines, refineries, petrochemical plants, utility plants, products marketing and the transportation industry. As it pertains to process control, it is needed to maintain specific flow rates, pressures and levels to ensure precise quality and environmental control. In either custody transfer or process control, daily small percentage volumetric measurement errors can accumulate to large volumetric errors over a long period of time. These errors can have an adverse impact on the profitability of a company.
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Document ID: 827E5158

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement II
Author(s): Doug Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements of liquid petroleum can be performed with the liquid in a static or dynamic state. Custody measurements are made in both states. Static measurements of petroleum liquids are made with the liquid in a tank. This paper will discuss the steps required to calibrate, gauge and sample tanks. These are the steps necessary to measure liquid petroleum in a static state.
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Document ID: 93D1CE1D

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement III - Dynamic
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Weve learned when measuring crude oil or any hydrocarbon that liquids expand and contract with increases and decreases in temperature. The liquid volume also decreases when pressure is applied. All these effects are part of the physical properties of liquid petroleum fluids. We learned in Fundamentals of Liquid Measurement I how these physical properties effect the measurement of liquid hydrocarbons. The objective of either static measurement or dynamic measurements is to determine the quantity and quality of hydrocarbons transferred. However these measurements are rarely performed at the standard conditions discussed in Fundamentals I, therefore not only must temperature be measured, but also density, sediment and water, vapor pressure, pressure and viscosity must be measured. With these measurements correction factors such as Volume Correction Factors (VCF) can be determined to allow volumes determined at operating conditions to be expressed at standard reference conditions.
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Document ID: 732A5F1A

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): George L. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
Gauging is a measurement procedure whereby the QUANTITY and QUALITY of the crude oil are determined at the point of sale by a company gauger or other designated representative, such as a Crude Oil Truck Driver (COTD). Typically, we think of lease tanks as having volumes of less than 1,000 barrels. The gauger is primarily responsible for rejecting nonmerchantable crude oil and buying accurate volumes of merchantable crude oil that can be refined, traded, or sold. His company is fully dependent upon his competence and sound judgment, while his high public visibility requires him to be conscientious, accurate, professional, and courteous.
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Document ID: AFD87D36

Helical Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Didier Pabois
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid turbine meters have been used throughout the industry for many applications not limited to Custody Transfer Loss Control Process Control and for various liquids such as, Hydrocarbon fluids (including LPG) Chemical liquids (including acids) Food and beverages (including XO Cognac )
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Document ID: AD1ABAAF

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): Mike Wheeler
Abstract/Introduction:
Leak Detection efforts at pipeline companies are driven by the need of complying with government regulations and by the companies desire to be a safe and environmentally conscientious pipeline operator. The U.S. Department of Transportations Office of Pipeline Safety (DOT-OPS) regulates the transportation of hazardous liquids under the Code of Federal Regulations as legislated through the Pipeline Safety Act and its reauthorizations (49 CFR 195). In this regulation it is stated that An operator must have a means to detect leaks on its pipeline system. An operator must evaluate the capability of its leak detection means and modify, as necessary, to protect the high consequence area. Missing in this regulation is some standard for what is sufficient leak detection means for the high consequence area (HCA). Along with the DOT, the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is requiring leak detection on systems offshore of the U.S.
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Document ID: D1AED9C6

Liquid Measurement Field Surveys
Author(s): C. Stewart Ash
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a Liquid Measurement Field Survey? Isnt that just another name for an Audit? In the Oil Industry, the two are often considered to be the same. There are indeed similarities between the two, but there are also distinct differences. An Audit is usually conducted by an Auditor either from the corporate internal audit group or from an external independent auditing company. This type of audit is an official examination and verification of accounts and records to assure that adequate control is provided for company assets. It is a review to assure that established procedures are followed, calculations are done correctly, and the accounting process is correct and current.
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Document ID: 8F6378C6

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid Measurement Stations are necessitated by agreements between petroleum buyers, sellers, and transporters along with appropriate customs and or governmental authorities. These agreements outline how the fluid is to be measured and how the results will be traceable to recognized standards. In the case of common carrier pipelines, the pipeline is entrusted with the transport of their customers fluid, thus loss control by use of accurate liquid measurement stations is essential. It is important to note that everyone involved has an interest in the true net volume or associated mass. In addition to meeting the requirements for measurement stations must meet numerous safety and construction codes and standards, as the fluids are normally hazardous. Operation of the measurement station must be relatively simple and a user-friendly operator interface is highly desirable. The task of the station or system designer is to transform these requirements into engineering specifications, drawings, and bills of materials, for procurement, manufacture, test, certification, and delivery to the end user of a cadre of components specifically selected and assembled to work together to meet the requirements of the measurement agreement and applicable codes. This paper will discuss the various topics the designer must address and the methodology he must use to produce a satisfactory system.
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Document ID: A71E3D4D

Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measurement Systems
Author(s): Jerry Upton, Harold E. Osborn
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper we will discuss the different types of measurement systems used at crude oil terminals, the requirements of these systems and why they are important.
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Document ID: AC4E2B84

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures
Author(s): Eric Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to review methods for directly or indirectly determining the mass of Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) streams. NGLs by definition are hydrocarbons liquefied by gas processing plants containing ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline.
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Document ID: A2C0A9FB

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Ed Otto
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass meters were introduced to industry in the early 1980s and have gained wide acceptance as accurate and reliable flow measuring devices. Today Coriolis meters are recognized as one of the more significant, estimated shipments of 100,000 units in 2005, and fastest growing of the new technology flowmeter types. Several factors have contributed to the growth and acceptance of Coriolis meters. A major factor contributing to their popularity is the basic means by which Coriolis meters measure fluid flow. Coriolis meters measure mass flow directly. By directly measuring fluid mass, Coriolis meters eliminate the need to compensate for pressure and temperature thereby reducing the potential for measurement error. The result is improved accuracy. Multivariable measuring capability further enhances the versatility of a Coriolis flowmeter. In addition to measuring mass flow, fluid density and temperature are also measured and transmitted. Coriolis meters use the primary measurements of fluid mass and density to determine and output volumetric flow rate. With accurate measurement, application versatility and no moving parts to wear as attributes, Coriolis meters have gained acceptance as viable meter type for liquid hydrocarbon custody transfer. Confirming this trend is the October 2002 Measurement Standards Publication by the American Petroleum Institute for Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Coriolis Meters. The following discussion seeks to enhance the readers understanding of Coriolis technology and general considerations for applying Coriolis meters for the measurement of liquid flow.
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Document ID: 5399BF27

Measurement Accuracy And Sources Of Error In Tank Gauging
Author(s): C. Stewart Ash
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank gauging is the means used to determine the quantity of oil contained in a storage tank. How the volume is to be used often determines the degree of desired accuracy. If the volume is to be used to quantify a custody transfer movement and money will change hands based on the result, a high degree of accuracy is required but if the volume is to be used only as an operational tool (i.e., is the tank nearly full or nearly empty), a high degree of accuracy is usually not required. If the volume is to be used for inventory control and/or stock accounting, the desired accuracy would be less than for custody transfer but greater than for normal operations.
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Document ID: AB55FBEB

Shrinkage Losses Resulting From Liquid Hydrocarbon Blending
Author(s): J. H. Harry James
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline integrity balance and custody transfer accuracy have been the focus of measurement specialists since the industry began trading and transporting liquid hydrocarbons. Even with the best volumetric measurement equipment, unaccounted for discrepancies still were occurring. Temperature, pressure and meter factor corrections were not enough to explain these discrepancies.
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Document ID: C63E5739

Measurement Methods For Liquid Storage Tanks
Author(s): Harold L. Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
A brief discussion on Methods for Determining Volumes in Liquid Storage Tanks. This will include tank gauging methods and errors that can occur tank strapping methods and pitfalls associated methods for determining temperature of the liquid and tank shell temperature Gravity determination and finally sampling methods for S&W content and quality of the liquid for ticketing purposes.
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Document ID: 6B2EA117

Measurement Of Petroleum On Board Marine Vessels
Author(s): John A. Jack Szallai
Abstract/Introduction:
Marine measurements are, generally, used to confirm the validity of shore side custody transfer measurement from meters or gauging of shore tanks. Marine measurements can also be used for custody transfer if no other valid means are available or the shore side custody transfer system is not available or functioning properly. Measurement of petroleum on board marine vessels, ocean or inland, are generally based on the American Petroleum Institutes Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 17 with cross references to other pertinent chapters.
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Document ID: B01846A0

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Fred Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters have been in common use for many decades, but in the energy industry their use has been primarily in gas metering systems. This is interesting, in that much of the research to develop orifice meter factors (discharge coefficients) has been performed using oil, water, steam and air, as well as natural gas. Orifice meters used in liquid measurement provide good accuracy without the requirement for meter proving as long as they are properly designed, installed, calibrated and maintained. If higher levels of accuracy or wanted, they can be proven using appropriate software and hardware and traditional meter proving systems.
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Document ID: 9F65C294

Pycnometer Installation, Operation And Calibration
Author(s): Harold L. Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
The process of installing Pycnometers for the purpose of calibrating a density meter. The process of field verifying pycnometer calibrations. Experiences in verifying flow through the pycnometer and ways of achieving temperature equalization in both the density meter and the pycnometers.
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Document ID: D85E7878

Resolving Liquid Measurement Differences
Author(s): Herbert H. Garland
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a custody transfer? It is the volume of liquid moved multiplied by the tariff, which equates to ! It is the bottom line, which is the cash register. Is your companys cash register running over or short? What is the percentage it is off? To minimize liquid measurement problems, clear lines AUTHORITY and RESPONSIBILITY must be established and accepted. Established by management and accepted by the employee(s) assigned this role. To adequately perform loss/gain tracking and analysis you must be able to RECOGNIZE that a problem exists. More often than not we tend to think it is the other person or company that has the problem. It is a matter of admitting you may have the problem instead of the others. Check your equipment and procedures first. DETERMINE what is causing the problem. Is it an error in procedure, equipment failure, malfunction or a calibration problem? Or is it human error? When this has been determined, you can then CORRECT the problem.
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Document ID: 5C95A809

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gains
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter, Joseph T. Rasmussen
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays pipelines are multi-dimensional systems providing multiple services for many shippers and customers. Pipeline systems may connect multiple origins and destinations, and carry various products across long distances with changing profiles, pipe dimensions and directions. Monitoring pipeline gains and losses employs tools and analysis methods developed specifically to troubleshoot pipeline variances. Examination of pipeline gains and losses uses some basic statistical tools as well as intuitive and creative insight into what controls gains and losses.
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Document ID: 5688267C

Ultrasonic Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Douglas Baumoel
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic Flowmeters have become a widely accepted method of measuring flow since their humble beginnings in the early seventies. Over the years, several dominant types of meters have evolved. This paper will describe the various types which are available, differentiate their underlying technology and capabilities, and provide a framework for the selection of the flowmeter for specific applications.
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Document ID: 2B0DD3C2

Viscosity And Its Application In Liquid Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): Gary Rothrock
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will explore the role of viscosity in the hydrocarbon industry, its effects, why and where it is measured, and the methods of achieving those measurements online. The fact that laboratory measurement of viscosity is so prevalent in process control tells us two things: 1.Viscosity is a vital measurement. 2.There are no other parameters that can be used as indicators for viscosity.
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Document ID: B5EFB763

Proving Liquid Meters With Microprocessor Based Pulse Outputs
Author(s): Kenneth D. Elliott
Abstract/Introduction:
Have you ever wondered why your latest microprocessor based flowmeter measuring liquids refuses to be proved? Why is it sometimes impossible to achieve the run-to-run repeatability that the API mandates? By reviewing tests performed by an API task group, this paper attempts to shed some light on what probably is the cause, and also suggest what actions you should take to make your Coriolis or Ultrasonic flowmeter easier to prove.
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Document ID: AC7959E1

Proving Liquid Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Don Augenstein
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic transit-time flow meter (UFM) technology is now well over 50 years old. UFM improvements in transducer design, signal processing and more importantly, the understanding of the factors that influence the performance of these meters have greatly improved these meters performance. Current UFMs achieve accuracy and reliability comparable to or better than older mechanical technologies (i.e., turbine and positive displacement meters) and are now beginning to displace these traditional flow meters in hydrocarbon measurement applications.
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Document ID: 23DFD55E

Accuracy Diagnostics Of Liquid Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Christopher B. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic flow meters have gained industry acceptance for many applications including custody transfer. Custody transfer applications were made possible when in October 2002 API Committee on Petroleum Measurement published the Draft Standard entitled Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Ultrasonic Flowmeters Using Transit Time Technology. In October, 2004, a slightly revised version of this draft was accepted as a full standard (Chapter 5.8) for inclusion into the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards putting this technology on a par with PD meters, turbine meters and Coriolis meters. This paper will delve into some of the ways the ultrasonic flow meters are changing the techniques for precision petroleum measurement.
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Document ID: D3D1CD0B

Advanced Applications Of Flow Computers And Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Michael Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
As we move deeper into the Information age it is little wonder that processes in the Oil and Natural Gas Industries that used to take days, weeks or even months are now expected to be accomplished in hours, minutes and even seconds. To make matters worse companies are expected to operate safely and efficiently while gathering accurate data in these demanding time frames with less personnel and less overhead than ever before. Mergers and other economic factors force most companies into situations where they are combining old and new operating technologies and dissimilar communication methods and protocols not to mention various vendors hardware and software at the field, communication, and host levels.
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Document ID: D4C14AA1

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Mark A. Crane
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computers, like the computer industry, have been changing rapidly over the past few years. Faster, more powerful microprocessors, higher quality batteries and solar panels, improved electronics and new methods of remote communication now make it possible to automate field production and pipeline systems primarily using flow computers as the core hardware. Flow computers were originally designed to replace mechanical charts used in custody transfer gas measurement. They now are being used in whole scale SCADA systems often performing multi-tube and tube switching operations, flow control, tank monitoring, compressor monitoring, artificial lift and total MMBTU calculation.
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Document ID: 8FFE4F0D

About Ishm 2005
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 2B77B07B


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