Measurement Library

South East Asia Flow Measurement Conference Publications (2005)

Lifecycle Of The Measurement System In A Production Operation
Author(s): Andrew Mathers, John Elliott
Abstract/Introduction:
The production of hydrocarbons from finite reservoirs has a lifecycle that covers exploration, production ramp-up, plateau production, declining production rates, increasing water production, and ultimately abandonment at end of economic life. At all phases of production, measurement of the produced fluids is required for custody transfer purposes, regulatory, production and revenue allocation, environmental and a number of other reasons. The production flow rate can vary significantly over time and may be measured in adverse and harsh environments.
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Document ID: 4FD56320

Lessons Learnt From Major Flow Measurement Review
Author(s): Abdul-Rahim Hsino
Abstract/Introduction:
Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations (ADCO) operates 5 major oil fields (Bu Hasa, Bab, Asab, Sahil, and Shah) in addition to one exporting terminal (Jebbel Dhanna). Figure 1 shows ADCO concession area and major oil fields.metering design is inconsistent and suffers from poor accuracy hence an assessment of the different metering systems including well testing facilities was essential. The scope of the review was to provide a complete overview of the current state of various metering systems and well testing facilities at all ADCO sites, and to develop a list of recommendations for each flow measurement system in order to improve the quality, reliability, and accuracy of flow measurement. Where necessary details of what farther work is required to bring the system up to a reasonable standard have been provided. A total of 1532 flow measurement points have been covered in this review.
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Document ID: F305C4E0

System Design Basis For Packaged Redundant Gas Ultrasonic Metering Skids - Part 1
Author(s): Mike Marshall, Dan Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas consumption in the Developing Asia region is projected to triple to 22 trillion cubic feet by the year 2025. Consequently, the natural gas pipeline infrastructure in the Asia Pacific region is rapidly expanding. The development of the Trans ASEAN Pipeline System will require a vast increase in custody transfer measurements for cross border sales. Large domestic projects such as the West East Pipeline Project in China also require significant custody transfer measurements. Owners and operators for most of these new metering skids have selected gas ultrasonic meters as the metering technology. Turnkey metering solutions, which include packaged metering skids with complete analyzer packages, are being supplied. Many of these metering systems employ redundant flow meters with the provision to run the meters in series to compare the performance of the duty and standby meters. Proper station design is crucial to obtain the maximum performance from the custody transfer metering including data on measurement and on-line diagnostics to monitor meter and system performance. This paper will present an over view of design considerations which should be evaluated when planning an ultrasonic metering system and the diagnostic information available to monitor performance.
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Document ID: D1A6F686

Use Of Measured Fluid Property And Eos Modeling For Accurate Multiphase Flow Meter Phasewatcher() Operation
Author(s): Suyu Ye, Nikhil Joshi, Dennis Dcruz, Clay Young, John Nighswander
Abstract/Introduction:
The Multiphase Flow Meter (MPFM) PhaseWatcher has been successfully used in field operation for different purposes: well testing, fiscal monitoring, or as permanent component of well installation. MPFM PhaseWatcher uses dual-energy spectral gamma ray / Venturi technology (Fig. 1) to measure multiphase fluid flow rates. The total mass flow rate is measured based on the pressure drop at Venturi section. The fraction of each phase is determined by dual-energy spectral gamma ray attenuation. Fluid properties are required to determine the individual phase flow rate these include the density and nuclear attenuations of oil, water and gas at line conditions, and formation volume factor of each phase to convert the flow rate from line condition to standard condition.
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Document ID: 51B5EDF2

Two Phase Coriolis Measurement Of Oil And Water At Low Velocities
Author(s): Gary Miller, Richard Harvey, David Stewart, Ole Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis flowmeters are now routinely used for the metering of liquids and gases within the hydrocarbon production industry. In general, these instruments are found to be both reliable and accurate in terms of mass flow measurement. In addition, their ability to measure the density of the produced fluid is often utilised to calculate liquid water-cut in net oil computations. However, some limitations of the current range of meters have recently been recognised, particularly in their application to two-phase flow.
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Document ID: F6022AB8

Dirty Vs. Clean Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters Performance
Author(s): Martin Schlebach, John Lansing, Tom Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of ultrasonic meters (USMs) for natural gas custody applications during the past few years has increased at a remarkable rate. The many benefits of USMs have been well documented over the past few years Ref 1. With the increased population of USMs in the gas industry, many users are asking ever more searching questions about this technology. One of the issues often inquired about is the performance (accuracy) of an ultrasonic meter once the internal surface changes from the original clean calibrated condition. The accuracy of all metering devices is affected when less-than-clean, pipeline quality gas contaminates the inside of the meter, the associated piping and flow conditioner.
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Document ID: 4631EE1A

Desgin Of Gas Metering Stations Using Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeters
Author(s): Martin Kurth, Geeuwke De Boer, Marcel Vermeulen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper has the dual intention of providing a brief historical insight into ultrasonic gas flow measurement as well as to give an understanding of the technology used therein. In addition, it also attempts to render some practical guidelines that would be of assistance to prospective users who are faced with applications of flow metering in dry and wet gas, either in a new line or an existing one, but who have a little or no prior knowledge of such instruments. One of the most challenging problems for designers of ultrasonic meters has been to overcome the ultrasonic noise problems in applications where the meters come to be located in the vicinity of large noise sources such as control valves, regulators and flow conditioners.
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Document ID: 7F0E32AA

How A Well Designed Diagnostic Tool Can Assist The Operation Of Usms And Your Gas Production
Author(s): Skule Smrgrav, Daniel Householder, Atle Abrahansen
Abstract/Introduction:
The present-day telecommunication network provides the means for fast distribution of data and the monitoring of field mounted devices. It has given producers, operators, and maintenance personnel the ability to communicate by data transmission over a network from computer to computer and remote computers to databanks. The use of modems and landline connections has allowed users and manufacturers of ultrasonic meters (USMs), multiphase meters (MPFMs) and other computer monitored devices a limited but effective outlet for their internal trending and diagnostic information. This has led to higher accuracy in predicting potential failures in the field and lower down times through faster response to these failures, as well as increased data retrieval and logging.
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Document ID: 9AFC991A

Application Of Electrical Capacitance Tomography In Wet Gas Metering
Author(s): Idris Ismail, W. Q. Yang
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas flow metering (WGFM) is gaining more and more interest from maturing hydrocarbon production, especially in marginal offshore oil and gas fields, e.g. in the North Sea, where available space and acceptable weight are limited. The main difficulty in WGFM for the oil industry is that almost all commercial wet gas flow meters are based on dry gas metering concepts, which use various correlation factors to correct the meters reading. As a result wet gas, which consists of gas and liquid with different properties, causes uncertainty in measurement of both phases. The commercial flow meters tend to over-estimate the gas phase and under-estimate the liquid phase.
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Document ID: E2151F73

Three-Phase Flow Measurement Technique Using A Coriolis Flow Meter And A Water Cut Probe
Author(s): Robbie Lansangan, Robert Dutton, Michael Tombs, Manus Henry, Mihaela Duta
Abstract/Introduction:
The ability to measure individual component flow rates of oil, water and free gas in commingled flow without separation presents numerous advantages for the oil and gas industry. This is apparent with the continuous deployment of inline multiphase meters (iMPM) in upstream production operations. The benefits and advantages of multiphase metering in production well testing, compared to separator-based measurement, are well documented 1,2,3. While the industry has largely accepted the use of iMPM, the purchase price and cost of ownership of these devices are still considered relatively high.
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Document ID: 405386A0

ISO/CD 17089 - Ultrasonic Meters For Gas Meters For Fiscal And Allocation Measurement
Author(s): Jan Drenthen
Abstract/Introduction:
As ultrasonic meters have replaced traditional measurement technologies for the past ten years, the applications have become more demanding. One of the most challenging problems for designers to overcome has been the operation of these meters near large noise sources such as control valves, regulators and -to some extend- also flow conditioners. Being at the forefront of technology both manufacturers and users have taken their part of the challenges but have overcome most of them by sharing their experiences.
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Document ID: CE4C3DA8

Overview Of CFD Modelling Or Orifice Plate Flowmeters
Author(s): Jeff Gibson, Neil Barton, Michael Reader-Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool for solving problems associated with orifice-plate flowmeters. It provides a useful complement to experimental data, particularly when applying information derived from tests to field conditions and in circumstances where a high degree of control is required which may be difficult to achieve in conventional tests. However, as with any simulation-derived data, the results of CFD simulations should be analysed appropriately.
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Document ID: 21D31A6C

Recent Results And Experience With Non Gamma Based As Well As Gamma Based Roxar Multiphase Flow Meters Onshore And Offshore Saudi Arabia
Author(s): Joop Frieling, Tom Rune Kolsrud, Kenneth Olsvik, Shahid Hussain
Abstract/Introduction:
As a result of in-house technology innovation, Roxar has during the last two years developed an alternative Multiphase Meter capable of measuring flow rates of oil, gas and water without utilising a radioactive source. The design is similar to the MPFM 1900VI , but without a gamma source installed. Successful development implies that Roxar can offer to remove existing gamma sources from MPFM 1900VI meters in operation. This can be achieved due to the fact that the sensor design of both meters are practically identical.
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Document ID: DC9A65DF

Use Of The Two-Phase Flow Map And The Composition Map In Multi-Phase Flow Meter Applications
Author(s): Lex Scheers
Abstract/Introduction:
Multi-phase flow is a complex phenomenon that is not yet fully understood in the same depth as single-phase flow. Single-phase flow characteristics like velocity, viscosity, flow profile and Reynolds number are not fully defined for multi-phase flow and the modelling of multi-phase flow is significantly more complicated than for single-phase flow. Moreover, in the oil and gas industry, the term multi-phase flow is often related to three-phase flow, a combination of liquid hydrocarbons, gaseous hydrocarbons and production water.
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Document ID: B2C28CE0

A Coriolis Master Meter Based System - A Technical First For Brunei And Malaysia
Author(s): Jim Marshall
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters for liquid measurement have been utilised more and more within our industry, especially in locations where real estate is at a premium. The minimal requirement for straight lengths and lack of traditional moving parts are significant factors in any meter selection criteria. It is only in the most recent of years that the Coriolis meter has seen active service for Fiscal and Custody Transfer applications, as this has in the past been the domain of the turbine or PD meters with a prover loop. This paper is an overview of the experience gained and the challenges met in the introduction, design, commissioning and operation of the first Custody Transfer metering skid, comprising of Coriolis meters in a Master Meter configuration for Brunei and Malaysia.
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Document ID: C26CCB9E

Coriolis Meter Technology For Natural Gas Applications
Author(s): Terry Fredlund, Steve Baldwin
Abstract/Introduction:
What we know today as Coriolis effect was first described by the 19th-century French engineer-mathematician Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis in the year 1835. His work has contributed greatly to the field of Meteorology, helping scientist to understand weather phenomenon. His work also describes the fundamental physics behind the modern Coriolis mass flow meters found in industry today. This paper will outline the technology behind the modern Coriolis meter, its advantages/disadvantages and operational limitations relative to natural gas measurement.
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Document ID: 2F2DDA66

Applying Wet Gas Metering Offshore Egypt - A Case Study
Author(s): Mohamed Baydoun, Taher A/Raheem, David Paul, Peter Thompson, Rune Haddeland
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas metering has been chosen as a best practice solution for the large subsea WDDM (West Delta Deep Marine) fields some 80km offshore Egypt that are to be developed over the next 20 years, see Figure 1. These fields include both wet gas and retrograde gas condensates and will be developed using high gas rate wells with low water gas ratios throughout field life (typically 0.3-10 bbl/mmscf). Burullus Gas Company has chosen the Roxar Wet Gas Meter, see Figure 2, as the preferred solution for the initial phase of wet gas metering to be installed on the Simian/Sienna and Sapphire fields. This case study provides an operators insight into the detailed selection of the technology, from applicability of the fields through to an evaluation of all potential options and the rational that was developed to ensure that the best metering solution was obtained. The study then details the key elements of the wet gas meter design which were most influential in the decision criteria.
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Document ID: E7761359

Operational Experience With Smartvent Wet Gas Meters In Se-Asia
Author(s): H. De Leeuw, m. Kamal Bin Taib, B. Dybdahl, H. Brummenaes
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas metering technology has been chosen by a number of operators in SE-Asia for the purpose of continuous well testing, production measurement and reservoir monitoring. This set-up replaces expensive well test separators and related infrastructure from the design. In addition to the significant cost savings, the availability of continuous readings of each wells production rates allows for enhanced reservoir management and production. The wet gas metering set-ups consist of permanently installed SmartVent wet gas venturi based flow meters at each well location, dedicated wet gas flow measurement calculation and monitoring software, and sampling equipment for fluid sampling and on-site tracer calibrations.
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Document ID: B56561BC

Equity Exposure In Wet Gas Venturi Allocation Metering
Author(s): David Stewart, Mark Skelton
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas metering is becoming increasingly important in the development of marginal gas fields. Many of these gas fields are only economically viable if they can be tied back to existing platform infrastructure, reducing the capital expenditure required by significant margins.
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Document ID: A9A1F821

Calibration Management Software In An Upstream Environment
Author(s): Miftachul Munir
Abstract/Introduction:
Unocal operates around 414 oil and gas flow meters on its onshore and offshore facilities of East Kalimantan. Meter classified as custody transfer, allocation and production (including well test, gas lift, and process meter). Also prover-loops, tank gauges and process gas chromatograph. Number meter is listed in table-1. Other, there are 20 flow computers and prover computers and more than 50 ATGs.
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Document ID: C9DFC330

Dynamic Uncertainty Models, Bias And Exposure
Author(s): Mark Hay
Abstract/Introduction:
In any fiscal metering system there is a requirement to demonstrate that uncertainty in measurement is within limits agreed. These may be limits set by any of a number of interested parties such as government bodies, pipeline committees. Typical values are 1% for a gas metering system and 0.25% for a liquid metering system. The uncertainty calculation is generally presented in the form of a document showing the estimated uncertainty in flowrate for a number of scenarios to represent the anticipated production profile. The document is often drawn up by the metering system vendor as part of the system documentation and once approved, seldom referenced or revisited. This paper examines the potential risk when adopting this approach and outlines methods by which exposure to mismeasurement can be significantly reduced by implementing a dynamic uncertainty model.
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Document ID: 790299B6

A User Friendly Approach To Describing Measurement Uncertainty In Industry Standards
Author(s): Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
While several well written standards are available, the details of uncertainty analysis remain difficult to apply to flow measurement systems. In an attempt to help the users with flow measurement uncertainty analyses, a different approach is being undertaken for proposed inclusion in several American industry-based standards. These standards are published by the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers), the AGA (American Gas Association) and the API (American Petroleum Institute). The approach is based on building the concepts of uncertainty analysis through a series of examples that gradually increase in complexity. This paper discusses the proposed method for describing uncertainty analysis with an emphasis on support of the United States energy industry.
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Document ID: 9AAEC140

Reliability And Installation Effects Of Ultrasonic Custody Transfer Gas Flow Meters Under Special Conditions
Author(s): Volker Herrmann, Toralf Dietz, Matthias Wehmeier
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic gas flow meters have been available commercially since the 1980s for a range of measuring tasks. Numerous developments have seen their application range increase enormously. Modern gas flow meters are more and more used in custody transfer applications. Even after more than 20 years of development, new advances are being made for ultrasonic gas flow meters and there is still room for improvement. Optimising the meter concept and analysing all the potential sources of errors are aimed at eliminating or minimising as many uncertainty factors as possible. Factors that result in significant measurement uncertainty must be identified and appropriate manufacturing technologies, procedures, and test strategies developed.
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Document ID: 9F2B1EDF

Methods For Reduction Of Transfer Uncertainty In Flow Measurement
Author(s): Jim Hill, Andreas Weber, Tri Budi Pramana
Abstract/Introduction:
The goal in designing any metering facility is to make a measurement that, when incorporated with other facilities through-out the measurement system, provides an accurate accounting of the distribution of product. To this end, the design of the metering facility has the requirements to minimize the uncertainty of the final product flow measurement and to quantify the exact confidence interval around that measurement. Only with this confidence interval established can system managers determine what levels of unaccountables require action. This paper proposes some standard practices for design of the meter run section of the skid and communicating system requirements to the meter manufacturer in a form that can be compared to experimental performance data.
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Document ID: AADECF5B

Installation Effect On Ultrasonic Flowmeters And Evaluation Of Computational Fluid Dynamics Prediction Methods
Author(s): Gregor Brown, Craig Coull, Neil Barton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the results of a detailed investigation of installation effects on the performance of transit time ultrasonic flow meters. Extensive laboratory tests and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling have been performed. Laboratory tests have been carried out on a triple bend installation. Three meters have been tested two clamp-on meters (using reflected diametric paths) and a dual-cross mid-radius meter. Each meters performance has been analysed and explanations offered as to why the observed effects occur. Path velocity data has also been recorded from the dual-cross midradius meter.
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Document ID: 77370DC8

Fluid Properties On The Main Path For Mfm And Wgm Accuracy: An Analytical Approach
Author(s): Bruno G. Pinguet, Nisrene Haddad, Graham Birkett
Abstract/Introduction:
An understanding of fluid properties is crucial for reservoir management. They are used by engineers for estimating reserves in place, fluid flow through the porous media, production schemes, and enhanced oil recovery planning. Production engineers also require fluid properties and phase behaviour to design the surface process facilities and manage production efficiently. All multiphase flow meters, whatever the technology used, similarly require fluid properties measured at either line or standard conditions to convert from some physical properties measurements through an inversion model to calculate the flow rate or fraction. But how do the errors in the fluid properties and phase behaviour inputs impact the accuracy of the multiphase flow meter (MFM)? And what is the optimum set of fluid properties required for any given multiphase flow metering application?
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Document ID: 02ACD90A

Extending The Multi-Phase Flow Meter Operating Envelope By Adding A Partial Separation Device
Author(s): Lex Scheers, Martin Halvorsen, Tor Wideroe, Paolo Nardi
Abstract/Introduction:
During the late 80s the oil and gas industry started to realise that the availability of Multi- Phase Flow Meters (MPFMs) could have a very large economic impact on the infrastructure of oil and gas developments, e.g. replacement of test separators, removal of subsea test lines and manifolds. This is the reason why in the 80s and early 90s the development of MPFMs was primarily driven by the oil industry. At present MPFMs are being installed in the field, but it is still too early to conclude that they have been fully utilised and accepted by operators. But MPFMs are, for sure, developing from a nursing technology to mature technology.
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Document ID: 37FDAA4F

A Comparison Of Liquid Petroleum Meters For Custody Transfer Measurement
Author(s): Raymond Kalivoda
Abstract/Introduction:
Petroleum products bought and sold on the world wide market may be transported over thousands of miles and change ownership many times from the well head to the end user. Each time the product changes ownership, a custody transfer is completed and both buyer and seller expect their asset share to be accurately measured. The dynamic measurement provided by meters is a convenient and accurate means to measure valuable petroleum products. Selecting the right meter for the job with a high level of confidence is imperative to ensure accurate measurement at the lowest the cost of ownership.
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Document ID: 92F45B9A

Small Volume Provers - An Overview
Author(s): Steve Baldwin, Trilochan Gupta
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid meter proving is carried out by placing a Meter Prover in series with the meter under test the prover having a calibrated base volume. Proving of the meter is accomplished by comparing the quantity recorded by the meter with the calibrated quantity displaced by the prover.
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Document ID: AD524C7A

Altosonic III - A Dedicated Three-Beam Ultrasonic Flowmeter For Custody Transfer Of Liquid Hydrocarbons
Author(s): Herman Hofstede, Helen Danen, Jankees Hogendoorn
Abstract/Introduction:
The introduction of a highly accurate, five-beam, liquid ultrasonic flowmeter in the nineties formed a true revolution in the flow market for custody transfer metering. Up to then the market was dominated by turbine and PD meters. Over the past years ultrasonic flowmeters gained full acceptance and customers are using the five beam ultrasonic flowmeter in a growing number of custody transfer metering applications worldwide. Based on experience gained over the past years with ultrasonic flowmeters for fiscal metering in the field and further basic research and development, a new - cost effective - ultrasonic flowmeter concept for custody transfer has been developed for the market. The ultrasonic flowmeter has three beams and is designed for dedicated custody transfer applications with light crude oils and refined liquid hydrocarbons.
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Document ID: 629DB84B

The Performance Of A Two Plane Multipath Path Meter
Author(s): Terry Cousins, Don Augenstein
Abstract/Introduction:
The two plane multi-path ultrasonic meter is a very different meter from the usual multi-path ultrasonic meter. The two plane multi-path meter is composed of two separate four path meters, with the paths plane orthogonal to each other. This configuration allows the meter to be considered as two separate single plane meters. However, when the two meters are combined, they form a single meter with powerful extra features. This two plane meter has the ability to withstand very poor installation conditions, to provide extra self-diagnostic capabilities, to provide path redundancy without loss of uncertainty, and to improve flow measurement accuracy. This paper shows the meters immunity to installation, their ability to be able to predict the change in uncertainty by the use of diagnostic checks and their measurements of velocity profiles quantified as swirl (%) and flatness ratio. The flatness ratio is introduced as a metric of the velocity profiles flatness and is used to predicted and correct for changes in calibration. Data from meter calibrations are used to determine the influence factors relating the changes in flatness ratio, and hence the potential errors due to profile change. The meter operates in difficult installations with minimal effect on the calibration and may be considered a high quality master meter.
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Document ID: 16DF59BB


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