Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (2003)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 2003 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Mary Abens
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow computers (EFCs)are rapidly becoming the. standard, for real-time gas measurement.. As these devises, become more and more capable,, advanced control, strategies are becoming, common, place.. As more. and more. EFCs are commissioned,, customers sometimes learn hard lessons regarding. electronic gas. measurement... Many times, these. lessons, could, have been avoided, if proper consideration was. given, to. the selection of an EFC devise, and. the. applications, at hand.. This paper will discuss, in. general, gas. measurement and. control applied, through. EFCs. It will focus on the importance, of AGA EFC configuration,. API Chapter 21. historical archiving techniques, and the different control options available.
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Document ID: E1EDCD5E

Applications Of Portable Computers. And Software
Author(s): Cameron R. Spitzer
Abstract/Introduction:
Laptops,. handhelds, palmtops and PDAs are. becoming common in. the Natural Gas Industry to perform a variety of portable, computer functions... Applying these different technologies to fit a given task is. sometimes, not immediately apparent. Portable Computers do make. the field users job. easier to perform,, if time is taken to. assure, that they are. selected, to fit the application.. Emphasis in this paper will. be on. mobile computing as it relates to the Natural Gas Industry.
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Document ID: F2875DBA

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Stephen R. Cree
Abstract/Introduction:
Telemetering,. or transporting information, has been. with. man. from the first days. of recorded, history, at first in. primitive, forms, such. as. grunts, and. smoke signals, more recently in the. past hundred years in. progressively sophisticated forms including radio and satellite systems.. Harnessing. electricity led. to. the magic of telephony. Telegraphs,. and. later telephones, employ a technology so fundamental as. to. be the. cornerstone, of the telemetry process.
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Document ID: CF18C056

Basics Of High Pressure Measurement And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): E. D. Rusty Woomer, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
There is more to the design of a measurement facility than the word measurement suggests. Generally, the measurement arena may include any or all of the following broad categories: Metering o:o Primary devices o:o Secondary devices o:o Tertiary devices Control o:o Pressure regulation o:o Flow control o:o Overpressure protection Gas Quality o:o Chromatography o:o Spot or composite sampling o:o Analytical instrumentation Other o:o Odorization o:o Filtration / Separation o:o Heating
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Document ID: 05FC2902

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Dale Gary
Abstract/Introduction:
This. paper is written with. the idea of presenting basic electronic principles and how to apply these to common applications in. the oil and gas industry.
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Document ID: A43DB45F

Basic Scada Systems
Author(s): Rick Kroeker
Abstract/Introduction:
A SCADA (Supervisory Control. and. Data Acquisition) system, is. typical, made up of many distributed, remote microprocessors that are communicated to (supervised). by a central computer system most commonly referred, to. as a. host.. Supervisory control implies that the remote unit performs the. local control, function, with the. host performing, the supervisory control, function, such as. writing the. setpoint to the controller.. Not only does the. host system send supervisory commands, to. the remote units, but also. it usually collects, data (data. acquisition) from the. units... Thisdata can. be. used. for many purposes, including feedback to. the system. operator,, trending,, alarming and accounting..
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Document ID: 91A119B0

Compressibility Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Savidge
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate measurement of natural gas and natural gas related fluids is difficult. It requires care, insight, and experience to achieve consistently accurate measurements. It is particularly difficult to measure complex fluid mixtures that are exposed to: (1) a range of operating conditions, (2) dynamic fluid properties, and (3) changing equipment conditions. Conservation equations for energy and mass flow provide the engineering foundation for flow measurement. They establish the theoretical flow rate. Correlations are used to complete the application of the conservation equations and improve the accuracy of the measurement to meet practical measurement requirements. Correlations bind the conservation equations to measured equilibrium and dynamic experimental data, e.g. PVT data and flow rate data. They provide necessary information on the thermodynamic and fluid flow condition. Measurement technologies that are concerned with measuring the volume or mass of product must use or determine the density.
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Document ID: BA001A5B

Communications Systems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): Darin Molone
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline companies have long since discovered the need for real-time pipeline system automation. Before the first SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) systems appeared, companies depended on employees to open and close valves and manually set controls for gas flow. These operational needs spawned the first SCADA systems. Companies often installedan RTU (remote terminal unit) for operational control of the pipeline and, if needed, a second RTU or chart recorder for custody measurement. This two-RTU philosophy forged two separate telemetry infrastructures. The first infrastructure communicated with the real-time operational RTUs, while the second collected the electronic flow measurement data.
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Document ID: B1F6FD42

Coping With Changing Flow Requiements At Existing Meter Stations
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays market is a challenge that Companies must meet. Deregulation, increasing share values, diversity and the ability to adapt are everyday terms that we must completely understand. Companies must be aggressive to survive customer demands. Revenues are made and lost everyday at our metering stations. If our products are not measured accurately, customer satisfaction will not be achieved and companies will lose revenues. In todays market, there are several factors that dictate what changes in flow requirements we must deal with. Some of these factors include equipment and technology, customer demand and a changing industrial market.
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Document ID: D521959B

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Edgar Eddy Wallace Collins Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of natural gas distribution metering and/or regulating stations is a mixture of science and art, or knowledge and judgment. The process requires four areas of knowledge: product, application, components, and communication. The goal in design is to use judgment to select and combine compatible components to create an effective, safe, and economical unit.
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Document ID: 19AA1436

Effect And Control Of Pulsation In Pipeline Measurement
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsations created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators, and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas flow measurement. In recent years the Pipeline and Compressor Research Council (PCRC) now known as (GMRC) Gas Machinery Research Council a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas. This research culminated in the publication of several technical papers, including the April 1987 PCRC report 10.87-3 titled Pulsation and Transient-Induced Errors at Orifice Meter Installations and the most recent technical report An Assessment of Technology for Correcting Pulsation Induced Orifice Flow Measurement dated November, 1991.
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Document ID: 48074ADA

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Thomas B. Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1971 E. J. Burgin of Florida Gas Transmission Company presented a paper at ISHM entitled Factors Affecting Accuracy of Orifice Measurement (Primary Element). Burgin noted that A.G.A. Report No. 3 (of that time) claimed that an orifice meter with flange taps and with a diameter ratio, 13, between 0.15 and 0.7, fabricated and operated in accordance with the specifications in the standard, would have a discharge coefficient value within + 0.5% of the value calculated from the orifice equation. The purpose of Burgins paper was to examine some of the specifications in the orifice meter standard and to review the effect upon measurement accuracy when the specifications are ignored.
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Document ID: 331DDDEB

Field Experience With Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas turbine meters (see fig. 1) were introduced in 1963, and since then have gained acceptance in the industry as an accurate, extremely repeatable, reliable device. The gas turbine meter is easy to understand and maintain in the field, and it interfaces with the new electronics available in the industry today.
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Document ID: AECC2509

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company, founded in 1823, prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers.
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Document ID: D38161EE

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that they have an understanding of natural gas chemistry.
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Document ID: A5D5A976

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people should have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc. To understand the fundamentals, one must be familiar with the definitions of the terms that are used in day-today gas measurement operations. They also must know how to convert some values from one quantity as measured to another quantity that is called for in the various custody transfer agreements.
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Document ID: 0AFEB2EF

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement III
Author(s): James W. Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: 8165D8BE

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A significant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and configurations have become available over the past 50 years of production.
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Document ID: F79DE7EF

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meter Chart Recorders
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an orifice meter? The answer usually depends upon whom you are talking to. The term orifice meter is used to mean every thing from the orifice meter chart recorder to the entire meter station. American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit comprised of primary and secondary elements. The primary element consists of an orifice meter tube constructed to meet the minimum recommended specifications of the measurement authority contractually agreed upon by two or more parties. The secondary element consists of equipment that will receive values produced at the primary element. The values may be measured and recorded onto circular charts or received by electronic flow computers that calculate a volume onsite, to be retrieved as desired. In this paper I will address the Orifice Meter Chart Recorder and endeavor to explain its fundamental workings.
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Document ID: D5619B58

Installation & Operation Errors In Gas Measurment
Author(s): Walt Seidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Installation and operation errors may have an effect on measurement accuracy and therefore on company operations. This paper will present information for some types of installation/operation problems for common gas flow metering devices such as orifices, turbines, positive displacement meters, and multipath ultrasonic flowmeters.
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Document ID: CEA6DBA7

Low Pressure Gas Measurement Using Ultrasonic Technology
Author(s): Gnter Maurer
Abstract/Introduction:
The ultrasonic metering technology has reached a high degree of maturity and acceptance throughout the measurement industry. In order for this technology to reach the acceptance levels comparable to conventional metering technologies such as orifice meters and turbine meters the application range of ultrasonic meters needs to be expanded. In addition to the high volume flow metering sites in gas transmission pipelines there is a need to measure natural gas at low pressures downstream of transmission lines using new metering technologies. This paper describes an ultrasonic gas flow meter using cutting edge technology which allows gas flow metering down to ambient pressure. The meter is designed for use in traditional ultrasonic measuring sites as well as in sites, where ultrasonic meters are not applied today.
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Document ID: F93A1687

Mass Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in liquid applications since the early 1980s with an installed base or more than 350,000 units. Newer designs have shown greatly improved low-flow sensitivity, lower pressure drop, and immunity to noise factors which now enable their successful use in gas-phase fluid applications. With more than 20,000 units on gas around the world, groups including the AGA, API, Measurement Canada, German PTB, and Dutch NMi are all involved in writing standards for this emerging gas flow technology. An overview of theory, selection, installation & maintenance of Coriolis meters will be presented. Application details will be presented to illustrate both the range of natural gas applications, including production, fuel flow control to gas power turbines, master metering, city/industrial gate custody transfer, and third-party test data. Laboratories include the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc. (CEESI), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Pigsar (Germany).
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Document ID: 913BAAD8

Measurement Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, lets discuss an important phase of everyday planning for the Measurement personnel. A test and inspection guide is a corporations plan to meet government regulations. DOT requires pipelines to have a written operating and maintenance plan. This plan must meet the minimum federal standards and cover various phases of operations. A company may include items above the minimum federal standards but they must operate according to the plan they prepare. In plain words, what you write you must be ready to live and operate by whether they just meet the DOT minimums or exceed the DOT requirements and this becomes the company bible. The last item to remember is that as field personnel you must perform the required inspections, complete properly the administrative records to document and prove that required tests were made. This is an important item as it involves personal honor and your signature is your statement the work was done. Government penalties applied to companies can be very high if the required work is not done, or has not been properly documented. If the work is not done, admit an error was made. It helps with DOT inspections if an explanation is in the file as to why the specific test was not performed, such as veather prevented transportation offshore or station shut in because well is dead.
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Document ID: 0996000D

Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Gas. Measurement
Author(s): Lars Farestvedt
Abstract/Introduction:
Transit time UltraSonic Meters (USM) have been used in gas measurement for close to two decades now, though ultrasonic technology in general has been used in flow measurement for several decades. Ultrasonic technology is defined as utilizing sound waves at higher frequencies than what the human ear can hear, so higher than 20,000 Hz (or 20kHz). Most natural gas USMs use frequencies around 100- 200 kHz, while liquid USMs are in the 1 GHz range. There is in other words differences in the optimum frequency to be used depending of the medium that is to be measured.
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Document ID: BF2AF8B6

On-Site Proving Off Gas. Turbine Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of natural gas as a fuel, buyers and sellers of natural gas are putting more emphasis on ways to improve their gas measurement and reduce their unaccounted for gas volumes. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 million standard cubic feet of gas per day selling at 5.50 per thousand standard cubic feet of gas will cause an over or under billing of 200,750 in one year. This amount would easily pay for a meter proving system at most high-volume gas meter station sites. However, unlike with most liquid hydrocarbon meter stations, meter proving systems are not typically included in gas meter stations. Under measurement of gas volumes causes loss of revenue. Over measurement of gas volumes may result in a future correction that could cost a gas company millions of dollars. For these reasons, gas meter proving is important and necessary to ensure fair and equitable measurement for both the buyer and seller.
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Document ID: 93BF48B7

Communication. To Measurement Equipment At Gas Distribution Locations.
Author(s): Chris Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
Business changes demand changes in doing business. One of the last great holdouts has been gas measurement in a natural gas distribution company. Ever since the days before this generation, meter indexes were read and charts were changed for a measurement process to begin. This process has been going on for so long that nearly everyone recognizes the utility meter reader. But now, a business change is taking place that is causing us to do business differently. Over the last five years the sight of a familiar meter reader around a meter setting is slowly diminishing. Little antennas are popping up all around gas facilities. Meters are being read remotely. A new gas company icon may soon become the communication technician.
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Document ID: D3961A5F

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Hugh Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter tube is the most widely used method of fluid measurement currently in use. Orifice fittings, developed to insert, retract, and hold the orifice plate in the meter tube, are also commonly used in current meter tube designs. Each of these components must meet specifications of industry standards such as American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 3, and the American Petroleum Institute (API) Chapter 14 section 3 on Petroleum Measurements Standards to provide accurate, reliable measurement.
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Document ID: 62ADEA32

Orifice Meter Gauge Line Distortions
Author(s): Ray G. Durke, Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
In attempts to achieve more accurate gas flow measurements industry is placing more emphasis on defming and avoiding adverse unsteady flow conditions. Interactions of pulsation energy and piping acoustics are being considered. Industry has put a great deal of effort into replacing relatively long gauge line tubing with closecoupled, straight bore manifolds. This paper focuses on gauge line effects on gas flow measurement.
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Document ID: FE5F22DF

Orifice. Meters. Operation. And Maintenance
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement is of utmost importance to all companies involved in. the purchase or sale. of natural gas.. Orifice meters act as. a cash register for the. industry. Proper operation and maintenance of the orifice meter is essential to ensure that both producers and. customers receive an accurate. account on every delivery. The orifice meter was developed in the early 1900s.. They have become the industry standard for measurement of large volumes of natural gas..
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Document ID: 0D522725

Problems Unique In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jackie R. Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the. Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and. weather play in the technicians ability to verify the accuracy of the gas measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement.
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Document ID: 54535DE6

Thermometry In Measurement
Author(s): Stephen T.. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Temperature is one of several critical variables that must be correctly measured to determine reliable natural gas quantities. This is especially true in custody transfer (fiscal)applications where even relatively small temperature measurement errors can have a large impact on the bottom line. The technical aspects of thermometry in flow measurement can best be applied to practical situations by first understanding the relationship between temperature and the fundamental gas laws. Then, these basic concepts are applied to the calculation of flow as well as the design, installation, operation, and maintenance of measurement equipment.
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Document ID: 03A3695F

Wet Gas. Measurement
Author(s): Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
When material flowing in a pipe is. made up. of a mixture, of fluid phases, the term multiphase is. used. to classify this type of flow. Multiphase flow comprises, a broad, range of applications in. different industries.. Some examples include gas. bubbles in flowing liquid,, solid particles carried, by a gas,. and the flow of two. immiscible liquids.. Often. a flowing stream of natural gas contains some level, of hydrocarbon liquid and/or water.. This. is a form of multiphase flow often, called wet gas. This paper is intended to. introduce, the reader to wet gas multiphase flow measurement. First, some. basic terms and flow features are presented.. Second, a. simple, analysis, of wet gas flow through an orifice. meter is. discussed. Finally,. the difficulty in. predicting. phase, behavior of gas/condensate systems, is described .
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Document ID: AA3B8452

Applications Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Russell. Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate liquid density measurement is. an. important parameter in the hydrocarbon, chemical, and. food industries. The chemical and. food markets, use. density measurement for concentration and. better quality control.. Applications in the. hydrocarbon market are custody transfer of fluids with volume flow, mass flow and interface, detection measurements. For over 20. years, the. predominate technology in these markets, have. been. vibrating tube or fork-style densitometers. This. article, will. discuss the operating principle of vibrating technology,, density terminology and factors that effect accurate, density measurement.
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Document ID: 1E3B1E20

Application Of Turbine. Meters. In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Don Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters, are. found, around, the world. measuring, crude oil,. intermediate and. finished products, and light hydrocarbons such. as. ethane,. propane,, butanes, and. natural, gas. liquids. (NGL) mixtures.. Their performance and. durability have enabled turbine meters to. be. used for custody transfer, check and operational, measurement in. the petroleum industry.. In custody transfer applications,. there are. a. number of industry standards to. guide a user in. the. design,, construction,, operation and maintenance, of the turbine meter and its associated. equipment. This paper presents, the issues, associated with. applying turbine meters in. liquid hydrocarbon. measurement from. the perspective, of a. user who needs to select and. install, a meter for custody transfer purposes. In. a non-custody transfer application, a user may consider following the. standards, and practices, applied, to custody transfer meters to achieve, accurate and reliable, results.
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Document ID: C844ADB5

Automatic. Tank Gauging Of Liquid Hydrocarbon. Measurement
Author(s): Srini Sivaraman
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper deals, with. automatic tank gauging. technologies (ATGs)from. the old float gauges, to. the most modern, systems. The. modern systems have achieved, such a level of maturity, system. reliability,, and capability that they not only meet but exceed custody application, criteria for liquid. hydrocarbon measurements.. All. that is needed is a shift in mind set, a fundamental, change, in operative. philosophy and courage to. apply ATGs for custody and. inventory applications.. It is time. for the industry. as. a whole, to replace, manual gauging, to. ATGs.
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Document ID: DB2850CC

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities By Dynamic Measurement
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
In. the. Petroleum. industry as. hydrocarbons, are. purchased,, sold. or transferred, there are two key elements that must be determined. These. elements are the quantity and quality of the. hydrocarbon in question.. This. paper will. address one of those elements, the. determination of the quantity of the hydrocarbon in the transaction..
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Document ID: FE1BB180

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): Srini Sivaraman
Abstract/Introduction:
The. paper deals with. an overview of various, tank calibration technologies, from the. old and conventional manual method to the most advanced electro optical methods.. All the. technologies presented herein have achieved standardization status under API (American Petroleum. Institute)and. ISO (International Standards. Organization).. The technologies presented, are. applicable, for vertical cylindrical storage, tanks.
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Document ID: 848ACF49

Economics. Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Shawn Kriger
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow computers (EFM) or chart recorders? Old technology or new? These are two basic questions energy companies must answer when planning the short and long term goals for the measurement and control of their production, gathering or transmission systems. Many companies have already made the switch to electronics. They are using EFMs on every new field installation. They are also in the process of replacing existing charts that already exist in the field. Other companies have not made the switch. Chart recorders continue to be the main component of their gas measurement systems.
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Document ID: DE7001D5

Ethernet For Scada Systems
Author(s): m. Atwood, E. Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the utilization and installation of Ethernet based communications for the purpose of gathering and distilling plant measurement data. Also discussed are the various pros and cons along with the pitfalls one can expect when installing such a system.
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Document ID: A52574E8

Implemenatation Of A Scada System
Author(s): King Poon
Abstract/Introduction:
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is a system that controls and gathers data from remote devices. A SCADA system typically consists of a master station (or host system), a communication system and remote stations. A central computer system is used as the master station to monitor and control the remote stations in real time through the communication system.
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Document ID: 756F204D

Real Time Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Scott Jackson
Abstract/Introduction:
Methods of gas measurement have undergone tremendous change during the last couple of decades. Electronic measurement devices that are significantly more precise and contain manageable flow file databases are replacing mechanical dry-flow meters. This is commonly referred to as electronic flow measurement or EFM. In addition, these devices can communicate remotely utilizing radios, landline or cellular telephones, hard wire and/or satellite links.
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Document ID: 5AC15231

Spread Spectrum Radio Systems In Efm And Scada
Author(s): King Peon
Abstract/Introduction:
Communications is an important part of SCADA and EFM systems. Data generated by the RTUs (Remote Terminal Units) and flow computers must be transferred from the field back to the host computer so it can be distributed and used by different parties. Various types of communication equipment systems are used in SCADA and EFM systems. This equipment consists of modems that interface to dial up networks or leased lines, licensed radios, satellite and microwave. Licensed radios are data radios that use dedicated frequencies to transmit data back and forth. This type of radio requires an FCC license to operate. As these licenses for dedicated frequencies get more difficult to obtain in the United States, spread spectrum radios are becoming very popular in SCADA and EFM networks.
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Document ID: E7F58F98

Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): Kenneth E. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays rapidly changing business environment, fueled in part by an explosion of technological growth, the Electronic Flow Computer has become an integral part of a modern and comprehensive gas measurement solution. Indeed, the past twenty years have seen the EFM evolve from an expensive oddity to a mainstay in measurement applications. The popularity of these devices can be attributed to many factors, but reliability, ease of use, and economical feasibility could be considered the key features which have led to the deluge of EFMs that is seen today.
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Document ID: BAECC5EF

Theory Of Ultrasonic Flow Measurement Gases- & Liquids
Author(s): Don Augenstein
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic transit-time flow meter technology is now over 50 years old. Early versions of these meters were at times disappointing in accuracy and reliability. While the basic principle remains unchanged, the technology has evolved substantially. The major improvements have been in transducer design, signal processing and, even more importantly, in understanding the factors that influence the performance of these meters. Recent designs of multi-path transit time ultrasonic flow meters now routinely achieve an accuracy and reliability comparable to or better than older mechanical technologies (i.e., turbine, positive displacement meters and orifice plates).
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Document ID: 47BECE45

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Patrick S. Mccurdy
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology advances in the world of semiconductors and microprocessors are increasing at a breathtaking pace. The density of transistor population on integrated circuits has increased at a rate unimaginable just a few years ago. The advantages are many: faster data acquisition, real time control, and fully automated factories, to name a few.
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Document ID: 253D6A60

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): William R. Young Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is used to calibrate custody transfer meters to establish a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the prover volume during the time taken for a sphere or piston to pass between two detector switches. The prover volume must be accurately determined by calibration procedure known as the Water Draw method.
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Document ID: FCFA2FF3

Computers For Liquid Meter Proving
Author(s): Kenneth D. Elliott
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter proving systems used in the petroleum industry range from fixed to mobile systems of varying sizes from conventional pipe provers and compact ballistic provers, to master-meter proving. Mastermeter proving systems use a reference turbine meter in lieu of a calibrated prover pipe volume. These systems are described in detail in API MPMS Chapter 4. To understand the role of flow computers within metering and proving systems it helps to understand basic theory and practices.
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Document ID: 7E2CCC9D

Design, Calibration And Operation Of Field Standard Test Measures
Author(s): Michael J Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
Atmospheric metal volumetric measures with a top neck and graduated scale, traceable to a recognized national calibration agency such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), are known as test measures. They are used for the purpose of calibrating liquid meter provers. NIST generally refers to hand held measures ( 10 gallons) which are drained overhead as test measures, and to stationary measures ( 10 gallons and 1500 gallons) which are drained by a bottom drain valve as provers. Since both these types of measures are used in the waterdraw calibration of liquid meter provers (volumetric tank and displacement types), the American Petroleum Institute (API) has adopted the convention of referring to both types of standards as field standard test measures. For brevity, field standard test measures will be referred to as test measures in this paper. Normal sensitivity test measures are those typically used for provers larger than 50 gallons displaced volume. High sensitivity measures are preferred for the calibration of provers smaller than or equal to 50 gallons. All test measures must be handled, transported and stored with care to prevent jeopardizing the integrity of their calibrations.
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Document ID: 6362B108

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough
Abstract/Introduction:
The Deadweight Gauge is the most accurate instrument available for the measurement of pressures. Repeatable readings with accuracies of 0.1% to 0.02% of measured pressure are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the components have excessive wear or weights are replaced. It is easily transported and set up in the field, requires minimum maintenance, and is simple to operate. Tripod mounting is available for most instruments. With the addition of a pressure pump, valves, and pressure connections, the hydraulic Deadweight Gauge becomes a Deadweight Tester and be used to calibrate pressure transducers and other, less accurate dial faced type of pressure gauges. The pneumatic deadweight instruments are testers since they deliver air at an accurate pressure using an unregulated supply.
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Document ID: 36FF6E96

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems. With Liquid Meters And. Provers,
Author(s): George. L. Lewis.
Abstract/Introduction:
Buying or selling doesnt necessarily have. to involve meters, but realistically, its highly probable that every barrel of liquid our companies process, whether raw crude or refined, product, will pass. through a meter or a series of meters somewhere between the well and the marketplace. Metering continues to provide the most consistent and accurate method of measurement ..... With meters comes, the necessity of proving, and that by way of a certified meter prover.. With either of these measurement devices, problems arise that require, a sensible, systematic approach to a solution, driven by sound measurement principles.
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Document ID: 9ED5DC7E

On-Site Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Field provers have been developed for operation at high line pressures and flow rates. For purposes of this discussion, a high gas flow rate is any flow greater than 3,000 actual cubic feet per hour or (85 m3/h) at pressures to 1,440 psig (10 MPa).
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Document ID: FF01B4B3

Lact Unit Proving - The Role Of The Witness
Author(s): Art Casias, Terry Ridley
Abstract/Introduction:
Witness, as defined by the New Websters Dictionary, 1 .n, a person who has observed a certain event, the unwilling witness of a quarrel II a person who testifies to this observation, esp. in a court of law, and esp. under oath II a person who testifies to the genuineness of a signature on a document by signing his own name to the document II an authentication of a fact, testimony II public affirmation of the truths of a religious faith II something taken as evidence, to bear witness to declare, on the strength of personal observation, that something is true II to give as evidence, to bear witness, knowledge, testimony. The role of the witness, in the proving of a LACT unit, requires you to understand the operations of both the LACT and ACT units and the device used in proving their accuracy.
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Document ID: 5C5E5F95

Conventional Liquid Flow Provers
Author(s): Richard Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of a liquid flow prover is to provide a precise means for calibrating flow meters. Provers are most commonly used to calibrate turbine meters or positive displacement meters, although they may also be used with other types of meters. A prover provides a known standard for comparison to the meter output, and, in application, is used to establish factors for correction of the indicated volume of the meter being proved, thereby resulting in more precise measurement. The common types of provers include:
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Document ID: 324EBB2B

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
The first thing that we have to do is understand some terms. For instance, the term meter proving, what does it really mean? API defines it this way, The procedure required to determine the relationship between the true volume of liquid measured by a meter and the volume indicated by the meter. OK, thats good, but what does it mean? Well, it means that to prove a meter or to determine its accuracy, we must compare it to something that we know is accurate. The thing with that known accuracy is the meter prover. Its volume and accuracy is directly traceable to a National Metrology Institute (NMI). The NMI for the United States is the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
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Document ID: 5D11ACF6

Operation & Problems. Associated With Prover Detector Switches
Author(s): Warren A. Parr, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In many parts of the petroleum industry, sphere provers are used to dynamically calibrate volumetric meters. In order to accomplish this, sphere provers are required to be accurate and repeatable. This accuracy and repeatability is largely dependent on performance of the prover sphere detector. Any operational or design problems associated with the prover detector will affect the provers performance. This paper will review critical parts of a prover sphere detector that must be checked in order to obtain accuracy reliability and repeatability. The areas that will be covered are:
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Document ID: A565C86C

Operational Experience With. Small Volume. Provers
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
Small Volume Provers (SVPs) were introduced several decades ago. There are numerous publications providing empirical data and outlining the technical operation of this equipment. However, the following document will focus on the authors experience, addressing common concerns and questions regarding SVPs.
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Document ID: 77EA58F8

Proving Coriolis Flowmeters
Author(s): Roger Thornton
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters measure mass flow rate and density. The measurement of the Coriolis force exerted by the flowing fluid on a vibrating tube provides a measure of the mass flow rate. At the same time, the frequency of the tubes vibration is related to the density of the flowing fluid. The meter is capable of indicating volume rate by dividing the measured mass rate by the measured fluid density. Coriolis meters have no mechanical moving parts to wear. Therefore, theoretically the performance of a Coriolis meter should not change with time. If this is true, why should you prove a Coriolis meter? When or how often should you prove a Coriolis meter? And how do you prove a Coriolis meter?
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Document ID: 4175FD01

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Brad D. Lurie
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulse interpolation, by definition, is the ability to estimate values of (a function) between two known values. Therefore, pulse interpolation enables pulse counts to be made to a fraction of a pulse, thus greatly reducing the rounding - off errors that occur when pulse counts are made to the nearest whole number which always happens in the absence of Pulse Interpolation
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Document ID: 0E47F197

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the standards from the American Petroleum Institute and the American Society for Testing and Standards provided specifications for instruments and equipment. Simple compliance with these standards is not enough. Therefore, a system of verification and/or certification of equipment used in the measurement of liquids is being instituted. These requirements are being written into the standards as they come up for review. An excellent example of such a standard is the newly issued Chapter 3.1A Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (December 1994) of the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement. This standard calls for the field verification of working tapes against a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable master tape when it is new and every year thereafter. This is an example of new requirements to ensure the instruments and equipment meets the specifications of each standard. The most important things to understand before going into each item are the definitions of tractability, verification, and certification.
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Document ID: BB18D6B4

Witnessing. Orifice Meter Calibration. And Field. Testing
Author(s): Scott Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has seen many changes lately. Producers and pipeline companies have seen, downsizing and reorganization through mergers and acquisitions, and the influx of electronic gas measurement, and real time data acquisition. These changes would lead one to believe that the need for witnessing and field-testing of natural gas measurement equipment would become a thing of the past. This is quite the contrary. The advances in technology in the last decade have put a computer and cellular phone at everyones fingertips literally and increased the need for electricity, thus the need for natural gas to generate this electricity. With this increased demand for natural gas, the logistics involved in acquiring it, and the profit differential between these two, the need for witnessing orifice meter calibration and field-testing is more important than ever.
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Document ID: E6435E4E

Auditing Gas. Laboratories
Author(s): R. Mark Haefele
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of the effort expended by measurement personnel is directed toward assuring that volume gas measurement equipment is in tip-top condition. This discussion will focus on a process that will assure that the gas quality information used both to calculate those volumes and to make the conversion to dekatherms is performing at the same high level expected of all volumetric measurement systems. Many of the laboratory facilities that determine gas quality have as much or more impact on revenue than even the largest individual volume exchange stations. There are few services an employee can provide to an employer that will deliver more bang for the buck than improving the performance of a gas analysis facility.
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Document ID: AE28C9AA

Btu Analysis Using A Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Steven G. Lakey
Abstract/Introduction:
For custody transfer of natural gas, not only does one need to know the quantity of gas being sold, but also the quality. A small error in gas quality will translate into many dollars when multiplied over large volumes of natural gas. Currently, gas chromatography is the preferred method for determining the quality or heating value of natural gas. The analysis also provides critical data such as specific gravity and compressibility. This paper will cover the basic hardware in a gas chromatograph. The basic theory of chromatography will be discussed, as well as how the heating value is calculated from the analytical results.
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Document ID: 1FB9406F

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): David. Haydt
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur bearing. compounds, exist naturally in. many natural gas. fields. throughout the world.. It is. generally necessary to remove, these, sulfur bearing, compounds from. the. gas in order to. preserve, public safety,, reduce. corrosion, in pipelines, meet contractual agreements and to control, odor in the. gas. Thus. the determination, of hydrogen sulfide, and total sulfur in. natural gas. is critical to. the natural gas industry..
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Document ID: 88058362

Determination. Of Water Vapor & Hydrocarbon. Dew Point In Gas
Author(s): Myles J.. Mcdonough
Abstract/Introduction:
The. water vapor dew point temperature (moisture. content), and hydrocarbon, dew point temperature are. two. of many parameters, that must be. monitored, as. a part of controlling, the quality of the gas.. Other parameters, that are. monitored, include gas composition,, heating, value (BTU. content),, and. relative density (specific gravity).. The moisture content in. natural, gas. will vary for a variety of reasons... There. are. various methods, used to. control the moisture in the. gas and there are. also many different instrument types, available to. measure the. moisture, content.. In. this paper, we will discuss, the. measurement methods, and we. present general. guidelines, for the. use. of typical moisture measurement instruments..
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Document ID: C5B97B4A

Devices For Water Vapor And Hc Dew Point Measurement In. Gas. Standards
Author(s): Myles J.. Mcdonough
Abstract/Introduction:
The water vapor dew point temperature (moisture content) and. hydrocarbon, dew point temperature, are two. of many parameters, that must be monitored, as. a part of controlling, the quality of the. gas. Other parameters, that are. monitored include, gas composition,, heating value (BTU content), and relative density (specific gravity)... The. moisture content in natural, gas. will. vary for a variety of reasons.. There. are. various, methods used to control the moisture, in. the. gas. and. there are also many different instrument types, available, to measure the. moisture, content.. In. this. paper, we will. discuss, the measurement methods and we present general guidelines, for the. use of typical, moisture measurement instruments.
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Document ID: B8827827

Devices For Water Vapor And Hydrocarbon Dew Point Determination In. Natural Gas
Author(s): Borys Mychajliw
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural. gas. is. rapidly becoming, the. fuel of choice for everything, from home. heating, to power generation. The determination, of the water vapor content in. natural gas. is one. of several, key factors, in. determining, the ultimate, quality of the gas.. With economic conditions as they exist today, many companies have been. forced, to cut personnel in order to maintain, a. reasonable balance sheet. The loss. of experienced measurement technicians places a heavy burden on instrument manufacturers to. provide, an. accurate and. reliable means of determining, the. water vapor content of natural gas. This paper will review the. different sensor technologies in use. today and. also. address key issues, and proper procedures, in. assembling a sampling system, to. provide, a clean, representative. gas sample to the sensing, device..
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Document ID: BF8A36FD

Devices For Water Vapor And. Hydrocarbon Dew-Point Measurement In. Gas.
Author(s): Daniel R. Potter, Georges D&rsquo, Eon Randy Hauer
Abstract/Introduction:
The reasons for monitoring the dew-point of natural gas for custody transfer and transport are well understood.. High levels of water vapor in. a natural gas stream can lead to corrosion, hydrate formation,. and freezing (cryogenic processes). Elevated hydrocarbon (HC)dew-points in. a natural gas stream, can lead to. pooling of liquids at low points in the pipeline, variations in. the BTU. content of the gas, and hot spots on compressor-turbine blades. While. these effects are well known 1, there is confusion over many aspects of measuring dewpoints and relating these measurements to the component concentrations in a natural gas. sample. Specifically, the critical issues are the distinction between measuring water and HC dew-points, the relationship of the dew-point to concentration, the. validation of dew-point measuring instruments, and the pitfalls of sample systems. A fundamental understanding of the various detection principles, physical phenomena,, and influencing factors is essential to resolving the confusion over water and HC dew-point measurements..
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Document ID: 62744D2B

Energy Measurement Using. Flow Computers. And. Chromatography
Author(s): Gunter Maurer, Paul. E. Kizer, Dave L. Nichols
Abstract/Introduction:
The. means and methods, of transfer of quantities of natural, gas. between, buyers and. sellers, have. been changing for many years.. When coal gasification was used to fuel the. streetlights, in Atlanta, Ca. There. was no. reason, to. even measure, the commodity.. The municipality generated the gas,. transported it,. and burned, it. When Frank Phillips started purchasing gas. rights back in. the 1930s,. every, one. thought he. was more. than. odd. Natural. Gas. was. considered at that time. a messy by-product of oil. production that had to. be disposed of.. Even during the 1960s natural gas was. still. being, flared, at the. wellhead in Oklahoma. During the 1940s, it was said. that one. could. drive from. Kilgore, Texas. to Tyler, Texas at night without turning, on the. head light on your car due. to all. the gas flares.. In. this economic environment, measurement was not an issue, if you could sell. the gas. at all it was considered, a business coup. Even then,. a good. price was 2 cents an MCF...
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Document ID: B801EC47

Energy Measurement Using Ultrasonic Flow Measurement And Chromatography
Author(s): Charles W. Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic gas flow meters combined with gas. chromatography are becoming the mainstay of metering stations for energy billing and offer numerous, advantages over many conventional metering schemes. This issues some. new challenges to the field, professional and opportunities to. save companies money, while adding the dimension of learning new interesting techniques. Technicians will dictate the success of any changing field technology that would survive and thrive in. the real pipeline environment. The system, and requirements will be examined from the field operators perspective.
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Document ID: 41FCF365

Field And Laboratory Testing Of Sediment & Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Sediment and water (S&W) are components that occur naturally in crude oil. In. the AP! Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) vocabulary section, sediment and water is defined as A material coexisting with, yet foreign to, petroleum liquid, that requires a separate. measurement for reasons that include sales accounting. This. foreign, material includes free water and sediment and emulsified or suspended material and sediment. The. quantity of suspended material present is determined by analytically testing a sample of petroleum liquid (see free water).
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Document ID: E4C4064B

Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Sampling
Author(s): Garrett Lalli
Abstract/Introduction:
Identifying the individual hydrocarbons in a light liquid hydrocarbon stream is essential in the determination of the dollar value of the product being purchased or sold. It is also very crucial to the process of auditing plant performance and system balance. To satisfy these business needs, light liquid hydrocarbon sampling systems and proper sampling techniques are fundamentally required. A typical sampling system, application is one that is used on a mass measurement station. The primary instruments, of a station include a turbine meter, temperature probe, pressure transducer, and a densitometer to determine the volume and. density of the product. By measuring these variables, we. determine, mass (volume x density mass).. While the station is calculating mass per metered volume, a sampling system is taking small samples of the flowing stream, and storing them in an accumulator. The liquid phase composite sample retrieved is injected, into a chromatograph and each. component, along with its molecular weight fraction, is identified..
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Document ID: FF672AA5

Measurement Of Liquefied Petroleum Gases Lpgs()
Author(s): Henry A. James
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquidified Petroleum Gas (LPG)is defined, as Butane, Propane, and other light ends separated from natural gas. or crude oil by fractionation or other processes. At atmospheric pressure, LPGs revert to the gaseous state. This paper is intended to provide an overview of metering systems used for the volumetric measurement of LPGs. Operational experiences with measurement systems will be addressed that often, degrades the performance of these systems.. It includes information for turbine and positive displacement meter used in volumetric measurement systems. The basic calculations and industry standards covering volumetric measurement will also. be. covered.
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Document ID: ACF2413E

Natural Gas Sampling Uncertainties And Economics
Author(s): David. Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The. precise, measurement of natural, gas is a subject of continuing study and discussion.. The impact of the. precise measurement of gas. quality and. composition is. often considered to. only effect the thermal value of the measured quantity, of gas. This idea, however, is far from. accurate.. The. precise, measurement of natural gas flow rates (quantity) is dependent upon the precise measurement of the composition. of the natural gas product stream. (quality)... These. measurements, of quantities, and. thermal values are considered in terms, of acceptable levels, of measurement uncertainty. In other words, a level of variance exists around. the point of absolute, accuracy which is considered acceptable. to. those, who are. party to. the transfer of the. product from the custody. of one to another... Thus, the term custody transfer. quality measurement implies that the. determined, quantity and. total energy content of the. product exchanged between parties are within these, levels of acceptable, variance, or uncertainty, from the. absolute point of accuracy, or zero. uncertainty.
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Document ID: 99E6A66C

On-Line Water Measurement Of Liquid Petroleum
Author(s): Kim Mohajer
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally a sample, of liquid petroleum has. been taken either manually or automatically and analyzed. for water in accordance, to the industry standards. On-line water measurement of liquid, petroleum will provide, real time. knowledge of the. water content of the. liquid, petroleum, and. will afford, the. user the luxury of total, automated measurement.
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Document ID: BF3CB712

Product Quality Assurance For Pipeline Transportation
Author(s): Keith m. Penn
Abstract/Introduction:
The. movement of liquid, petroleum, products through. pipelines, has. occurred for over 100. years.. Todays liquid petroleum, pipeline, systems are. generally grouped, into. two. categories,, refined, products, and crude, oil. The following paper focuses on refined products, pipelines only.. An overview of product types,, special handling, issues for each type,, and general, pipeline operations, is discussed, to provide background information, needed to understand the. basics, of a pipeline quality oversight program.
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Document ID: 14706121

Proving Tests For Acceptance Of Automatic Liquid Sampling Systems
Author(s): James m. Strawn, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the testing and proving of automatic sampling systems in crude oil service in accordance with the American Petroleum. Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS), Chapter 8, Section 2, Appendix A and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-4177. An automatic sampling system can be tested to verify the equipment and installation produce a representative sample of shipments or batches. This test is called a sampling system proving test. The test(s)validate all of the components of the sampling system, as installed, including the analysis method(s). Once the sampling system, has been tested, and the test results meet the acceptance criteria in the API 8.2, the user of that system can have a certain level of confidence that the sampling system will produce representative samples.
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Document ID: 5BD924B8

Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The analysis of natural gas plays an important role in determining its monetary value. Natural gas is bought and sold based on its energy content and volume. The energy content or heating value is computed directly from the analysis. Physical constants of the gas, which are necessary to accurately determine its volume, are also computed from the analysis. Therefore the correct assessment of the monetary value of natural gas is dependant to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy.
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Document ID: 541B1EC7

Sample Conditioning. And Contaminant Removal For Water Vapor Content Determination In Natural. Gas
Author(s): Brad. Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry experiences numerous operational problems associated with high water vapor content in the natural gas stream. As a result several problems are experienced such as, equipment freezes, dilution of physical properties reducing heating value, volume measurement interference, and pipeline corrosion. Contracts and Tariffs usually limit the amount of water vapor content allowed at the custody transfer point. For these and other reasons, accurate Water Vapor Dewpoint measurements are critical measurements for all companies involved in natural gas production, gathering, transmission and delivery ....
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Document ID: 28246CC6

Shipboard. Sampling. For Accountability In. Custody Transfer
Author(s): Daniel. m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
New technology continually gives opportunities for achieving higher confidence in measurement of hydrocarbons. It is now possible to detect water concentrations on-line in real time.. This can. be especially beneficial if any intervention, is desired. whenever there, is a short term. limit of allowable water.. Short term limits can. sometimes be imposed by the receiving pipeline... To prevent damage to a refinery process unit, short term limits are. also sometimes required (e.g. during periods of low inventories causing the. need for tight-line receipts... However,. automatic in-line samplers are most often used for custody transfer purposes whenever metering systems are used. Large pipeline systems, except in the rare absence of flow meters, use automatic in-line samplers almost exclusively. The value of using automatic in-line samplers for custody transfer is widely accepted. However, manual sampling is also extensively used in certain instances. In marginal production leases where oil changes custody by tank measurement only is an example of this practice. A more dramatic example of this practice involves the movement of crude oil from producing load ports to discharge ports by marine tanker vessels. Although many load ports and disports (discharge ports) are now using in-line automatic samplers, there still remain many locations that do not. This paper will discuss the merits of using portable in-line automatic samplers on-board marine tanker vessels.
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Document ID: 1B46C1FC

Techniques. Of Gas. Composite Sampling
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
Since a gas sampling, system, can be referred, to. as a cash. register, it is very important that the. correct sampling method be. selected, and. the appropriate industry standard be followed.. Methods. reviewed, by this. paper will. include spot sampling,, composite sampling,, and. on-line chromatography.. In addition,. Gas Processors. Association. (GPA)2166-86 and American Petroleum Institute (API) 14.1 will be. described.
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Document ID: F8F81426

Causes. And Cures. Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): William. H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
This. paper will. address the gas pressure, reducing regulator installation and. the. issue, of erratic control of the. downstream, pressure.. A gas pressure reducing regulators, job is to. manipulate flow in order to control pressure.. When. the downstream, pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable, control is applied.. Figure 1. is a list of other terms, used for various forms of downstream pressure instability.. This. paper will. not address the mathematical methods, of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing, station, but will. deal with more of the components and their affect on the system stability..
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Document ID: EFC7D99B

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Ron Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
Numerous technical papers have been written on unsteady state surge flow or water hammer. This paper, unlike many of its predecessors, will present a view adapted to the engineer/technician who, for one reason or another, only needs a basic understanding of why surge occurs and how to control it.
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Document ID: 710329BA

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Steve. Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
A pressure-reducing regulator must supply a quantity of flow that matches a downstream, usage, demand. If the required flow rate is small, the regulator plug or disk should approach its seat and restrict the flow. If the demand increases, the plug or disk should move away to create a larger opening. Ideally, a regulator should provide a constant downstream pressure while delivering the required flow. Therefore, regulators automatically adjust the flow rate to meet the downstream demand.
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Document ID: 01DE295D

Fundamental Principles. Of Self-Operated Regulators.
Author(s): Steve Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators, have. become, very familiar items over the. years, and. nearly everyone, has. grown. accustomed, to. seeing, them in. factories, public buildings,, by the. roadside, and even. in their own homes.. As is frequently the. case. with. many such. familiar items,, we. all have. a tendency to. take them for granted. It is. only when. a problem, develops or when we. are. selecting a regulator for a new application, that we need. to look more deeply into the fundamental, of the regulators, operation..
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Document ID: 676D520C

Gas. Service Regulators. Installation,. Selection. And. Operation.
Author(s): William. L. Hobson
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure, regulators, have become very familiar items over the years, and. nearly everyone, has. grown. accustomed, to. seeing, them. on. homes,, factories,. commercial buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. A closer look at these regulators and their operation will. allow insight on how they work ..
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Document ID: 3BC97067

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): John. m. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure, regulator is. an automatic device which controls, the media flow and maintains, a desired media pressure while reducing the media supply pressure. The basic regulator could bean. operator at a control valve watching a pressure gauge. The valve is manually opened to allow the line pressure to achieve, the desired gauge setting.. The operator then visually monitors the gauge and either opens the valve, or closes it to maintain the. desired pressure. The problem with this system is it would. require full time operators for daily operation and continuous monitoring of the. gauge.. The. regulator products on the market do. not monitor the gauge. However,. via monitoring the outlet pressure, they do automatically open and/or close, the. valve to control the outlet pressure at an established value.
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Document ID: DCEF511D

Operation & Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Allen N. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators. mechanically introduce a restriction into a gas piping system.. By matching the flow of gas into. the. downstream system with the load demand of the system, regulators minimize fluctuations in downstream, pressure. This results in protecting the pipeline and influencing quality gas measurement.
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Document ID: 7F1A0A3A

Over Pressure Protection Methods
Author(s): William L. Hobson
Abstract/Introduction:
Over-pressure protective devices are of vital concern to the gas industry. Safety codes and current laws require their installation each time a pressure reducing station is installed that supplies gas from any system to another system with a lower maximum allowable operating pressure. The purpose of this article is to provide a systematic review of the various methods of providing the overpressure protection. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are evaluated and engineering guidelines are provided.
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Document ID: 99C1182C

Prevention Of Freezing In Measurement And Regulating Stations
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
Consistent and continuous pipeline operations are. key and critical factors in. todays, natural gas pipeline industry... The competitive, nature of the business, together with the strict rules and regulations of natural gas supply, mandate that companies stay on top of all operational parameters, that could cause. interruption or complete shut-down of the. natural gas supply to. customers. Identifying what may ultimately cause problems, is a first step to controlling and eliminating those problems for the supplier.
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Document ID: BAB8A231

Selection,. Sizing, And. Operation. Of Control Valves. For Gases. And Liquids.
Author(s): Greg Hoffpauir
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper control valve, sizing, and. selection in. todays industrial, world is. essential, to operating at a costeffective, and highly efficient level. A properly selected and. utilized control valve will not only last longer than a control, valve that is improperly sized,. but will also. provide quantifiable, savings in the form of reduced maintenance costs, reduced process variability, and increased process, availability. An undersized valve will not pass. the required, flow, while a valve, that is. oversized, will. be more. costly and can. cause, instability throughout the. entire control. loop.
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Document ID: A208DD29

Turbulence And. Its Effect In. Measurement And. Regulator Stations
Author(s): Tracy D. Peebles
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of turbulence on measurement and. regulator stations can cause, erroneous. measurement as well. as pipe fatigue, noise levels that are not healthy for the human ear,. and a host of other undesirable elements.
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Document ID: 95D21491

Liquid Allocation Measurement
Author(s): Raymond Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
An allocation meter is one whose purpose is to determine which portion of the royalty meters volume is attributable to a particular lease, well, or measurement point. Some allocation points fall under federal guidelines, while others fall under other regulatory bodies. Individual contractual agreements must meet and will often exceed regulatory guidelines. Therefore, certain accuracy and procedural standards are set. These standards are intended to treat all producers uniformly, to be fair to the small producer as well as the larger ones. In September 1993, the American Petroleum Institute published MPMS Chapter 20, Section 1, entitled Allocation Measurement. Chapter 20 is a document outlining a set of recommended standards, to be used as a general guideline in all allocation applications.
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Document ID: A49D747A

ANSI/API 2530 On Orifice Meter Primary Element
Author(s): Ray Kendrick
Abstract/Introduction:
The April 2000 revision to the API 14.3 part 2 Standard includes the results of considerable test work over the past few years. Numerous changes are noted, some of which will have major effects on users of orifice measurement. The most significant impact will be in the upstream length and flow conditioner areas. This paper will discuss most of the changes and go into some detail on the more important ones. Items not mentioned essentially remain as stated in the previous issue of the Standard.
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Document ID: AE99254F

API Coriolis Standard For Mass Measurement Of Crude Oil
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
More than a decade ago, meter manufacturers introduced technology utilizing the Coriolis force: an apparent force that results from earths rotation, deflecting moving objects or flowing streams to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. The Coriolis force allows a meter to directly measure mass, dynamically.
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Document ID: 1873116E

Audit Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Johnnie Jarred
Abstract/Introduction:
You, as well as many others, are probably wondering, WVhat the heck happened to the audit trail on these blasted electronic meters? As time has passed and the migration to Electronic Gas Measurement Devices has begun to occur, the transition has been anything but smooth. The migration began arguably in the 1970s and, up until 1993, there was not even a Standard published that pulled together the information required for the audit trail. In the industry, all companies that wanted to be on the leading edge of technology were doing their own thing. This performance gave mixed results that make for interesting contractual language. In 1993, American Petroleum Institute (API) published Chapter 21 - Flow Measurement Using Electronic Metering Systems, Section 1 - Electronic Gas Measurement. This triggered the beginning of the discussions associated with the utilization and the development of the electronic devices of today.
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Document ID: D1F02DFB

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Beginning sometime in the early 1980s, gas measurement and accounting system auditing became somewhat more complex as electronic gas measurement (EGM) and other computer-based technology arrived on the scene. Before that time, measurement auditing was often little more than verifying chart integration and wading through piles of field test slips looking for missed orifice plate changes, incorrect gas quality information, and unnoticed calibration adjustments. Today, gas measurement auditing is more complicated than ever before as gas companies rely on high-speed communication and computer networks to gather massive amounts of information required in todays fast-paced energy industry. Flow rates, total energy, pressures, temperatures, gas quality, flow factors, meter performance data, and a lot more is Included in this enormous information mix.
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Document ID: 34F3C20F

Auditing Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Linda A. Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
An effective audit of liquid hydrocarbon measurement is dependent upon a solid understanding of the measurement process combined with the application of sound internal auditing principles. The quality of liquid measurement activities is contingent upon (1) the reliability of the measurement equipment and instrumentation used (2) the specific procedures and practices followed in performing the measurement activities (3) the adequacy of training and proper performance of the measurement technician and (4) the proper documentation of transactions based on a measured value. All four components must be taken into consideration when auditing liquid measurement. In addition, to ensure the efficiency of the audit process, auditors must identify those areas which present the greatest risk to the organization to achieving its goals, and concentrate audit effort on those areas.
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Document ID: 03201B29

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Raddy S. Thakral
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport,, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume, measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the. evolution of natural gas industry from a system of volume, measurement to the present system, of energy measurement.
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Document ID: 328D489A

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and positive metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: E4BE989F

Overview Of API Copm()- Measurement Activities
Author(s): Jon Noxon
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute was founded in 1919 as an outgrowth of the National Petroleum War Committee. That committee was comprised of U.S. oil industry leaders who worked together with the federal government to meet the tremendous demand for petroleum fuel during the First World War. The experience demonstrated that oil industry representatives could work together on common problems affecting the industry and still compete with one another in the marketplace. This in an important concept because industry competitors could now work together toward mutual objectives, using API as the forum, without violating U.S. antitrust laws.
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Document ID: 6F06B100

Review Of Apiiansl 2530 (AGA #3)
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Periodically, natural gas measurement standards are created or revised. In the period 1993 through 1999 Part 2 of ANSI 2530/API MPMS 14.3/AGA Report No 3 underwent revision. It is the intent of this paper to discuss the highlights of this revision.
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Document ID: CB700992

Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicators
Author(s): Roger Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is done and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically. In the past it was a standard practice to use a primary standard for pressure calibration. That standard was normally a dead weight tester or a manometer. Today with more accurate secondary standards available there is a larger choice in what can be used for pressure calibration. What is used normally will depend on the requirements that have to be met and the equipment that is available. This paper discusses issues that should be taken into consideration when choosing a pressure calibrator from the many that are available today.
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Document ID: 56CD1532

Development Of Orifice Meter Standard Past(, Present, And Future)
Author(s): Zaki Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
A standard is something that is established by an authority, social practice, custom, or by general consent of a group of people to set an example or develop an acceptable model. Flow measurement standards are often established by regulatory agencies, users, manufacturers, and/or a group of knowledgeable people. Measurement Standards are established to provide a uniformity of installation, operation, and secondary instrumentation that will improve metering efficiency, measurement repeatability and accuracy, and ensure equity between all parties concerned, especially for custody transfer application. A flow measurement standard is developed to provide guidance to the users to achieve the best possible utilization of the metering device. It should also be the Best Practice for the users to obtain precise measurement with optimum long-term costof- ownership of the meter.
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Document ID: 72789EBB

Dot Qualification- Measurement & Control Technicians
Author(s): Jay Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
As a result of Congressional legislation, the Department of Transportation (DOT) Office of Pipeline Safety proposed the Pipeline Safety: Qualification of Pipeline Personnel - 49 CFR Parts 192 and 195 rule. The intent of this qualification rule (also referred to as the OQ rule or OpQual rule) is to ensure a qualified workforce and to reduce the probability and consequence of incidents caused by human error. The rule created new subparts in the gas and hazardous liquid pipeline safety regulations. These subparts established qualification requirements for individuals performing Covered Tasks, and amended certain training requirements in the hazardous liquid regulations.
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Document ID: E3FEA82C

Effects Of Flow Conditioning On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Darin L. George, Edgar B. Bowles
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many causes for natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations. Many of the sources for meter error are identified in the proceedings of this conference. For instance, errors can result from an improper installation configuration, calibration of a meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or degradation of meter performance over time. Industry standards have been developed to help meter station designers and operators avoid situations that would produce gas metering errors. Typically, gas meter standards address meter design, construction, installation, operation, and maintenance. Most of the standards focus only on the flow meter and the piping immediately upstream and downstream of the meter.
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Document ID: 5D3BAA95

Instrument Calibration Using Pneumatic Dead Weight Tester
Author(s): Roger Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. This paper describes methods to select deadweight testers and gauges. Also included are procedures for using pneumatic and hydraulic deadweight testers.
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Document ID: 6B4D8F48

Interface Detection In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Richard L. Barrett
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil and product pipelines are often used to transport petroleum liquids with different physical properties. Each unique petroleum liquid in the pipeline is referred to as a batch and the process of transporting the liquids in series through a pipeline is referred to as batching.One way to protect the integrity of an individual liquid batch is to insert batching pigs between the batches. Although this reduces the liquid mixing of interface or transmix between the batches, it can be expensive and labor intensive.
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Document ID: BC97155F

Lpg Odorization With An Audit Trail
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
The Compressed Gas Industry has a responsibility to provide an LPG-Propane product intended for domestic use that has been odorized to detectable levels. In addition to this responsibility, the industry is also responsible for insuring that the documentation proving correct odorization is accurate. More and more litigation is associated to the perceived lack of odorant in LPG-Propane. Operators are becoming more concerned not only with Odorization but also with providing an Audit Trail to prove that their odorization system is functional.
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Document ID: C81F3577

Two Phase Flow Meter Utilizing A Slotted Plate
Author(s): Gerald L. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of a two phase flow meter is to provide the user values of the gas and liquid flow rates passing through a pipe. The classical technique to determine these flow rates is separation of the two phases and the individual measurement of the gas and liquid flow rates. This is accomplished using settling tanks, centrifugal separators, and other such devices. Three major problems associated with these devices are size, cost, and incomplete separation. Given enough space, time, and money, one can achieve complete separation. However, the resulting systems are frequently large, making their use a problem on off shore facilities and remote locations. A current development are the two phase flow meters which do not separate the gas and liquid but measure the flow rate of both as they flow together through the flow meter. Some use radiation devices to measure the density of the mixture while others have large positive displacement meters.
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Document ID: 61D06237

Crude Oil Blending
Author(s): Kevin B. Macdougall
Abstract/Introduction:
There. are a number of applications, that require. blending of crude, oil. or other hydrocarbons and. they include transportation needs, pipeline capacity,. product value and. refining efficiency.. Crude oil blending is. accomplished by two methods: on-line blending, and. tank blending.
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Document ID: 61A0325F

Crude Oil Gathering Metering- Versus Manual Gauging
Author(s): Charles R.. Myers
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements made for the custody transfer of crude oil at lease stock tanks are at present performed by manual gauging. API Chapter 18 describes the methods of obtaining quantitative and qualitative values for volumetric measurement of tank contents. The second edition, published in April 1997, specifically describes the process for taking measurement readings to determine the amount of merchantable oil transferred from the tank to the transporting truck. Delivery of the same transfer of product is more accurately measured by a metering system than by tank gauging. The factors affecting the volumetric measurements ob
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Document ID: A0853358

Design, Operation And Maintenance Of Lact Units
Author(s): Craig A. Francisco
Abstract/Introduction:
The. Lease. Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) unit is designed, for the automatic transfer of ownership, of crude or condensate between the buyer and seller. This can be on land or offshore, into pipelines, barges, and tanker loading and offloading operations. LACT units can range from small single run low pressure systems with portable proving connections designed for loading into trucks, to multiple run high pressure units with 100% backup and. mechanical displacement meter prover.
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Document ID: 5841A850

Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): James Henderson.
Abstract/Introduction:
The petroleum measurement industry continues to demand a liquid flow meter that is accurate. That is, the meter must have a high degree of repeatability, linearity and stability. Meter repeatability is the ability of the meter to reproduce the same meter factor given the same conditions. Linearity is the ability of the meter to have a meter factor within a percentage deviation from maximum flow in comparison to minimum flow. Stability is the meters ability to reproduce the same meter factor time after time for some given length of time, given operating conditions are the same. The purpose of this paper is to examine the design, construction and accuracy theory of positive displacement (PD)meters for liquid measurement.
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Document ID: FB5150A0

Evaporation Loss Measurement From Storage Tanks
Author(s): Warren A. Parr
Abstract/Introduction:
In the. 1950s hydrocarbon evaporation loss from storage tanks was. studied to. develop emission estimating equations. At that time, the primary driver for knowing the evaporation rate was. system, loss. control. During the early 1990s, the. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)began programs, for stricter record keeping and reduction of storage tank emission.
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Document ID: E171352B

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement- Part 1
Author(s): Ralph S. Papesh
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate liquid measurement is an important aspect of the petroleum industry.. With regard to commerce, it is. the basis of custody transfer between producers,. pipelines, refineries, petrochemical plants, utility plants, products marketing and the transportation industry. As it pertains to process, control, it is needed to maintain specific flow rates, pressures. and levels to ensure, precise quality and environmental control.
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Document ID: 39385927

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement II
Author(s): Doug Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements of liquid petroleum can be performed with the liquid in a static or dynamic state. Custody measurements are made in both states. Static measurements of petroleum liquids are made with the liquid in a tank. This paper will discuss the steps required to calibrate, gauge and sample tanks. These are the steps necessary to measure liquid petroleum in a static state.
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Document ID: F545D63D

Determination Of Proper Odorization Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Paul D. Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper odorant monitoring is. required to keep natural gas utilities, under compliance, with federal and. state regulations. These monitoring requirements are generally handled through, a. combination, of events including injection rate calculations, customer complaint calls, routine service personnel, tests,, odor concentration, tests and chromatographic analysis... In the world today it is critical, to have. appropriate documentation, to. support proof that proper odorization of natural gas. is. occurring. This. process, will ultimately protect the. public and. hopefully keep. us all. from litigation..
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Document ID: CEDC47AA

Orifice Meter Tube Dimensional Tolerances
Author(s): Rod Dent
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter tube is the most widely used method of fluid measurement currently in use in the petroleum industry. Orifice fittings and orifice flanges developed to insert, retract, and hold the orifice plate in the meter tube in a dimensionally defined manner, are commonly used in meter tube assemblies. Each component of this meter tube assembly (normally welded and/or flanged together) must meet dimensional specifications of industry recommendations and standards (latest revisions) such as American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 3-Part 2, the American Petroleum Institute (API) Chapter 14 section 3, ANSI, and ASME to name a few. This paper will discuss the manufacturing and fabrication dimensional tolerances involved in the design and construction of meter tubes.
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Document ID: 3169AB69

Other Differential Pressure Meters
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the oil and gas industry, orifice meters are arguably the best known and most widely used type of differential pressure meter. Orifice meters measure natural gas, hydrocarbon liquids, and many non-hydrocarbons including water, steam, air, hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and many other fluids. Other types of differential pressure meters also exist, some having performance characteristics suitable in special measurement applications. New types of differential pressure meter arrive on the scene from time to time, but virtually all of them function fundamentally the same way. The purpose of this article is to examine differential pressure meters in general, and discuss many of their common attributes and limitations.
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Document ID: C30FA4C6

Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Ongoing changes in the natural gas industry make the training of measurement technicians as important today as any time in our past. Employees are called on to do more than ever before as advances in measurement technology continue. The once common title of Measurement Technician seems to be rapidly disappearing from the gas industry. Todays Super Techs are responsible for not only measurement equipment but also communications, gas control, and a broad range of instrumentation and other equipment in this fastpaced environment. With the advent of new measurement technology, training is not quite as simple as it once was. For instance, no longer can a new employee be shown the basics of how to calibrate a chart recorder, change an orifice plate, and then turned loose to learn the ropes-with occasional help from the seasoned veterans.
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Document ID: E47D952D

The Effects Of Additives On Metering In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays refined fuels are formulated using a recipe of chemical blending and complex processing. Current blends that make-up fuel & chemicals introduce new problems that challenge product quality and performance. Refined products can be altered or degrade prior use by secondary forces such as environment and handling. A wide range of performance and handling problems are minimized or resolved by use of chemical additives. Additives to fuel products are often included in the refining processes that address these problems. Fuels may require additional blending of additives separate from the refining process. The effect these additives have on liquid metering is variable based on their composition and concentration. Pipeline and terminal metering systems must adjust to the varying properties the additives introduce to the liquid. This paper highlights the effects some common & not-so-common fuel additives have on liquid metering systems.
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Document ID: 4A3674CE

The. Process Of Blending. Calibration Gas. Standards
Author(s): Randy Rhodes
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatographs are the industry standard for accurately measuring the components in a gas stream and therefore the energy content of a gas. Many variables are involved in the process of correctly using a GC. This paper addresses the Calibration Gas Standard and specifically the preparation of the Gas Standard. By understanding the variables involved in preparation of a Gas Standard, GC users may be able to specify a blend that will be optimally suited to their application.
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Document ID: 57DCB674

Fundamentals Of. Liquid Measurement III
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Weve learned when measuring crude oil that liquids expand and contract with increases and decreases in temperature. The liquid volume also decreases when pressure is applied. All these effects are part of the physical properties of liquid petroleum fluids. We learned in Fundamentals of Liquid Measurement I how these physical properties effect the measurement of liquid hydrocarbons. The objective of either static measurement or dynamic measurements is to determine the quantity and quality of hydrocarbons transferred. However these measurements are rarely performed at the standard conditions discussed in Fundamentals I, therefore not only must temperature be measured, but also density, sediment and water, vapor pressure, pressure and viscosity must be measured. With these measurements correction factors such as Volume Correction Factors (VCF) can be determined to allow volumes determined at operating conditions to be expressed at standard reference conditions.
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Document ID: AFCC8159

Fundamentals Of. Liquid. Turbine Meters
Author(s): Brad D.Lurie
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid turbine meter design has changed little from the original Potter design developed in the 1960s. Although originally designed for low - accuracy water flow measurement, its application into the aerospace industry called for higher accuracy and reliability as well as simplicity in design. At the same time petroleum and petrochemical industries adopted the meter. With the publication of API 2534 in March 1970, the liquid turbine meter became a recognized meter for use in custody transfer of refined products and pipeline systems as well as tanker and barge loading or unloading of crude oil.
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Document ID: 5EEA75A4

Gauging, Testing And Running. Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): George. L. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
Gauging is a measurement procedure, whereby the QUANTITY and. QUALITY of the. crude, oil are determined, at the point of sale by a company gauger or other designated representative, such. as. a Crude. Oil Truck Driver (COTD). Typically, we. think of lease, tanks as having volumes, of less than 1,000. barrels. The. gauger is. primarily responsible for rejecting nonmerchantable crude, oil and. buying accurate. volumes of merchantable, crude oil. that can. be. refined,, traded, or sold.. His company is. fully dependent upon his. competence and. sound judgment,, while his high public visibility requires, him to. be. conscientious, accurate, professional,, and courteous..
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Document ID: 8FBFBA0B

Helical Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Michael Snowden
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody Transfer Measurement (CTM) of crude oil and refined products for more than 30 years has used positive displacement meters and conventional turbine meters. The development of new technologies such as dual bladed helical turbine, mass flow meters and ultra sonic meters are now also an option. The choice of meter to use depends on the product being measured, technical performance, total cost of ownership, accuracy and repeatability required. Conventional turbine meters have typically been used in low viscosity refined products, with limited use in moderate to high viscosity crude oil due to performance limitations. The capillary seal positive displacement meter has been the choice for custody transfer measurement of moderate to high viscosity crude oil, providing good measurement but at a high total cost of ownership.
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Document ID: 819CD3FE

Installation And. Operation Of Liquid Densitometers
Author(s): Stan P. Canfield
Abstract/Introduction:
Density is defined as mass per unit volume. Typical units used in the United States are grams per cubic centimeter or pounds per gallon. Densitometers determine the density of a fluid at operating conditions. This density is used in determining the total mass, usually in pounds, for a particular period in time such as the ticket period.
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Document ID: 7AD035B8

Liquid Measurement Field. Surveys
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
A review of measurement facilities and procedures is often called an audit. This can be confusing, though. The dictionary defines Audit as An official examination and verification of accounts and records, especially of financial accounts. In the oil patch, Audit if often used loosely to describe either or both aspects of a measurement review which includes:
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Document ID: 1EB1BB08

Liquid. Measurement Station. Design
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid Measurement Stations are necessitated by agreements between petroleum buyers, sellers and transporters along with appropriate customs and or governmental authorities. These agreements outline how the fluid is to be measured and how the results will be traceable to recognized standards. In the case of common carrier pipelines, the pipeline is entrusted with the transport of their customers fluid, thus loss control by use of accurate liquid measurement stations is essential. In addition to meeting the requirements for measurement, stations must meet numerous safety and construction codes and standards, as the fluids are normally hazardous. Operation of the measurement station must be relatively simple, and a user friendly operator interface is highly desirable. The task of the station or system designer is to transform these requirements into engineering specifications, drawings, and bills of materials for procurement, manufacture, test certification and delivery to the end user of a cadre of components specifically selected and assembled to work together to meet the requirements of the measurement agreement and applicable codes. This paper will discuss the various topics the designer must address and the methodology he must use to produce a satisfactory system.
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Document ID: CC509629

Marine, Crude Oil. Terminal. Measurement Systems
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper we will discuss the different types of measurement systems used at crude oil terminals, the requirements of these systems and why they are important.
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Document ID: FFCA9212

Mass Measurement. Of Natural Gas Liquid. Mixtures
Author(s): Fred Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide an overview of metering systems used for the mass measurement of natural gas liquid mixtures. It includes information for turbine, P.D. and orifice metering systems as well as brief segments on Coriolis mass meters and scales. The basic equation and industry standards covering mass measurement will be addressed, as will some of the common operating, mechanical and procedural problems that often degrade the performance of these systems.
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Document ID: 3AC3972C

Coriolis Meters. For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter utilizing the Coriolis force to measure mass flow was first patented in 1978. Today, hundreds of thousands of Coriolis meters are in service in the hydrocarbon industry to measure both mass and volume of a wide variety of fluids. The American Petroleum Institute published Chapter 5.6 entitled Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Coriolis Meters in October 2002. This standard describes methods to achieve custody transfer levels of accuracy when a Coriolis meter is used to measure liquid hydrocarbons. This paper will review the technology and convey differences in Coriolis meters and mechanical meters in an attempt to clarify some of the issues surrounding the use of Coriolis meters especially for custody transfer in the petroleum industry.
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Document ID: D704CEE4

Measurement Accuracy And. Sources Of Error In. Tank Gauging
Author(s): C. Stewart Ash
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank gauging is the means used to determine the quantity of oil contained in a storage tank. How the volume is to be used often determines the degree of desired accuracy. If the volume is to be used to quantify a custody transfer movement and money will change hands based on the result, a high degree of accuracy is required but if the volume is to be used only as an operational tool (i.e., is the tank nearly full or nearly empty), a high degree of accuracy is usually not required. If the volume is to be used for inventory control and/or stock accounting, the desired accuracy would be less than for custody transfer but greater than for normal operations.
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Document ID: 419F73A8

Measurement Losses By Shrinkage
Author(s): J. H. Harry James
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline integrity balance and custody transfer accuracy have been the focus of measurement specialists since the industry began trading and transporting liquid hydrocarbons. Even with the best volumetric measurement equipment, unaccounted for discrepancies still were occurring. Temperature, pressure and meter factor corrections were not enough to explain these discrepancies. Mathematicians have been telling us for centuries that one plus one equals two. In an ideal world of Newtonian physics this is the case but in the world of volumetric hydrocarbon measurement one plus one is usually less than two. However it can, in rare circumstances be greater than two. As stated in the Dec. 1967 edition of API Publication 2509C regarding the result of blending two different hydrocarbons, If the nature of the molecules of the components differ appreciably, then deviation from ideal behavior may be expected. This deviation may either be positive or negative that is, the total volume may increase or decrease when components are blended. ..... Inasmuch as petroleum components contain molecules of various sizes and weights, solutions of two separate components are seldom ideal Consequently it is to be expected there may be a change in volume associated with the mixing or blending of petroleum components of varying gravities and molecular structure.
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Document ID: 9E32568C

Measurement Methods. For Liquid Storage. Tanks
Author(s): Harold L. Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
A brief discussion on Methods for Determining Volumes in Liquid Storage Tanks. This will include tank gauging methods and errors that can occurr. Tanks strapping methods and pitfalls associated. Methods for determining temperature of the liquid and tank shell temperature. Gravity determination. And fmally smapling methods for S&W content and quality of the liquid, for ticeting purposes.
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Document ID: B61C1A2D

Measurement Of Petroleum On Board Marine Vessels
Author(s): John A. Jack Szallai
Abstract/Introduction:
Marine measurements are, generally, used to confirm the validity of shore side custody transfer measurement from meters or gauging of shore tanks. Marine measurements can also be used for custody transfer if no other valid means are available or the shore side custody transfer system is not available. Measurement of petroleum on board marine vessels, ocean or inland, are generally based on the American Petroleum Institutes Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 17.
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Document ID: 2DFFFEBC

New Ideas In Fluid Measurement
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
Each year as. we. attend. ISHM,. we look forward, to. hearing, about advances in methodology and the experiences of other in the. industry portrayed in technical presentations.. This effort, by so many people, helps each. of us. to. expand our understanding of the. methodologies being employed. Perhaps, through them we gain some. insight into the. success, or failures, of those using them .... To some of us the course curriculum, sometimes seems to be as. constant as. the tides. In. fairness,, the. school, is. hardly to blame, for this circumstance... New subjects, are derived, from. industry practice, and industry usage is dependent on. the instrument manufacturers to a large degree..
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Document ID: CE20279F

Operational. Experience. With Custody Transfer Liquid. Ultrasonic. Meters
Author(s): Warren A. Parr, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
For years the petroleum industry has search for the perfect volumetric measurement instrument. The industry has progressed from using barrels to high speed mechanical devices for measuring petroleum. In the 1990s, several new technologies made their way in to the measurement arena. One of these technologies was the Ultrasonic Flow Meter (UFM). In order to determine the UFMs capabilities, durability, and performance, several companies were asked to perform tests in conjunction with a national standards writing organization. The goals were to collect data to determine if the UFMs could be used for custody transfer applications and to draft a standard for the petroleum industry. In this paper we will review,
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Document ID: 5A92E70D

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Zaki D. Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
According to Webster dictionary, orifice is a mouth like aperture and meter is an instrument that measures. Therefore, orifice meter is a circular opening that measures. In early 1600s, Castelli and Tonicelli were first to state that the velocity through a hole in a tank varies as square root of water level above the hole. They also stated that the volume flow rate through the hole is proportional to the area of the opening. Almost another century later, in 1738, a Swiss physicist Daniel Bernoulli developed an equation defining relationship between the forces due to the line pressure, energy of the moving fluid, and the earths gravitational forces on the fluid. Bernoullis theorem has since been the basis for the flow equation of all head-type flow meters. In 1797, an Italian scientist, Giovanni Venturi, demonstrated that the differential pressure generated across an orifice plate due to flow, is a square root function of the flow rate through the pipe. This is the first known use of an orifice in measuring flow rate through a pipe. Prior accepted flow measurement method was by filling buckets of known volume. So, use of orifice plate as a continuous flow-measuring device has a history of over two hundred years.
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Document ID: B5CF432B

Pvcnometer Installation, Operation And Calibration
Author(s): Harold L. Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
The process of installing Pycnometers for the purpose of calibrating a density meter. The process of field verifying pycnometer calibrations. Experiences in verifying flow through the pycnometer and ways of achieving temperature equalization in both the density meter and the pycnometers.
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Document ID: C6C85C2A

Resolving Liquid Measurement Differences
Author(s): Herbert H. Garland
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a custody transfer? It is the volume of liquid moved multiplied by the tariff, which equates to ! It is the bottom line, which is the cash register. Is your companys cash register running over or short? What is the percentage it is off?.. To minimize liquid measurement problems clear lines of AUTHORITY and RESPONSIBILITY must be established and accepted. Established by management and accepted by the employee(s) assigned this role. To adequately perform loss/gain tracking and analysis you must be able to RECOGNIZE that a problem exists. More often than not we tend to think it is the other person or company that has the problem. It is a matter of admiring you may have the problem instead of the others. Check you equipment and procedures first. DETERMINE what is causing the problem. Is it an error in procedure, equipment failure, malfunction or a calibration problem? Or is it human error? When this has been determined, you can then CORRECT the problem.
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Document ID: 81C536BA

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gains
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays pipelines are multi-dimensional systems providing multiple services for many shippers and customers. Pipeline systems may connect multiple origins and destinations, and carry various products across long distances with changing profiles, pipe dimensions and directions. Monitoring pipeline gains and losses employs tools and analysis methods developed specifically to troubleshoot pipeline variances. Examination of pipeline gains and losses uses some basic statistical tools as well as intuitive and creative insight into what controls gains and losses.
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Document ID: D88ACE0F

Ultrasonic Liquid Flow Measurement
Author(s): Jean-Luc Guizot
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine and Positive Displacement meters have been successfully used in the oil industry for many years. Both technologies provide accurate flow measurement for custody transfer applications in compliance with international recommendations such as API standards. Over the last ten years, significant improvements in electronics and acoustics gave access to high accuracy liquid flow measurements based on ultrasonic technology.
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Document ID: 31722EE0

Viscosity And Its Application In Liquid Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): Gary Rothrock
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will explore the role of viscosity in the hydrocarbon industry, its effects, why and where it is measured, and the methods of achieving those measurements online. The fact that laboratory measurement of viscosity is so prevalent in process control tells us two things: 1. Viscosity is a vital measurement. 2. There are no other parameters that can be used as indicators for viscosity.
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Document ID: 17438B10

Advanced Application Of Flow Computers And Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Ross Linnemann
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years, now, flow computers have. been implemented, in. gas. measurement systems, to. utilize. technology to. improve measurement accuracy, provide for more efficient data acquisition and. provide better control resources for remote interface, through telemetry.. As. the. meters functionality has. increased, the meter technician has had. to. become more diverse, in. his or her knowledge of measurement,. control,, computers, and. electronics. By taking a closer look at the various, advanced applications, and reviewing the. basics, hopefully the technician will have. a better understanding of the. requirements of handling, installing and. working with. todays advanced flow computers.
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Document ID: B5B8752C

About Ishm 2003
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: F828C5AE


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