Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (2003)

Measurements Of Decompression Wave Speed In Rich Gas Mixtures Using A
Author(s): Kamal K. Botros, Wojciech Studzinski, John Geerligs, Alan Glover
Abstract/Introduction:
Experimental data on the decompression wave speed data of a conventional gas mixture and three other rich gas mixtures with varying C1 from 70- 82% have been collected. An NPS 2 stainless steel expansion tube test rig has been constructed at TCPL Gas Dynamic Test Facility (GDTF) in Didsbury, Alberta, Canada, specifically for this task. Decompression wave was generated by a rupture disc at the end of the tube, which was instrumented with eight high frequency response pressure transducers located along the tube. The facility has the following three distinct capabilities: high initial pressures of up to 22 MPa, low initial temperature down to (-20 oC), and flexibility in testing any rich gas mixtures. The decompression wave speed data are presented in terms of the decompression expansion pressure ratio for all four gas mixtures and three initial line pressure of 10, 14 and 20 MPa. Comparison between experimentally obtained decompression wave speeds and those predicted by GASDECOM are also made for each test.
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Document ID: 4A8344CE

Whats New With Astm, Dot And ISO?
Author(s): Dr. Gene Palermo
Abstract/Introduction:
The major standards body in the United States for various applications is ASTM, which is comprised of several committees. Within ASTM the committee for plastic pipe is F17, and the subcommittee for gas plastic piping is F17.60. This subcommittee has jurisdiction over several gas piping related standards, but the most significant one is ASTM D 2513, Standard Specification for Thermoplastic Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing and Fittings. The US Department of Transportation (DOT) requires that all plastic pipe used for the transport of natural gas must meet the requirements of ASTM D 2513. There are currently several revisions that are being made to D 2513 within ASTM F17.60, and these are described below. ASTM D 2513-01a is currently divided into a main body, six annexes and two appendices.
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Document ID: F2DED13E

Direct Assessment: Art Or Science Or Both
Author(s): David Berger
Abstract/Introduction:
The recently proposed federal rule making on pipeline integrity was a direct result of several major incidents. Three of these recent incidents are the direct antecedents of the rule making (these incidents also resulted in the already promulgated hazardous liquid rules for pipelines over and under 500 miles). The first of the three was in mid 1990s in Edison New Jersey. This natural gas pipeline ruptured and caused millions of dollars of property damage. It was very fortunate that no loss of life occurred. The second incident was in the summer of 1999 in Bellingham, Washington. This was a rupture of a hazardous liquid pipeline, carrying gasoline at the time of failure, that result in three deaths, many people being evacuated from their homes and substantial environmental damage. The third and last incident was a natural gas pipeline rupture in Carlsbad, New Mexico that caused 12 fatalities. In the case of both Bellingham and Carlsbad, no pipeline workers were killed, only the general public.
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Document ID: E21236B9

Peng-Robinson Equation Of State Natural Gas Dew Points
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
A method is presented for accurate calculations of dew points of natural gases in operating gas pipelines. From a typical gas chromatographic analysis coupled with a single chilled mirror or other dew point temperature measurement at pipeline pressure, the gas analysis is extended mathematically so the Peng- Robinson equation of state will match the single measured dew point. The resultant extended analysis then can be used with confidence of acceptable accuracy even when the flowing gas composition changes within specified tolerance limits. The benefit to the industry of this method is the fact that the extreme accuracy required for the use of an extended analysis chromatogram alone is avoided.
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Document ID: B655D5EE

What To Look For In Main Replacement And Risk-Assessment Software
Author(s): Glyn Hazelden
Abstract/Introduction:
In facing the myriad decisions on main assessment and replacement, LDC personnel are increasingly using computer technology to enable their determinations. This paper will review the types of attributes and capabilities that are needed in that software to make the function efficient.
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Document ID: 05BB5D44

The Siphon Tee: A Unique And Simple Solution For The Removal Of Standing Water From Polyethylene Gas Mains
Author(s): Anthony Romano, Thomas W. Coleman III
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays economy there has never been a more concentrated effort to reduce costs and find more efficient methods of completing day-to-day tasks. The removal of water in gas distribution mains has long been a vital part of normal operations for utilities, particularly in areas where temperatures reach below freezing. Polyethylene mains have been used in the gas distribution industry for more than thirty years, however the method of removing water from gas mains has remained essentially unchanged.
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Document ID: 3DF75612

Improving Reliability Whilst Reducing Opex - A Case Study
Author(s): Graham Charlton
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1995, the UKs biggest gas transporter made the decision to adopt Reliability Centred Maintenance to review maintenance activities on its network assets. A team was drawn from many parts of the companys engineering function, including the Advantica group who now provide a maintenance engineering management service to asset owners and operators. This paper describes the introduction of RCM and its effects on the company and looks at the refinements made to the review process which brought about a streamlining technique enabling its application to 30,000 installations.
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Document ID: E6C3C88D

New Ideas And Developments In Distribution Measurement
Author(s): Michael B. Hoffer
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarizes many new ideas and developments in distribution measurement and is made possible by the many companies and individuals noted below. The AGA Distribution Measurement Committee members submitted topics for this paper to be presented at the 2003 AGA Operations Conference & Exhibition, Orlando, Florida, April 27 - 30, 2003.
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Document ID: 4509272D

Best Practices For Ldc Construction - A Gas Distribution Construction Cost And Procedure/Process Benchmark Assessment
Author(s): Mark Bridgers, Glyn Hazelden, And Buddy m. Secor
Abstract/Introduction:
This document details a two-phase study designed to identify and collect information on critical practices utilized in the construction of natural gas distribution systems. Washington Gas and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) sponsored this study with the intention of identifying best practices used by the best performing firms. FMI Corp. was retained to complete both phases, collect and then benchmark construction cost, disseminate information, and to identify trends and practices from peer companies that produce superior construction performance.
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Document ID: 15E098C6

Wireless Communication And Diagnostics Of Ultrasonic And Multiphase Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Householder
Abstract/Introduction:
The present-day telecommunication network provides the means for fast distribution of data and the monitoring of field mounted devices. It has given producers, operators, and maintenance personnel the ability to communicate by data transmission over a network from computer to computer and remote computers to databanks. The use of modems and landline connections has allowed manufacturers of ultrasonic and multiphase meters a limited but effective outlet for their internal trending and diagnostic information. This has led to higher accuracy in predicting potential failures in the field and lower down times through faster response to these failures, as well as increased data retrieval and logging. However the use of trending and diagnostic features were only available in areas where clean, secure phone lines were pre-existing, dedicated or installed specific for the project. The increase, however, in the number of cell and satellite service providers and the technology that takes advantage of them has removed this limitation.
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Document ID: 0812D261

Uncertainty Analysis Of Turbine And Ultrasonic Meter Volume Measurements
Author(s): Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the process of estimating the uncertainty of volume measurements made with turbine and ultrasonic flowmeters. Components that contribute uncertainty include the pressure and temperature transducers, the gas chromatograph, state equation and flow computer as well as the meter itself. Each component is described and numerical uncertainty values are estimated based on a hypothetical set of measurements. The individual component values are combined to provide the uncertainty in the total volume. Some discussion of advanced topics is included.
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Document ID: E0BA172A

New Construction Meter Installs
Author(s): Greg Martin, Dan Forsyth
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 0550E0E0

Speed Of Sound And Related Thermodynamic Properties Calculated From The AGA Report No. 8 Detail Characterization Method Using A Helmholtz Energy Formulation
Author(s): Eric W. Lemmon, Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
The AGA Report No. 8 Detail Characterization Method allows for the calculation of the compressibility factor (or pressure) for a natural gas mixture given known conditions of temperature, density, and composition. Iterative procedures can be used to calculate the density when the pressure and temperature are known. Other thermodynamic properties such as the speed of sound, heat capacities, enthalpies, or entropies can be calculated from the AGA8 model if the equation of state is rewritten in a form explicit in the Helmholtz energy. In addition, equations for the ideal gas heat capacity are required for each of the constituents in the mixture. All required equations and coefficients are outlined here.
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Document ID: 93D45E64

Phase II Storm Water Regulations - Compliance Strategies For The Gas TRANSMISSION/DISTRIBUTION Industry
Author(s): James E. Huff
Abstract/Introduction:
New storm water regulations for construction sites that disturb one acre or more are effective as of March 10, 2003. An overview of these regulations is provided, followed by a discussion of the conditions that will impact the gas transmission and distribution industry. Best Management Practices are presented followed by specific recommendations for developing an overall program to comply with these new federal regulations.
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Document ID: 3B566724

A Coordinated Mock Emergency Involving Ldcs And Their Pipeline Supplier
Author(s): Neil Nixon
Abstract/Introduction:
On Oct. 31, 2002 a detailed joint Mock Emergency Exercise involving a major interstate pipeline and two major distribution companies was conducted in the Chicago area. Participating in the combined exercise from the interstate pipeline side was Natural Gas Pipeline Company (NGPL), a subsidiary of Kinder Morgan. Local distribution companies represented were Chicagoarea- based Nicor Gas and Peoples Energy. The methodology, challenges and key results of the exercise will be discussed in this paper.
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Document ID: FE38B9AE

Demonstration And Evaluation Of Cathodic Protection Cp() Remote Monitoring Systems
Author(s): Vicki L. Van Blaricum
Abstract/Introduction:
Manpower limitations have made it increasingly difficult for the Army and the Corps of Engineers to conduct traditional cathodic protection (CP) surveys on civil works and military infrastructure. Several companies manufacture remote monitoring units (RMUs) designed specifically to evaluate CP systems. The U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) conducted three field evaluations of CP RMUs over a five-year period. The objectives of the evaluations were to (1) evaluate commercially available CP RMUs to determine their suitability for Army and Corps of Engineers use, and (2) provide equipment selection and implementation guidance for Army installations and Corps districts.
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Document ID: AD95A0FF

Understanding Condensation And Movement Of Liquid In Pipelines
Author(s): Michael A. Adewumi, William Polashenski
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid formation and transport in gas transmission pipelines affects many facets of operation, including pigging, gas throughput, and compressor fuel requirements. This paper examines the engineering and economic effects of liquid formation on pipeline operations, and presents a practical tool for prediction of liquid formation for optimization of gas pipeline systems.
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Document ID: 36010232

AGA Distribution Best Practices Case Study - Small Company Perspective
Author(s): Bruce R. Nelson
Abstract/Introduction:
The AGA Best Practices Program began in 1994. It is an effort to identify superior performing gas industry companies and innovative work practices that can be used to continuously improve the participants operations. Montana-Dakota Utilities Co. has actively participated in the program since 1998. This paper describes Montana-Dakotas Best Practices experiences, its program successes, the Benchmarked topics associated with these successes, and costs and benefits. Finally, concluding with a discussion on an internal process developed to complement and enhance a companys participation in the Best Practices program.
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Document ID: BDC90FCF

Major Advancements In Pipe Bursting & Pipe Splitting Technology
Author(s): Brian Mattson
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the last decade, pneumatic pipe bursting has emerged as one of the most preferred environmental sensitive, trenchless pipeline and service line replacement methods. The success rate of pneumatic pipe bursting in challenging situations has also increased dramatically over the past few years. Much has been learned about the capabilities of the method as well as what is needed for the method to succeed under a wide range of conditions in the gas industry.
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Document ID: 5A4CE98F

Utilizing Meter Performance Knowledge To Support Investment Decisions
Author(s): Mark Ranzetta, David Ullathorne, Donald Cordone
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper outlines a cost effective approach to meter population and risk management. The analytical investigation of meter performance data, estimation of future meter performance, and simulation of alternate testing schedules provides knowledge on which to base decisions on the most effective solution to managing the meter asset. This paper discusses the issues of providing a measure of the registration performance of the meter population, and utilizing this information to gain maximum benefit in developing a longterm meter strategy.
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Document ID: CC006137

GTI/AGA Ecda Project - Protocol Implementation/ Plan Development
Author(s): D. A. Ersoy, K. G. Leewis
Abstract/Introduction:
Along with thirty local distribution companies, GTI and AGA are developing a detailed External Corrosion Direct Assessment implementation protocol. This protocol quantitatively defines the procedures, criteria, and methods to carry out a direct assessment in conjunction with the ASME B31.8S and NACE RP0502 standards. The protocol is being used to conduct fifteen assessments under a wide variety of pipeline and environmental conditions throughout the country. The specific assessment criteria and the reasoning behind them are discussed below for the first two steps of direct assessment - Pre-Assessment and Indirect Inspections.
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Document ID: 0BF04C5A

Best Practices Implementation At PSE&G
Author(s): Jean Seiz
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: D09A63CD

Encroachment Issues Facing Underground Gas Storage
Author(s): Maureen Critchfield
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 80E401B9

An Evaluation Of A Third-Party Damage Detection System Using A Fiber Optic Cable
Author(s): George Ragula
Abstract/Introduction:
Various technologies are being pursued towards the development of a real-time monitoring system to detect third-party damage of natural gas facilities. Different technical solutions are being sought using acoustics, impressed AC current, satellite surveillance and fiber optics (above or on surface of pipe). New sensors for such applications are being developed using inductive and optical concepts, while microsensors from other industries are being sought after as well. Fiber optic technology has matured to the point where the characteristics of the light traveling down the fiber can be affected by external disturbances acting on the fiber. Through a sophisticated system to monitor these disturbances movement, vibration and sound can be detected in a pipeline right-of-way (ROW). The technology, the demonstration project, involving a 12-inch diameter gas transmission main operating at 600 psig, accomplishments and applications will be reviewed in this paper.
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Document ID: 30E4D236

Consumers Energy
Author(s): James D Philo
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: FFAFED1D

Pdas Personal( Digital Assistants) For Leak Survey Field Technicians
Author(s): Steve Rogers
Abstract/Introduction:
Responding to the needs of the Enbridge Gas Distribution Leak Survey group, a PDA application was designed for use by surveyors in the field. The application was developed and delivered on a Symbol 2700 handheld computer. This development, done in 2000, has proven successful and is currently in use. This paper describes the application and platform, the business drivers for its development and use, how it operates, and expectations for its future.
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Document ID: D4656525

Alternative Flow Control Techniques
Author(s): Brian Moidel, David Jordan
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: C1D0140D

Pcb Decontamination Protocols For Gas Transmission Pipelines
Author(s): Michael A. Adewumi, Eltohami S. Eltohami
Abstract/Introduction:
PCBs contaminate most natural gas transmission systems. Eradicating PCBs in these systems with minimal downtime is feasible using solvent injection. This work presents a parametric study using a model for tracking PCB migration under a variety of solvent injection scenarios. The model serves as a tool for evaluating the efficacy and efficiency of injecting solvent, as a means of removing PCBs from contaminated natural gas pipelines. The study shows that pipeline operational protocols can significantly affect solvent injection time and volume required for decontaminating a particular pipeline system.
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Document ID: 5D5EC803

Roles And Responsibilities Of The First Line Supervisor In Natural Gas Distribution Companies Presented To American Gas Association Operating Conference April 23, 2003
Author(s): Don Stefanich, Jim Kuchler
Abstract/Introduction:
This document discusses the major influencing factors that define the roles and responsibilities of first line supervisors in Gas Field Operations at We-Energies, Milwaukee Wisconsin. We-Energies is the largest electricity and natural gas distribution company in Wisconsin. We-Energies also distributes steam and water to customers in the greater Milwaukee area.
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Document ID: 4AB190F2

Four Path, Short Coupled, Ultrasonic Meterfour Path, Short Coupled, Ultrasonic Meter Incorporating New Transducer Technology. Incorporating New Transducer
Author(s): Koen H. Commissaris, Geeuwke De Boer
Abstract/Introduction:
A new line of ultrasonic four-path meters is introduced incorporating new, more compact transducer technology. Simulation and test results demonstrate this meters potential for use in custody transfer measurement. Additionally, this meter is presented in combination with a flow conditioner, allowing a 50% reduction in straight inlet requirements while accuracy is improved.
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Document ID: 61273302

Midstream And Downstream Assets Missing Pieces For The Expanded Use Of LNG In The Us
Abstract/Introduction:
OBSTACLES FOR NEW LNG ASSETS HISTORICAL RATE BASED VIEW OF SUPPLY LACK OF EXPERTISE AND UNDERSTANDING THE TECHNOLOGY LACK OF UNDERSTANDING OF THE ECONOMICS LACK OF CAPITAL AS OPPOSED TO RAISING THE COST OF GAS LACK OF DIRECTION FROM REGULATORY BODIES LACK OF AVAILABLE INFRASTRUCTURE NOT IN MY BACKYARD
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Document ID: 52FC8E6D

Work Management System
Author(s): Roberta Peake, T. D. Williamson
Abstract/Introduction:
Work Management incorporates a common process across multiple locations and personnel under a single platform. Its purpose is effectively manage all aspects of services jobs using a job cost and service management system. Part of the software implementation plan included the development of formal processes and documenting those to help personnel execute more efficiently. By utilizing trained administrators and coordinators at each location to facilitate the process, Work Management ensures that all aspects of a job are monitored from job inception to job completion.
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Document ID: 95D9617F

First Responder Protocols
Author(s): Paul Pirro
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 00DD27CB

Environmental Issues To Address At LNG/Propane Air Plants
Author(s): Lawrence C. Bradbury
Abstract/Introduction:
LNG/Propane Air Plants provide clean energy to business and consumers. There are a number of potential environmental issues to address in the construction and operations of these plants. A brief description of these issues is presented for the plant management to determine which ones exist that should be investigated by environmental professionals.
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Document ID: 025837B1

Soft Close Innovation Or Violation?
Author(s): Rick Lonn
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: CD1B0D7A

Surge And Lightning Protection - Why, Where, And How?
Author(s): Patrick Mccurdy
Abstract/Introduction:
As electronics and automation become commonplace in gas distribution and transmission systems, so does vulnerability to voltage and current transients. The resultant equipment damage and downtime can be very costly. This paper will discuss the issues of surge and lightning protection techniques for safe and reliable electronic equipment operation in the gas industry.
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Document ID: 813AAFCF

Nys Direct Assessment Process Validation Project
Author(s): Debbie Dimeo
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 65256F70

Data Integration Design For Pipeline Integrity Management - Important Metrics
Author(s): Michael Gloven
Abstract/Introduction:
New integrity management regulatory rulemakings and supporting industry standards such as ASME Standard B31.8S, Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines1, are driving natural gas pipeline companies to seek out innovations in technology and designs that support effective data integration. Proper data integration is the foundation for a cost effective integrity management program. This paper presents four important design metrics to consider for data integration as it specifically relates to pipeline integrity management. These metrics are 1) Data Alignment or the integration of disparate data sources to a common location or reference, 2) Data History or the consideration of temporal aspects of data and its relevancy in measuring, mining and tracking performance, 3) Data Normalization or the integration of disparate data sources that provide different names for the same attributes, and 4) Data Accuracy and Confidence.
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Document ID: B56272DB

Environmental Impact Of Pipeline Integrity Testing
Author(s): Janet Fox, Susan Riebe
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) has begun phasing in Pipeline Integrity Management rules, which require operators of interstate gas and hazardous liquids transmission pipelines to develop integrity management programs (IMPs) to protect public safety. It is becoming increasingly evident that environmental compliance issues may impact the timely implementation of remediation activities required under these rules. Delays in implementing these remediation activities may result in extended periods of lowered operating pressures, reduced deliverability, and loss of revenue. A successful IMP is therefore more likely to result with the integration of an environmental compliance strategy into the program. This paper provides Operations Personnel, Engineers, and Environmental staff a practical framework for developing an environmental compliance strategy for an IMP.
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Document ID: 1FFA4A3D

An Empirical Approach To Evaluating Gas Interchangeability
Author(s): Hardeep S. Rana, David S. Johnston
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cove Point (Maryland) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal is expected to reopen for importation during 2003. Imported LNG will leave the plant through an 87 mile pipeline on which Washington Gas has five gate stations, serving approximately 1/3 of the utilitys customers. Because the imported LNG may contain a higher proportion of C2+ hydrocarbons (and therefore have a greater heating value) than the domestic natural gas typically received by WG, there is a need to verify that the change in gas supply characteristics will not have an adverse impact on customer appliance performance. WG, in conjunction with the technology and product development company TIAX, used a progressively refined procedure based on actual system experience to establish tentative limits on LNG composition that could be accepted into the system. The viability of the limits wasconfirmed through a small-scale appliance testing program. Further testing may provide a basis for greater flexibility in the limits.
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Document ID: E94833F5

Electronic Collection Of Construction Data At Nw Natural
Author(s): Richard L. Scoville
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2001 NW Natural developed a prototype data capture application with the primary goal of improving the quality of construction data over existing paper-based methods. During a brief pilot, crew leaders used the application in a field setting to collect labor hours equipment and stores material usage service installation sketches job conditions encountered and a list of contract services and material received at the job site. Crew leaders with little or no computing experience found the system helpful and rather easy to use.
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Document ID: DD85CA89

Preserving Operator Flexibility In The Use Of Excess Flow Valves
Author(s): Andrew Lu
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to relate technical information on Excess Flow Valve (EFV) installation based upon field experiences from natural gas utilities. The enclosed comments are based upon the collective experiences of operators who choose to voluntarily install EFVs. The findings support the preservation of operator flexibility on Excess Flow Valve (EFV) installation in new and renewed natural gas lines for single-family, residential services where commercially available EFVs exist. Recently, the Office of Pipeline Safety has written a draft cost-benefit study supporting mandatory EFV installation.
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Document ID: 1D7B4B1F

Omar Building For The Future
Author(s): Tom Omasta
Abstract/Introduction:
?? Single Interface to multiple Host/Legacy Work Management Systems ?? Eliminates multiple, complex interfaces between Legacy Systems ?? Improves Workforce Flexibility ?? Provides single Field Device Application, single timesheet, scheduling and dispatching applications. ?? Definable skill levels to facilitate order routing to qualified employees (OQ) ?? Real-Time Order Status ?? Real time geographic location of workforce ?? Database for Common Work Management and Planning & Forecasting ?? Internet access for Contractors
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Document ID: 7D9B68F0

Common Work Queue & One Field Force Initiatives
Author(s): Ragnvald H. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 035D2814

Use Of Corporate Business Network For Rtu Data Traffic
Author(s): Kenneth Smith, Jack Harrison
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1999 a project was proposed with goal of reducing the operating expenses related to a gas SCADA system while improving the system as a whole. The primary means to achieve this goal was to leverage an existing corporate WAN for RTU data traffic, replacing dedicated circuits. After execution the project achieved an annual savings of over 62,000 and enabled more efficient future system expansion. The corporate WAN proved to provide an acceptable level of performance over a 4 year period without being negatively impacted by supporting RTU data traffic.
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Document ID: 200EB70B

The Implementation Of A Secure Gas Scada Environment Within The Enterprise And Beyond
Author(s): Kenneth Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The inherent risks of operating a gas SCADA system require that a high level of system security be maintained. Connecting such a system to larger networks can increase the security risks by exposing the system toadditional threats. Implementing a secure gas SCADA system requires a thorough understanding of the traits of SCADA and the available security solutions and techniques. The information presented here was discerned and implemented from a project aimed at achieving a high level of system security for a replacement gas SCADA system.
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Document ID: A346F9EA

Gti R&D Summary:
Author(s): Michael m. Mamoun
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 85C5D881

Revisions To AGA-7
Author(s): H. L. Fraser
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association is revising its Transmission Measurement Committee Report No. 7 Measurement of Natural Gas by Turbine Meters. A research program has been launched in support of the revision effort. The research conducted to date is in the areas of installation effects and Reynolds number effects. Turbine meters have been found to be relatively unaffected by installation effects as long as elementary flow conditioning is provided, but are sensitive to changes in Reynolds number at low pressure. Revisions to the Report will reflect this information. Other likely revisions will also be discussed.
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Document ID: A2CC8DE1

Update On The Plastic Pipe Database
Author(s): Anita Romero
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 06B45178

Presentation At AGA Roundtable
Abstract/Introduction:
I will present an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Natural Gas Contingency Supply Plan as well as the Ohio Gas / Kentucky Gas (OGA / KGA) Contingency Supply Plan and their respective Planning Groups.
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Document ID: EC141B08

Gas Quality And Gas Interchangeability
Author(s): Henry W. Hank Poellnitz III
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of these corrosion-related gas quality issues are well documented and understood. In recent years, gas quality has taken on new meaning for the gas industry for three reasons.
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Document ID: 6B329E4B

Computer Modeling And Thermal Customer Billing A Load Following Approach
Author(s): Thomas Amerige, Mark Bolze
Abstract/Introduction:
Factors driving the need to ascribe Local Distribution Company (LDC)-delivered energy to end-use meters include the introduction of distinct energy content (British thermal units to cubic feet), regulatory requirements governing residential and industrial third-party access, and industrial customer- or energy marketer-driven load patterns. More accurate billing will ensure that all customers and the LDC are treated fairly. Without better treatment, an LDCs ability to perform daily energy balances will be sporadic at best. This paper provides detailed insights into this problem and a potential solution through.
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Document ID: 920BE1F2

Working Past The Meter: The Risks
Author(s): Scot Macomber
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: F4BCB06F

New Work Management Processes At Bc Gas
Author(s): David Zerr
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 0D0877A3

Long-Term Performance Of Cross-Linked Pe Pex() Pipes
Author(s): George Ragula, Michael m. Mamoun
Abstract/Introduction:
There is significantly increased interest among many US gas distribution companies to operate their plastic piping networks at higher pressure, higher temperature surroundings than commonly used and in installing plastic gas pipes in rocky soils without the use of select backfill. Because of these increased interests and the enhanced properties of cross-linked (PEX) pipe materials, several PEX pipe materials are being evaluated under various laboratory conditions simulating more demanding field and service conditions. Because of their many enhanced performance characteristics, PEX materials may be the next generation of candidate plastics for gas piping systems to be installed for more demanding field and service conditions.
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Document ID: 5BD14A2D

Personal Digital Assistants For Leak Survey Field Technicians
Author(s): John Marshall
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: C1CDE171

Leak Response Protocols Leak Response Protocols For Con Edisons Gas Operations
Author(s): Richard S. Di Loreto
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 290A82E4

Field Operations Leader
Author(s): Michael Ramsey
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 64EF453B

A Preliminary Assessment Of The Effects Of Profile Distortions On Gas Ultrasonic Meter Accuracy
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been shown that Installation Effects can shift the meter factors of ultrasonic gas flow meters, where these effects are generally attributed to flow profiles distorted by swirl, asymmetry or a combination of the two, which result from combinations of elbows, tees and/or headers upstream of the meter. High performance flow conditioners militate against these disturbances, but subtle changes in observed flow profiles have been found in installations utilizing such profiling devices. The probable cause for these observed changes in meter factor is a shift in Reynolds Number due to changes in friction factor wrought by variation of the boundary layer at the gas-pipe wall interface due to an accumulation of dirt or oil on the pipe wall, or on the flow conditioner itself.
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Document ID: B72AA6A5

How To Simplify And Automate Maintenance Of Todays Ultrasonic Meter
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past several years the use of gas ultrasonic meters (USM) has continued to increase. There are many reasons users have chosen to specify USMs over conventional technologies such as orifice and turbine. One of the most significant advantages of ultrasonic metering is the diagnostic information that is provided. Several papers have been published that discuss the fundamentals of USMs and how the diagnostics can be used to insure data integrity Ref 1, 2. However, until recently little has been done to automate the analysis of this information.
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Document ID: A980B4E7

Environmental Considerations For Construction Or Maintenance Projects Or Plant Modifications
Author(s): Alexander G. Taft
Abstract/Introduction:
This list of Considerations can be used by the Marketing Representative, Project Engineer, Public Relations Specialist, Counsel, Consultant, Contractor or other responsible personnel. The purpose of this list is to make sure as many potential project-delaying issues, e.g. contaminated soils/hazwopper crew requirements, are identified as early as possible. Many of these considerations may result in the need for a permit, access agreement or public relations effort, all off which will take time and require detailed planning.
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Document ID: 8CA0AA6B


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