Measurement Library

North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop Publications (2003)

Long Term Operational Experience Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Jozsef Balla, F.Takras
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meters are widely used for custody transfer measurement of large gas flows. The meters are usually calibrated with atmospheric air and with natural gas at operating pressure.
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Document ID: 1FEC413F

Suitability Of Dry Gas Metering Technology For Wet Gas Metering
Author(s): D. G. Stewart, D. Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas metering is being used increasingly in economically marginal fields, reducing the capital costs by allowing several small fields to share common platform infrastructure. The development of reliable wet gas meters is a key requirement in the oil and gas industry at present. Such meters should be able to measure both the gas and liquid flowrates if desired. However, in some cases the liquid flowrate is not important, requiring only the gas flowrate to be measured accurately. If the liquid flowrate is reasonably steady, and can be determined by other means, i.e. tracer technique or periodic sampling, then a standard single phase gas meter, whose response to the presence of liquid is known, can be used with a correction applied to the reading to account for the liquid. In some other situations, unexpected well conditions can result in a higher liquid loading in the gas stream causing nominally dry gas meters to be exposed to liquids. In this case it is important for the operator to be able to establish the error in gas measurement, particularly if the meter is used for allocation purposes.
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Document ID: 8D64033B

Multibeam Ultrasonic Liquid Flow Meter For Fiscal Metering And Custody Transfer Applications
Author(s): Jean Luc Guizot
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine and Positive Displacement meters have been successfully used in the oil industry for many years. Both technologies provide accurate flow measurement for custody transfer applications in compliance with international standards and recommendations such as OIML and API. Over the last ten years, significant improvements in electronics and acoustics gave access to high accuracy liquid flow measurements based on ultrasonic technology. The ultrasonic technology has been first efficiently used in the natural gas industry for several years. The development of the technology for the gas custody transfer applications has quickly shown that a multi-path geometry was the only way to cover a large range of flow velocity profiles.
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Document ID: 12074758

Flare Meter Monitoring Method, And Flare Meter High Velocity Extender
Author(s): Maron J. Dahlstrm
Abstract/Introduction:
This is about an innovation breakthru for flare metering, and its pilot test at Snore TLP. Yet there are no new equipment in this pilot test. Anywhere where there is a flare installed, the necessary basic equipment is already in place. As long as there has been platforms producing in the North Sea, production personell have looked to the flare for information when our prudent flare meters have failed. Windows in the control room have been equipped with scales per the flare flame size. Others have looked for restrictions in the flare line that could be used for flare meter checking, and some have been lucky to find a 90 degree elbow that could be used for the purpose, mainly at higher flowrates.
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Document ID: A89C1D5F

Phase Watcher Vx Multiphase Flowmeter Heidrun Experience And Analysis
Author(s): Paul Ove Moksnes, Knut Skaardalsmo
Abstract/Introduction:
Three PhaseWatcher Vx multiphase flowmeters have been installed on the Heidrun platform. It is shown how the Vx multiphase flowmeters are placed into the pipework and integrated into the measurement system on the platform. Much effort has been devoted to explain the influence of uncertainties in PVT data on the metrological multiphase flowmeter performance. Finally, some early test results are compared with corresponding test separator data. The conclusion is that the multiphase flowmeters function as intended, however, lack of PVT data has delayed the final set-up of the multiphase flowmeter.
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Document ID: 5E1AFDDA

Flow Measurement In Sub Sea Installations
Author(s): Martin Svenungsen, Svein Petter Hanserud, Ole Vidar Jonsjord, Arne Daae Hagen
Abstract/Introduction:
FMC Kongsberg Subsea AS (FKS), earlier KOS AS is one of the worlds leading manufacturers of Subsea oil and gas production equipment. FKS have been involved with multiphase flow metering since 1988. Flow meters were first installed in Subsea installations in 1992, however the main no. of meters has been delivered from 1997 and the annual no. of installed meters is increasing. Total no. of delivered / in manufacture meters until today is 152 units (88 single phase flow meters, 54 multiphase flow meters and 10 wet gas meters) FKS is not a flow meter supplier. Our job is to identify the most suitable meter for each application after careful evaluations and to integrate the sub vendors equipment into our systems using established FKS best engineering practice. We would like to inform briefly about our solutions and experiences in this area. The back ground for our best practice will be given in brief along with the essence of it. We will split our presentation into Multiphase Meters, single phase flow meters and wet gas meters.
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Document ID: 42334352

Operation And Evaluation Of A Roxar Multiphase Meter In Sour Field Environment
Author(s): Joe J. S. Shen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents two years of operating experience and field evaluation of a 3 Roxar (MFI model) multiphase meter used for continuous production testing in a highly sour field environment where the hydrogen sulfide concentration in the production gas exceeds 10 mole percent. The MFI meter was installed and commissioned in February 2001 at a well site in Tengiz Field, Kazakhstan. The multiphase meters performance was evaluated by comparing measured flow rates with a three-phase test separator located at a meter station approximately one kilometer downstream of the well site.
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Document ID: 597139B8

API Draft Standard - Measurement Of Liquid Hydrocarbons By Ultrasonic Flow Meters Using Transit Time Technology
Author(s): Andre De Boer, Krohne
Abstract/Introduction:
At the agenda of API meetings always time is reserved for new emerging measurement technologies. About eight years ago, in 1996, the flow measurement technology of ultrasonic flowmeters was introduced. Based on the technological information together with the experience accumulated with flowmeters in use by a number of European users, API decided this development formed a sufficient basis to start an Ultrasonic Task Group. The assignment the task group received was to investigate the possibility of creating a standard that describes the use of ultrasonic flowmeters in custody transfer applications on liquid hydrocarbon products.
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Document ID: 2DB98109

Gerg Project: Wide-Range Reference Equation Of State For Natural Gases
Author(s): m. Jaeschke, Ruhrgas, A. Fredheim, J. m. Henault, P. V. Wesenbeeck, B. Viglette, R. Klimeck, O. Kunz, W. Wagner
Abstract/Introduction:
A group of European gas companies, GERG, supported the development of a new equation of state for the thermodynamic properties of natural gases covering the gas and liquid region including the vapour-liquid phase equilibrium. The new equation, GERG02, was developed on the basis of a multi-fluid approximation using pure substance equations for each component and experimental data for binary mixtures only. Therefore, the representation of multicomponent mixture data is predictive.
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Document ID: AE0845EC

Krohne Altosonic-V, With Master Meter Approach - Rough Road To Success With Oil Ultrasonic Fiscal Meter At Snorre B
Author(s): m. J. Dalstrm
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a follow-up of my presentation at the NSFMW in year 2000. Although there are issues to be evaluated still at the Snorre B fiscal oil export station, we can note a number of pitfalls to avoid from some non-ideal installation approaches. The experience was excellent with the first two Krohne Altosonic-V ultrasonic liquid meters installed offshore, Serial Number 1 and 2 at Snorre-Vigdis Crossover, where one of the ultrasonic meters was used for master transfer in the frequent calibrations. Then applying a turbine meter for master transfer from the Compact Prover in the annual third party calibration.
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Document ID: 0BD494F9

New Method To Determine The Liquid Content Of A Wet Gas Stream And Provide A Sample Of The Liquid Phase For Composition
Author(s): Mark Jiskoot, Ken Payne
Abstract/Introduction:
There is currently no other method available that is capable of accurate measurement of the liquid mass of a wet gas stream. Jiskoot has, in conjunction with AMEC, developed a wet gas sampling methodology that can determine the liquid/gas mass ratio as well as providing a compositional sample to allow laboratory determination of the chemical composition of condensates, methanol and water.
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Document ID: 790F4616

Experiences With A Fiscal Metering System Using Coriolis Meters
Author(s): Frank Svendsen
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 6A4C8E4E

Guidelines For Efficient Improvement Of Accuracy In Oil And Gas Flow Measurements
Author(s): Risto Kuoppamaki
Abstract/Introduction:
The process industry has plenty of flow measurement positions for natural gas and oil. Through these positions gas and oil are delivered into inner consumption positions. This in turn requires good measurement accuracy. Indmeas has developed a calibration method based on a radiotracer transit time measurement. Our method can be flexibly used for field calibrations of flow meters in industry without disturbing the production process. In a field calibration the total flow measurement chain is calibrated and the total measurement error can often be split into components caused by different parts of the flow measurement chain. Indmeas has had accreditation for these field calibrations since 1994.
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Document ID: 58473C39

Transient Diffraction Effects In Ultrasonic Meters For Volumetric, Mass And Energy Flow Measurement Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Per Lunde, Kjell Eivind, Frysa Remi, A. Kippersrud, Magne Vestrheim
Abstract/Introduction:
The influences of transducer diffraction effects on measured USM transit times are investigated, in relation to dry calibration methods and consequences for the USM measurement accuracy in flow calibration and field operation. Diffraction effects depend on a number of operational factors. The magnitude of such systematic effects is evaluated using a plane piston model and finite element modelling of the vibration and radiation of typical USM piezoelectric transducers. Consequences for volumetric, mass and energy flow measurement using USMs are evaluated.
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Document ID: A12D74BD

Metering - The Challenges Of Satellite Developments
Author(s): Rosalind Rowe, Mike Carnegie
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is an overview of experience gained and the challenges met in the use of modern metering techniques across a range of satellite developments in the U.K. North Sea. The techniques reviewed include multiphase meters, wet gas venturis and geochemical fingerprinting. Lessons learned using these techniques for fiscal and allocation metering and reservoir management are presented including a number of operational challenges including the challenges of subsea installations. It is concluded that a move towards goal setting is required to bring together the new and conventional technologies to form an effective measurement system to meet the needs of evolving assets.
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Document ID: 91FA4D2E

Wet Gas Allocation On The Canyon Express Project
Author(s): Chris Cooley, Chip Letton, Jim Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
In September 2002, production from the three fields that together form the Canyon Express Project - Kings Peak, Aconcagua, and Camden Hills - was begun. Drilled in record water depths of 2000 to 2200 meters in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico, each of the nine wells was connected to one of two 12-inch pipelines carrying the commingled wet gas back to the Canyon Station platform for processing, a distance of 91 kilometers away in Main Pass block 261. Dual-differential wet gas meters were chosen for the task of allocating gas and liquid back to individual wells.
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Document ID: 8F974D7A

Operating Experience With Two Ultrasonic Gas Meters In Series
Author(s): Trond Folkestad, Dag Fllo, Hallvard Tunheim, yvind Nesse
Abstract/Introduction:
Norsk Hydro has several gas metering stations in operation that contain two ultrasonic gas flow meters in series. This paper will share the experience gained since September 2000 with the use of this measurement configuration. How Norsk Hydro operates a metering station with two meters in series using the Reference meter method will be explained. The wet gas performance of such a metering station will also be described.
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Document ID: F8420BB5

The Transit Time Difference Ultrasonic Gas Meter - A Reassessment
Author(s): Klaus J. Zanker
Abstract/Introduction:
When fiscal ultrasonic gas meters first came to market, about 1988 (Ref 1), they held great promise with claims like: 1) No moving parts. 2) No obstruction to the flow. 3) No pressure loss. 4) No calibration required. 5) Large turndown ratio. 6) Bi-directional flow measurement. 7) Velocity measurement independent of gas properties. 8) Installation requires minimal pipe work. 9) No periodic maintenance required. 10) Long life and stability. It seems appropriate after 15 years to pose the questions - Have these promises been fulfilled? - Have other advantages been found?
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Document ID: 6CF8B57E

Ge-Panametrics Clamp-On Flow Meter, Results In Industrial Gas Applications
Author(s): Shirley Ao, Jacob Freeke, Steven Milford
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the technical features of the GE Panametrics GC868 clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeter for gases. General application requirements related to pipe sizes pipe geometry, gas composition and pressure are outlined. The meter creates no pressure drop, has a 100:1 turndown ratio and is useful for measurement of erosive, corrosive and toxic gas flow rates. Applications and test results for the meter on flow measurements of natural gas for re-injection to sub-sea well reservoirs, flow measurements of natural gas at a separator outlet, accuracy verification of flow measurement of natural gas at a compressor station and import/export of natural gas at an underground salt-cavern storage facility are discussed.
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Document ID: B814AEE8

Latest Advances In Ultrasonic Flow Measurement Of Natural Gas Using Externally Mounted, Non-Intrusive Sensors
Author(s): Peter G. Espina
Abstract/Introduction:
In July of 2003, Controlotron had the opportunity to participate in tests run by Nova at the Didsbury facility in Canada. The purpose of the tests was to investigate the impact of flow profile distortions on field clamp-on ultrasonic gas flowmeters. We are pleased to present the results for the Controlotron WideBeam system. Controlotron WideBeam technology uses sound that passes diametrically through the fluid - not in chordal mode, as is the case for most insertion type meters. Consequently, meter behavior is expected to be quite different from other ultrasonic meter types under conditions of flow profile distortion. Controlotrons externally mounted WideBeam sensors also interrogate a very large percentage of flow volume within the measurement section. This produces more flow profile averaging than shear mode, clamp-on, or insertion type sensors. For these reasons, it was anticipated that the Controlotron WideBeam system would be highly tolerant of flow profile variability.
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Document ID: F950232A

Ageing Effects On Orifice Metering
Author(s): Michael Reader-Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate flowmeters are affected by upstream installation. This paper describes the effect of some changes to the installation which occur with time after the orifice plate is installed. Orifice plates require a significant upstream straight length of pipework, and one way of reducing the required upstream straight length is to use a flow conditioner. Although the former ISO 5167-1:1991 1 did not encourage the use of flow conditioners to a great extent, the new version does: see ISO 5167-1: 2003 2 and ISO 5167-2: 2003 3. However, the sharp edges of a perforated plate flow conditioner may become rounded or a perforated plate flow conditioner may with time become partially blocked. Whereas orifice plates are regularly checked in service, flow conditioners are much less frequently checked. Therefore the first set of tests assessed the effects of rounding the upstream edge of a Zanker Flow Conditioner Plate and of blocking a row of holes in the plate. The Zanker Flow Conditioner Plate was chosen as it is not patented and of the unpatented conditioners included in ISO 5167-2: 2003 it gives the shortest upstream lengths.
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Document ID: 3EFB24DB

Research Developments In Wet Gas Metering With V-Cone Meters
Author(s): Richard Steven, Phillip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
At the 2002 North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop (NSFMW) NEL and McCrometer jointly presented the results and analysis of the UKs Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) funded V-Cone meter wet gas flow tests on the NEL Wet Gas Loop. Two 6 beta ratios (0.55 and 0.75) were tested and for each meter the parameters influencing the differential pressure reading with wet gas flows were identified and found to be similar to other Differential Pressure (DP) meters. Correlations were then offered that would correct for the V-Cone meters liquid induced error in the gas flowrate prediction for a known liquid flowrate or liquid to gas flowrate ratio. This paper briefly summarises the V-Cone meter technology and then discusses the results of repeat wet gas flow tests at NEL in May 2003 (at nominally 15 and 60 Bar) for the 0.75 beta ratio V-Cone meter, to show the repeatability of the meter with wet gas flows and the reliability of the previously published wet gas flow correlation within the NEL parameter range. This paper then discusses wet gas flow testing done on a 4, 0.75 beta ratio V-Cone meter at CEESI in October 2002 across a different parameter range to that of NEL and compares the 0.75 beta ratio data sets at the two test facilities. The V-Cone meters 0.75 beta ratio correlation is then applied to the independent CEESI wet gas flow data set to investigate the applicability of the NEL data based correlation out with the NEL test range. With the correlations applicability shown, a discussion on the industrial advantages of a proposed Tracerflow and V-Cone meter combination is given. This is followed with new data showing the 0.75 beta ratio V-Cone meters performance at greater Lockhart-Martinelli parameters than previously tested (up to 0.5). A new correlation is discussed for this expanded range and the results of applying this new correlation to the NEL data set are presented. Finally, a rare field test showing the performance of a wafer cone meter with wet gas flow is discussed.
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Document ID: 94D5635A

Penguin Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ian m. Wood, Paul Daniel
Abstract/Introduction:
The Penguin cluster is a formation of five different reservoirs located in the UK sector of the North Sea. It is produced via a 65km subsea tie-back to the Brent Charlie platform the worlds third longest tie-back. The cluster is made up of five different reservoirs, each with significantly different gas to oil ratios. The gas volume fraction (GVF) of the arriving fluids is in the region of 85 to 95% and thus was considered to be too high for accurate (5%) measurement of the gas and oil phases using a multiphase meter (MPM) and too low for a wet gas meter. Due to the length of the tie-back a Severe Slug Suppression Device (S3) was installed on the platform topsides. The S3 in effect acts as a partial separator and thus the opportunity was taken to use this device to partially separate the fluids and hence move the MPM in to a more favourable operating environment.
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Document ID: 4A2BE0B7

Venturi Meters In Wet Gas Flow
Author(s): D. G. Stewart, D. Hodges, G. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Multiphase metering is becoming increasingly important in the development of marginal oil and gas fields. Many of these fields are only economically viable if they can be tied back to existing platform infrastructure, reducing the capital expenditure required by significant margins. In such cases, several fields are often tied back to common facilities requiring each unprocessed stream to be metered before co-mingling. Multiphase metering is also a valuable technology in well management, providing on-line information on the production flow and in well testing, reducing the capital expenditure required to investigate potential new wells.
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Document ID: DDAEB341

Investigations Of Density Transducers For Natural Gas Metering
Author(s): F. Weber
Abstract/Introduction:
In two ring tests two different sets, each consisting of four density transducers for natural gas metering were calibrated in the range up to 90 kgm-3 at 20 C. The density transducer is a vibrating cylinder or fork surrounded by the gas whose density determines the resonance frequency of the vibration. The differences between the results obtained by the different participants in the ring tests amounted to 0,04 percent. They were larger than was expected from the uncertainty of the instruments which had been employed for the calibration. Additionally, three different correction equations for the VoS effect are discussed. Density transducers calibrated with nitrogen and corrected for the VoS effect in methane still deviated by up to 0,05 kgm-3. The deviations due to the VoS effect in two investigated mixtures amounted up to 0,15 percent. The relatively small temperature dependence of the transducers is compared with that obtained in the experiment. An overall uncertainty of 0,2 percent is estimated.
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Document ID: AE8508D8


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