Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2001)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

Introduction To Gas Metering
Author(s): Chris Wykle
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement is the vertebrae of any natural gas utility. Without the ability to measure, it would be impossible to account for the flow of gas from receipt to delivery. Very much like an accountant that labors to keep the ledger balanced, a utility needs metering to balance the gas producers receipts against the end customer delivery
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6CD01255

Measurement Calibration Practices
Author(s): Sam R. Shaw
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1990s, the natural gas business has undergone a staggering amount of change - both positive and negative. Along with vastly improved technology (thanks to a general technology upgrade in the rest of society), we have also endured an unfortunate coincidence of work force reductions and rising gas prices. This has created an unprecedented increase in expectations for measurement accuracy, which must now be achieved with fewer people. In many cases, companies are now operating with half the number of measurement technicians available in 1990, and have Lost & Unaccounted Gas Percentage (%L&U) expectations that are much more stringent than they have ever been - in short, we now have to do a better job with fewer resources. One of the ways to deal with this situation is by adopting calibration practices that lead to overall higher performance
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CF1BBC61

Introduction To Gas Regulation
Author(s): Don Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the application of the various types of regulators that will be touched upon in this paper, it is essential that we understand the fundamentals of regulator operation. We will begin with the simplest, most common regulator the single-valve, unbalanced, spring-loaded regulator. This is the domestic service regulator that can be found on single-family dwellings as well as larger commercial applications
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 00AE2A34

Introduction To Overpressure Protection
Author(s): Steven R. Grundmeier
Abstract/Introduction:
Over-pressure protective devices are of vital concern to the gas industry. Safety codes and current laws require their installation each time a pressure reducing station is installed that supplies gas from any system to another system with a lower maximum allowable operating pressure. The purpose of this article is to provide a systematic review of the various methods of providing the overpressure protection. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are evaluated, and engineering guidelines are provided
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 08E4D1A9

Introduction To Regulator And Relief Sizing
Author(s): Joseph B. Ewing
Abstract/Introduction:
The safe, reliable, and cost effective operation of any gas pipeline system requires careful control of gas pressure from the source to the point of delivery. On its journey between the source and the point of use, gas typically will flow through several distinct piping systems, each of which operates at a different pressure. Regulators and relief valves are the primary components in stations that throttle between fully closed and fully open to control the flow of gas from a high-pressure system to a lower pressure system. They must be sized appropriately in order to maintain pressures within desirable tolerances under all reasonably plausible operating conditions
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3E9D1E8C

Regulator Station Design
Author(s): Robert C. Becken
Abstract/Introduction:
Properly engineered regulator station designs can significantly reduce maintenance and operating expenses, defer replacement costs, and alleviate concerns from environmental agencies and the public. Good station designs will differ greatly, however, depending on whether they are for a rebuild of an existing station or for construction of a new facility. Acquiring adequate space to build new stations is becoming increasingly difficult due to environmental and public concerns. Modifying existing stations economically by utilizing existing small pits and undersized utility owned lots, and still comply with codes and good engineering practices is challenging
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 96259B9E

Control Valves For Natural Gas Pipeline Applications
Author(s): Lance Loehding
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipelines today transport huge volumes of energy in the form of liquid or gas throughout the world. Ships, trains, and trucks cannot match the efficiency, reliability, or safety record of pipelines. Transmission of natural gas is based on varying levels of pressure that result in high velocity movement. Well pressure or compressors are utilized to produce the pressure. Pressure reduction is commonly required when moving the gas through pipelines from the wellhead to individual customers or the local gas distribution companies. This discussion will relate to regulators and control valves used for pressure control by the gas pipeline industry today with special emphasis on control valves. We will consider the advantages and limitations of the various products to assist the pipeline engineer in selection of the optimum control equipment
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8CC621B3

Elimination Of Bleed Gas From Control Valve Instrumentation
Author(s): Steve Mcfarlin
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas pipeline control valve stations utilize the most economical and reliable resource available to power the control valve actuators and instrumentation. In most cases the most readily resource is the natural gas in the pipeline itself rather than compressed air or electrical sources. The actuator and control instrumentation used are pneumatically operated. In order for the actuator to operate the control valve, the gas must be loaded and exhausted from the actuator cylinder or diaphragm through control instrumentation. The control instrumentation typically bleeds off excess pressure not required by the actuator to the atmosphere. It is the bleeding gas from control valve instrumentation that results in drastic repercussions in several areas.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 849774F7

Soundproofing And Noise Reduction
Author(s): James L. Robertson
Abstract/Introduction:
Control valve generated noise, resulting from gas pressure reduction (regulation), can exceed EPA or local noise limits or can cause destructive damage to regulating and pipe components. Too often regulation generated noise is an afterthought of station design. Its importance is realized only after noise complaints or noise generated damage to regulating components is brought forcefully to the designers attention
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F088F5B8

Filtration And Separation Techology For Gas Pipeline Applications
Author(s): John A. Krogue
Abstract/Introduction:
The removal of particulates and liquid droplets from natural gas has long been recognized as a way to improve pipeline performance, plant performance, and minimize damage to compressors, measurement devices, and other process equipment. Many different technologies are applied to meet these removal requirements. Gas contracts dont give much detail as to the performance required from such devices. However, the correct application of filtration and separation technology will impact measurement accuracy and operating and maintenance costs on pipelines
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CBE14625

Freeze Protection And Prevention
Author(s): Wayne Broussard
Abstract/Introduction:
Any discussion on gas processing should include a discussion on Hydrates. Hydrates are simply ice like particles that form when a sufficient amount of water (90% water with 10% hydrocarbons as a norm) is present as well as a Hydrate former (percentages and products all in the correct ratios) and the right combination of temperatures and pressures (Hydrate formation is favored by low temperatures and high pressures
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4B137095

Introduction To Gas Measurement Practices And Standards
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Science interprets nature in terms of matter and energy. Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. There are many types of energy such as heat energy, electrical energy, kinetic energy (energy of motion), and potential energy (intrinsic energy of an object due to the position of the object).
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EA9F758B

Gas Chromatograph Basics
Author(s): Murray Fraser
Abstract/Introduction:
The on-line gas chromatograph (GC) has been widely used for natural gas quality analysis and energy measurement at custody transfer locations since the early 80s. The gas chromatograph measures component concentrations first and then calculates physical properties of the gas such as BTU and relative density. Both BTU and relative density can have a large effect on unaccounted for Gas. Relative density and composition effect volume calculations and BTU effects total energy calculations. Units of energy measurement can be British Thermal Units (BTU) Mega Joules (MJ) or KiloCalories (KJ). This paper will refer to BTU for energy units, ISO (KJ) or SI (MJ) metric units can be used interchangeably
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FE825B55

Correct Gas Sampling Methods: The First Step To Determining Gas Quality
Author(s): Kris A. Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is sampled to balance plant or gathering systems and to determine its quality for custody transfer applications. Many contracts are written in such a manner to account for the quality of the gas. The quality of the gas is determined by the energy contained in it, which is measured in British Thermal Units or BTUs. A gas chromatograph is typically used to identify individual components of the sample and their quantity, thus determining quality of the sample taken. How the sample was obtained, transported and analyzed is crucial to the accuracy required for custody transfer of this product
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 63948445

Odorization Systems And Best Practices
Author(s): Mike Mckay
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization is a process we are mandated to know about, we work with daily, and we continually monitor to measure quantities of odorant that are injected into the pipeline. So why is it that no one likes to work around odorant or odorant equipment? Of course, it is the distinctive smell that gets on your clothing causing problems with family, friends, and neighbors.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9C8DD9A5

Flow Conditioning For Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): B. D. Sawchuk D. P. Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
The metering options available in todays marketplace for measuring natural gas flow are numerous. A conservative estimate is 50 to at least 75 meters are available to the measurement practitioner. Some meters are well recognized and supported with industry standards such as the orifice, turbine and ultrasonic meters. Other meters are less recognized but may provide acceptable metering performance when installed and operated with technical diligence
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 099FFD59

Heating Value Technologies For 2000 And Beyond
Author(s): Byron Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
Heating Value is defined as the amount of energy released when a fuel is burned completely in a steady-flow process and the products are returned to the state of the reactants. The heating value is dependent on the phase of water/steam in the combustion products. If H2O is in liquid form, heating value is called HHV (Higher Heating Value). When H2O is in vapor form, heating value is called LHV (Lower Heating Value). The English unit BTU (British Thermal Unit) or the SSI unit of joules is commonly used. Natural gas distributed in North America is typically around 1000 Btu per standard cubic feet or 1055 joules/ per cubic foot or 37 joules per cubic meter. These units are derived on a wet or dry basis.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FA8DCA26

Electrical Area Classification
Author(s): Jorge Rodas
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary purpose of the Electrical Area Classification is to guide designers, installers and maintenance in the selection of proper electrical equipment and installations to prevent accidental ignition of volatile hydrocarbons originated from electrical devices
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 291C0CB7

Implementing A Low Cost Commercial And Industrial Amr System
Author(s): Glenn Carlson
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic Meter Reading is the process of getting energy consumption data from the meter to the office without manual effort. However, AMR does not mean the same thing to everyone. There are many manufacturers, serving many AMR needs, using a variety of communication technologies. AMR can be a very confusing topic
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8CE38D30

Fluidic Oscillation Measurement
Author(s): Andrew Carver Chuck Brunson
Abstract/Introduction:
The scientific community has known about Fluidic Oscillation as a measurement technology for many years. Recent advances in this technology now make this a highly robust, cost-effective solution to metering needs. This paper will discuss the advances and benefits. Based on Bernoullis Theory - A slow moving high pressure gas becomes fast moving low pressure gas at the nozzle exit forming a jet of gas. The jet, once formed can be controlled by the Coanda effect using an obstacle in the flow that is designed to optimize the performance of the meter. Controlling the jet path enables formation of feedback nodes of pressure on either side of the jet. This provides a predictable oscillation of the jet.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3F481769

Field Proving
Author(s): Phil Whittemore
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides a basic overview of the different test methods most commonly used in the natural gas industry for testing commercial and industrial capacity gas meters, with a more comprehensive review on the theory of transfer proving and recommended operational procedures. All meters need to be tested for accuracy. Many companies remove their larger meters from service and take them into the shop for test and repair, while others find it is more economical to test their large meters on location at the meter site. Greater emphasis on accurate measurement by gas companies has enhanced the need for better methods of field-testing meters. The commonly accepted methods for fieldtesting of gas meters as listed by the American Gas Association in the Gas Measurement Manual, Meter Proving Part No. Twelve, include the following
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C57EAF33

Prefabricated Rotary Meter Sets For Use In Distribution Measurement
Author(s): Roy A. Sutterfield
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is an overview of pre-fabricated rotary meter sets. The goal is to provide information you can use to evaluate the benefits of pre-fabricated sets, evaluate potential vendors, and evaluate potential design ideas. The use of pre-fabricated rotary meter sets in the North American gas industry is increasing. As our industry continues to change, you will see an increasing need for this cost saving concept. First, lets briefly discuss some of the industry trends generating interest in this idea
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9405E593

Basics Of Ultrasonic Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses fundamental issues relative to ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas. A basic review of an ultrasonic meters operation is presented to understand the typical operation of todays Ultrasonic Flow Meter (UFM). The UFMs diagnostic data, in conjunction with gas composition, pressure and temperature, will be reviewed to show how this technology provides diagnostic benefits beyond that of other primary measurement devices. The basic requirements for obtaining good meter performance, when installed in the field, will be covered. Recommendations for installation will be provided, and a discussion on flow calibration requirements will be included
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 60599470

Industry Review Of AGA Report No. 9 Multipath Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): William Bill() Stephens
Abstract/Introduction:
This report reviews industry practice concerning large capacity ultrasonic meters as they relate to AGA Report Number 9 (AGA 9) Measurement of Gas by Ultrasonic Meters. The paper focuses on custody transfer multipath ultrasonic flow meter applications of 4-inch through 42-inch line size meters. Meters discussed include Instromet Q.Sonic, Daniel SeniorSonic and FMC Kongsberg MPU 1200. Multipath in this paper will be defined as a single spool piece meter with 3 or more independent pairs of transducers. This papers intent is to be informative concerning industry use of ultrasonic metering technology. Because this technology is constantly changing with new processes and techniques, always consult the manufacturer and refer to the most current edition of AGA 9.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4F279CAA

Flow Computers
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow Computers are used to measure and record flow parameters by electrically converting signals from gas measurement systems to a method that can be used for production and custody transfer applications. The signal outputs from the measuring system can be from either a analog or digital transducer. These transducers are used in varies types of measurement systems such as orifice, turbine meter and, rotary or positive displacement type meters. The computations from the flow computers can be either read locally from a display on the front panel, or by interfacing a computer held industrial terminal such as a Laptop Personal Computer. Information can be displayed remotely through 4/20ma outputs, which are proportional to flow or, digitally from a communications port or more commonly referred to as the host port
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2237F869

Introduction To Electronic Volume Correctors
Author(s): Gil m. Pineda, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past, mechanical devices have been providing a means for correcting measured gas volume to base conditions of pressure and temperature. Their origin can be traced back to the 1920s when chart recorders were used to record line pressure at the gas meter. These charts would then be read to determine average line pressure so that the volume measured by the gas meter could be corrected to base conditions of pressure. Today, mechanical chart recorders are still used for volume correction. They may record any combination of metered volume, line pressure, or line temperature.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: BBC9AA27

Fundamentals Of Measurement Communication
Author(s): L. Scott Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Communication has always been the keystone of any measurement or industrial automation application. It also happens to be one of the fastest changing technologies in the SCADA industry. In todays highly competitive SCADA environment, business practices and computer solutions that were acceptable only a few years ago are no longer satisfactory. The present technological transition is again being driven by customer demand for modular industry standard hardware components, off-the-shelf software applications, and seamless integration and distribution of process information enterprise-wide. Customers are seeking open systems that are not only cost-effective, but scalable, reliable and maintainable
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 412E6C81


Copyright © 2017