Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1998)

The Development Of An Effective Amr Strategy
Author(s): Cathy Chang
Abstract/Introduction:
AMR activities in the last two years have escalated tremendously due to upcoming electricity restructuring and continuing gas utility deregulation. Accurate, reliable and timely meter reads have been demanded in the deregulated environment. Utilities need real time energy consumption data to improve load management efficiency and reduce transmission costs. Energy consumption data enables energy retailers to assess market potential and balance load for transactions. Customers will be interested in energy costs and savings if there are more than one energy service provider available to them. To expedite the process, the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) has mandated the implementation of Direct Access which will unbundle traditional electric utility services including metering, data communications and billing. Needless to say, a similar plan can be perceived by the CPUC to impose on gas utilities in the near future.
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Document ID: BADB8D68

Electrical Isolation Method Simplifies Cathodic Protection Assure That Your System Remains In Compliance
Author(s): Henry N. Tachick
Abstract/Introduction:
Cathodic protection of many structures can be greatly simplified by the proper use of DC isolating/AC coupling devices. One primary example is DC isolation of cathodically protected structures from electrical grounding systems while retaining AC continuity with those systems as required by electrical codes. This article illustrates how cathodically protected structures which contain electrical equipment can be DC isolated from: (a) the power utility grounding system, or (b) both the power utilitys and users grounding systems.
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Document ID: A4908F81

Gas Services- As-Built Testing For Capacity
Author(s): Steven J. Troch
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past thirty years, the characteristics of a typical gas service has changed dramatically. At Baltimore Gas and Electric, our services have evolved from a majority being either steel or copper (1960s-early 1970s), steel or plastic (1970s-early 1980s) to the current practice of almost exclusively installing plastic services connected to plastic mains. Today the installation of new gas mains is 95% plastic pipe (with the remainder being large diameter or higher pressure mains requiring steel pipe) and 99% of all new services are plastic pipe/tubing. Throughout this transition the physical components of services have changed accordingly. Where once welded steel tees were the most common means of service connections, we transitioned to plastic sidewall fused tees and more recently to electrofusion tapping tees with standard tap sizes. The typical gas service today also consists of an outside pre-fabricated riser and valve at the building wall with an outside meter/regulator set. This differs from past typical gas services installed with underground service valves and inside meter/regulator locations.
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Document ID: A5F39318

Residential Ultrasonic Measurement: An Update Of Activity In North America
Author(s): James Thomson
Abstract/Introduction:
Until the very recent past, the basic measurement technology used for residential applications and the way residential customers were served had not changed in over 100 years. Over the past few years, many states and provinces have started trials and worked on legislation as they move down the road toward the ideal of open competition. In order to better serve the customer, there is a need for more information about the customers usage. Residential ultrasonic meters can, and do, provide considerably more information than current diaphragm meters can. In addition to the data they provide, their electronic platform makes it easier to customize them to meet customer needs. Recent actions by regulatory and industry bodies in North America will help utilities as they move to a more competitive environment.
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Document ID: C809AF3A

Evaluation Of Butt Fusion Polyethylene Gas Pipe Using A Ppi-Proposed Generic Joining Procedure
Author(s): Jim Craig
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1994, representatives of the U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety requested that the Plastics Pipe Institute assist in promoting greater uniformity in the joining procedures utilized by gas utilities in the butt fusion of polyethylene (P.E.) gas piping products. DOT reported that it had encountered a proliferation of similar but slightly varying joining procedures from individual P.E. pipe producers. The slight differences in the various procedures made it more difficult for pipeline operators to qualify persons with appropriate training and experience in the use of these procedures, and more difficult for DOT to enforce the joining requirements in 49 C.F.R. 192.283 (Plastic pipe, qualifying joining procedures) of the Code of Federal Regulations.
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Document ID: 375F30CA

The History Of Stress Corrosion Cracking In Pipelines In North America
Author(s): John F. Kiefner, John A. Beavers
Abstract/Introduction:
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can occur in buried pipelines under certain circumstances. It has caused pipeline ruptures, and although it has not caused a large number of pipeline service failures, its prevention is or should be a major concern to operators of high pressure natural gas or liquid petroleum pipelines. From a historical perspective, underground, steel pipelines were operated for nearly 100 years before the first case of a failure caused by SCC was recognized. Once it became known that SCC could affect pipeline integrity, the pipeline industry began a comprehensive research program to assess the causes of SCC and to investigate various techniques for preventing failures from SCC. Presented herein is a brief history of the phenomenon as it has affected pipelines in North America. In this presentation, the following issues are a
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Document ID: A3869086

The History Of Stress Corrosion Cracking In Pipelines In North America
Author(s): John F. Kiefner, John A. Beavers
Abstract/Introduction:
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can occur in buried pipelines under certain circumstances. It has caused pipeline ruptures, and although it has not caused a large number of pipeline service failures, its prevention is or should be a major concern to operators of high pressure natural gas or liquid petroleum pipelines. From a historical perspective, underground, steel pipelines were operated for nearly 100 years before the first case of a failure caused by SCC was recognized. Once it became known that SCC could affect pipeline integrity, the pipeline industry began a comprehensive research program to assess the causes of SCC and to investigate various techniques for preventing failures from SCC. Presented herein is a brief history of the phenomenon as it has affected pipelines in North America. In this presentation, the following issues are addressed
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Document ID: 56CF5169

Plastic Pipe Design Equation Update
Author(s): Donald L. Schrantz
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas distribution industry should applaud the plastic pipe industry for the improvements in plastic materials over the last thirty plus years. The improved performance of the plastic material has reduced failures and leaks in gas distribution piping systems around the world. This has enabled the A.G.A. Plastic Materials Committee (PMC) to write petitions to the Department of Transportation (DOT) to amend Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) to increase the allowable operating pressure for plastic pipe feeder systems to 125 psig, in Class 1 and 2 areas, and less than 12-inches for PE2406 and PE3406 polyethylene material as specified by ASTM D 2513 and Polyamide material pipe. In addition, the PMC is also drafting a petition to DOT to increase the design factor from 0.32(1) to 0.40. This paper will discuss the proposal to change the design factor used in the plastic pipe design equation for computing the design pressure for new plastic piping installations from the current value of 0.32 to 0.40 in section 192.121.
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Document ID: A78F7642

Environmental Effects Of Deep Anode Cathodic Protection Systems
Author(s): Charles Durrett, Rob Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Backfill material used in deep well cathodic protection systems exhibited concentrations of contaminants below the RCRA regulatory limits for contaminants for toxicity characteristic. If appropriate well completion measures are taken to prevent commingling of backfill (coke breeze) with water bearing zones, it is anticipated that the continued use of the material will not adversely affect ground water.
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Document ID: C86AD82D

Guidelines And Procedures For Assessing Service Performance Of Polyethylene Modified Slip Liners
Author(s): Chris J. Kuhlmang. Graham Chell, Carl H. Popelartimothy S. Rennick, Douglas A. Mckee, Timothy S. Grant
Abstract/Introduction:
Service guidelines and assessment procedures are presented to assist gas company engineers in establishing the fitness-for-service of polyethylene (PE) modified slip liners (MSL) that are used for gas pipe rehabilitation. The two dominant failure modes of PE gas pipes (neglecting third-party damage) are ductile rupture and brittle slow crack growth (SCG). These modes are the focus of this investigation for pressurized PE liners exposed by defects and cutouts in rehabilitated metal host pipes. Although liners are designed as stand-alone pipes, field conditions may render this design approach nonconservative because stresses in exposed PE liners can be greater than those predicted for stand-alone pipes. Therefore, additional fitness-for-service procedures are described in this paper that augment the plastic pipe design equation.
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Document ID: 22F85DB9

Challenges Of Developing A Grass Roots Gas Storage Project
Author(s): C. Dean Cockshutt
Abstract/Introduction:
Continuing evolution of the natural gas transportation and distribution industry has created opportunities for gas storage developers to construct projects in regions where gas supply and demand are periodically out of balance, and where there is significant price volatility. Alberta Energy Company Ltd.s (AEC) AECO C Hub is the dominant gas storage provider in Alberta and is North Americas largest independent gas storage facility. Using the marketing, systems and engineering experience gained at the AECO C Hub, AEC has stepped out into the rapidly changing California energy market. There, it is developing the Wild Goose Storage Project through its wholly owned subsidiary Wild Goose Storage Inc. (WGSI). The challenges and associated risks of developing a grass roots gas storage project in a new region should be understood before embarking on this costly venture. A corporation must be prepared to risk significant capital prior to having confirmation that the project can be built. While the example discussed is for a project in California, which may be extreme compared to other states, the total at risk funds are significant.
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Document ID: E2DD2205

Wet Gas Metering Facility At CEESI
Author(s): Thomas Kegel, Joshua Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
A wet gas test facility is under construction at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc. (CEESI) site in northern Colorado. The test facility design and operation are described. Preliminary system shakedown data are presented. Future plans are briefly discussed.
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Document ID: D888BA5D

Formation Damage Mechanisms In The Six Lakes Gas Storage Field
Author(s): Robert m. Bomar, Edward Dereniewski
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: FF72CEFD

Scada Information On The Web
Author(s): Theodore E. Christensen
Abstract/Introduction:
applications have become an emerging technology for gas transmission and distribution companies. The data that populates SCADA systems is valuable. The internet can be used to access and distribute this data in many ways.
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Document ID: 64B9F3FE

Orifice Meter Installation Effects: Effect Of Variable Spacer Length Between Two 90 Ells Out-Of-Plane
Author(s): T. B. Morrow, E. Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
This report presents the results of 4-inch (102-mm) orifice meter installation effects tests performed in the Gas Research Institute Metering Research Facility High Pressure Loop flowing natural gas. Orifice meter flow calibrations were performed to investigate the effect on discharge coefficient of varying the spacer distance (straight pipe length) between two 90 elbows arranged in an out-of-plane configuration for bare meter tubes. Tests were performed for upstream meter tube lengths (A) of 17, 29 and 45 pipe diameters (D) for orifice diameter ratios (b) from 0.40 to 0.75. Values of straight spacer lengths (s) between the first and second 90 elbows were: 1.6 D, 5 D, 10 D and 15 D. Figure 2-6 of A.G.A. Report No. 3, Part 2, specifies minimum meter tube lengths for bare meter tubes downstream of two 90 elbows out-of-plane separated by a straight spacer length less than 10 D. The test results for straight spacer lengths of 1.6 D and 5 D indicate that the minimum upstream meter tube length specifications in Figure 2-6 are too short and require revision for some b values. However, the minimum upstream meter tube length specifications are adequate for straight spacer lengths of 10 D and 15 D.
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Document ID: DDCA385E

Optimizing A 60% (300 mmscf/d) Expansion Of An Aquifer Storage Project
Author(s): James A. Janson
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 302CF396

Gris Pe Gas Pipe Information Products
Author(s): Michael m. Mamoun, Sudheer m. Pimputkar
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Research Institute (GRI) is developing information products that are intended to assist gas companies in training personnel, and in developing and updating operating procedures. One such product being developed is a series of read-only compact disks (CD-ROMs) on topics of interest in gas distribution and polyethylene (PE) gas pipe. The information contained in the CD-ROMs is comprehensive, up-to-date, and easy-to-use.
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Document ID: E823A397

Internal Corrosion Control Considerations For Gas Transmission And Storage Systems
Author(s): Scott Farthing
Abstract/Introduction:
Internal corrosion of gas transmission and storage pipelines has a tendency to be ignored by many until it is too late. In contrast with external corrosion on a pipe, internal corrosion is not readily visible when the pipe is exposed. Numerous test methods, evaluation techniques and procedures are available to detect and control corrosion on the pipes exterior surface, as opposed for internal corrosion. There are many tools available that can be used to minimize the risks associated with internal corrosion control. The following considerations are an overview of these tools, techniques and procedures used in reducing the risk in a pipeline due to corrosion. In general there are four basics question that must be answered: Where? When? What? How?
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Document ID: E2C91B3E

Installation Of Multipath Ultrasonic Meters On A Major Australian Metering System Project
Author(s): Michael Snell, John Blain
Abstract/Introduction:
In December 1996, Transmission Pipelines Australia commenced a project to install custody transfer meters at all offtakes from their transmission system. This involved a total of 102 new meters including 18 multipath ultrasonic meters, 60 turbine meters and 24 coriolis meters. The project has taken place over eighteen months at a total cost of A30 million (US20 mil
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Document ID: 50275EEC

Interventions For Construction And Maintenance Tasks At Bc Gas Utility Ltd
Author(s): Carmel Murphy
Abstract/Introduction:
Construction and maintenance tasks are noted for their high incidence of back injuries in numerous industries and efforts to reduce the severity and frequency of injury is a constant challenge for Occupational Safety and Health personnel (Cederqvist et al, 1994). This project, initiated by BC Gas Utility Ltd., was focused on integrating ergonomic principles in construction and maintenance tasks to reduce the occurrence and risk of back injury in this group of workers. The objective of the present study was to determine where perceived risks or problems existed and to initially focus on one or two jobs in terms of problem identification and solution development. Ergonomic solutions were sought and a participatory approach was used throughout the process. Initial results indicate that ergonomic awareness was increased and several changes were integrated into the system. The challenge is to maintain the momentum and ensure that the gains achieved are not overshadowed by changes in personnel and organizational requirements.
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Document ID: 888276F3

Mooney Controls Introduces Two New High Capacity, Top-Entry Regulators
Author(s): Richard J. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
Mooney Controls has introduced two new high-capacity, top-entry regulators. As with the companys other in-line serviceable regulators, the 8 Flowgrid Regulator and the 12 V-8 Flowgrid Regulator combine the ease of top entry maintenance with accurate control and wide rangeability in Class 150, 300, & 600 ratings
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Document ID: 87A46937

Advancing The Quality Of Workmanship And Performance Of Street Restorations
Author(s): Ben P. Pruett
Abstract/Introduction:
The performance of utility street cut restorations is an issue that is taking on national importance to the gas industry. Local governments across the country are considering strategies to impose new permit fees and restoration standards premised on the theory that utility cuts accelerate the deterioration of roadways. Utility conducted research and field demonstration projects repeatedly indicate that the performance of utility cuts is more directly related to excavation restoration techniques and quality control procedures. The gas industry must understand the issue, its relationship to telecommunications deregulation, and develop both local and national strategies to address these unwarranted fees and restoration standards.
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Document ID: 70DBD27F

Earthquake Hazards And Underground Natural Gas Facilities
Author(s): Robert S. Yeats
Abstract/Introduction:
Earthquakes can pose a problem to gas facilities in many parts of the United States. Planning for underground storage projects should include an analysis of active-deformation potential within the reservoir as well as that from nearby active faults. This permits probabilistic estimates of the potential for ground failure and ground shaking and engineering design solutions to reduce the risk.
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Document ID: E2B021E7

Earthquake Hazards And Underground Natural Gas Facilities
Author(s): Robert S. Yeats
Abstract/Introduction:
Earthquakes can pose a problem to gas facilities in many parts of the United States. Planning for underground storage projects should include an analysis of active-deformation potential within the reservoir as well as that from nearby active faults. This permits probabilistic estimates of the potential for ground failure and ground shaking and engineering design solutions to reduce the risk.
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Document ID: 477F4FAF

The Development And Validation Of A Locatable Pe Gas Distribution Piping System
Author(s): Randall Doctor, Ken Moutvic, Mel Kanninen, Mike Lukasiewicz, Michael Mamoun
Abstract/Introduction:
A major concern of the gas industry is the need to install a tracer wire adjacent to polyethylene (PE) gas pipe. GRI and Nicor Technologies are involved in a project that explores the development and use of a PE pipe that is embedded with magnetic particles and imprinted with a magnetic signal. This magnetic pipe can be located on its own, thus eliminating the need for tracer wire.
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Document ID: FD9CEC0C

Natural Gas Star Program- A Voluntary And Profitable Pollution Prevention Partnership
Author(s): Paul Gunning
Abstract/Introduction:
support of the Kyoto Protocol, the Clinton Administration is encouraging companies to take proactive measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Natural Gas STAR Program, a voluntary, non-regulatory partnership between the U.S. EPA and the natural gas industry, offers companies cost-effective technological solutions to reducing gas loss and improving system efficiency. The STAR Program provides companies the opportunity to take credit for their reductions and increase their competitive edge in a post-Kyoto world.
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Document ID: 6E62E1E7

Whats New In Measurement Applications
Abstract/Introduction:
American Meter will present a new RPM Series of rotary meters ranging in capacity from 900 cfh to 5500 cfh and rated at 175 psi. These meters are available in three models standard counter, instrument drive and temperature compensated. The T/C version has electronic temperature compensation with optional fixed factor pressure correction.
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Document ID: 2921F3C8

Enhanced Combustion For Large Bore Gas Engines
Author(s): James J. Mccoy
Abstract/Introduction:
For the past ten years or so, operators of large bore gas-fired engines have been busy developing systems to convert old, rich-burn engines to more environmentally-friendly engines that are cleaner burning. Because of the way the original Clean-Air legislation and guidelines from EPA were written, the initial thrust of this cleanup was to rid the engines of as much NOx as possible, and to do it as economically as possible. Even so, millions of dollars have been spent on thousands of engines over the past eight years, and much of the NOx that was being dumped into the air has been eliminated. So the dollars spent have definitely shown good results, with some engines having reduced NOx from particular engine types by as much as 80%. All this has been done without having to spend anywhere near the dollars that it would have cost to replace the engines with new horsepower.
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Document ID: AA14422E

Self Disclosure (SEC/EPA)
Author(s): William A. Danchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
The Federal EPA Self-Disclosure Policy, first published as an interim policy on April 3, 1995, was in direct response to the promulgation of auditing exemptions and privileges developed by approximately one half of the states in this country. These state policies offered full or partial privilege for selfauditing and, in several cases, full exemption from civil and even criminal liability under state law for violations discovered through audits. To this day, EPA is not happy about state involvement in the auditing privilege arena and, as Ill explain shortly, has threatened to target companies who are exempted under state law for inspections based on the specifics of the case.
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Document ID: 851BB8E1

Geophysics For Utility Location: When It Works-When It Wont
Author(s): Bernard H. Hertlein
Abstract/Introduction:
The location of buried utility lines is often poorly documented. The lateral position of the lines may be known with reasonable accuracy, but the burial depth may be uncertain due to changes in grade caused by construction or maintenance after the pipes were buried. Where mechanical equipment is used, an undocumented utility line can easily be damaged before it is observed by excavation workers. Gas and electricity lines present very obvious safety threats in this situation.
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Document ID: 72ECA2CA

Effects Of Heat Flux From Natural Gas Explosions On Personnel Protection Equipment
Author(s): Dwight Pfenning
Abstract/Introduction:
LNG Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) was exposed to heat fluxes from natural gas explosions. The PPE was placed in the path of a natural gas explosions generated in an 28.32 m3 open ended tube. Stoll and Chianta 1 second-degree burn criteria was used to determine the effectiveness of the PPE
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Document ID: 527176CB

Call Center Consolidation At Atlanta Gas Light
Author(s): Tina Brannen
Abstract/Introduction:
Companies are faced with the challenge of providing superior customer service in an efficient, cost-effective manner. For a number of companies, call center consolidation is a viable solution. Call center consolidation at Atlanta Gas Light required the evaluation of existing business processes and workflow with an emphasis on improving customer operations and customer service
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Document ID: 48556D58

Calibration And Monitoring Of 12-inch Multipath Ultrasonic Meters In Natural Gas Service
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
Companies today are grappling with implementing multipath ultrasonic flowmeters in an efficient and effective manner. Technology transfer, such as this conference, is essential successful assessment and implementation of this promising technology.
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Document ID: ADCF2597

New Development In Inspection Of Gas Distribution Mains
Author(s): Kiran m. Kothari, Patrick C. Porter, Philippe Rave
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas distribution utilities in the United States currently maintain and operate some 857,000 miles of mains to deliver approximately 20 trillion cubic feet of gas per year to residential, commercial and industrial customers. Steel mains account for approximately 600,000 miles. It is estimated that approximately one billion dollars are expended annually for replacement of damaged or deteriorating gas mains. The past results have indicated that next to the third-party damage, the primary repair and replacement costs are associated with cast iron and unprotected steel pipe. Statistics also show that significant costs of repairing or replacing mains are for pipes in the 4- to 8- inch diameter range.
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Document ID: BEF6D1F8

We Really Want To Use Liners For Gas Pipe Rehabilitation- A Primer For The Industry On How To Get Our Business
Author(s): Mark W. Heckman
Abstract/Introduction:
The high costs and inconvenience to the public associated with the excavation and restoration of pavement for gas pipeline replacement and rehabilitation projects has lead Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) to expand its use of trenchless construction technologies. These technologies offer great promise in our on-going efforts to reduce the cost of natural gas distribution main and service rehabilitation. Over the past 5 years, PG&E has completed an exhaustive R&D program to evaluate the performance of Cured-In-Place-Pipe (CIPP) liners for gas distribution main and service applications. While a technical success, a number of obstacles remain to be overcome before this technology will have wide spread acceptance as a practical pipe rehabilitation method.
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Document ID: CF0C48FE

Gris Internal Combustion Engine Air Toxic Research Program Results To Date And Future Plans
Author(s): James m. Mccarthy, Robert A. Lott
Abstract/Introduction:
Federal regulations to address air toxic emissions from combustion sources are planned for the year 2000. With only limited information available on air toxics from natural gas industry equipment, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) initiated a program in 1992 to better understand the implication of such regulations on gas industry sources. The initial focus of GRI air toxics research was measurement of emissions in the field to identify sources with minimal emissions that will not likely be subject to regulatory control, as well as sources with emissions potentially significant enough to warrant regulation. Early program results, which identified formaldehyde emissions from reciprocating internal combustion engines as the principal air toxic issue for natural-gas fired combustion equipment, resulted in a more comprehensive program for engines. With an objective to better characterize engine formaldehyde emissions, develop low cost emission estimation tools and monitoring technology, and develop emission reduction techniques, the program has made significant progress. This paper reports on results to date, and identifies the status and plans for the ongoing program.
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Document ID: 38C42F86

Pipeline Pcb Programs: Lessons Learned And Future Impacts
Author(s): Scott R. Dismukes
Abstract/Introduction:
This article provides general information on Natural Gas Pipeline PCB Programs under The Toxic Substances Control Act and is not intended to constitute legal advice. For information or advice on specific compliance or valuation issues, you should contact legal counsel.
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Document ID: 9F98DA2D

Database Records Management For Cathodic Protection Programs
Author(s): Thomas B. Van Goor
Abstract/Introduction:
Cathodic protection (CP) measurement data record-keeping is important for many reasons, not the least of which is regulatory compliance. However, fear of jack-booted regulators is only one reason to collect and maintain CP data.
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Document ID: D36A38D7

Year 2000 Vulnerabilities Within A Gas Utilitys Embedded Syst
Author(s): Salvatore D. Marano
Abstract/Introduction:
As the Year 2000 approaches, Gas Utilities must correct the Millennium Bug that is present in the numerous business, financial, and customer information systems. In this effort, one typically overlooked area is the various embedded systems used throughout the Engineering and Operations areas. The Millennium Bug is the inability of a computer to differentiate the year 2000 from 1900, and subsequently cause either failure of the system or corrupt data. That same vulnerability that is present in mainframe hardware and software is also embedded in the numerous microprocessors contained in the equipment utilized throughout the Operations of the Utility.
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Document ID: 3B9E708D

The New Pcb Regulations Update And Discussion
Author(s): Tracey L. Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
The rule was sent by USEPA to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review. OMB sent it back with instructions to reorganize the rule and make a few changes to the disposal section as requested by the Navy. As a result, all responses to comments and internal references will have to be redone so that the new numbering system remains coherent. In addition, the rule has been sent to the Regions for one more round of comments. We have been assured, however, that the pipeline issues are still in there in essentially the form we expect, not in the same place anymore, but present.
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Document ID: 3A350EA2

Natural Gas Industry Overview
Author(s): Mark Perry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented in the form of 125 graphics (slides) without accompanying text. The graphics start on the next page use the button to turn the page now and to progress through the presentation.
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Document ID: 8B7F7E64

Internet Trends And Gas Industry
Author(s): Tushar K. Shah
Abstract/Introduction:
Internet is the worlds largest and fastest growing global communication network. The wide variety of communication, software, hardware technologies and tools makes the Internet usable.
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Document ID: DEFDD642

Quantification Of Uncertainty Associated With Gas Sampling Equipment And Techniques, And The Impact On Flow Rate And Heating Value Measurement
Author(s): Kendricks A. Behring II, Stephen E.
Abstract/Introduction:
The root causes of natural gas sampling errors and their impact on gas value have been investigated. It has been found that oily liquid-hydrocarbon residue will decrease sample density and heating value under both static and flowing conditions. The results have also shown that when the exposure is limited, liquid water or glycol residue does not distort gas samples.
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Document ID: 123E8C52

Development Of Coupons For Monitoring Cathodic Protection Systems
Author(s): N. G. Thompson, K. m. Lawson
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past ten years, several studies have been performed that examined the use of off-potential measurements for evaluating the effectiveness of the CP system. These studies have shown several conditions for which conventional off-potential measurements on pipelines are either inaccurate or difficult to apply. The most notable of these conditions are areas of stray current interference or areas in which all of the CP current can not be interrupted. These studies have prompted interest in other monitoring techniques. The use of coupons buried near the pipe surface for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of a cathodic protection system is one such technique.
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Document ID: 24717D9B

The Current And Future Impacts Of Deregulation On Gas Measurement Operation
Author(s): Jack B. Gregg, Earl Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
Competition has had and will continue to have a transforming impact on local gas distribution companys traditional gas measurement functions. The traditional role of this function has been broadened from its primary mission of installing, measuring , and maintaining the accuracy of primarily mechanical regulators, metering devices and correctors. It now also encompasses the processing of hourly gas usage data from smart field devices up to several times a day to support retail access information needs of large industrial and commercial customers and their marketers, as well as internal utility sales, billing, and distribution system information management functions. This information allows for more efficient decision making by all parties involved in the process with the end result of allowing customers to have choices that give them the opportunity to lower their energy costs.
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Document ID: 7D35C4A9

Epas New Air Enforcement Paradigm: Operating Permits, Any Credible Evidence, And Compliance Assurance Monitoring
Author(s): James P. Obrien
Abstract/Introduction:
Enforcement of the Clean Air Act (Act) is changing. Facilities that emit air pollutants will face faster and easier enforcement by the government and citizens groups. Changes to the Act require operating permits with easily measured numerical emissions limits governing operations. Monitoring of emissions and control equipment will reveal any exceedances. Any credible evidence can be used to prove violations. Enforcement can be based on the facilitys own testing and recordkeeping. In short, it just became easier, much easier, to make Act claims.
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Document ID: 87DC55FA

Dont Inconvenience The Customer The Use Of A Compressed Natural Gas Trailer
Author(s): Louis P. Riccelli
Abstract/Introduction:
GENERAL TRAILER, TANK, AND OPERATOR INFORMATION Original Cost of Trailer, Tanks, and Components: 15,500. (Payback was realized within eight months in overtime savings) CNG tank size: 13 dia 72 length Tank guarantee: 15 years Tank weight: 195 lbs (each) Tank burst pressure: 12,600 PSI Rated tank pressure: 5400 PSI Actual tank pressure utilized: 3000 PSI, allowed to expand to 3600 PSI in warm weather. Trailer dimensions: 6o8o6o6(Height), Trailer pulled by 3/4 ton pickup truck. Electric brakes on trailer due to weight greater than 5300 pounds. Tank regulators: Tank pressure 3000 PSIG: 1st CUT Regulator is a Fisher 1301 set at 100 PSIG, 2nd CUT Regulators is Fisher 041 set at 40 PSIG, 3rd CUT is at customers regulator set to required operating pressure. Hose size 1/2 rated at 300 PSI. (50o on reel plus 200o additional, if necessary). Operator training: Two fitters are licensed with CDL and HAZMAT endorsements. Connecticut Natural Gas Corp paid for their licenses and in addition pays an additional two hours of compensation when they are utilized on a job. CNG trailer is used an average of five times a month.
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Document ID: 02810081

Raps Update
Author(s): R. Murray Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
WHAT RAPS IS RAPS is the acronym for Remote Applications Protocol Suite. The words Protocol Suite refer to the fact that RAPS is a set of protocols, conforming to the International Standards Organizations protocol conventions for Open System Interconnection (OSI). These protocols have been selected to support the applications found in the gas industry, specifically those that have equipment/components that are located remote from the central of
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Document ID: BC7150A8

From Service To Sales: Increasing The Value Of Your Call Center Operation
Author(s): Robert J. Jocis
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented in the form of 19 graphics (slides) without accompanying text. The graphics start on the next page use the button to turn the page and to progress through the presentation.
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Document ID: 60D3F465

Customer Choice Programs Of Natural Gas Utilities
Author(s): Bruce Mcdowell
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This paper is presented in the form of 15 graphics (slides) without accompanying text. The graphics start on the next page use the button to turn the page and to progress through the presentatio
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Document ID: 5B7B9E9B

Strategy For Mitigating Scc
Author(s): Bob Eiber
Abstract/Introduction:
Discuss mitigation strategies for high pH SCC
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Document ID: 6EC042FC

Evaluation Of Retrofit Nox Reduction Technologies For Clark HBA-8T Engines
Author(s): Gary Horinouchi, Ellen Yeoman, Dave Prewitt
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented in the form of 18 graphics (slides) without accompanying text. The graphics start on the next page use the button to turn the page and to progress through the presentation.
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Document ID: 1961A742

New Products & Technologies For Gas Distribution An Update Of Gas Research Institutes Recently Commercialized Products And Current Technology Development
Author(s): Allen J. Spivey
Abstract/Introduction:
In the midst of rapid change, utilities continue to take advantage of new technologies and innovative products to help meet business objectives. One primary objective for most gas distribution utilities is to reduce operating and maintenance costs. In 1993, GRI set a goal to introduce to the gas industry new technologies that would reduce gas industry costs by 2 billion per year in the year 2000. Although this was viewed as a very aggressive goal, GRI is well on its way to achieving that goal. New products and promising technologies have been introduced to the gas industry and others as the result of GRIs efforts. This paper will describe GRIs distribution programs strategy and highlight some of the products currently available and some that will be commercially available soon to help utilities achieved cost-savings goals.
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Document ID: EDBD7B23

Benefits Of Incorporating Safety Into All Aspects Of Your Business
Author(s): Todd Sostek
Abstract/Introduction:
CREATING A CORPORATE SAFETY CULTURE How do you know you are there? What benefits can you expect? How do you get there? Future challenges
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Document ID: BE951C32

Service Scheduling And Time Slot Appointments
Author(s): Jere English
Abstract/Introduction:
How would you like to be able to give your customers what they want, WHEN they want it? Arklas driving motivation is to DELIVER to the customers what they want on their time schedule, not ours.
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Document ID: 70821ABD

Service Record Card Access Through The Company Intranet
Author(s): Rollin R. Launder
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented in the form of 10 graphics (slides) without accompanying text. The graphics start on the next page use the button to turn the page and to progress through the presentation.
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Document ID: 6773BDEC


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