Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1997)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1997 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the ressponsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that he or she have a knowledge of natural gas chemistry.
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Document ID: 4B081342

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): R.S. Thakral
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of the natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
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Document ID: 6267F0EC

Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicators
Author(s): Gan Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
Major considerations for choosing a pressure calibration device include cost, instrument accuracy, ease of operation, equipment susceptibility to environmental conditions etc. Because of their easy operation and increasing accuracy, electronic portable digital pressure indicators are starting to replace or supplement deadweight testers in the gas industry to perform pressure calibrations. Since digital pressure indicators have different principles from deadweight testers, their unique characteristics must be understood for effective application.
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Document ID: 71C6C6F2

Computers For Liquid Meter Proving
Author(s): Daniel J. Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
Computers have long been used to control proving functions in metering stations. Accurate reporting and control of meter proving is essential in custody transfer applications as well as non-custody transfer applications. In the former the results of the meter proving directly effect the totals from which invoices are generated. In the latter the results directly effect the ability to balance product inventories. These factors coupled with a need to minimize labor costs in all facilities make automated proving control a desirable feature in most metering applications. It is important that the specifier of this type of equipment be knowledgeable not only in computer technology but also in specific system operational requirements so that the equipment specified is adequate without being excessive. Ease of use is another critical element in the evaluation of proving computers and computer programs.
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Document ID: B462DA28

The Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): Art Vincent
Abstract/Introduction:
Producers, processors, pipelines and distribution companies measure both hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and total sulfur for compliance with purchase contracts, which generally contain sulfur quality clauses relating to those two parameters. A quarter grain of H2S per one hundred standard cubic feet (0.25 gr H2S/100 SCF) and one grain of total sulfur (1gr S/100 SCF) are common contract limits. To ensure that both buyer and seller are dealing with gas within these limits, it is common to moniter both parameters, as well as others, on both sides of custody transfer points.
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Document ID: 2E6BFA40

Pressure & Temperature Transducers Installation(, Calibration And Repair)
Author(s): Steve Paetz
Abstract/Introduction:
This session covers the electronic transducer and transmitter. Webster defines a transducer as a device that is actuated by power from one system and supplies power (usually in another form) to a second system. Microphones and speakers are one of many types of transducers. In our field of work, we know it to be a device that can transform pressure, tank levels, temperature, etc. into an electrical signal.
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Document ID: E666D8BE

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Richard Odenberg
Abstract/Introduction:
Protection from overvoltage transients and lightning on a.c. power and signal/data lines is of critical importance to digital electronic systems. Selecting a surge protective device requires attention to many factors.
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Document ID: 7E7CD3A7

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): William R. Young Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is used to calibrate custody transfer meters to establish a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the prover volume during the time taken for a sphere or piston to pass between two detector switches. The prover volume must be accurately determined by a calibration procedure known as the Water Draw method.
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Document ID: AAC4E8A3

Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicators
Author(s): Gan Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
Major considerations for choosing a pressure calibration device include cost, instrument accuracy, ease of operation, equipment susceptibility to environmental conditions etc. Because of their easy operation and increasing accuracy, electronic portable digital pressure indicators are starting to replace or supplement deadweight testers in the gas industry to perform pressure calibrations. Since digital pressure indicators have different principles from deadweight testers, their unique characteristics must be understood for effective application.
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Document ID: 75D9D188

Computers For Liquid Meter Proving
Author(s): Daniel J. Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
Computers have long been used to control proving functions in metering stations. Accurate reporting and control of meter proving is essential in custody transfer applications as well as non-custody transfer applications. In the former the results of the meter proving directl effect the totals from which invoices are generated. In the latter the results directly effect the ability to balance product inventories. These factors coupled with a need to minimize labor costs in all facilities make automated proving control a desirable feature in most meteing applications.
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Document ID: 223EBF06

The Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): Art Vincent
Abstract/Introduction:
Producers, processors, pipelines and distribution companies measure both hydrogen sulfide and total sulfur for compliance with purchase contracts, which generally contain sulfur quality clauses relating to those two parameters. A quarter grain of H2S per one hundred standard cubic feet (0.25 gr H2S/100 SCF) and one grain of total sulfur (1 gr S/100 SCF) are common contract limits. To ensure that both buyer and seller are dealing with gas within these limits, it is common to monitor both parameters, as well as others, on both sides of custody transfer points.
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Document ID: 0D2AA727

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Existing Meter Stations
Author(s): Jack W. Chisum
Abstract/Introduction:
Requirements for gas measurements have changed through depletion of existing supplies, development of new supplies, open access to pipelines, deregulation and other economic forces at work in our industry. The requirement of pipelines to change with the above situations require those of us in charge of measurement to come up with innovative and new methods of measurement for these changing flow requirements. The problem exists at the well head and the pipeline delivery point.
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Document ID: 43434463

Effective Use Of Deadweight Instruments
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Deadweight Gauge is the most accurate instrument available for the measurement of pressures. Repeatable readings with accuracies of 0.1% to 0.02% of measured pressure are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the components have excessive wear or weights are replaced. It is easily transported and set up in the field, requires minimum maintenance, and is simple to operate. Tripid mounting is available for most instruments.
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Document ID: 2A9799B1

In-Situ Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): V.C. Ting
Abstract/Introduction:
In natural gas custody and allocation measurement, the users typically installed and operated their orifice meters according to ANSI/API 2530 (AGA 3) standard. It is not a common pracrice now to prove orifice meters in field operation. however, the recent revision of ANSI/API 2530, Part 1, standard for orifice meter flow measurement allows users to prove meters under operating conditions using the acrual fluid with the acrual orifice plate and redording system in place. The standard recognizes that when accurate measurement is required, any deviation from the standards specifications will result in a higher measurement uncertainty.
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Document ID: F5D9818F

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Arthur Calvin
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. This paper describes methods to select deadweight testers and gauges. Also included are procedures for using hydraulic ceadweight testers.
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Document ID: 58BCC936

Lact Unit Proving - The Role Of The Witness
Author(s): Del J. Major
Abstract/Introduction:
When dealing with liquid hydrocarbon measurements, apperently true accuracy favors neither the buyer nor the seller, but it is always sought by both and seldom achieved without the support of both. All parties involved in a custody transfer have a vested interest in the quality and quantity determinations therefore all, at one time or another, will assume the important role of the witness.
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Document ID: 1F265D3D

Liquid Flow Provers Conventional()
Author(s): William R. Young Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Positive displacement meters and turbine meters are most commonly used for custody transfer of hydrocarbons. These meters produce good repeatability at a given set of flow conditions. If any of the flow conditions change, they will affect the meter factor.
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Document ID: E997A9AE

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Ben C. Buette Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid meter proving is a physical test conducted on a liquid meter to determine its performance. Meter performance is the relationship of the volume of liquid registered on the meters counter to the actual quantity of liquidwhich passed through the meter. The only way to determine this relationship is to prove the meter against a known volume.
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Document ID: 2C6240AA

Onsite Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper examines a patented mobile gas turbine meter proving system that blends technology from liquid turbine meter provers with innovative ideas that particularly apply to gas measurement. Arkla Pipeline Group developed and now uses this mobile sonic nozzle prover on gas turbine meters ranging in size from 3 thru 16 at meter station sites under actual operating conditions . The prover also incorporates a gas chromatograph which uses the actual mass flow computations.
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Document ID: 15108FCA

Proving And Repairing Domestic Meters
Author(s): R. D. Mead
Abstract/Introduction:
Consider the work load placed upon a typical residential meter. For the conditions around this part of the coxmtry, a meter will go through approximately 765,000 complete cycles in just one year. That number comes from a common residential usage of 85 Mcf per year and nine revolutions per cubic foot for a typical domestic meter. Let us further assume that the meter stays in the field for at least 10 years. That results in 7,65 million cycles a simple residential meter has to make before it is checked. This should more than justify the honor of being coined, the industrys low maintenance workhorse. Lets look at the internal workings of a domestic meter, some of the problems it may experience, and some of the ways to test and repair this workhorse.
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Document ID: 965A0FA8

Proving Coriolis Flowmeters
Author(s): Cathy Apple
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters provide significant advantages for custody transfer measurement of fluids. The most obvious feature is the Coriolis meters ability to provide a direct mass flow measurement. This makes Coriolis meters ideally suited to measuring products which are commonly accounted for on a mass basis, siuh as IPG, NGL, ethylene, liquid CO2- Using a single Coriolis meter sinq)lifies the metering system by replacing a volumetric flowmeter, densitometer, and flow conqjuter, with a single measurement device.
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Document ID: 2FCF4E7A

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Gary Cohrs
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate petroleum volume measurements are necessitated by a huge demand and high value of petroleum products. Flow meter performance is affected by many variables, such as fluid viscosity, temperature, pressure, flow rate, and meter element wear. In order to meet the demand for high precision volumetric flow measurement, especially when used for custody transfer, flowmeters must be proved or tested frequently under actual operating conditions.
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Document ID: E71BBD13

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas Distribution
Author(s): J. F. Little
Abstract/Introduction:
There has never been a system designed that will eliminate the escaping of gas in one way or another. Why is this true? Gas is permeable to every system. Fpr example, with PE2306 pipe, the volume of methane lost through permeation in one mile of 2-inch pipe operated at 60 psi is about 0.26 cubic feet per day. All systems are not installed with 2-inch pipe. If all systems leak, we have unaccounted-for gas. Therefore, how do we determine how much gas we lose?
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Document ID: 822B5F98

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the standards from the American Petroleum Institute and the American Society for Testing and Standards provided specifications for instruments and equipment. Simple compliance with these standards is not enough. Therefore, a system of verification and/or certification of equipment used in the measurement of liquids is being instituted. These requirements are being written into the standards as they come up for review. An excellent example of such a standard is the newly issued Chapter 3.1 A Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (December 1994) of the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement. This standard calls for the field verification of working tapes against a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable master tape when it is new and every year thereafter. This is an example of new requirements to ensure the instruments and equipment meets the specifications of each standard. The most important things to understand before going into each item are the definitions of traceability, verification, and certification.
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Document ID: A167FAE7

Witnessing Orifice Meters And Field Calibration
Author(s): Roger D. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Why Witness a Measurement Station? The reason for witnessing a meter test is to insure that the gas is being measured correctly. Accurate measurement is the result of a good test and a good witness. Anyone can witness a meter test, but to witness and know what to look for is another story. A working knowledge of the meter in question, how it works and what to look for is necessary.
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Document ID: ADEEF05D

Btu Analysis Using A Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
Amoco is the largest owner of natural gas reserves in North America and is recognized as a major supplier throughout the world. The company, early on, recognized that any successful natural gas marketing strategy, should incorporate the philosophy of developing and maintaining accurate natural gas measurement. This not only assures that anticipated project revenues come to fruition but all efforts to enhance shareholder equity are realized. Most natural gas sales contracts and transportation agreements are based on Therms delivered to the transporter.
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Document ID: 5F3C6D63

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Tim Hawkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatographs, either as on-line or as portables, have been used for natural gas measurement for decades. Since FERC 636, and with the resulting dynamic pricing situation, accurate energy and composition measurements have grown significantly in importance. As the natural gas industry evolves, so does the measurement business. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of field measurement by GC, examine ways to improve the accuracy of measurements, and review new techniques and accessories for different natural gas measurements.
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Document ID: FB25F747

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Gas Chromatograph
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas business has been hit hard by deregulation, soft markets and the resulting brutal prices. Its tough to plan when the rules have changed. The companies that have endured are the ones with tough management, good business sense, and an equal portion of good luck. In the meantime, fast, accurate and economical energy measurements are still important. So the challenge of the 90s is: How do I get good energy and composition measurements when I have no money, no time, and no people to do it?
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Document ID: 8508E2EE

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Douglas Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The chromatographic analysis of natural gas liquids may be approached in several different manners. The American Society for Testing and Materials and The Gas Processors Association are two organizations that have published standard methods for the analysis of natural gas liquids. (ASTM method D2597 and GPA Standard 2177). This paper will give a brief overview of these methods. While the ASTM and GPA employ similar meUiods, the Chromatographer should use the method that is specified by company contractual and tariff agreements.
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Document ID: 5BC5A63C

Chromatograph Maintenance And Trouble Shooting
Author(s): Mark A. Keirs
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatographs. To those unfamiliar with them there is often a stigma attached that consistent, accurate analysis is achieved only by constant attention and upkeep to the machine. Furthermore, that there is no systematic procedure involved in this effort and the technician must possess some type of sixth sense. This perception can be traced to a few points.
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Document ID: 4CCBCC4C

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling of crude oil is decidedly more important now than it has been in past years. The price of a product will determine the interest a company and its personnel have in the measurement and quality of its feeds (raw material) and products. Because of the price of crude oil today, the general interest in proper sampling is drastically increasing.
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Document ID: C9F1DF49

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatographs
Author(s): Michael D. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry is changing from a measurement system based on volume to one based on a volume of energy. As the natural gas commodity is passed from producer to the final delivery customer it is mixed with other produced gases of different energy values causing the final product to be very different from its original composition. This created a difference between state and federally regulated movement of natural gas. To remove inequities in measurement terms, the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 was passed which included as one of its provisions that natural gas was to be bought and sold on the basis of energy content.
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Document ID: E56DF85B

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Charles Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Modern gas chromatograph systems are quite reliable and trouble-free. However, they must be installed carefully and used properly. Described here are some of the common characteristics and problems associated with such systems.
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Document ID: FF077F7F

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For-Gas Transmission
Author(s): David Beasley
Abstract/Introduction:
With the large volumes that todays Transmission companies are moving, the Loss and Unaccounted For Gas is an ongoing concern. Unaccounted for Gas is a term used to indicate the difference between the volume measured entering a pipeline and the volume measured out of the same pipeline. The difference is termed Loss and Unaccounted For Gas and can be expressed as a + or -. Since one normally thinks of pipeline loss, the - indicates a gain in the pipeline balance. Another shorter phrase used to identify the difference has been termed LUFG. The assumption is that all the gas is measured into and out of a physical pipeline that can be clearly defined. The smaller the pipeline segment and number of meters the more manageable the balance process becomes.
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Document ID: 475288E5

Gas Measurement Laboratory
Author(s): John Renfro
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the objective of a laboratory to obtain a sample from the system in question and analyze the sample product without changing the composition or its environment. To obtain this goal, the following procedures are recommended.
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Document ID: A42F08A6

Techniques Of Gas Composite Sampling
Author(s): Garrett D. Lalli
Abstract/Introduction:
We sample natural gas for reasons such as plant or gathering system balance and to determine its quality for custody transfer contracts. In the custody transfer application, many contracts are written in such a manner to account for the quality of the gas.
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Document ID: AD3981E4

Techniques Of Gas Spot Sampling Spot Gas Sampling Techniques For B.T.U. & Gas Quality Determination
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no other way to receive proper payment for the natural gas that we purchase, transport, produce, process, or sell except by accurately determining its heating value, specific gravity, and compositional analysis.
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Document ID: 60A80CBB

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): William H. Eamey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their affect on the system stability.
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Document ID: A7E2E100

Water By Distillation Vs. Karl Fischer
Author(s): R.L. Youngblood
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1859 Col. Edwin Drake drilled the first oil well and began the modern petroleum industry. It is assumed that within days of his first barrel of oil, people began to argue over the physical and chemical measurements of the oil the arguments still persist. The three most important characteristics of crude, from the buying and selling viewpoint, are sulfur content, density or gravity, and sediment and water. It is the matter of water measurement for which this paper is written.
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Document ID: 00BD1F73

Fundamental Prinqples Of Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): Paul K. Tomita, Guy Parker
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot operated regulators consist of a pilot and a main regulator. The regulator is connected directly into the pipeline and the pilot is piped to the regulator. The regulator controls flow through the pipeline while the pilot controls the operating position of the regulator. Pilot regulators can be set up for a wide variety of applications including, pressure reducing, back pressure, differential pressure, pneumatic control, and reducing monitor. This class will cover the basics of pressure reducing, back pressure, and monitor systems.
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Document ID: 83DE8F0C

Fundamentals Of Gas Regulation
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
- Due to the nature of the gas distribution system, the development of the gas regulator has grown. There are at least two reasons why gas regulators have come to be. Efficient distribution of natural gas in gas lines requires the pumping up of the gas to high levels (500 to 1400 psig, typical). On the other hand, for reasons of convenience, normal gas appliance design, safety features, and metering considerations the gas pressure at he end user is reduced (typically to 1/4 psig).
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Document ID: D788D65C

Fundamentals Of Pneumatic Control
Author(s): J. Patrick Diciasare
Abstract/Introduction:
As a user of automatic controllers, part of your job may include adjusting and maintaining controllers in your plant. In order to do it properly, you neeo* to know the different kinds of controllers and the kinds of output signals they produce. The controller can be identified several different ways. One way is by power source, for example, the pneumatic controller is a controller that is powered by compressed gas, it is rugged, durable, and works well in a variety of adverse conditions. On the other hand, an electronic controller is a controller that is powered by electricity. An electronic controller can send signals over long distances in relatively short periods of time. Another way a controller is identified is by the process variable it controls. For example, a pressure controller is a controller that controls pipeline pressures. In addition to being identified by its power source and by the process variable it controls, a controller is also identified by the kind of controlling action it provides.
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Document ID: 007E9B59

Gas Service Regulators - Selection, Installation And Operation
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of pressure regulators should begin with what is expected of a regulator and what it does. Regulators feed gas to appliances at some desired pressure (within limits) and supply significant gas flow to satisfy the demands of the appliance. The regulator serves the appliance. It is as simple and as difficult as that.
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Document ID: 2684C2D9

Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gases: Fundamentals And Instruments
Author(s): Faruk Civaii
Abstract/Introduction:
Specific gravity is one of the basic properties used for characterization and measurement of gases. Instruments used for determining specific gravity are called gravitometers. There are also methods by which specific gravity can be determined indirectly. Accurate determination of specific gravity is essential for accurate measurement of gas flow rate.
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Document ID: 40D333C7

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Don Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of high pressure regulators is certainly open to debate, but for the purposes of this paper, a high pressure regulator will be one that is set for outlet pressure of one psig or more. With this definition, several different types of regulators fall into this category. Spring loaded regulators, pilot loaded regulators, pilot operated regulators and flexible element regulators are all included
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Document ID: B71A0DCF

Operation & Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Jim Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The operation and maintenance of regulators is extremely important because a gas regulator is the most critical mechanism for controlling the movement or the flow of gas. A device that controls changeable pressure and flows is often referred to as a control valve, a governor, a pressure reducer, or regulator.
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Document ID: 59956465

Overpressure Protection Methods
Author(s): Norman Gilbert
Abstract/Introduction:
Federal Regulations found in section 192.195 of 49CFR Subpart D of the US Department of Transportation Pipeline Safety Regulations states each pipeline that is connected to a gas source so that maximum allowable operating pressure could be exceeded as a result of pressure control failure or some other type of failure, must have pressure relieving or pressure limiting devices to protect the lower pressure system from accidental overpressure.
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Document ID: 2F16058D

Selection, Sizing, And Operation Of Control Valves For Gases And Liquids
Author(s): Alan H. Glenn
Abstract/Introduction:
A control valve is a valve controlled by an external actuator and is used to open, to close, and to throttle or modulate flow. The valve is an important part of the disposition of energy because it dispenses energy, dissipates energy, or distributes energy. Other devices, such as pressure regulators and variable speed pumps, can sometimes be used to eliminate the need for a control valve. However, this is often not possible or practical so the sizing, selection, and operation of control valves is an important, but often neglected, part of the design of many systems.
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Document ID: 7789D0A9

Federal Qualification Training Requirements For Measurement Technicians
Author(s): Lynn Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Training can have a major impact on productivity, safety and economics in the workplace. Many factors are contributing to an increased emphasis in training of measurement technicians. Some of these factors include: government regulatory requirements, deregulation and competitive pressures, reorganization and a changing workforce. Effective training of operations technicians can make the difference between maintaining system integrity and losing the system, safety and serious injury, or profit and loss.
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Document ID: 0687BD44

Meter Shop Equipment, Techniques And Operations
Author(s): m Lynn Camp
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter repair operation, in order to be effective, must operate in an efficient manner and maintain the highest quality possible, to do this, good equipment must be used, techniques that improve efficiency should be practiced and effective cost controls must be employed.
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Document ID: 8118666D

Meter Shop Equipment, Techniques And Operations
Author(s): m. Lynn Camp
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter repair operation, in order to be effective, must operate in an efficient manner and maintain the highest quality possible, to do this, good equipment must be used, techniques that improve efficiency should be practiced and effective cost controls must be employed.
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Document ID: 9533CAF7

Micrometer Measurement Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ric Bass
Abstract/Introduction:
To insure the most reliable measurement of gas and other fluids possible, it is important that orifice meter tubes are fabricated in compliance with accepted industry standards. The most common orifice metering standard used is the ANSI/API 2530, also known as AGA-3. This paper will focus on Part 2, Construction and Installation Requirements, of the standard, which addresses the methods, procedures and equipment used in the inspection and micrometer measurement of orifice meter tubes.
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Document ID: 3F09298A

Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): Thomas m. Kegel, Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 1852D585

The Role Of The Blm In Oil And Gas Measurement An Overview Of Onshore Orders 4 And 5
Author(s): Lonny R. Bagley
Abstract/Introduction:
The Director of the Bureau of Land Management is given the authority by 43 CFR Part 3160 Section 3164.1 to issue Onshore Oil and Gas Orders when necessary to implement and supplement the operating regulations. The purpose of these orders, is to establish requirements and minimum standards for the measurement of oil and gas by methods authorized in 43 CFR 3162.7-2,3 and to provide standard operating practices for the lease oil storage and handling facilities. Proper oil and gas measurement ensures that the Federal Government and Indian mineral owners receive the royalties due, as specified in the governing oil and gas leases. These orders are applicable to all Federal and Indian (except Osage) oil and gas leases and all wells and facilities on State or privately owned minerals land committed to a unit or communitization agreement that affects Federal or Indian interests.
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Document ID: 0EFC4860

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Gary Hollars
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 5D9F39EA

Advanced Chemical Tracing Awb Fingerprinting Of Hydrocarbons
Author(s): Roman Bielski, John Carter
Abstract/Introduction:
Fingerprinting has several meanings. Websters Dictionary defines a fingerprint as an impression of a finger tip left on a surface. When we talk about something really important as, for example, crude oil, two meanings of the word can be applied: The first one refers to the unique features present in the given oil which can be used to track down the origin or source of a given oil. The second one refers to an added label which is unique for a given oil.
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Document ID: E68A02AB

Activities Of The A.G.A. Measurement Committees
Author(s): Ali m. Quraishi
Abstract/Introduction:
American Gas Association (A.G.A.) plays a leading role in all activities relating to gas measurement. Through two of its committees under the Operating and Engineering Section, A.G.A. has coordinated and established quite a few standards, procedures and practices which are followed by the gas industry not only in the USA but some of the other countries as well. The two committees are - Distribution Measurement Committee (DMC) and Transmission Measurement Committee (TMC). The activities and programs of these committees are briefly described below:
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Document ID: F7918C51

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Linda Lepkowski
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology continues to change how business should be conducted. We work in a less human, more computerized world that demands constant changes to how we process our day-today work task. It goes without saying that the purpose of performing a measurement audit has remained justifiable. Measurement is still considered the Cash Register* of the natural gas companies meaning the significance of accuracy in measuring gas flow is still of utmost importance.
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Document ID: 7AB1CB79

Auditing Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Grace Barrett-Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing liquid measurement requires combining a solid knowledge of the measurement process and related business activity with sound auditing techniques. In his 1996 ISHM paper Basic Measurement Uncertainty, Thomas Kegel states, A measurement process consists of the instrumentation, people and procedures that result in die determination of a numeric value for a variable.
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Document ID: DACB750D

Basic Measurement Uncertainty
Author(s): Thomas m. Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
When a measurement is made there are two important values associated with the result of the measurement process. The first is the numerical value of the variable being measured, the second is the uncertainty associated with that numerical value.
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Document ID: 6C100D25

D.O.T. Requirements For Transportation Of Sample Containers
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
During my travels around the United States talking about sampling and sample containers, it has come to my attention that the oil and gas industry in the U.S. needs to be a little better informed on proper handling, shipping and transportation of sample containers of all types. Since everybody in the oil, gas and chemical industry seems to be involved in taking samples and handling sample containers, it behooves us to understand the laws and rules that govern their transportation.
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Document ID: F469E99E

Effect Of The Latest Revision Of Ansi 2530(AGA #3) On The Primary Orifice Metering Element
Author(s): Douglas Watkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Significant improvements in the equations which govern the measurement of natural gas using orifice meters, have necessitated changes in the primary devices used to gather the data. These changes have been incorporated into the new revision of the API 14.3 Part 2 Third Edition (AGA-3, ANSI 2530) and are detailed in the following discussion.
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Document ID: E0019215

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Jeannie Oarsquo-Neal
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas marketing scene has taken on a new look from the days of the Long Term or Life of Lease Contracts. In the past natural gas was often sold direct from the wellhead or a producer-owned facility to a pipeline company at a flat rate price and the only parties involved were producer or seller and buyer.
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Document ID: 15695C90

Elements Of Natural Gas Liquid Contracts
Author(s): Don Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
Contracts communicate what each party must do to satisfy the business deal. It is up to each individual involved in developing the contract to clearly communicate each point and cover all important points. Generally, measurement terms and conditions are contained in an exhibit attached to the body of the contract. This paper focuses on the details involved in developing measurement terms and conditions while touching on the elements contained in the contracts main body.
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Document ID: 81C5712A

Gri Sponsored Research
Author(s): John G. Gregor
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) sponsors a comprehensive flow measurement R&D program aimed at improving metering performance in the field. Natural gas industry association and advisory groups provide continued review and guidance to the GRI program so that priority needs are addressed. This paper summarizes GRI flow measurement R&D projects which include projects on: orifice, turbine, and ultrasonic meters, energy/BTU measurement, electronic flow measurement (EFM), gas sampling, and distribution measurement. Also reviewed is development of the GRI Metering Research Facility, a high accuracy natural gas flow calibration laboratory capable of simulating a wide range of operating conditions for the industrys research, calibration, and testing needs.
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Document ID: BF06E5FA

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): J. N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is the most commonly used device for the measurement of natural gas in the natural gas transmission industry. This paper will present various topics related to measurement bias errors common to orifice measurement. Most of this information which has been published and presented by others in various industry events, is consolidated here for presentation in a classroom setting. This paper will address only errors associated with operation of the primary measurement device which is the orifice meter lube and plate. Flow recorders, transmitters, and flow computers are considered secondary equipment and will not directly be discussed.
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Document ID: 2C83FAB1

Influence Of Ansi 2530 (AGA3) On Flow Computer Software
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 1924, measurement associations have assembled committees to establish industry standards regarding gas flow measurement. Throughout the years, committees have been challenged to keep ahead of changing products and new research which affect flow measurement. As products changed, so did the capability to achieve realtime, accurate flow information. For this reason, detailed research has developed into a universal standard, with which all flow computers must abide.
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Document ID: 96ED9490

Manual Chart Calculations Using 1991 Revision Of A.G.A. #3
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart volume calculation is the process of calculating units of quantity from data taken from chart recordings and historical records.
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Document ID: EB46E0BB

Overview Of API Copm() - Measurement Activities
Author(s): Jason C. Beckstrom
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute was founded in 1919 as an outgrowth of the National Petroleum War Committee. That committee was comprised of U.S. oil industry leaders who worked together with the federal government to meet the tremendous demand for petroleum fuel during World War 1. The experience demonstrated that oil industry representatives could work together on common problems affecting the industry and still compete with one another in the marketplace. This in an important concept because under U.S. antitrust law, industry competitors can work together toward mutual objectives using API as the forum.
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Document ID: 17D9876E

Review Of API/ANSI 2530 (AGA-3)
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of the paper is to introduce the user to the changes and reasons they were made in the reference standards. It is then left to the attendee to study in detail, these documents which represent the latest information to use to obtain accurate orifice measurement. Requirements have been tightened to allow these improvements. The application of the standard began in the US in 1992 and has been increasing in its use since then.
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Document ID: 6B63CA7A

Status Of Multiphase Flow Measurement Research
Author(s): E. H. Jones, Jr., V. C. Ting
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents laboratory and field test data for orifice and turbine meters in wet gas flow measurement. Laboratory testing has revealed that orifice meter measurement of natural gas with only small amounts of entrained liquid will have large errors. The data also indicates that commonly used correlations for two phase orifice metering are unacceptable for the low liquid loading at mass ratio below 2%. Controlled laboratory turbine meter tests using an air-water system at moderate pressures have shown that turbine meters are more accurate than orifice meters in a wet gas flow.
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Document ID: 0CF1577E

Theoretical Uncertainty Of Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Zaki D. Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters are the most common meters used for fluid flow measurement, especially for measuring hydrocarbons. Meters are rugged, mechanically simple, and well suited for field use under extreme weather conditions. In 1779, an Italian physicist named Giovanni B. Venturi (1746-1822) performed the first recorded work that used orifices for the measurement of fluid flow. Many years of field experience with wide range of meter sizes, variety of fluids, and numerous investigative tests have identified all major contributing factors of measurement uncertainty of orifice flowmeters.
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Document ID: 1C95D47C

Lpg Odorization With An Audit Trail
Author(s): Ace A. Astala
Abstract/Introduction:
LPG odorization with an audit trail is probably one of the most significant things that we do when we are selling LPG for residential use. The audit trail is one of the ways to insure that the LPG that you are selling or shipping has been properly odorized and you can go back to this if need be at any time. This documentation may be the only records to show that you or your company has been odorizing the LPG according to your company procedures and the law.
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Document ID: AF17BB2A

Natural Gas Odor Level Testing: Instruments And Applications
Author(s): Edwin H. Roberson
Abstract/Introduction:
An odor in natural and LP gases is necessary. The statistics are overwhelming when gas customers can smell a leak before the percentage of gas in air reaches a combustible mixture, the chances of an accident are greatly reduced. How do gas companies determine if there is sufficient odor reaching every gas customers home? Injection equipment is important. The rate and quality of odorant is important. Nevertheless, precision odorization alone does not guarantee that customers homes always have gas with a readily detectable odor. To secure that goal, odor monitoring instruments are necessary.
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Document ID: 875406B3

Odorization Natural Gas Panel
Author(s): J. T. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The vast majority of natural gas odorants are blends of two or more components. This presentation is intended to summarize the compositions, characteristics and extent of use of the most commonly used blends. To better understand the blends, we will briefly look at the individual components and also comment on various factors to consider when choosing a natural gas odorant.
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Document ID: 04BE1BA1

Btu Reduction In Gas Plants
Author(s): Joe Soerries
Abstract/Introduction:
Most people in the pipeline industry know that gas processing plants are only required to condition the gas for eventual sales to industrial or residential customers. This gas conditioning consists of processes to remove gas impurities such as water, carbon dioxide, or hydrogen sulfide along with processes to remove and recover the ethane and heavier hydrocarbons from the inlet gas stream. Most people see a certain volume of gas at a high BTU per standard cubic foot (BTU/SCF) go into the plant through the inlet meter and they see a smaller volume of gas at a lower BTU per cubic foot come out of the residue meter. This paper will explain what happens to the missing BTUs and the dollars associated with those BTUs that the average person never sees again after they go through the inlet meter at a gas processing plant.
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Document ID: 8A9EB2F2

Field Experience With Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Wayland Sligh
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter is no different than any other measuring device it must be sized and installed properly to ensure proper measurement. This paper will attempt to help you avoid pitfalls that may cause you problems or make accurate measurement difficult to achieve. Sizing, proving, installation, gas content and maintenance will be discussed.
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Document ID: 5C4F1649

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Ron Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
Numerous technical papers have been written on unsteady state surge flow or water hammer. This paper, unlike many of its predecessors, will present a view adapted to the engineer/technician who, for one reason or another, only needs a basic understanding of why surge occurs and how to control it.
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Document ID: CC755445

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): J.H. Harry James
Abstract/Introduction:
Leak detection has always been a major concern to pipeline companies. Unlike leaks that occur in above ground transportation modes such as highway and ocean tankers, pipeline leaks tend to appear at low points that are typically below ground level and are not readily visible. Underground leaks, if undetected, can result in heavy product losses and may result in severe damage to surrounding environment.
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Document ID: B25617E3

Truck Loading - Rack Blending
Author(s): Wyman Hammock
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to satisfy the demands of a diversity of gasoline formulations caused by constraints on pollution, requirements for various octanes and product enhancers, the practice of blending fuel at the loading rack is becoming common. The electronic preset has been one of the most important devices that simplifies the blending process. The blending process and measurement equipment chosen dictate the design of the loading rack and the loading procedure.
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Document ID: 8B925845

Wha T The Field And Office Groups Expect From The Other
Author(s): Melva J. Harris, David Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
Never in the gas pipeline industrys history has the need for accurate, clear and open communication between field and office measurement specialists been more important. Initially there was FERC Order 636 that forced the gas measurement departments into the electronic age. Next came corporate slashing that has required the gas measurement groups to perform at the same level of integrity in measurement with reductions in staff. A small measurement miscommunication between field technicians and office personnel can make a big splash on a companys bottom line.
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Document ID: F4625242

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): Bill Gotthardt
Abstract/Introduction:
The vortex shedding phenomenon is nothing new. It occurs in nature. The first recorded observation was by Leonardo Di Vinci more than 400 years ago when he noted the formation of vortex swirls downstream of a rock in a stream of water. At that time, while interesting to observe, the phenomenon was of no practical value. It required modern electronics to make some use of the information.
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Document ID: B6D16DBF

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Eric Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
A diaphragm meter is a positive displacement instrument which is used to measure the volume of gas that passes through it. This is accomplished through the known volume that is displaced for each stroke of the diaphragm. The diaphragm also provides the seal between the measuring chambers of the device. As such the diaphragm meter has proven to be an accurate and reliable means of measurement of gas for many years. This is especially true at low flow rates because of its positive displacement characteristics. This paper includes a brief history of diaphragm meters, an explanation of the operation of the diaphragm meter, a basic review of the function and design of the positive displacement meter, discusses meter ratings and capacity. and introduces temperature compensation.
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Document ID: 5DCA13C4

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people should have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc.
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Document ID: 12DF71A3

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meter Chart Recorders
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of natural gas by orifice meter with a chart recorder is one of the most common ways of measuring natural gas. Developed in the 1900s, It has become the industry standard for the measurement of large volumes of natural gas.
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Document ID: F59A3350

Heatquantitycalculationsrelating Water-Vapor Injhe Gas
Abstract/Introduction:
A large amount of unit conversions take place in our industry. Conversions take place at our laboratories, on flow computers, and in our accounting departments. Each time a conversion takes place there is potential for errors and miscalculations. Our industry is working towards standardization of units and single definitions for those units. Until that is accomplished, however, each business must maintain a clear understanding of its unit conversion process and the processes of those with which it does business. Many dollars are traded each day as a result of those processes, and miscalculations can be embarrassing and costly. For those who have a clear understanding, they will be able to manage through the calculations with confidence.
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Document ID: D9811A97

History And Operating Principals Of Turbine Gas Meters
Author(s): Richard C. Deangelo
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter has been used in gas measurement for over ninety five years. In the last fifty years, extensive research and development work has generated significant advances in turbine gas meter technology. Those advances, in combination with the experience gained from extensive field testing and applications over a wide variety of operating conditions, have resulted in significant improvements in meter performance and reliability. Outstanding progress has been made in the areas of rotor and flow passage design thrust load balancing bearing selection, protection, and lubrication internal flow conditioning high pressure calibration field checking and the development of national and international standards. Today, the turbine gas meter is recognized and accepted for accurate and reliable custody transfer in the gas industry.
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Document ID: BC2C8BDB

Installation & Operation Errors In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Walt Seidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Installation and operation errors may have an effect on measurement accuracy and therefore on company operations. This paper will present information for some types of installation/operation problems for common gas flow metering devices such as orifices, turbines, and positive displacement meters.
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Document ID: 6D9C4A81

Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Sampling
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement of light liquid hydrocarbon equates to revenue, and in many cases large amounts of revenue. The accounting process commonly requires LPG to be bought by volume. However, most custody transfer applications use the more accurate mass measurement system to determine the percentage of each hydrocarbon component within the pipeline. This is accomplished by metering the volume of product, and multiplying it by the product density at flowing pressure and temperature.
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Document ID: EE80BADC

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Most petroleum products are measured and sold on a volumetric basis. In other words, product is often sold in U.S. Gallons or petroleum barrels. However, they are nonetheless transferred on a mass basis in actuality. These seemingly contradictory statements can be easily explained by going back to the basics. Volume is a cubical function of length. The standard unit of length is the meter. One inch is exactly 0.0254 meters or 2.54 centimeters. The U.S. gallon is exactly 231 cubic inches and the petroleum barrel is made up of 42 U.S. gallons. Volume defines a three dimensional space. The gross volume of a liquid is really the cubical space occupied by the liquid. However, all liquids are subject to changes in density with changes in pressure and temperature, and they all exhibit the MASS DENSITY X VOLUME relationship. Therefore, the volumes of liquids change with pressure and temperature also, but they do so inversely.
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Document ID: 97A96FAE

Mass Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): David T Hahn
Abstract/Introduction:
In this world of decreasing natural resources it becomes increasingly important to accurately and reliably measure the transfer of these resources. Improvements in the accuracy and reliability of the measurement of the flow of gas have not manifested themselves as quickly as those for the measurement of the flow of liquids.
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Document ID: 035AC329

Meters For Alternate Fuel Dispensers Cng(, LNG)
Author(s): Michael J. Keilty
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas has been used as a fuel source for motor vehicles since Henry Otto first demonstrated his methane-fueled engine at the Paris Exposition in 1867. Over the last 40 years, natural gas has been viewed as a viable alternative to gasoline because of its abundant supply and low cost. The economic advantage of natural gas over gasoline has now been supplemented with an additional environmental advantage of low pollutants. Unfortunately, the infrastructure necessary to bring natural gas to the consumer has not yet been developed. Only in the last 10 years has natural gas been considered more than an experimental fuel source for vehicles. The technology of compressing or liquefying, storing, and dispensing natural gas is safe and practical. The application of the technology is now reaching beyond the fleet services and into the retail motor fuel market
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Document ID: 429CA1FB

Measurement Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Robert J. Raul
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, lets discuss an important phase of everyday planning for Measurement personnel. A test and inspection guide is a corporations plan to meet government regulations. DOT requires pipelines to have a written operating and maintenance plan. This plan must meet the minimum federal standards and cover various phases of operations. A company may include items above the minimum federal standards but they must operate according to the plan they prepare. In plain words, what you write you must be ready to live and operate by whether they just meet the DOT minimums or exceed the DOT requirements and this becomes the company bible
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Document ID: CAA8F81E

Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jim Bccson
Abstract/Introduction:
Hundreds of articles, papers, and books are written about the theory of operation on muhipath ultrasonic meters. While I will discuss theory of operation some, this paper has a different approach. I want to share answers to some real life questions about these units and why we need to use them. I will also discuss calibration or verification and maintenance problems that NorAm has had with these devices.
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Document ID: BDCA6312

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement III
Author(s): James W. Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws
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Document ID: 39B8D14E

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Dstiegraiors
Author(s): Gaiy L. Hammond
Abstract/Introduction:
The EMC Chart Integrator, Model 362, is a digital computer based system for translating orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data on integrated now(chart e.Kiension). average pressure and flow time. It is designed to accommodate American/Barton and Foxboro chaits, as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these tpes of meters. As an option, the Chart Integrator can be fitted with pens for a third chart geometry if required. The operator places the Chart Integrator pens on the appropriate lines on the orifice chart while applying pressure to the foot control, the chart will begin to rotate. The rotation and motion of the pen:* simulate ihe action of the meter. At the end of the chart the Chart Integrator computes and prints the extension, pressure and flow time for that recording. The operator will then place the chart into the printer and the chart extensiorL, average pressure, flow time and current date will be printed onto the back of the chart for validation. At chart vahdation the extension and the number of charts vahdated are recorded in the Chart Integrators memory as a batch total. This batch total can be printed and cleared upon demand by the operator at any time.
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Document ID: 8F0C6B9E

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Joe Ragsdale
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter tube is the most prevalent method of fluid measurement currently in use. Orifice fittings, developed to insert, retract, and hold the orifice plate in the meter tube, are also commonly used in current meter tube designs. Each of these components must meet specifications of industry standards such as American Gas Association (AGA) Report #3 and the American Petroleum Institute (API) Chapter 14, Section 3 on Petroluem Measurement Standards to provide accurate, reliable measurement.
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Document ID: C9F430A4

Orifice Meters Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate nneasurement is of utmost importance to all companies involved in the purchase or sale of natural gas. Orifice meters act as a cash register for the industry. Proper operation and maintenance of the orifice meter is essential to ensure that both producers and customers receive an accurate account on every delivery.
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Document ID: 3F415B4C

Orifice Meter Gage Line Distortions
Author(s): Ray G. Durke, Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
In attempts to achieve more a c c u r a te gas flow measurements, industry is placing more emphasis on defining and avoiding adverse unsteady flow cond i - tions. Interactions of pulsation e n e r gy and piping acoustics are being considered. Industry has put a great deal of effort into replacing relatively long gage line t u b i ng with close-coupled, straight bore manifolds. This paper touches on gage line effects on gas flow measurement.
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Document ID: 372EEB8F

Overall Measurement Accuracy Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The phrase overall measurement accuracy hints at the complexities associated with measuring and analyzing a compressible fluid such as natural gas. Todays utilities are becoming more concerned with purchasing, transporting, and selling a quantity of energy, not just a volume of some unknown gaseous material. Gravitometers, calorimeters, and chromatographs are joining the measurement techs bag of tools right along with meters, regulators, and correcting instruments.
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Document ID: D9256C5E

Pycnometer Installation, Operation And Calibration
Author(s): Michael R. Wells
Abstract/Introduction:
A pycnometer is a scientific apparatus designed to accurately determine density. With proper installation, operation and calibration, a very high degree of accuracy will be obtained. In the chemical, petroleum, and natural gas industries, continuous density measurement has increased in importance because of quality control, or because of custody transfer. A pycnometer is the proving standard to which a densitometer is compared.
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Document ID: 5759C884

Mass MEASUREMli:NT Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Most petroleum products are measured and sold on a volumetric basis. In other words, product is often sold in U.S. Gallons or petroleum barrels. However, they are nonetheless transferred on a mass basis in actuality. These seemingly contradictory statements can be easily explained by going back to the basics. Volume is a cubical function of length. The standard unit of length is the meter. One inch is exactly 0.024 meters or 2.54 centimeters. The U.S. gallon is exactly 231 cubic inches and the petroleum barrel is made up of 42 U.S. gallons. Volume defines a three dimensional sjiace. The gross volume of a liquid is really the cubiical space occupied by the liquid. However, all liquids are subject to changes in density with changes in pressure and temperature, and they all exhibit the MASS DENSITY X VOLUME relationship. Therefore, the volumes of liquids change with pressure and temperature also, but they do so inversely.
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Document ID: 57439178

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The strict and competitive business environment in which the natural gas industry operates today dictates that measurement and control systems which are utilized are of the highest achievable operational integrity. This entails not only that measurements and controls are performed and maintained precisely and reliably, but also that consideration is given to operational phenomena which may adversely affect the overall performance and integrity of such systems. Freezing is an operational occurrence which frequently alfccts the functionality and performance of measurement and regulating systems.
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Document ID: 4F1C33CB

Thermiometry In Measurement
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Temperature is one of the more critical variables which must be precisely measured to reliably quantify natural gas. This is especially true in custody transfer applications since small temperature measurement errors can have a significant economic impact. The technical aspects of thermometry in flow measurement can best be applied to practical situations by first understanding the relationship between temperature and the fundamental gas laws, and then using this knowledge to design, install, and operate temperature measurement systems.
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Document ID: AF3E7BF3

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence in a liquid or gas piping system is almost never desirable. Unfortunately, turbulence is also almost never absent So we must plan for it in order to minimize its effects on pipeline capacity, pressure drop, measurement error, noise, and piping vibration. Design engineers and field personnel alike are interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. Both favor maximum throughput with the least amount of noise By the same token, both are concerned with finding the best site for analytical instruments such as calorimeters, chromatographs. or dew point instruments, and for a steady sense point for control.
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Document ID: C901CB2C

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - IV
Author(s): Juan F. Luongo, Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
It is shown that for low gravity, low carbon dioxide content natural gases AG. A. Report NX-19 is reasonably accurate in comparison to A.G.A. Report No. 8. For natural gases which have high gravities, due either to carbon dioxide or ethane plus heavier hydrocarbons. A.G.A. Report No. 8 is dramatically more accurate than A.G.A. Report NX-19.
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Document ID: 94D9BB46

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Russell Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid densitometers are required for numerous applications in the hydrocarbon industry. These applications include the use of densitometers on custody transfer, interface detection, volumetric and mass flow, as well as product identification and quality. This paper will discuss the basic principles and methods of density measurement and the use of densitometers on hydrocarbon applications.
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Document ID: B0676456

Application Of Turbine Meters In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the liquid turbine meter principle dates back many decades, the axial flow turbine meters presently employed for liquid measurement are continuing to evolve. The axial flow turbine meter was first used for water flow measurement where there was an abundance of energy available for driving the rotor and normally where accuracy of measurement was not of prime importance. Reliability was of greater importance, so parts were made rugged and Ihe rotor was designed more to be non-clogging than to be accurate. However, through the evolution of technology, the turbine meter has maintained reliability and ruggedness while attaining a high degree of accuracy. Today, the meters used for water flow have accuracies of 0.25% over ranges of 10 to 1 or more while maintaining the same high degree of reliability and ruggedness as did their predecessors.
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Document ID: 8816C11E

Application Of Turbine Meters Ev Liquid Measurement Production And Allocation Measurement
Author(s): James L. Zeringue
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past, crude oil and condensate volumes were normally metered by positive displacement meters. Improvements in design, and accuracy has given the turbine meter its popularity for metering of crude and condensate, both for Custody Transfer and Allocation Measurement.
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Document ID: 8005A901

Automatic Tank Gauging
Author(s): June Larabee
Abstract/Introduction:
Many methods are available to gauge tank levels automatically. These technologies, if applied properly, will help companies reducing inventory costs, efficiently using the workforce, and preventing accidents.
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Document ID: A469C14E

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of electronic calculators and computers, calculations can be performed in chain sequences that allow for less handling and ease of operation. However, it is possible for different operators, using different machines, to arrive at slightly different answers from time to time. Therefore, there is a need to standardize some of the calculation procedures. The API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards addresses this problem in Chapter 12, which is currently under review. It is important to note the following declaration in Section 2 of Chapter 12, under Introduction and Purpose: Nothing in this publication precludes the use of more precise determinations of temperature, pressure, and density (gravity) or the use of more significant digits, by mutual agreement among the parties involved. The rules given below generally reflect current prevailing practices. However, it is anticipated that the new API 12.2 standard will be a more stringent as well as a more specific standard, and that prevailing practices will then change accordingly.
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Document ID: 37AAF873

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): M.J.Yeaiulle
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss several field measurement methods that are presently in use to calibrate upright, above ground, cylindrical, cone and floating roof steel storage tanks.
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Document ID: 08F2B8CD

Design, Operation And Maintenance Of Lact Units
Author(s): Del J. Major
Abstract/Introduction:
Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) units are designed to provide unattended custody transfer of liquid hydrocarbons from a lease site to a transporting carrier, usually a pipeline company. Because it is a custody transfer, the unit must provide accurate information on both the quality and quantity of the commodity that is changing ownership. For this reason, the proper design, operation and maintenance of these units is of great concern to all parties involved.
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Document ID: 2FA4AF0D

Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Christopher B. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the positive displacement (PD) meter. The emphasis will be on the factors influencing the design and performance of the meter for liquid petroleum measurement. However, these factors can be applied to other liquids as well.
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Document ID: BE3FE92E

Evaporation Loss From Storage Tanks
Author(s): Robert B. Wagoner
Abstract/Introduction:
The loss of stored hydrocarbons has been a concern since the early days of the petroleum industry. Initially hydrocarbon liquids were stored in open tanks or in tanks with only fixed roof covers.
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Document ID: D2186DD4

Field Testing Of Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): James m. Strawn, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Sediment and water (S&W) naturally occur in crude oil. The American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 1. defines S&W as, Material coexisting with, yet foreign to. petroleum liquid that requires a separate measurement for reasons that include sales accounting. This foreign material includes free water and sediment and emulsified or suspended material and sediment. The quantity of suspended materia! present is determined by a centrifuge or laboratory testing of a sample of petroleum liquid (see free water). API MPMS Chapter 10.4 stales. A determination of sediment and water content is required to determine accurately the net volumes of crude oil involved in sales, taxation, exchanges, inventories, and custody transfers...
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Document ID: 0789A6AB

Basics Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): Jimmie L. Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
Sizing requirements for orifice meters can be measurement is no mistake and experience will make the accomplished using the ANSI/API 2530/AGA Report No. job easier. 3 standard. The manufacturers published literature can be used to size turbine, rotary and positive displacement meters. Consideration should be given to space available, rangeability, initial cost and maintenance.
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Document ID: 8FAB0B3B

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Daniel Diaz
Abstract/Introduction:
The desire to meter liquid flow accurately and dependably has helped to produce many variations of metering devices. For nearly thirty years turbine meters have been the logical choice to measive many petroleum roducts because of their low cost, dependability, and high level of accuracy over a wide range of operating conditions. Over the years, there have been many design enhancements and changes either in the meter itself or in the acceisohes used with it. This paper will examine the basic design, operation, and application of the typical liquid iturbine meters.
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Document ID: AAF58AEC

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): Tommy L. Leonard
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of custody transfer measurement continues to be done manually using the same type gauging equipment that has been used for decades.
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Document ID: ADE96BCE

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
Densitometers have numerous applications in the hydrocarbon industry for flow measurement, interface detection, quality control, and concentration measurement. Densitometers are typically designed to measure either liquids or gases, but not two-pha:ie fluids. The requirements for installation and operation are dependent not only on the design of the densitometer but on the application or purpose of the measurement.
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Document ID: 196BC93E

Liquid MEASIJIU:MENT Station Design
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
LIQUID MEASUREMENT STATIONS are necessary by agreements between petroleum buyers, sellers and transporters along with appropriate customs and or govererning authorities. These agrccmcnls outline how the fluid is to be measured and how the rcsuUs will be traceable to recognized standards. In the case of comnioii carrier pipelines, the pipeline is enlnislcd wilii the transport of their customers fluid, thus loss control by use of an accurate liquid measurement station is essential. In addition to meeting the requirements for measurement, stations must meet numerous safety and construction codes and standards, as tlic lluids arc normally hazardous.
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Document ID: 9737D58B

Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measurement
Author(s): Douglas L. Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Marine crude oil terminals load and unload ships and barges all over the world. These facilities are like other measurement facilities but also present problems unique to terminals. Load and discharge terminals also present different problems. But like any measurement system you must make several decisions as to how you wish to do the measurements. What level of automation do you want or is a manual operation the best for your facility? Will tank gauging or meters be best? What type of sampling is best for the operation? All these questions musts be answered before a marine terminal measurement facility can be designed and operated.
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Document ID: F5071265

Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measurement
Author(s): Douglas L. Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Marine crude oil terminals load and unload ships and barges all over the world. These facilities are like other measurement facilities but also present problems unique to terminals. Load and discharge terminals also present different problems. But like any measurement system you must make several decisions as to how you wish to do the measurements. What level of automation do you want or is a manual operation the best for your facility? Will tank gauging or meters be best? What type of sampling is best for the operation? All these questions musts be answered before a marine terminal measurement facility can be designed and operated.
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Document ID: 3B021AF2

Measurement Accuracy And Sources Of Errors In Tank Gauging.
Author(s): Frank J. Berto
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the controversial subject of tank measurement accuracy and covers the main sources of error. It explains how the accuracy of tank gauging has improved from the 1860s. It also covers the latest API standards and the recent news about slotted gauging wells.
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Document ID: 6FA5FE59

Measurement Fundamentals
Author(s): Robert A. Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to have accurate petroleum measurement is obvious. Petroleum measurement is the basis of commerce between oil producers, royalty owners, oil transporters, refiners, marketers, the DeptUtment of Revenue, and the motoring pubUc. Furthermore, petroleum measurements are often used to detect operational problems or unwanted releases in pipelines, tanks, marine vessels, undergroimd storage tanks, etc. Therefore, consistent, accurate petroleum measurement is an essential part of any operation.
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Document ID: DC5E09F2

Measurement Methods For Liquid Storage Tanks
Author(s): Frank J. Berto
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the main types of automatic tank gauges (ATGs) and the significant changes that have taken place in the last decade. It will describe the changes in APIs measurement standards that allow ATGs to be used for custody transfer. Finally, it will describe the authors requirements for an i(feal ATG. All of the comparisons given in this paper are based on the authors personal experience. The list of reference articles at the conclusion will give the reader more background. The table at the start of the paper outlines the significant features of each class.
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Document ID: C0EE4264

Measurement Of LRGE Volumes By Turbine Meters
Author(s): Douglas L. Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Large turbine meters (over 4 inch) have been used successfully to measure large volumes of hydrocarbons including high viscosity crude oils. The lower installation and maintenance costs make the large turbine meter the ideal meter for large volume facilities. Experience has shown that turbine meters can be used for high viscosity crude oils where displacement meters were thought to be the only alternative for good custody measurement.
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Document ID: 968A1F81

Basics Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): Jimmie L. Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
Consideration should be given to space available, rangeability, initial cost and maintenance. Initial cost will not only include the meter chosen, but also correcting devices for pressure and/or temperature. It may be desirable to include SCADA devices for real time electronic measurement, remote monitoring and reporting capabilities.
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Document ID: CEA9D5C6

Measurement Of Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Author(s): James R. Coats
Abstract/Introduction:
Products currently known as Liquefid Petroleum Gass (LPGs) are hydrocarbon that are a gas at atmospheric pressurt and liquid under moderate pressure. These products, which are usually separated from crude oil or natural gasoline, include ethane, E/P mix, propane, propylene, iso and normal butanes, butilenes and mixtures of any and all of the above.
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Document ID: 867B6606

Measurement Of Petroleum Onboard Marine Vessels The Weak-Link In The Chain
Author(s): Arthur Kay
Abstract/Introduction:
Almost all marine custody transfer operations can be broken down into one of the following movements: D Shore to Ship a Ship to Ship D Ship to Shore
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Document ID: F1C0FA16

Monitoring Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
The USAs crude oil distribution system is comprised of networks of terminals, refineries, other storage facilities, pipelines, tankers, barges, rail tank cars, and tank trucks (Figure 1). These elements ultimately move crude oil from its source and transports it to refineries which converts it into consumer products.
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Document ID: 88C2A314

New Ideas In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody transfer liquid measurement equipment represents a major investment of dollars and cents, and also a commitment to technology. The petroleum industry is constantly seeking to obtain the best value in technology, in order to operate profitably and be competitive. Because measurement stations are directly concerned with revenue streams into and/or out of a particular installation, changes in the technology associated with new products must be completely field proven before the products are mass produced and used on a broad basis. Often this segment of the industry is described as being slow to change. Many new custody transfer products are developed and field proven by joint efforts between equipment manufacturers and end user oil companies. Thorough field evaluation, development, and acceptance by the industry of ncv/ products usually requires several years.
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Document ID: 3371BC85

Operational Expierience With Small Volume Prover
Author(s): George L. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will endeavor to relate actual experience with, and applications of, small volume provers. It is not submitted with any intent to dissuade or discQurage the use of conventional ball provers. Furthennore, the small volume prover has not replaced the conventional prover each has its own unique place within the industry.
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Document ID: D5302095

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Patrick J. Rowell
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper Is twofold. The first part of this paper will give information on the types and basic operations of small volume provers. Due to recent changes in the American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 4.3 many more provers will fall under this title. Second, to relate the authors experiences with small volume provers. This includes research, purchase, operation and trouble shooting of the units Sun Pipe Line Co. has in operation.
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Document ID: 4721BE63

Polymer-Grade Ethylene Measurement
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
An ethylene transportation system consists of a pipeline network and salt dome storage facility linking producers and consumers. Since producers and consumers are not equipped with on site storage, the systems are designed with maximum flexibility to satisfy the continually changing demands of the operations (Figure I).
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Document ID: 11BEDBAD

Measurement Of Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Author(s): James R. Coats
Abstract/Introduction:
Products currently known as Liquefied Petroleum Gass (LPGs) are hydrocarbon that are a gas at atmospheric pressurt and liquid under moderate pressure. These products, which are usually separated from crude oil or natural gasoline, include ethane, E/P mix, propane, propylene, iso and normal butanes, butilenes and mixtures of any and all of the above.
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Document ID: 21A9658A

Measurement Of Petroleum Onboard Marine Vessels The Weak-Link In The Chain
Author(s): Arthur Kay
Abstract/Introduction:
Almost all marine custody transfer operations can be broken down into one of the following movements: D Shore to Ship a Ship to Ship D Ship to Shore
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Document ID: E124AC95

Monitoring Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
The USAs crude oil distribution system is comprised of networks of terminals, refineries, other storage facilities, pipelines, tankers, barges, rail tank cars, and tank trucks (Figure 1). These elements ultimately move crude oil from its source and transports it to refineries which converts it into consumer products.
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Document ID: A2F018AC

Carbon Dioxide Measurement Experience
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many of the major production companies have made significant commitments to a continuing program for tertiary recovery. Due to favorable reservoir response, Carbon Dioxide CO% has been selected as the principal injection material for tertiary recovery projects in the West Texas and the Rocky Mountain areas. As a result, the oil and gas industry, and more particularly the measurement industry, has been given the responsibility to design systems to handle a material for which little operation experience had been developed and for which there were minimal amounts of PVT data.
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Document ID: 1E91FAE0

New Ideas In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody transfer liquid measurement equipment represents a major investment of dollars and cents, and also a commitment to technology. The petroleum industry is constantly seeking to obtain the best value in technology, in order to operate profitably and be competitive. Because measurement stations are directly concerned with revenue streams into and/or out of a particular installation, changes in the technology associated with new products must be completely field proven before the products are mass produced and used on a broad basis. Often this segment of the industry is described as being slow to change. Many new custody transfer products are developed and field proven by joint efforts between equipment manufacturers and end user oil companies. Thorough field evaluation, development, and acceptance by the industry of ncv/ products usually requires several years.
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Document ID: BC0CA98A

Operational Expierience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): George L. Lewb
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will endeavor to relate actual experience with, and applications of, small volume provers. It is not submitted with any intent to dissuade or discQurage the use of conventional ball provers. Furthennore, the small volume prover has not replaced the conventional prover each has its own unique place within the industry.
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Document ID: 5A9A7C95

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Patrick J. Rowell
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper Is twofold. The first part of this paper will give information on the types and basic operations of small volume provers. Due to recent changes in the American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 4.3 many more provers will fall under this title. Second, to relate the authors experiences with small volume provers. This includes research, purchase, operation and trouble shooting of the units Sun Pipe Line Co. has in operation.
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Document ID: E70D8BAA

Polymer-Grade Ethylene Measurement
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
An ethylene transportation system consists of a pipeline network and salt dome storage facility linking producers and consumers. Since producers and consumers are not equipped with on site storage, the systems are designed with maximum flexibility to satisfy the continually changing demands of the operations (Figure I).
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Document ID: A045B5C6

Proving And Certification Tests Of Automatic Sampling Systems For Custody Transfer
Author(s): James m. Strawn, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
An automatic sampling system can be tested to veriiy the equipment, installation and operational procedures produce a representative sample of shipments or batches. The test is called a sampling system proving test. The purpose is to validate the entire sampling system, including the analysis of the sample. This paper will deal with the testing and proving of automatic sampling systems in crude oil service, although the proving test, in vaiious forms, is also applicable for petroleum products: as well as petroleum blending systems.
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Document ID: 937D6CBC

Resolving Liquid Measurement Differences
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and transfer of petroleum liquids combine planning, technology, human interaction and documentation to ensure for an accurate transaction. The American Petroleum Institute drafted the Ndanual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) for the purpose of standardizing procedures, equipment, terms and arithmetical calculations used in the transfer or sale of petroleum liquids. These standards ensure thiat parties arrive at equal quantities. But given such standards, technology and planning, measurement discrepmcies still occur. A variance between two parties often becomes debated issues as Which measurement system is more accurate? Which system is correct? What process of elimination should be use? Given all things equal, how are variances resolved? This paper reviews sources of and solutions to resolving differences in liquid meajurements.
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Document ID: 96AD007D

Shnboard Sampling For Accountability In Custody Transfer
Author(s): E. Garsetti, P. S. Harrison, E. R. Robinson
Abstract/Introduction:
The importance of water measurement in ithe marine transportation of crude oil is considerable. A study carried out by the Institute of Petroleum and reported in Petroleum Review has shown that on a sample of 6,500 voyages, the quantity of water detected in the outturn was on average 0.13 percent higher than had been declared in the bill of lading and, furthermore, a discrepancy of 0.5 percait between the outturn and bill of lading water content was not unusual. These discrepancies have enormous financial implications and highlight the need for inTOved sampling and analysis methods. Lideed, this study showed that the larger water discrepancies occurred when the bill of lading had been based upon shore tank manual sampling techniques and analysis by centrifiige. The problems associated with manual sampling had long been suspected and over seven years ago SG!5 Redwood set out to develop a portable sampler which could be used to collect representative samples of crude oil and products being loaded onto or discharged from a vessel.
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Document ID: 8EB0D7AE

The Effeicts Of Petroleum Properties On Pipeline Performance And Measurement
Author(s): Earl Kopen
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement needs to be concerned as much with what it measures as with how well. State of the art can put crude oil pipeline measurement balances at better than .02 percent. Batched movement exchanges, however, present a much greater challenge.
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Document ID: 94FB025B

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gains
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Good measurement can be assured by continuous monitoring to determine if systems, equipment and procedures are operating within acceptable limits. This may be done by the use of Control Charts. To be effective, control charts must be current and used as constructive tools.
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Document ID: 06617684

Ultrasonic Flowmeters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Jed Matson
Abstract/Introduction:
The ultrasonic flowmeter for liquids has been in use in industry for over 30 years. In general these meters are available in two basic tyjies - the Doppler type, and the Transit-Time (or Time-offlight) type. There has been considerable development and advancement of this technology through the 1980s and 1990s due to the use of microelectronics, microprocessors and advanced software techniques. This advancement has allowed the ultrasonic flowmeter to be far more available for general use - in fact to be used as a flowmeter, not just as an ultrasonic flowmeter. All this because these advancements have produced tower costs, greater versatility, higher accuracy, and easier installation and maintenance.
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Document ID: 6ACFEB09

Characterization Of Heavy Components In Ngl And Natural Gas Extended()
Author(s): James A. Collins
Abstract/Introduction:
Starting approximately 20 years ago, Chromatographic analysis of Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquids have been experiencing a change. At one time it was acceptable to report: INERTS and HEAVIES, but now because of Environmental Concerns, focus on Internal Corrosion, FERC, and DEKATHERMS, the NEED TO KNOW is rapidly increasing.
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Document ID: 582F7E01

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Irvin Schwartzenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, electronic flow computers (EFCs) are rapidly becoming the standard for real-time gas measurement. Paper charts still have their place in select gas measurement applications, but it is becoming obvious that EFCs will be the basis for all flow measurement in the near future. As more and more EFCs are commissioned, customers sometime learn hard lessons regarding electronic gas measurement. Many times these distasteful lessons could have been avoided if proper consideration was given to the selection of an EFC supplier and the application at hand.
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Document ID: A8EF1FD3

Applications Of Portable Computers And Software
Author(s): Mat Manson
Abstract/Introduction:
Computers, PCs, workstation, handhelds, laptops and special purpose computers have become a way of life in the Natural Gas Industry. Your challenge as a user is to find ever increasing ways to apply this and new computer technology to allow you to become more efficient. Computers do make the field users job easier to perform, if time is taken to assure that programming and computers are selected to fill the need.
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Document ID: 576B5DCA

About Ishm 1997
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: ADCC0837

Auditing Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jennifer J. Merkins
Abstract/Introduction:
In the current world of Gas Measurement, electronic measurement has quickly become the method of choice for measuring natural gas. As quickly as it evolved the importance of how the data was to be reviewed and processed did not evolve at the same pace.
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Document ID: 911E21E3

Auditing Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jennifer J. Merkins
Abstract/Introduction:
In the current world of Gas Measurement, electronic measurement has quickly become the method of choice for measuring natural gas. As quickly as it evolved the importance of how the data was to be reviewed and processed did not evolve at the same pace.
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Document ID: EDE6F5F7

Basic Electronics For The Field Technician
Author(s): George L. Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
Thi.3 paper hopefully affords readers a broad brushed overview of electronics basics and how they are utilized in todays increasingly technical world. There are references to established formulas and relationships as well as a discussion on some state-of-the-art technology. The latter is often short changed in these types of presentations and it seemed a good Idea to hit some of these basics, too. Perhaps the discussion herein will prove at least informative to those that have limited exposure to computer technology. This understanding is more and more vital to the successful implementation of computerized measurement and automation systems in our Natural Gas Industry.
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Document ID: 71BEB49F

Basic Scada Systems
Author(s): Joe L. Martmez
Abstract/Introduction:
Basic SCADA systems, what is SCADA? The acronym stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. Yes, so Well a Supervisory Control system is a system that has the ability and intelligence to perform controls with minimal supervision And a Data Acquisitions system has the ability to gather data. SCADA systems are specialized systems used to monitor and control facilities from a remote location. They are commonly used in the gas, oil, electric and water transmission and distribution industries where facilities stretch out over large areas.
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Document ID: E573A06C

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
As the world has evolved to the information age, the natural gas industry has experienced a sense of urgency in the accuracy and timeliness of delivery of gas measurement data. From wellheads and pipeline interconnects, to ci gate stations and industrial gas users, the data must be delivered promptly and accurately. Since most natural gas company organizations have several functional groups that are dependent on the gas measurement data, systems must be in place that acquire the data and transport it back to a central computer to be verified, edited, and made available to all groups that need it.
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Document ID: 6EF09010

Computer Application In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Guy R. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine the many uses of computers in liquid applications and will focus on the flow computers and supervisory computers.
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Document ID: 74BADD6A

Economics Of Electronic Flow Measurement
Author(s): Daniel J. Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a continuing trend in the oil and gas industries, including production, transmission, and distribution units, away from traditional paper chart recorder measurement toward the use of microprocessor based electronic flow measurement (EFM). These flow computers provide digital calculation of volumes using AGA 3 (American Gas Association Orifice Metering Report Number 3) or optionally AGA-7 (Turbine Metering). Compressibility compensation calculations using AGA-8 (Compressibility Factors of Natural Gas) are also typically included. This change in the method of volume flow measurement continues to have a significant effect on the economics of measurement for these industries. The ability to accurately determine product volumes provides the foundation for integrated measurement and control solutions that increase safety of operation and insure environmental compliance.
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Document ID: 5DBA2245

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): Gaiy L. Hammond
Abstract/Introduction:
As natural gas companies strive to modernize their chart measurement departments, with an overall goal of iny)roving accuracy and efficiency, the chart integration equipment supphers must continue to upgrade their existing equipment as well as develop new equipment and procedures. Over the past years most electronic chart scanning equipment was limited in two areas of chart processing which today have become essential in achieving the goals of improved efficiency and accuracy.
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Document ID: 1E4E1FB3

Compressed Natural Gas Cng() Measurement
Author(s): m. Buttler, T. Obanion, T. Patten, G. Pawlas
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper demonstrates Coriolis mass flowmeters can provide a solution for measuring the mass flov*Tate of gases directly with no knowledge of the gas properties. Test results for natural gas and compressed air presented here were obtained using a standard factory water calibration. This demonstrates that properly designed Coriolis meters are linear devices and can provide accurate results independent of gas composition over wide ranges of pressure and mass flowrate.
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Document ID: 189647FB

Electronic Gas Measurement Audit
Author(s): Gary P. Menzel, R. Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
As Electronic Gas Meters (EGM) replace the more traditional chart recorders as the method of recording and calculating custody transfer volumes in the natural gas industry, it becomes more and more important to be able to audit the volumes produced by these devices.
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Document ID: 22EF8694

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): J. m. Murphy
Abstract/Introduction:
As we discuss Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices that are available for our use today, stop for just a moment and think back ten or so years when these devices either didnt exist or were in their infancy. Now pause another moment and consider that were standing on the threshold of what is to come. These devices will get smaller, faster, more accurate and in many cases, less expensive than the correctors that theyre replacing.
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Document ID: FD184AEE

Real-Time Electronic Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Rick Heuer
Abstract/Introduction:
Real-Time Electronic Gas Measurement is interpreted differently by companies and the types of operations performed within these companies. Flow measurement can be accomplished using the On-Site Method, which utilizes AGA calculations in the flow computer, or the Off-Site Method, which applies AGA calculations to data collected on a Central Host Computer Station. Either method typically involves using electronic flow computers.
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Document ID: 80EB6988

Remote Collection And Transmission Of Domestic Meter Readings
Author(s): David Fairis
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of gas meters in America is tied to the development of the gas industry. In its infancy in the 1830s, the gas business was charging a flat rate per burner. A customer had an annual flat rate which was based on an estimate for a given number of burners in a reascmable number of hours. Often, people left their gas lights burning and consumed more than they paid for. Meters were needed to provide a method of selling gas on a measured volume basis.
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Document ID: 5F6D166F

Selection And Installation Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): Thomas E. Mullen
Abstract/Introduction:
Today there are any number of flow computers available, how do you find one thats right for you? Each users requirements differ such that no single selection process can be right for everyone. However, there are certain common Items that should be considered in the selection process, some of which are not always obvious: In addition, Installation, maintenance and operating costs must also be factored into your selection of a flow computer. The most Important thing to remember Is that ANY flow computer you select will be a compromise of price, performance, accuracy, reliability and numerous other factors. The difficult part is deciding how to weigh these factors one against the other In your selection process.
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Document ID: 56F239F9

Successful Implementation Of A Scada System
Author(s): J. Alan Mcdowell
Abstract/Introduction:
Williams Natural Gas is an interstate natural gas transportation company with its corporate headquarters in Tuisa, Oklahoma. It is a member of The Williams Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline Group and is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Williams Companies. The pipeline group controls approximately 29,000 miles of pipeline in the United States, with WNG controlling approximately 5,000 miles in a 7 state area.
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Document ID: 4AC4AAF6

Pressure & Temperature Transducers (I)ISTALLATION, Calibration And Repair)
Author(s): Steve Paetz
Abstract/Introduction:
This session covers transducers. the electronic transducer Webster defines a transducer as a device that Is actuated by power from one system and supplies power (usually In another form) to a second system. Microphones and speakers are one of many types of transducers, In our field of work, we know It to be a device that can transform pressure, tank levels, temperature, etc. Into an electrical signal.
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Document ID: 75DFDCB0

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Richard Odenberg
Abstract/Introduction:
Protection from overvoltage transients and lightning on a.c. power and signal/data lines is of critical importance to digital electronic systems. Selecting a surge protective device requires attention to many factors.
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Document ID: 2462D501

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): William R. Young
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is used to calibrate custody transfer meters to establish a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the prover volume during the time taken for a sphere or piston to pass between two detector switches. The prover volume must be accurately determined by a calibration procedure known as the Water Draw method.
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Document ID: A0FB7E59


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