Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1997)

Guidelines For Installing Pe Gas Pipes Using Horizontal Directional Drilling
Author(s): Carl H. Popelar, Chris J. Kuhlman
Abstract/Introduction:
Guidelines are presented for the installation of polyethylene (PE) gas distribution pipes using horizontal directional drilling (HDD) technology. The guidelines are designed to save utilities money, whether they perform or contract for HDD, by providing a compendium of recommended practices to be followed, from planning the project through its completion. The guidelines will be of value to those inexperienced, as well as experienced, in HDD. They provide recommendations for site evaluation and preparation, drilling, pipe installation, and service tie-ins and connections. The guidelines can be used by the gas utility engineer to develop intemal standards, specifications, and protocols for using HDD. They can also be made part of a training process for field crews. Lastly, the guidelines can be used to develop specifications when contracting for HDD services.
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Document ID: 591E580F

Adoption And Utilization Of A Universal Electrofusion System At Washington Gas
Author(s): Karl m. Gunther,
Abstract/Introduction:
Washington Gas (WG) decided to use the electrofusion system as the standardized method for all socket and saddle fusion joining. Butt fusion remains the only conventional method that will be used. The key factors influencing this decision were the desire for higher quality welds, conversion to yellow pipe, and open bidding for our pipe contract among four suppliers. Previously our pink polyethylene was supplied to WG by only one supplier, while yellow pipe was available from four suppliers of acceptable quality. Electrofusion holds promise of simplified training, procedures and improved auditing because the problems associated with inspecting and calibrating of heating irons are elimininated.
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Document ID: 9A0042B3

Gas Meter Management System
Author(s): Luke F. Selking
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Meter Management System (GMMS) is an automated database that processes inspection and maintenance records and provides detailed information about the equipment involved. This system eliminated hundreds of forms, books, cards and other manually reproduced documents for Northern Indiana Public Service Companys (NIPSCO) Gas Measurement & Transmission Department.
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Document ID: 44513CB7

Low Pressure Monitoring System
Author(s): John Groppetti
Abstract/Introduction:
Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E) is a combination gas and electric utility that serves Central and Northern California. The gas portion of the company includes both transmission and distribution. A portion of the distribution system is designated as Low Pressure. This portion of the distribution system operates at pressures below % psig (nominally 8 - 10 in. wc ) and connects directly to customers without house regulators. In an effort to provide safe and reliable natural gas to these customers PG&E initiated a project in 1994 to provide real-time monitoring of these Low Pressure systems utilizing its existing Gas SCADA System. The project was completed in 1996.
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Document ID: E4730C2D

Washington Gas Operating And Maintenance Procedure
Abstract/Introduction:
Electrofusion procedures have been qualified for installing couplings and saddle fittings for connecting plastic mains and services. Electrofusion may also be used for tie-ins or repair. Electrofusion may be used for all types of pofyethylene pipe, including connections to pink, yellow, orange, or black. For all black tubing. inserts with flares removed must be used. The electrofusion Frttings themselves may be yellow or black. The electrofusion equipment, when properly used, will adjust its settings to make the proper connections for the type of plastic being fused.
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Document ID: 3285A42F

Design And Testing Of A Novel Gas/Liquid Separator
Author(s): W. Paul Jepson, Craig Lange
Abstract/Introduction:
A novel separator has been designed, constructed, and tested in large diameter flow systems using water and Conoco LVT 200 oil using carbon dioxide as the gas. A wide range of liquid and gas flowrates, liquid injection systems, and different hole sizes have been studied. The separator is very effective in reducing liquid contents in wet gas pipelines. It is very cheap to construct and can be easily installed by replacing existing sections at strategic points in the pipeline.
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Document ID: B7302FA8

Pipeline Remote Valve Control And Failure Detection Test
Author(s): Steve A. Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
Texas Eastern initiated a pilot project to evaluate currently available pipeline leak detection and remote/automatic valve control equipment and technology. The testing was conducted to determine the requirements of the pipeline valve control projects that were installed beginning in 1996. Southwest Research Institute participated in the project with co-funding by Gas Research Institute. Equipment was installed at three locations on a looped pipeline near Nashville, Tennessee in October of 1995. The sites included two compressor stations and two mainline valve sites involving a total of 12 valves. Tests were conducted at the sites and data was collected. The tests included simulation of a pipeline failure by tripping a relief valve installed on a blow down stack at one of the mainline valve sites for purposes of the test.
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Document ID: 779D0C01

Computer Prediction Of LNG And Lpg L-Lazard Zones
Author(s): Sami Atallah, Anand Janardhan, Ted A. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past ten years, and largely through the efforts of Gas Research Institute, several personal computer programs have become available for predicting the hazard 2x3 surrounding LNG and LPG releases. These experimentally-validated programs predict thermal radiation from pool fires and jet flames, the rate of vaporization of pressurized and unpressurized releases and the extent of the flammable vapor cloud. Among these programs, LNGFIRE, SOURCE and DEGADIS have been specifically cited by NFPA in its 1996 version of 59A fire code dealing with LNG Facilities.
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Document ID: BFDDD40E

System Surfer - A Facility Map Navigation And Viewing Tool
Author(s): Ray Fischer, Mark Knox
Abstract/Introduction:
System Surfer is a facility map navigation and viewing tool designed and developed by engineers at Northern Illinois Gas as a low cost alternative to more sophisticated AM/FM systems. The system was created in-house and provides 70 percent of the functionality of an AM/FM system, but at a fraction of the cost and implementation time. The system basically uses a hybrid of electronic raster/vector map images which are directly linked to various operating databases and can be accessed through various index keys such as pressure facilities, customer address, valves and meter aumber. The system operates in a Windows environment and can access any ODBC compliant database from a stand alone personal computer, lap top or various network platforms. Using the system has allowed Northern Illinois Gas to experience labor, material and equipment savings in both its engineering and operating areas. Northern Illinois Gas further believes that the system has commercial potential and has begun to use its sister company, NICOR Technologies Inc. (NTI), to market the system to local municipalities, utilities and contractors.
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Document ID: 9BE6C3A1

The Revolution Of The Gas Turbine Meter
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas turbine meters were introduced in the United States in the 1960s, a time of rapid expansion in the natural gas industry. Since then the popularity has been based on well established characteristics precise accuracy and repeatability and wide rangeability. These same characteristics have made turbine meters the preferred choice as a reference standard at recognized calibration facilities in the U.S. and Europe.
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Document ID: 0F2D38C0

Implementation Of An Automated Work Management System
Author(s): Ralph A. Larossa
Abstract/Introduction:
Work Management, as defined in IBMs classic model, includes five modules: Work Requesting, Work Designing, Work Scheduling, Work Reporting, and Work Closing. While several utilities have recently installed, or are in the process of installing Automated Work Management Systems, this paper is intended to describe the steps taken by PSE&G to successfully implement a system from design to field use while re-engineering process flows and introducing technology to end users that have never before used a computer. PSE&G had identified the implementation of a Work Management system as a key step in achieving the overall business objectives of the Gas and Electric Lines of Business. As a result, the LOBs led the effort with support from the Corporate IT department. This was an intergral component to the success of tlie implementation. The paper will focus on four major steps of the implementation process used to achieve the objective: Vendor Selection, Functional Design, Technical Design and End User Training / Data Conversion. Throughout the four major steps, end user involvement and the use of quality tools are illustrated as the keys to success.
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Document ID: 8AECBD70

Lightning Protection Of An LNG Plant And Other Facilities.
Author(s): Alan D. Hatfield
Abstract/Introduction:
Lightning damage is a serious problem that has only gotten worse in the modem technological world as more and more equipment is electrical and electronic based. Lightning can strike with little notice and cause severe damage to equipment that often cannot be repaired but must be replaced. At an LNG Plant this is critical because integrity and reliability is everything. The cliche that lightning will not strike twice at the same place is not true, it can strike over and over again. The very first step is to accept that lightning damage can be prevented if the proper measures are taken. Problems may continue, but perseverance will eventually lead to a lightning damage-free environment.
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Document ID: B7CE4911

The Super Gas Person, Gateway To Service Improvement
Author(s): Randy Pell
Abstract/Introduction:
As early as 1987 Citizens Gas had entertained the idea of combining several job classifications into one. It was believed that this person could perform many different tasks and be better equipped to serve the needs of our customers. The biggest pitfall to this plan was getting an agreement to combine the seniorities of three classifications into one. These were bargaining unit jobs, which require union and management agreement to change the method of assigning seniority.
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Document ID: 1156D71A

Importance Of Contaminant Availability In Establishing Risk-Based Environmentally Acceptable Endpoints Eaes() For Hydrocarbons In Soil
Author(s): David V. Nakles, Thomas Roose, Thomas D. Hayes
Abstract/Introduction:
The establishment of concentrations of hydrocarbons in soil that are protective of the environment and human health is central to the proper management of hydrocarboncontaminated sites in the gas industry. These environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAEs) are required to determine if a site requires any action and, if so, what degree of action may be necessary. The current methodologies for determining EAEs for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils assumes that all of the hydrocarbon that is measured in soil using standard EPA analytical techniques is available to groundwater and ecological or human receptors. This results in the determination of very conservative hydrocarbon concentrations. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) initiated a research project in late 1993 to investigate the availability of soil-bound hydrocarbons to the environment and to determine the impact of hydrocarbon availability on the determination of EAEs in soil.
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Document ID: ABF72D47

New Generation Of Customer Service Technology
Author(s): William W. Bassett
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of deregulation, a more competitive market is rapidly developing in the energy utility arena. This evolving market will bring gas utilities into direct competition with electric and telecommunications providers as each one seeks to find a competitive advantage in the deregulated market place. The key question that is being asked is - How can we reduce operating costs, fmd new revenue sources and, improve customer satisfaction in this changing business environment?
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Document ID: 2FAA5396

System Surfer - A Facility Map Navigation And Viewing Tool
Author(s): Ray Fischer, Mark Knox
Abstract/Introduction:
System Surfer is a facility map navigation and viewing tool designed and developed by engineers at Northern Illinois Gas as a low cost alternative to more sophisticated AM/FM systems. The system was created in-house and provides 70 percent of the functionality of an AM/FM system, but at a fraction of the cost and implementation time. The system basically uses a hybrid of electronic raster/vector map images which are directly linked to various operating databases and can be accessed through various index keys such as pressure facilities, customer address, valves and meter aumber. The system operates in a Windows environment and can access any ODBC compliant database from a stand alone personal computer, lap top or various network platforms. Using the system has allowed Northern Dlinois Gas to experience labor, material and equipment savings in both its engineering and operating areas. Northern Illinois Gas further believes that the system has commercial potential and has begun to use its sister company, NICOR Technologies Inc. (NTI), to market the system to local municipalities, utilities and contractors.
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Document ID: 6D3F5FCC

Ultrasonic Meters For Custody Transfer Applications
Author(s): Rick Wilsack
Abstract/Introduction:
Testing of multipath ultrasonic meters for Custody Transfer measurement began in 1994 at TransCanada PipeLines Douglastown meter station. At Douglastown meter station we could compare measurement of one 24 inch ultrasonic meter, in series, with the combined measurement of four 12 inch turbines. Favorable test results from the first year of testing, which were presented at the 1995 CGA school, led to the installation of ultrasonic meters at TransCanada PipeLines Success meter station, the first in Canada utilizing ultrasonic technology for Custody Transfer. Presented are the results from the last six months of Douglastown testing, the installation of ultrasonic meters at Success meter station, and testing done on measurement at Success.
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Document ID: 90B55EF2

Investigating Use Of Risk Management As A Regulatory Alternative For Local Distribution Companies Ldcs()
Author(s): Richard Felder
Abstract/Introduction:
Richard Felder, Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) Associate Administrator, presents OPS perspective on the benefits and challenges of starting a study of the feasibility of using risk management as a regulatory alternative with LDCs. We are interested in working with National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), National Association of Pipeline Safety Representatives (NAPSR) and the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) and obtained official NARUC sponsorship on February 26, 1997 for a joint study/team effort.
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Document ID: AB4FCDBD

Plastic Pipe Design Equation Update
Author(s): Gene Palermo
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss recent developments of the A.G.A. Plastic Materials Committee (PMC) Plastic Pipe Design Equation task group. A.G.A. will petition the Department of Transportation (DOT) to increase the allowable operating pressure for plastic pipe, and also to increase the design factor from .32 to .40. In addition, the Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI) has two projects affecting the design equation: one to require validation of high temperature ratings for polyethylene (PE) materials, and the other to require ftirther substantiation of PE materials used for gas distribution piping. This paper will provide an update for all four of these projects.
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Document ID: 8F9BABD9

Curb-Side Proving Of Domestic Gas Meters Using Sonic Nozzle Technology
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas distribution community has accepted the common practice of field-testing industrial class meters (i.e., large diaphragm, rotarys, and turbine meters) using portable transfer provers. Due to their larger size, limited quantity, and higher midntenance cost, utilities have found transfer proving to be a feasible method of testing these meters at their installation. yet have accepted the fact that measurement accuracy in current transfer proving equipment is only +/- 0.5%, at best.
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Document ID: 2AC28412

Permitting LNG Facilities To Comply With The Clean Air Act, Title V
Author(s): Daniel E. Smith, J. Thomas Raines, Brian J. Luckianow
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an overview of Alabama Gas Corporations experience in obtaining permits for two (2) LNG facilities to comply with the Clean Air Act, Title V, including requirements, operating considerations, procedures, and documentation.
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Document ID: 707B5E19

Benchmarking: The Next Step
Author(s): Joseph Martucci
Abstract/Introduction:
The Xerox Corporation pioneered present day benchmarking efforts. David Keams stated, when he was still the CEO at Xerox, that benchmarking is the continuous process of measuring products, services, and practices against the toughest competitors, or those companies recognized as industry leaders.
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Document ID: 6256805E

Gas Management Systems For The 21st Century
Author(s): Harold m. Hal() Hoover
Abstract/Introduction:
This is an overview of current and anticipated developments in information technology as they apply to gas management information systems. The discussion covers the convergence of hardware, software and other technologies that will bring real time gas management information to all segments of the gas industry. Also covered is the planning that todays gas companies can do in the area of information technology to better prepare for tomorrows gas management information system requirements.
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Document ID: 99E0B5B9

Selection Of A Field Electronic Pressure Calibrator
Author(s): Paul A. Layne
Abstract/Introduction:
Selection of an electronic pressure calibrator for use in field applications can be overwhelming in todays changing market. Some of the manufacturers are using product literature designed to sell calibrators, thus causing confusion about the operating specifications of the unit. In this paper, I will describe a method developed by Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation to generate criteria for selecting new calibrators performing a manufacturers literature and specification comparison lab testing the calibrators in a controlled environment field testing the calibrators selected from the lab test and finally, selecting the best calibrator.
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Document ID: C4833AE4

Protecting Your Distribution Systems From The Effects Of Light Rail Transit Systems
Author(s): Michael J. Szeliga
Abstract/Introduction:
Stray current corrosion associated with rail transit systems is recognized as a significant problem throughout the United States. While most new rail transit systems have been constructed in a manner to minimize the effects of stray current activity on adjacent utilities, they can still severely affect distribution piping. Proper preconstruction design considerations can be used to effectively minimize the adverse effects of a transit system. Base-line and post-construction testing should be performed to assure long term stray current control.
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Document ID: 8D724379

Whats Happening In Washington: An Environmental Update
Author(s): Pamela A. Lacey
Abstract/Introduction:
Much has happened in Washington and at A.G.A. this past year. There is a new energy in A.G.A.s environmental advocacy. We now focus like a laser beam on the three environmental issues that our members tell us have the greatest priority for local distribution companies. These three issues are: (1) Manufactured Gas Plants (2) Clean Air Act standards that affect LDC operations or LDC customers and (3) EPAs long-awaited polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) regulations. Our goal is to influence federal policy in these three areas in a way that benefits our members bottom line.
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Document ID: EF52B227

Stress-Corrosion Cracking In Gas-Transmission Pipelines Causes And Mitigation
Author(s): B. N. Leis, J. A. Colwell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews the problem of stress-corrosion cracking as it has evolved since 1965 and identifies the factors controlling it (e.g., environmental, pipe steel, and pipeline operation). Discussion of these factors leads to identification of ways in which this cracking can be controlled / mitigated in the practical setting of an operating pipeline that is expected to provide a reasonable return on equity.
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Document ID: 17857BAB

New Ideas And Developments In Distribution Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Ziegler
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarizes many new ideas and developments in distribution measurement. This is a preliminary to the final paper to be presented at the May 1997 conference and its purpose is to provide a summary of what to expect in this paper.
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Document ID: BFC9715C

Automatic Meter Reading : A Cellular Approach Piedmont Natural Gas Company, Inc.
Author(s): Kirk Hollifield
Abstract/Introduction:
The deregulation of the natural gas pipeline industry has forced local distribution companies (LDCs) to focus on ways to obtain the most timely and accurate gas measurement data possible. Utilities are increasingly relying on remote meter reading systems (RMRs) to capture important meter data to help manage gas supply services. Successful RMR systems can be very expensive and the choice of communication between meter site and the remote meter reading system host can greatly affect the overall project cost. In recent years, cellular communication has become a viable alternative as the associated costs have decreased and provider coverage has expanded. This paper discusses the advantages of cellular technology used as the communication link in a remote meter reading system and ways meter data is used to benefit the local distribution company.
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Document ID: 6573EE3F

Technologies To Reduce Gas Distribution Costs And Enhance Reliability
Author(s): Michael m. Mamoun, Sudheer m. Pimputkar
Abstract/Introduction:
Plastic pipe is flexible enough to bend around many minor obstacles, durable enough to withstand temperature changes and the loads due to gas pressure, earth movement, and installation, and is immune from the corrosion that can degrade the steel and cast iron piping it often replaces. Moreover, when repairs are required, they are often less expensive with plastic pipe. Because of these advantages, local distribution companies (LDCs) have installed more than 550,000 miles of plastic pipe out of a national gas distribution piping system total of 1.6 million miles. More than 30,000 miles of plastic gas pipes are added every year to the U.S. gas distribution system. While other plastic materials are available, polyethylene (PE) pipe remains the top choice for LDCs across the country for installing new gas services and mains. Approximately two-thirds of the pipes installed each year are used for new services and mains one-third of the pipes are used each year to repair, replace, or renew older steel and cast iron gas distribution pipes.
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Document ID: CB7F8AE4

Due Diligence Review And More For Major ACQUISITIONS/MERGERS
Author(s): Charles W. Durrett
Abstract/Introduction:
Large acquisitions or mergers are now being justified on the basis of strategic fit rather than diversification. Today we are seeing a number of these business transactions.
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Document ID: 4CC2265B

Development Of A Wireless Sewer Pipe Penetration Detection System
Author(s): Lucian H Lyall
Abstract/Introduction:
The development begins at a time when horizontal directional drilling for the installation of PE (polyethylene) natural gas lines is digging itself in as the underground technology of choice. This method of installing pipe has become extremely cost effective in many cases compared to an open cut. There are approximately 15,000 horizontal directional drilling units in North America, and approximately 5,000 of these units are used in our industry. A by-product of this increased use of directional drilling is that the number of unknown underground utility hits has also Increased. Therefore, the knowledge of where the underground utilities are located has become more and more valuable. Now most utilities can be located relatively easily but sewer lines non-metallic and without tracer wire) are an exception.
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Document ID: BE0AB452

AM/FM/GIS Planning And Incremental Implementation
Author(s): Rodney R. Schwedler
Abstract/Introduction:
Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas) has been working with AM/FM/GIS technology for more than ten years. One dataset containing more than 40,000 miles of gas pipelmes and related applications has been implemented incrementally since 1990 and will be online for the entire company by mid-1997. From automated mapping to fully attributed database AM/FM systems, a broad spectrum of technologies have been investigated, implemented and in some instances, abandoned. Over the years, successes and some failures have resulted in tools and processes that continue to evolve and improve.
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Document ID: 066BA017

Raps, Wrapping It Up, Phase I
Author(s): R. Murray Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
The Remote application Protocol Suite (RAPS) is a definition of a set of protocols for use by the gas industry. The work in defining RAPS has been undertaken by the A.G.A.s Automation & Telecommunications Committee, in association with Gas Research Institute (GRl). The definition is complete and is to be published in the May 1997 timeframe.
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Document ID: F9E8DB8C

Gas Management Systems In A Changing Environment
Author(s): Bill Tesi
Abstract/Introduction:
The construction of the GasMan project began approximately four years ago. The original scope of the was to provide custom buih management tools that supported all phases of the gas business. Although many of the phases have remained the same - bidding, purchasing, nominations, disposition and accounting - the changing environment have forced the information systems to respond in a quick and seamless manner. The following paper outlines the how to reflect those changes and maintain the investment of a custom built solution.
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Document ID: 6FDABDB2

An Operators Experience With Mic
Author(s): Scott Farthing
Abstract/Introduction:
As a subject area, Microbiological Influenced Corrosion (MIC), has gained importance due to the operational and economic impact of failures caused by these microorganisms. The subject can be difficult to understand as it covers areas such as microbiology, electrochemistry, metallurgy, along with organic and inorganic chemistry. Until recently, the focus has been on anaerobic Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) and Acid Producing Bacteria (APE). With the increased investigation of MIC, all forms of microbiological species are now being examined.
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Document ID: DB954AEA

The Environmental Leadership Program At El Paso Natural Gas Putting Knowledge Where The Action Is
Author(s): Carol C. Irwin
Abstract/Introduction:
Companies today are grappling with how to provide quality environmental training to operating personnel in an efficient and cost effective manner. Each company faces the challenge of providing quality, value-added environmental training to operating personnel who are diverse in cultural background, educational experience, and geographic location. The Environmental Leadership Program at El Paso Natural Gas (EPNG) is an innovative approach to using in-house personnel to address this critical challenge. The program is designed to provide operating personnel with specific comprehensive environmental training developed by EPNG for EPNG.
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Document ID: D66E4745

A Journey Towards Excellence In Safety
Author(s): Michael D. Meier
Abstract/Introduction:
Safety culture and commitment at Consumers Energy (formerly Consumers Power Company) has earned the utility a national award for being Americas safest combination gas and electric utility in ten of the last twelve years. The National Safety Councils first place award has been presented to Consumers Energy for 1984, 1985, 1987 through 1990, and 1992 through 1995. Consumers Energy was also recently selected as an American Gas Association Best Practice company due to its excellent safety record and a dramatic decrease in the number of lost workday incidents. This paper addresses some of the critical elements behind the improvement.
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Document ID: 7779585E

Servicing Within The Locai Distribution Company
Author(s): Luc Bellini
Abstract/Introduction:
Gaz Metropolitain is the most important local distribution company in the province of Quebec, Canada. Over 40 years of distributing natural gas has permitted the company to mark Quebecs history. Today, it serves close to 153,000 customers with 4,900 miles of pipeline and delivers over 208 BCF of natural gas. Servicing customer needs is covered by 175 technicians located in 11 offices across the province. They perform utility related activities as well as servicing many different gas equipment in the residential, commercial and institutional markets.
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Document ID: 6B8333BC

Single Path Ultrasonic Flow Meter: Field Performance Study 20 Check Ufm On A 20 Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline
Author(s): Jonathan A. Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Check measurement of volumetric flow in natural gas transmission pipelines is essential for local and system pipeline monitoring and control. Although the custody of natural gas is not transferred at a check meter, the calculated flow rate through the meter must be reliable and repeatable while remaining cost effective.
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Document ID: DBE7DBE2

Extending Gas Mains And Services Within Multi-Level Buildings
Author(s): Nicholas F. Hanks
Abstract/Introduction:
Extending gas services onto customers property and into customers buildings gives Washington Gas another tool to provide gas service to customers who might otherwise have chosen an alternative fuel. Moving the point of service closer to the gas equipment reduced the customers piping costs and often simplified the overall piping design. The Extended Meter Supply Line or EMSL has been used successfully for several years by Washington Gas. The adoption of EMSL required changes to accommodate the engineering, safety, regulatory, and administrative needs of this new process to make it work smoothly and effectively.
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Document ID: 454D8F68

Establishing A Utility/Consultant Alliance For Gas System Design
Author(s): Michael A. Pometto
Abstract/Introduction:
The Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BGE) was founded in 1816, making it the nations oldest gas distribution company. It presently serves over 550,000 gas customers throughout central Maryland through 5,373 miles of main, Gas distribution system design work at BGE is divided into five categories: 1. On-site new business gas/electric developments or customers, which include gas mains and services installed in common trench with electric. 2. Approach mains, which are gas-only installations to reach a new development or customer. 3. On-site new business gas-only developments or customers, which are new developments outside of the Companys electric territory. 4. Gas conversions, which are gas-only distribution mains and services installed to existing customers or commimities which have historically used electric or oil heat. 5. Gas project work, which includes gas main and service relocations, replacements, system reinforcement or looping, and feeder mains for major system expansions.
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Document ID: EABB9A1D

Internal Static Electricity Mitigation In Pe Piping Systems Using The Lonix Membrane Technology
Author(s): Dirk Smith, John B. Mcgowan Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Polyethylene pipe today comprises the majority of gas distribution main and service installations. One major problem associated with the use of an electrical insulator to distribute gas is the buildup of static electricity within the interior wall surfaces of the PE pipe. This has resulted in 1. explosions of gaseous atmosphere ignited by static electricity during repair operations of line hits, and 2. pinhohng of PE pipe due to dielectric arcing within the pipe. This paper will report on preliminary findings of the use of a new patented technology in distribution ones to reduce or eliminate down stream static electricity charges developing on the inside walls of PE pipe. It will assess its impact in the reduction of gaseous ignitions and pinholing.
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Document ID: A3EFD844

Integrating Risk Factors In The Pipeline Regulatory Framework
Author(s): Richard Felder
Abstract/Introduction:
Controlling mechanical damage: INGAA/GRI. Why the Need to Better Integrate Risk Factors? Risk Management foundation, in general, based on regulations & industry practices. Risk Management differs by offering: More systematic/comprehensive examination of pipeline failure modes & causes. Why the Need to Better Integrate Risk Factors? Varied risk control options, including combinations. Customized solutions to pipeline failines. Ranked & prioritized risk control options, resources allocated accordingly. Integrated throughout life cycle & elements of operation.
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Document ID: 2E9AD683

Methods To Improve The Accuracy And Reliability Of The Field Gas Chromatograph.
Author(s): Rick Wilsack
Abstract/Introduction:
Results of a round robin study are presented based upon three years of efforts to improve the performance of the on-line gas chromatograph. Included are a number of modifications that increased the repeatability and accuracy of the gas chromatograph. The testing program utilized several primary standards blended by various specialty gas companies, and included the 14 chromatographs on the TransCanada PipeLines system plus those used by several other transmission companies.
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Document ID: AD92AEAC

Performance Evaluation Of 8 Inch Multi-Path Ultrasonic Meters
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents results of tests conducted to evaluate the performance of 8inch multi-path ultrasonic meters. The tests were conducted at NOVAs Gas Dynamic Test Facility on 8inch meters (3-path and 4-path) provided by Daniel and Instromet. The test program has benefited from the support of a consortium consisting of NOVA, TransGas, AECO, Chevron and GRl, The performance of the meters, as compared to NOVAs meter prover, is evaluated with the meters placed in ideal flow conditions, downstream of a single elbow and two-elbows out of plane and under pulsating flow conditions. The meters have been tested up to 30 to 40% of their flow capacity.
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Document ID: 2AF98CBB

Practical Experiences With Low Pressure Drop Flow Conditioners
Author(s): G.H. Sloet, K. Van Bioemendaal, G. J. De Nobel
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years a number of flow conditioners with a relative low pressure drop have been developed, hi 1995 and 1996 the behaviour of several of these new flow conditioners has been investigated at Gasunie Research, hi the first stage of the project a flow disturber was used which could create swirl and asymmetric flow profiles. The ability of the flow conditioners to remove these static disturbances and the eflect on the turbine meter performance was investigated. In the second stage of the project pressure regulators were used lo create the dynamic disturbances that can be found in practice, A large number of experiments were performed to test combinations of pressure regulators, flow conditioners and turbine meters. To simulate the field situation as close as possible a realistic gas station setup was built in the laboratory complete with heat exchanger, safety valves, bends and straight pipe sections. In the experiments the pressure drop and meter error were determined and in a number of configurations flow profiles were measured.
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Document ID: AE477803

The Activation Of The Saltville Gas Storage Project In Virginia
Author(s): Michael L. Edwards
Abstract/Introduction:
Virginia Gas Pipeline Company (VGPC) is developing a high deliverability underground gas storage facility at Saltville in Southwest Virginia. Construction began in March, 1995. As part of Phase 1, an existing cavern that was originally created by Solution Salt Mining has been reentered and converted to use for gas storage for peak day requirements of customers. An 8 inch pipeline was laid to a connection point with El Paso Energy (E.T.N.G.). Debrining of the cavern commenced on August 29, 1996. Gas withdrawal commenced on November 12, 1996.
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Document ID: 7ADE4363

Automated Dispatching - A New Generation
Author(s): James Cutietta
Abstract/Introduction:
East Ohio Gas (EOG) is committed to providing quality customer service to our 1.2 million customers. To increase customer satisfaction, increase productivity, and lower operating costs, EOG has deployed Automated Dispatching and state-of-the-art mobile data technology in all of our 400 Customer Service vehicles. In addition, extensive computer interfaces have been developed that catch the field data sent in by radio and electronically link it with many other information systems throughout the company. Besides Dispatch and Customer Service, many other departments throughout the organization have immediate access to and use this customer field data provided by the system. Since order information is used by many departments, employees fi-om many areas of the company were involved in the design, development, and implementation of the system.
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Document ID: CC4FCA20

New A.G.A. Report No, 9, Measurement Of Gas By Multipath Ultrasonic Gas Meters
Author(s): John W. Stuart
Abstract/Introduction:
The new technology of multipath ultrasonic gas meters has been rapidly accepted by pipelines throughout the world as the meter of choice for high capacity meter stations. A.G.A.s Transmission Measurement Committee has just finished writing Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Ultrasonic Meters. The contents of this new recommended practice for ultrasonic meters is summarized.
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Document ID: 8D66FA25

Innovation In Salt Bed Storage Development: Avoca Natural Gas Storage
Author(s): John A. Rosenkrantz
Abstract/Introduction:
To compete in todays marketplace, independent storage developers often have to take on the challenges associated with building innovative projects. The sponsors of Avoca Natural Gas Storage are currently constructing the first salt bed gas storage project in the Northeast market area that is not based on the conversion of an existing cavern. Gaining access to the water required to solution mine new storage caverns, and disposing of the resulting brine, raises permitting and geologic issues that do not occur with a more conventional storage project. At the same time, Avoca is subject to the same types of market and regulatory challenges that other projects face. Despite the sponsors efforts to minimize uncertainty prior to the start of construction, the Avoca project demonstrates that mid-course corrections are often required to keep a new project on track.
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Document ID: 53C733D3


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