Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1994)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1994 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Determination Of Specihc Gravity Of Gases: Fundamentals And Instruments
Author(s): Faruk Civan
Abstract/Introduction:
Specific gravity is one of the basic properties used for characterization and measurement of gases. Instruments used for determining specific gravity are called gravitometers. There are also methods by which specific gravity can be determined indirectly. Accurate determination of specific gravity is essential for accurate measurement of gas flow rate.
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Document ID: 296CEF8B

New Products In Measurement
Author(s): J. F. Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
A number of new products have become available recently and provide enhanced capabilities for measurement, and gas quality monitoring. A brief review of a number of these products or devices follows. The technical data provided has been graciously furnished by the manufactures representatives.
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Document ID: 98F67996

Operation & Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Jim Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The operation and maintenance of regulators is extremely important because a gas regulator is the most critical mechanism for controlling the movement or the flow of gas. A device that controls changeable pressure and flows is often referred to as a control valve, a governor, a pressure reducer, or regulator.
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Document ID: 6A6A2372

Fundamentals Of Pneumatic Controllers
Author(s): Doug Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
Controllers in one form or another have been around the process industries for a number of years. In fact, they are such a familiar sight in most industrial operations that they frequently suffer from being taken for granted. Yet, the quality of performance provided by a control system is determined by the performance of the controller and the other elements in the loop. The controller, with its various adjustments, is the one element in the control loop that allows any measure of operating flexibility. For optimum performance, it is necessary to use the controller properly. This requires a thorough understanding of some fundamental relationships.
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Document ID: 0D704BDB

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): William H. Eamey
Abstract/Introduction:
THIS PAPER WILL ADDRESS THE GAS PRESSURE REDUCING REGULATOR INSTALLATION AND THE ISSUE OF ERRATIC CONTROL OF THE DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE, A GAS PRESSURE REDUCING REGULATORS JOB IS TO MANIPULATE FLOW IN ORDER TO CONTROL PRESSURE. WHEN DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE IS NOT PROPERLY CONTROLLED THE TERRA UNSTABLE CONTROL IS APPLIED. FIGURE 1 IS A LIST OF OTHER TERMS USED FOR VARIOUS FORMS OF DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE INSTABILITY. THIS PAPER WILL NOT ADDRESS THE MATHEMATICAL METHODS OF DESCRIBING THE AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE PRESSURE REDUCING STATION, BUT WILL DEAL WITH MORE OF THE COMPONENTS AND THEIR AFFECT ON THE SYSTEM STABILITY.
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Document ID: 0239830F

Fundamental Principles Of Self-Operated Regulators
Author(s): James Thomson
Abstract/Introduction:
A self-operated regulator is a very simple device that conAises many newcomers to the industry due to its strange terminology. This paper will discuss the basic purpose of regulators, the basic design of regulators, what affects their performance, things to consider when sizing a regulator and, capacity calculations for safety devices. Such mystifying terms as loading element, sensing element, restricting element, droop, boost, spring effect, diaphragm effect, body effect, inlet pressure effect, lock-up, monitor regulator, full open capacity and, rated capacity will be explained.
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Document ID: 038A91AA

Evaporation Loss From Storage Tanks
Author(s): Robert B. Wagoner
Abstract/Introduction:
The loss of stored hydrocarbons has been a concern since the early days of the petroleum industry. Initially hydrocarbon liquids were stored in open tanks or in tanks with only fixed roof covers.
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Document ID: EEC6CA11

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): Clarence L. Strange
Abstract/Introduction:
When gauging, testing and running of lease tanks, five separate measurement functions are required. These are temperature determinations, API gravity determination, gauging, sampling, and sediment and water determination.
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Document ID: E3B357C9

Gas Service Regulators Installation, Selection, And Operation
Author(s): Robert Mccaslin
Abstract/Introduction:
Of the many varieties of gas pressure regulators the service regulator is one of the most basic and widely used types. They are typically found on residences, small businesses, and apartments. They are often the final stage of pressure reduction before residential meters, and they typically reduce pounds per square inch inlet pressure to inches water column pressure.
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Document ID: F727B873

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Brent E. Sayer
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator is a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. Our consideration today will be with the gas regulator,specificallythepilotcontrolledregulator, in matching the supply of gas moving through it with the demand downstream. Regulators operate on the following equation SUPPLY DEMAND. The regulator solves this equation by maintaining the outlet pressure at the set point Too much supply causes an increase in downstream pressure while too little supply results in a decrease in downstream pressure. Graphically, the ideal regulator would operate as follows:
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Document ID: 07EEE7E0

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Brent E. Sayer
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator may be described as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accompli sh thi s, the regulator continuously measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly.
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Document ID: 2FD74D15

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Jeannie Oneal
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas marketing scene has taken on a new look from the days of the Long Term or Life of Lease Contracts. In the past natural gas was often sold direct from the wellhead or a producer-owned facility to a pipeline conpany at a flat rate price and the only parties involved were producer or seller and buyer.
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Document ID: D10E6C85

Elements Of Natural Gas Liquid Contracts
Author(s): S. P. Canfield
Abstract/Introduction:
A typical Natural Gas liquids contract contains specific terms and conditions and general provisions. Specific terms and conditions are specific to a particular agreement such as identification of the parties involved, length of the agreement, pricing and exact actions to be performed by the parties. The General Provisions are terms which will be contained in most Natural Gas liquids contracts regardless of the type of agreement.
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Document ID: D6C26159

Meter Shop Eqmpment, Techniques, And Operation
Author(s): R. F. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of new equipment inevitably results in new techniques and operational procedures to be implemented. Innovative techniques can result in operational changes and the development of new equipment. An operational modification opens the door for the development of new ideas, new equipment, and new techniques. This constant cycle of change promotes a continuous series of economic evaluations and decisions.
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Document ID: C4655D04

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): D. A. Tefankjian
Abstract/Introduction:
In any field of endeavor for a person to completely understand the endeavor, he or she must have a knowledge and an understanding of the fundamentals involved. People can do well in the performance of their work without knowing the basic principles, but to excel and progress knowledge of the fundamentals is necessary. This is particularly true if ones work is technical in nature.
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Document ID: 4324E8F5

Federal Qualifications Training Requirements For Measurement Technicians
Author(s): David Adcock
Abstract/Introduction:
At this writing, the requirements for qualification of measurement technicians and all other personnel involved with the transportation of natural gas and hazardous liquids is still in the proposal stage. The proposed time of presenting the new changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations, parts 192 and 195, is estimated to be first quarter of 1994.
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Document ID: 0D64FF5A

Program For Training A Measurememt Technician
Author(s): Alton L. Gates
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early 1970s when the price of gas went from an average of 17C per thousand cubic feet to 2.00 and the words take or pay became prevalent, many companies started thinking about advanced training programs. Many organizations, such as ours, had basically used the hands on or the on the job training approach. Utilization of these methods often fostered bad habits, as well as, a lack of standardization in our organization. This method often lead individuals to conceive erroneous ideas about measurement, and worst yet, perform jobs without basic knowledge of flow calculations, square root functions or how positive displacement meters actually work.
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Document ID: AE81BFA5

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): T. Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
The title of this paper may mislead the reader to think the purpose is to simply discuss the mechanics of operating orifice recorders. Proper maintenance and operations of the orifice meter is much more encompassing when one realizes the complete aspect and importance of gas measurement with the orifice meter station.
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Document ID: 88A83B07

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meter Chart Recorders
Author(s): George A. Borst
Abstract/Introduction:
The chart recorder has been the mainstay of the gas measurement industry for over 50 years. The important features are: simplicity does not require a power source mggedness low cost produces auditable results
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Document ID: 5890BB8B

Measurement Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, lets discuss an inqmrtant phase of everyday planning for Measurement personnel. A test and inspection guide is a corporations plan to meet government regulations. DOT requires pipelines to have a writti operating and maintenance plan. This plan must meet the minimum federal standards and cover various phases of operations. A company may include items above the minimum federal standards but they must operate according to the plan they prqare. In plain words, what you write you must be ready to live and operate by whether they just meet the DOT minimums or exceed the DOT requirements and this becomes the company bible.
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Document ID: 7875870E

Micrometer Measurement Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ramon Menchaca
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas transmission industry is periodically required to adapt to new or updated techniques of gas measurement. This Is due In part to changes made to existing Industry standards which must also be updated to incorporate new research data.
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Document ID: 6F77BE80

Orihce Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Kenneth E. Embry
Abstract/Introduction:
The most widely accepted means of measurement of natural gas and other fluids is the Orifice Meter. The primary elements of the orifice meter include the orifice plate, orifice fittings or flanges, adjacent piping and flow conditioner or straightening vanes which make up the Meter Tube.
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Document ID: 39676135

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrator
Author(s): Gary Hammond
Abstract/Introduction:
The UGC Chart Processor is a niicroprocessor based system designed to translate orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data of integrated flow (chart extension), flow time and average pressure. It will handle American (Westcott and Foxboro) charts as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Processor can be fitted with pen mounts for Taylor and/or Rockwell charts. The operator directs the pens to follow the records by moving the trace handles as the chart rotates. The rotational speed of the chart table is governed by a variable foot control.
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Document ID: 3707CDC6

Field Experience With Charts, Pens And Inks
Author(s): Edmund L. Petray
Abstract/Introduction:
The main goal of data compilation is accuracy. In the field, lost, inaccurate, or illegible data means unyielded income. The quality of a chart recording is dependent on how well the components of the measuring system interact. Most of the components are controllable. A few, a result of the environment - density, humidity, and temperature, for example -- are not. That is, unless we absorb tremendous overhead to change the environment, as in a climate controlled laboratory. The proper combinations of charts, pens, and ink result in the most accurate and thus cost effective measurements.
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Document ID: 3C854BD6

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Zaki D. Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter has been a standard in the gas industry for years. With proper operation and maintenance, the orifice meter has proven to be an accurate method to measure natural gas. The orifice meter is one of the most basic devices ever invented for measurement However, it also has associated problems as a result of its simplicity. With the increasing demand and prices of natural gas minimizing error in measurement has become essential.
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Document ID: AE2395D6

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people must have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc.
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Document ID: 70152406

Gri Sponsored Research
Author(s): John G. Gregor
Abstract/Introduction:
Deregulation of the natural gas industry, FERC Order 636, and the business economic climate has resulted in significant changes to industry operations. Increased emphasis is given to the timely and exact tracking of natural gas as it moves from the production wellhead through the gathering, transmission, and distribution system. Improved flow measurement technology is necessary for accurately and cost-effectively carrying out this monitoring process.
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Document ID: 6F4E1DAA

Continued Development Of The Total Energy Meter
Author(s): Thomas Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
The movement to measurement of total gas energy with particular attention to real time measurement has pointed out the need to rethink our approaches to measurement. The factoring of heating value as a vital component combined with the increased demand for improved accuracy in volumetric flow are prime concerns. This paper serves as a project review of the direct reading, total gas energy metering system. Its focus is project history with particular attention to recent advances in packaging and enhanced performance of the system.
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Document ID: C49EC181

Status Of Multiphase Flow Measurement Research
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Research in multiphase measurement has been accelerating over the last few years. The reasons for this interest level are primarily economic in nature. It has been estimated that more than 50% of the worlds proven reserves of oil and gas are located in water depths greater than 1000 feet. These water depths demand innovative and economical developments, in order for projects to be viable. Some of the more promising methods for economical production in deep water include multiphase measurement, especially in conjunction with multiphase pumping. Subsea production, measurement and transportation to shore or an existing platform may allow more efficient and less costly processing, thus minimizing platform costs. It may be possible to eliminate separation equipment and test lines on some projects which will result in tremendous economic savings. This paper will explore the advantages of multiphase measurement, methods utilized for multiphase measurement to date, research to date, and projected future research.
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Document ID: 70A55AC7

Influence Op The Latest Revision Of Ansi 2530 (AGA #3) On Flow Cohpirtbr Software
Author(s): Raymond G. Teyssandier, Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
The new American Petroleum Institute, American Gas Association, Gas Processors Association orifice metering standard represents the first major change in the USA calculation procedures published since 1935. As almost all of the approximately 19 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in the US passes through orifice meters this standard will have a significant impact. This new standard will result in a not only in different, but also more accurate, volumes then those calculated by all previous USA or international standards.
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Document ID: FEC909D1

Develorment Of Orifice Meter Standards Past(, Present And Future)
Author(s): Ray Teyssandier, Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Standards are developed in order to provide uniformity of action, improve efficiency, and to minimize litigation. If standards did not exist, one would have to know the dimensions (diameter, depth, thread pattern, etc) of the socket prior to purchasing a replaconent light bulb. Can you imagine the difllculties that would exist between companies if the purchaser had a set of company standards which requires that the orifice plate be installed with the sharp edge downstream and the producer had a set of company standards which requires that the oriHce plate be installed with the sharp edge upstream. Measurement agreements would be very difficult to achieve in this scenario. Consequently, an orifice metering standard was necessary to avoid frequent disagreonents and litigation. There are many areas of concern such as plate thickness, surface roughness, dimensional tolerances, etc that have been specified by the orifice measurement standard. If this were not the case each company would be tempted to implonent whatever would benefit their company the most. Different requiranents might even be employed based on whether the company was buying or selling. Thus the need for a standard was recognized many years ago.
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Document ID: 31EA0C24

Overview Of API Copm() - Measurement Activities
Author(s): Stephen P. Chamberlain
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute was founded in 1919 as an outgrowth of the National Petroleum War Committee. That committee was comprised of U.S. oil industry leaders who worked together with the federal government to meet the tremendous demand for petroleum fuel during World War 1. The experience demonstrated that oil industry representatives could work together on common problems affecting the industry and still compete with one another in the marketplace. This in an important concept because under U.S. antitrust law, industry competitors can work together toward mutual objectives using API as the fonim.
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Document ID: 35AF838E

Activities Of A.GA. Measurement Committee
Author(s): Lori S. Traweek
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association operating section has two committees that focus on measurement activities: The Transmission Measurement Committee (TMC) and the Distribution Measurement Committee (DMC). These committees are made up of measurement personnel from natural gas distribution and transmission companies and equipment manufacturers. Following is an update of the committees activities.
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Document ID: 0AC4C61F

Effect Of 1991 Revision Of Ansi 2530 On Orifice Meter Run
Author(s): Michael B. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Significant improvements in the equations which govern the measurement of natural gas using orifice meters, have necessitated changes in the primary devices used to gather the data. These changes have been incorporated into the new revision of the API 14.3 Part 2 Third Edition (AGA-3, ANSI 2530) and are detailed in the following discussion.
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Document ID: E1C42744

Effect Of 1991 Revision Of Ansi 2530 On Orifice Meter Run
Author(s): Michael B. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Significant improvements in the equations which govern the measurement of natural gas using orifice meters, have necessitated changes in the primary devices used to gather the data. These changes have been incorporated into the new revision of the API 14.3 Part 2 Third Edition (AGA-3, ANSI 2530) and are detailed in the following discussion.
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Document ID: D6676930

Theoretical Uncertainty Of Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Zaki D. Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters are the most common meters used for hydrocarbon flow measurement. They are rugged and mechanically simple devices that are suited for flow measurement in the field. In 1779, an Italian physicist, Giovanni B. Venturi (1746-1822) performed the first recorded work that used orifices for the measurement of fluid flow. Many years of field experience with a wide range of meter sizes, variety of fluids, and numerous investigative tests have identified all major contributing factors of the measurement uncertainty of orifice flowmeters. Because of their long history of use and dominance in the fluid flow measurement, their designs, installation requirements, and equations for flow rate calculation have been standardized by different organizations in the United States and in other countries. These standards provide the guideline for the users to achieve accurate flow measurement and minimize measurement uncertainty. This paper discusses different factors that contribute to the measurement inaccuracy and provide an awareness to minimize or eliminate these errors. Different standards on orifice flowmeters and measurement uncertainties are referenced Ref.1-7.
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Document ID: D878F499

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement III
Author(s): James W. Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: 0707D6D3

Review Of API/ANSI 2 5 30
Author(s): R. G. Teyssandier, R. E. Beaty, J. E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
New research and measurement technologies have produced new equations and mechanical specifications which significantly improve the uncertainty levels for orifice measurement. This paper provides both an introduction and a summary of the four parts of the 1990, 1991, and 1992 revision to the orifice standard.
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Document ID: 20BAC1FA

Btu Reduction In Gas Plants
Author(s): Jim Bieda, Tom Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
When gas is processed in a plant, it changes in several ways. First, the volume is reduced by some measurable amount second, the composition changes so that the gas consists almost exclusively of methane and third, the energy content is significantly reduced. These changes are a direct result of the plants primary objective, which is to convert lower-value gas to highervalue liquids, The amount of energy used to accomplish this is referred lo as Plant Btu Reduction or PER. This paper will attempt to explain the significance of PBR and to demonstrate its calculation.
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Document ID: 58113963

Odorization - Natural Gas
Author(s): J. T. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The vast majority of natural gas odorants are blends of two or more components. This presentation is intended to summarize the compositions, characteristics and extent of use of the most commonly used blends.
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Document ID: E22E699D

Elecmonic Chart Scanning And Relatbd Equipment
Author(s): Janis Wise
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas, the energy of the future, is gathered by hundreds and ftwusands of miles of pipeline. Each pipeline has a meter that indicates on a chart the flow pattern of the gas produced from a well. To interpret the meaning of the charte, diey must be analyasd and have calculations performed by a measurement department. From this information, the volume of gas passing through the pipeline is determined.
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Document ID: CE85878C

Controlling Surge In Liquid Pipeline
Author(s): George m. Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
Surges or hydraulic transients, commonly known as water hammer are sudden increases or decreases of the total pressures in a piping system due to changes in velocity of the fluid in a pipeline. Change in velocity, such as would result from the sudden closure of a valve in a flowing pipeline, causes the fluid to suddenly come to rest, resulting in a pressure increase in the system above the operating pressure. The energy associated with the moving fluid is converted into energy of pressure when it is suddenly stopped. In steady state pipeline flow, there is no change in the flow conditions at a point with passing time. The hydraulic grade line (HGL) elevation varies with two independent variables namely, the distance from the upstream end of the conduit & the flow rate. On the other hand, transient flow introduces time as a second independent variable such that both the flow velocity and the HGL elevation vary with both distance and the time elapsed from the start of a disturbance.
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Document ID: FFC5C706

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Accident statistics clearly show that pipelines are the safest method for transporting hydrocarbon fluids compared to trucking, rail or marine transportation. Even so, leaks and spills do occasionally happen and can be (1) very costly in terms of product loss and clean up, and (2) hazardous to life, property and the environment. The pipeline industry recognizes its responsibility to be proactive in technological advancements which promote public safety, and many pipeline operators either already have or are planning to install real-time methods for determining when leaks occur. The intent is to detect leaks as soon as possible to permit the operator to shut down a pipeline and minimize the amount of stock loss and potential hazard to the public. Some federal and state regulations require some form of leak detection on pipelines which transport hazardous fluids through populated and otherwise sensitive areas.
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Document ID: 651F9CB5

Design Of An Electronic Odorant Injection System
Author(s): Daniel A. Zimmerman
Abstract/Introduction:
Times were when many gas companies with delivery station volumes of less than 20mmcf per day held little regard for a c c u r a t e o d o r i z a t i o n. Traditional by-pass odorizers with their inherent inefficiency, were the order of the day. Well, times have changed.
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Document ID: 52B93472

D.O.T. Requirements For Transportation Of Sample Containers
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
During my travels around the United States talking about sampling and sample containers, it has come to my attention that the oil and gas industry in the U.S. needs to be a little better informed on proper handling, shipping and transportation of sample containers of all types. Since everybody in the oil, gas and chemical industry seems to be involved in taking samples and handling sample containers, it behooves us to understand the laws and rules that govern their transportation.
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Document ID: DA9961E5

Carbon Dioxide Measurement Experience
Author(s): Dave V. Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many of the major production companies have made significant commitments to a continuing program for tertiary recovery. Due to favorable reservoir response, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) has been selected as the principal injection material for tertiary recovery projects in the West Texas and the Rocky Moimtain areas. As a result, the oil and gas industry, and more particularly the measurement industry, has been given the responsibility to design systems to handle a material for which little operation experience has been development and for which there were minimal amounts of PVT data.
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Document ID: D9D96170

Flow Measurement Ustng Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): Donald Ginesi
Abstract/Introduction:
When a fluid moving in a closed pipe strikes a blunt faced, non-streamlined object at high flowrates, it separates and moves around the object (also called the bluff body) in two streams. This separation does not allow the fluid streamlines to remain parallel, and they curl back upon themselves as shown in Figure (1). The result of this separation and back flow is the formation of whirlpools, also called eddies or vortices.
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Document ID: 8CCCFD9A

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - IV
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
I t is shown that for low g r a v i t y , low carbon dioxide content natural gases A.G.A. Report NX-19 is reasonably accurate in comparison to A.G.A. Report No. 8. For natural gases which have high g r a v i t i e s , due either to carbon dioxide or ethane plus heavier hydrocarbons, A.G.A. Report No. 8 is dramatically more accurate than A.G.A. Report NX-19.
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Document ID: 8FA9CEF6

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of the natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
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Document ID: FE53C6F9

Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper gives an introduction to the practical application of ultrasonic gas flow meters. A general outline of the theory and methods applied using multipath flow meters. The 5-path type meter provides state of the art gas flow measurements and its accuracy and reliability satisty the requirements for custody transfer. The preliminary test results indicate a 0.2% accuracy for this multipath instrument.
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Document ID: 99AA37E5

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Todd A. Reeves
Abstract/Introduction:
The f i r s t positive displacement rotary gas meters were b u i l t in 1920 by the PH 4 FM ROOTS Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966, this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are s t i l l known as ROOTS Meters.
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Document ID: AEED758E

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Existing Meter Stations
Author(s): Fred C. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Our gas Industry has changed a great deal over the past several years. Open access, deregulation and the changing economy have forced the gas industry to modify the way it does business. Operators are not selling gas to the transmission companies but to the end users. The transmission companies are now moving a commodity that they dont own but just transport to a designated market. Markets are changing constantly along with the origin of the gas. Formerly, gas would go in one given direction. Now, a pipeline may flow east today and west tomorrow. These changes call for detailed knowledge of the status of the gas in the pipeline from source to destination. This knowledge is needed to insure the most accurate delivery of volumes and the highest possible quality gas.
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Document ID: 9C38810C

Effects & Control Of Pulsations In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ernie Carreon
Abstract/Introduction:
The effects of pulsation on orifice recorders is detrimental to the accurate measurement of natural gas. However, it can be reduced with the installation of pulsation filter bottles between the compressor and the meter station facility. Acoustically, the pulsation can be reduced to a minimal Square Root Error (SRE) reducing the overstatement of natural gas which, in turn, saves a considerable amount of money over time. To obtain reliable measurements, it is necessary to suppress any apparent pulsation.
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Document ID: CC8F8156

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Brent E. Sayer
Abstract/Introduction:
The phrase overall measurement accuracy hints at the complexities associated with measuring and analyzing a compressible fluid such as natural gas. Todays utilities are becoming more concerned with purchasing, transporting, and selling a quantity of energy, not just a volume of some unknown gaseous material. Gravitometers, calorimeters, and chromatographs are joining the measurement techs bag of tools right along with meters, regulators, and correcting instruments.
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Document ID: 48E2DB3F

Remote Collection And Transmission Of Domestic Meter Readings
Author(s): David Farris
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of gas meters in America, is tied to the development of the gas industry. In its infancy in the 1830s the gas business was charging a flat rate per burner. A customer had an annual flat rate which was based on an estimate for a given number of burners in a reasonable number of hours. Often, people left their gas lights burning and consumed more than they paid for. Meters were needed to provide a method of selling gas on a measured volume basis.
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Document ID: CAA5DA85

Fundamentals Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Brent E. Sayer
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a :flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocket-book of the majority.
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Document ID: 325DCCBB

Fundamentals Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Brent E. Sayer
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement in the U.S. and around the world is dominated by diaphragm, rotary, turbine, and orifice meters. Each serves a di fferent segment of the gas industry and each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages.
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Document ID: 559D8B53

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The strict and competitive business environment in which the natural gas industry operates today dictates that measurement and control systems which are utilized are of the highest achievable operational integrity. This entails not only that measurements and controls are performed and maintained precisely and reliably, but also that consideration is given to operational phenomena which may adversely aflect the overall performance and integrity of such systems. Freezing is an operational occurrence which frequently affects the fimctionality and performance of measurement and regulating systems.
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Document ID: 5CDCA5D3

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Reguiating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence in a liquid or gas piping system is almost never desirable. Unfortunately, turbulence is also almost never absent. So we must plan for it in order to minimize its effects on pipeline capacity, pressure drop, measurement error, noise, and piping vibration. Design engineers and field personnel alike are interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. Both favor maximum throughput with the least amount of noise. By the same token, both are concerned with finding the best site for analytical instruments such as calorimeters, chromatographs, or dew point instruments, and for a steady sense point for control.
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Document ID: 48613A65

Ethylene ME?UREMENT
Author(s): Edgar E. Buxton
Abstract/Introduction:
Ethylene has a critical temperature of 48.58F. ahis fact causes ethylene to behave very differently at ambient tonperatures in the general range of 0F to 100F as compared with methane which has a critical temperature of -116F or n-octane which has a critical temperature of 564.1F. Very large density changes of the ethylene fluid resulting fron small changes in temperature or pressure are of the greatest concern with respect to the accuracy of ethylene flow measurements. These very large density changes occur at pressures above 400 psia for the 0F to 100F temperature range vere ethylene may be in either a liquid or vapor (gas) phase depending upon the pressure and energy content. Above the critical pressure (729.8 psia) a liquid phase does not exist, ethylene is in a dense vapor phase and the density values or the density changes are considerably different than those predicted by the gas law equations unless accurate ocmpressibility factors are included.
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Document ID: 2E9A096E

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of electronic calculators and computers, calculations can be performed in chain sequences that allow for less handling and ease of operation. However, it is possible for different operators, using different machines, to arrive at slightly different answers from time to time. Therefore, there is a need to standardize some of the calculation procedures. The API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards addresses this problem in Chapter 12, which is currently under review. It is important to note the following declaration in Section 2 of Chapter 12, under Introduction and Purpose: Nothing in this publication precludes the use of more precise determinations of temperature, pressure, and density (gravity) or the use of more significant digits, by mutual agreement among the parties involved, The rules given below generally reflect current prevailing practices. However, it is anticipated that the new API 12.2 standard will be a more stringent as well as a more specific standard, and that prevailing practices will then change accordingly.
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Document ID: 007C00CE

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gains
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Good measurement can be assured by continuously monitoring measurement results to determine if systems, or equipment and procedures, are performing in predictable ways and are operating within acceptable limits. This may be done by the use of Control Charts.
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Document ID: 5B05A18B

Automatic Tank Gauging
Author(s): Woodrow W. Oglesby
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of liquids in storage tanks requires a thorough understanding of all parameters affecting those measurements. The equipment choice, its installation, the data collection system, and the stored product all influence the final results and vahdity of the data. The tank itself must be analyzed cone roof, floating roof tanks, and spheres all present different challenges for measuremen
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Document ID: D8FC294F

Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Seth Cocking
Abstract/Introduction:
Clamp-on Ultrasonic flow meters are available from various manufactures using two distinct technologies. Each of these technologies has its own intrinsic advantages and limitations. This paper will provide the reader with the background in both the transit-time and Doppler flow meter technologies required to understand the inherent advantages and limitations in each technoiogy.
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Document ID: 74886593

Relative Density Specific( Gravity) Measurement
Author(s): Timothy Oneill
Abstract/Introduction:
Relative density is one of me fundamental physical properties of a gas that derives from the composition of the gas and does not change unless the composition is changed by mixing with other gases or undergoing a chemical change. Relative density does not change with change in temperature and pressure. Relative density is measured because it provides a general totalized description of the gas composition and therefore its physical properties, quality and value. The relative density value is important because it is used as a factor in calculations for flow rate using orifice meters and for custody transfer.
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Document ID: 2FDD425E

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): John Abbruscato
Abstract/Introduction:
This seminar will cover the use of vibrating element liquid densitometers in applications ranging from mass flow determination to interface detection for liquids ranging from light LPGs and refined products to waxy, heavy crude oils.
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Document ID: 20CF1C31

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Daniel J. Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid density meters are used to measure several properties of various clean, dirty, light, heavy, corrosive, or viscous fluids. Applications include the measurement of: Mass Flow Custody Transfer Pipeline Interface Detection Product Identification Blending Product Quality
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Document ID: ED42FAD6

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): Randall F. Hartung
Abstract/Introduction:
Bulk petroleum distribution terminals have had the opportunity to automate both the loadrack and daily business process for some time now. Despite this fact many terminals worldwide, remain without any form of modern automation.
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Document ID: 70D9E70F

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Christopher B. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine the turbine meter for the custody transfer measurement of liquid petroleum. An understanding of the fundamentals of the design and performance characteristics will be developed. The factors influencing the accuracy and application will also be discussed.
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Document ID: 7D5CB24E

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
LIQUID MEASUREMENT STATIONS are uecessilaled by agreements between petroleum buyers, sellers and transporters along wilh appropriate customs and or governmental authorities. These agreements outline how the fluid is to be measured and how the results will be traceable to recognized standards. In the case of common carrier pipelines, the pipeline is entrusted with the transport of their customers fluid, thus loss control by use of an accurate liquid measurement station is essential. In addition to meeting the requirements for measurement, stations must meet numerous safety and construction codes and standards, as the fluids are normally hazardoiis. Operation of the measurement station must be relatively simple, and a user friendly operator interface is highly desirable. The task of the station or system designer is to transform these requirements into engineering specifications, drawings, and bills of materials for procurement, manufacture, test and delivery lo the end user of a cadre of components specifically selected and assembled to work together to meet the requirements of the measurement agreement and applicable codes. This paper will discuss the various topics Ihe designer must address and the methodology he must use to produce a satisfactory system.
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Document ID: 8FB6FB68

Measurement Accuracy And Sources Of Error In Tank Gauging
Author(s): C. Stewart Ash
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally hand gauging of tanks has been considered a very accurate method to determine the quantity of oil transferred into or out of a tank. There are, however, several factors that must be considered when determining the accuracy of a custody transfer movement by tank gauge:
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Document ID: BAC7774A

Shipboard Sampling For Accountability In Custody Transfer
Author(s): E. Garsetti, P. S. Harrison, E. R. Robinson
Abstract/Introduction:
The importance of water measurement in the marine transportation of crude oil is considerable. A study carried out by the Institute of Petroleum and reported in Petroleum Review has shown that on a sample of 6,500 voyages, the quantity of water detected in the outturn was on average 0.13 percent higher than had been declared in the bill of lading and, furthermore, a discrepancy of 0.5 percent between the outturn and bill of lading water content was not unusual. These discrepancies have enormous fmancial implications and highlight the need for improved sampling and analysis methods. Indeed, this study showed that the larger water discrepancies occurred when the bill of lading had been based upon shore tank manual sampling techniques and analysis by centrifuge. The problems associated with manual sampling had long been suspected and over seven years ago SGS Redwood set out to develop a portable sampler which could be used to collect representative samples of crude oil and products being loaded onto or discharged from a vessel.
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Document ID: B5C8BCB9

Caubration. Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): m. J. Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss several field measurement methods that are presently in use to calibrate upright, above ground, cylindrical, cone and floating roof steel storage tanks.
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Document ID: 0DB96809

Measurement Fundamentals
Author(s): Robert A. Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to have accurate petroleum measurement is obvious. Petroleum measurement is the basis of commerce between oil producers, royalty owners, oil transporters, refiners, marketers, the Department of Revenue, and the motoring public. Furthermore, petroleum measurements are often used to detect operational problems or unwanted releases in pipelines, tanks, marine vessels, underground storage tanks, etc. Therefore, consistent, accurate petroleum measurement is an essential part of any operation.
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Document ID: EDAABFE5

Design, Operation, And Maintenance Of Lact Units
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
Although there is not a lot to maintain on a LACT Unit, trouble shooting has always been a problem. This paper will assist in the design, operation, maintenance and trouble shooting of LACT units.
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Document ID: 79F87F5F

High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station
Author(s): Pedro E. Tucker
Abstract/Introduction:
High pressure measuring and regulating stations are an important part of every pipeline system. Their primary function is to provide safe and dependable high pressure measurement and regulation of natural gas transported from one pipeline to another.
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Document ID: 79327A24

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Wyman Hammock
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter has become very popular for the measurement of liquids of low and medium viscosities. Its compact size, high flow rate, low maintenance and superior linearity make it especially attractive for liquid hydrocarbon applications. When a turbine meter is properly applied within a correctly designed flow system, its best performance can be realized.
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Document ID: BA136C76

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Charles R. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement, with todays state of the art liquid turbine meter, combines the mechanical aspects of the meter and electronics to measure total flow and/or flow rate within a piping system. The liquid turbine meter is a volumetric measuring instrument. By sensing the linear velocity of the fluid flowing through the open cavities of the meter, the volumetric flow rate can be determined. The flow, or linear velocity, of the fluid is sensed by the rotation of the rotor, which is supported within the meter housing. The rotor is designed so its rotational speed is proportional to the linear velocity of the flowing fluid. Since the linear velocity of the fluid flowing through a given area is dkectly proportional to the volumetric flow rate, it follows that the rotational speed, or RPM, of the rotor is also directly proportional to the volumetric flow rate. Therefore, by electronically measuring the rotation of the turbine meter rotor, the flow of the fluid through the meter can be accurately determined.
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Document ID: 78974423

Measurement Of Large Volumes By Turbine Meters
Author(s): Charles R. Allen, Drew S. Weaver, Zaki Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide information on how turbine meters are used to measure large volumes of crude oil. As an example, the arrangement of the largest crude oil measurement system in the world will be reviewed. In addition, the history and construction of liquid turbine meters will be discussed. Finally, the operation and performance of turbine meters on crude oils will be presented.
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Document ID: D1CD0574

Measurement Of Lpg
Author(s): Rodney F. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquified Petroleum Gas (LP Gas or LPG) by definition is any material having a vapor pressure not exceeding that allowed for commercial propane composed predominantly of the following hydrocarbons either by themselves or as mixtures : propane, propylene, butane (normal or isobutane) and butylenes.
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Document ID: BA999611

Marine Crude Oil Terminal. Measuring Systems
Author(s): Pclcr P. Jakubcuas
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate dclermiualiori of quautily aud quality of crude oil trausferred from shore to tauker or tauker lo shore, is the funcliou of Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measuring Systems. I-rom the measuremeut data, a Bill of Lading can be prepared and transport costs, taxes, royalties, aud customs fees can be compuled Accuracy is essential as each tanker load represents a value of ten to twenty million dollars. Even errors of 0.1% represent a significant amount of revenue. In addition to accuracy, meter systems offer several other advantages over older more traditional tank gaging methods. Specification guidelines for meter systems aud associated equipment are presented in this paper. Since most ports are in environmentally sensitive areas, design for protection from spills is also essential
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Document ID: F3AD4E14

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Randall J. Slomski
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid mass measurement using the Coriolis principal is fast becoming THE acceptable means for measuring process fluid flow. Process industries are accepting this method over conventional metering methods because of its unrestrained ability to meter almost any liquid. Measurement professionals are now trying to transport the successes attained in the process industry to the high accuracy applications of custody transfer measurement.
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Document ID: F235655F

Pycnometer Installation And Calculations
Author(s): Timothy Oneill
Abstract/Introduction:
In general a pycnometer is a container of known volume for determining the density of a liquid. The pycnometer is weighed empty, filled with liquid, and weighed full. The difference between the full and empty weights is the weight of the liquid. Density is calculated by dividing the liquid weight by the known volume.
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Document ID: C4E2FE94

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Uquid Mixtures
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
By definition, mass metering simply requires you to determine the mass of a body of material. Mass may be determined directly by weighing a container before and after it is filled or emptied or indirectly by measuring the volume and the density of a materia! passing a transfer point. Both these methods are routinely used in the petroleum industry today. The purpose of this paper is to review these methods and briefly discuss many of the errors and misconceptions we find in the field associated with them.
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Document ID: D3D285F1

Pressure And Temperature Measurement Devices - Liquid
Author(s): Sheriff Alimed
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to measure temperature and pressure has become a fundamental and essential requirement in the process industry. Tliis paper reviews the various pressure and temperature measurement devices used for liquid service. It looks at tlie principles of measurement, tlie types of instruments available, selection and suitability of each and also at Uic broad applications of tJiese measurements for liquid service. Finally, this paper briefly discusses tlie future trend in instrumentation for measurements of tliis kind.
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Document ID: 464A9BEC

Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Sampling
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
With the measurement and accounting of LPG and light products becoming more important, the collection of a representative sample and its analysis is also important. Many measurement stations that have been in the field for years are not designed to collect a sample of a stream that is contaminated with water, amine and natural gasoline. The streams that are contaminated with C02, methane, N2, and the lighter contaminates are also difficult to sample. If the systems are not designed to specifically handle all of these contaminates, the mass measurement and component balances of the plants and pipelines will be inaccurate.
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Document ID: FECED63A

What The Field And Office Groups Expect From The Other
Author(s): Melva J. Harris, David Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas measurement process is a continuous cycle which includes i) installation, operation and maintenance of metering equipment, ii) production of volume statements and reports based on meter outputs, and iii) maintenance and archival of records pertaining to operation of metering facilities. While some of these activities are performed by field operations personnel, others are performed by a volume processing department or measurement engineering group which may often be centrally located and therefore separated from field technical personnel. The division of responsibilities combined with geographic barriers requires that everyone involved in the process participate in a continuous cycle of communication to ensure that customer needs are met and goals are achieved.
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Document ID: 3A1DEE16

Displacement Meters For Uquid Measurement
Author(s): Kelly White
Abstract/Introduction:
Generally the operating principles and limitations irf large pcitive displacement meters have been described as liquid segmentation and measurnent Large positive displacement meters include generally meters of si2es 8 inch through 16 inch. The main application of this type meter is the measurement (rf petroleum products involved in custody transfer. Unlike turbine meters used specifically for low viscosity finished products, the positive displacement meter technology lends itself to the measurement of products with viscosities fircMn that of propane (LPG) to crude oil.
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Document ID: FE4A7953

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Robert E. Vickrey
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters have been used for centuries in measuring and regulating the flow of water. Historians have recorded the use of orifices by the Romans to regulate the flow of water to houses. Equations used to calculate gas flow rate were originally based on data using water. Although orifice meters are used extensively today by the gas Transmission industry for measuring large quantities of gas in custody transfer, they are also used for the measurement of natural gas liquids such as ethylene, carbon dioxide, raw mix, demethanized ethane-propane mix, oil, water, air and steam.
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Document ID: 092769C9

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
Arkla Pipeline Group (APG), along with most transmission companies, went to electronic flow measurement (EFM) to 1. Increase resolution and accuracy 2. Real time correction of flow variables 3. Increase speed in data retrieval 4. Reduce capital expenditures 5. Reduce operation and maintenance expenditures
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Document ID: 211A2CD6

Development And Implementation Of Portable Computers For Field Gaugers
Author(s): Scott Cain
Abstract/Introduction:
This session is split into two major sections A Systematic Approach to Development and Hardware Selection. The first. A Systematic Approach to Development, discusses the various stages of the development process and provides practical guidelines on the development of portable computers for field gaugers. Attendees should come away with a good understanding on how to tackle projects of this nature whether It be an in-house development or in conjunction with a vendor. This section primarily concentrates on the software development aspects of the project.
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Document ID: AF3AD7EB

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices As Applied In A Small Utility Or District Level Operation
Author(s): Daniel A. Zimmerman
Abstract/Introduction:
Full capability Supervisor Control and Data Acquisition is many times cost prohibitive to smal1 uti1ities. Likewise, the capabilities SCADA is designed to provide may be more cumbersome than efficient in smaller scale applications.
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Document ID: 9B2FD526

Computer Application In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Guy R. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Computers, in one form or another, have been used in the process of flow measurement since the 1970s. With microprocessors being so small and so inexpensive, micro- computing devices can be found in almost all phases of liquid measurement. Today, a microcomputer can be found in a meter-mounted flow totalizer, a temperature averager, and the traditional flow computer. For the purposes of this paper, the focus will be on the applications of the up-scale flow computer and supervisory computer.
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Document ID: 6DEBF7A6

Basic Scada Systems - From The Sensors To The Screen
Author(s): Brad Merlie
Abstract/Introduction:
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems are specialized control systems used to monitor and control facilities which are geographically dispersed. They are commonly used in the gas, oil, electric, and water transmission and distribution industries. SCADA systems differ from other control systems in that they make extensive use of remote communications and are more tolerant to outages of the communications network than a typical control system installation in a plant environment.
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Document ID: 1345B0F3

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): James P. Micklos
Abstract/Introduction:
To correctly analyze the use and performance of Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices, it is important to understand their origin. These Electronic devices were derived from their predecessors, the Mechanical Corrector.
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Document ID: AAFC08DA

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas Distribution
Author(s): C. m. Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
All gas systems leak. Gas escapes every system in one way or another. This is true because gas is permeable to every system. For instance, with PE2306 pipe, the volume of methane lost through permeation in one mile of two-inch pipe operated at 60 psi is about 0.26 cubic feet per day. So, if every system leaks, then how much do we lose? Hence, we have unaccounted-for gas.
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Document ID: ACB1CD78

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Mark A. Keirs
Abstract/Introduction:
The introduction of Electronic Volume Correctors was the inevitable result of the search for a better instrument and the combination of powerful microprocessors with improved low power circuit design technologies. At present, several companies have introduced electronic instruments. A comparison of their designs and features reveals startling differences despite their apparent similarities.
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Document ID: 333A8AFE

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Device
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a great deal of interest in applying electronic measurement and computing techniques to gas volume correction. What are the advantages of digital electronics which have generated so much enthusiasm? What benefits can really be expected? Here are the major benefits:
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Document ID: 91E58E50

Advanced Applications Of Flow Computers And Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Fred Wenzel
Abstract/Introduction:
At last years ISHM presentation titled Application of Flow Computers for Gas Measurement and Control (page 103), we described flow computer basics and several applications. This paper will focus on advanced applications of battery powered flow computers and telemetering of data and control to and from remote measurement sites.
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Document ID: 9CAFD9E7

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Howard m. Sheets
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Gas Industry today Telemetering is becoming necessary to meet the needs of companies in the ever changing gas market. With the recent advent of FERC rulings like 636, companies are continually trying to find ways to comply with federal regulations as well as market demands.
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Document ID: F3FEF7E4

Transient Lightning() Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): L. Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic measurement devices have become a major part of the oil and gas business today. All of these devices operate on an electrical voltage. Any voltage introduced into the system that is beyond the predetermined tolerance will cause degradation of performance or in some cases failure of the device. The extent of the damage depends upon the dielectric strength of the circuit in question and upon the available energy . As electronic measurement devices are further developed to incorporate more solid state circuitry and operate at lower voltage levels the more susceptible they become to transients.
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Document ID: FDE26B9E

Application Of Flow Computers For Measurement And Controls
Author(s): Fred Debusk
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronic flow computers (EFC) is continuing to escalate. Current technology allows for low power, fast data retrieval of measurement and control information from remote sites. The type and size of flow computer used depends on the overall system needs and functionality required.
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Document ID: 5EBD778D

Pressure And Temperature Transducers Installation(, Calibration & Repair)
Author(s): Bill C. Eckenrode
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure and Temperature transducers/transmitters have been key components in the measurement process and will continue to be so in the future. The accuracy of instruments, which these transducers are attached to, is very important to the measurement process, but without properly installed, calibrated and maintained primary elements to measure the process variables, the measurement process is worthless or at best inaccurate. Measurement operations exist for varied purposes such as process control or custody transfer. In order that these processes meet requirements of accuracy and repeatability, we must follow manufacturers recommendations to assure long term accurate process measurement.
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Document ID: 3B1B56D1

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): S.E. White
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering equipment is used to measure energy usage for gas and electric customers. Traditional meters are measuring devices that provide the basic data for billing energy consumption. However, these basic meters do not provide information about how energy is used over a period of time or provide advanced functions such as calculation of corrected gas volume and monitoring critical parameters such as pressure.
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Document ID: AD613D4F

Basic Electronics For The Field Technician
Author(s): Todd Perrodin
Abstract/Introduction:
The field of electronics is considered by many to be the most exciting and complex of all fields of study. Although this may be true, electronics are a way of life for all, from the time we wake up, until the time we go to bed, and even as we sleep. Electronics surround us!
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Document ID: F4A4F804

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Hydrocarbon Measur
Author(s): Clarence L. Strance
Abstract/Introduction:
Every day, custody is transferred on thousands of barrels of crude oil. When this custody takes place, we want to know the temperature, the API gravity, the S&.W percent and the volume. For the devices that are used to determine these, we must know that the devices are accurate. We can have these devices certified in-house, at the factory, from the supplier, or from the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
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Document ID: CF95E9A7

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted- For-Gas Transmis- Sion
Author(s): David Beasley
Abstract/Introduction:
With the large volumes that todays Transmission companies are moving, the Loss and Unaccounted For Gas is an ongoing concern. Unaccounted for Gas is a term used to indicate the difference between the volume measured entering a pipeline and the volume measured out of the same pipeline. The difference is termed Loss and Unaccounted For Gas and can be expressed as a + or -. Since one normally thinks of pipeline loss, the + indicates net loss, where a - indicates a gain in the pipeline balance. Another shorter phrase used to identify the difference has been termed LUFG. The assumption is that all the gas is measured into and out of a physical pipeline that can be clearly defined. The smaller the pipeline segment and number of meters the more manageable the balance process becomes.
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Document ID: 574EEAF9

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Arthur Calvin
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difBcult problems facing the instrament engineer is the accurate cahbration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. This paper describes methods to select deadweight testers and gauges. Also included are procedures for using hydraulic deadweight testers.
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Document ID: 87831E74

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): m. S. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Natural Gas Industry it is estimated that as much as 17 billion cubic feet of unaccounted for gas is written off every year. With energy prices fluctuating like they do, it is no wonder that management insists on the most accurate methods available.
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Document ID: 6F33BF03

Orifice Meter Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicator
Author(s): Jim Donaghey
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased use of Electronic Flow Measurement has brought advances to the devices used to calibrate Orifice Meters. One such device is the Portable Digital Indicator or Calibrator. In addition to the measurement of pressure, newer digital calibrators have the ability to calibrate most transducers or transmitters used with the Orifice Meter or EFM. Further advancements allow the digital calibrator to automatically record the calibration data and to communicate with software. All of the advances are, of course, enhancements to the primary considerations of accuracy, functionality, useability, and reliability based upon established standards and practices. An understanding of the primary considerations is important to the proper selection and use of digital calibrators. Recent standards published by the American Petroleum Institute (API) addresses the accuracy requirements for digital indicators.
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Document ID: B7B84B8E

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Testin
Author(s): David Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
It would seem with the advent of electronic measurement and electronic custody transfer of natural gas and other petroleum products that witnessing orifice meter calibration and field testing would become an obsolete practice in the petroleum industry. This however, is not the case. Due to low volume measurement, remote locations, dollar cost of electronic measurement, and arrangements between companies regarding electronic custody transfer, witnessing orifice meter calibration and field testing will continue to be an integral part of the petroleum industrys future. Even as technology moves forward and electronic measurement becomes common within the petroleum industry, electronic hardware used in measurement will, like the orifice recorder, only be a secondary measuring device.
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Document ID: A54C8DAB

Proving And Repairing Domestic Meters
Author(s): Ted Hansen
Abstract/Introduction:
Considering the variations of meter types and manufacture available and the space allowed for its discussion the scope of this paper will necessarily be quite general. An attempt has been made to present the subject as it relates to the local utility company and to highlight some areas that may be otherwise overlooked.
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Document ID: B109C93A

Methods Of Testing Large Capacity Positive Meters
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity positive meters are common in the natural gas industry. Large industrial customers rely on these meters to provide consistently accurate measurement Accurate measurement is critical to the Gas Distribution utility, as well. Since consumption by several large industrial customers can amount to a large part of the sales, accurate measurement by large capacity positive meters directly affects revenue. Proper performance of these measuring devices must be maintained with a minimum of expense and a maximum accuracy. Field testing of these meters frequently accomplishes these goals.
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Document ID: B9775271

Liquid Flow Provers Conventional()
Author(s): Charles J. Mcntz
Abstract/Introduction:
The mechanical displacement meter prover is a field calibration standard that provides a practical means to determine the volume of liquid flow within very precise limits. The proliferation of this device in liquid measurement applications has resulted in a vast difference in the techniques used for liquid measurement as compared to those commonly used for gas measurement. In-situ calibration of gas flowmeters is not a common practice, and gas flow is usually measured to an accuracy in the range of 1% of scale. Displacement type meter provers, providing on-line calibration of liquid flowmeters have become commonplace, and as a result the volumetric measurement of liquids to 0.1% of reading is readily achievable. Meter provers are principally used for the custody transfer measurement of liquid petroleum products ranging from LPG to heavy crude oils, and the proper design and construction of these devices is essential to meet the accuracy standards for this service. This paper focuses on providing a clear understanding of the critical parameters that affect the performance of so called conventional meter provers.
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Document ID: F8FC3714

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Ben C. Buette
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid meter proving is a physical test conducted on a liquid meter to determine its performance. Meter performance is the relationship of the volume of liquid registered on the meters counter to the actual quantity of liquid which passed through the meter. The only way to determine this relationship is to prove the meter against a known volume.
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Document ID: B2FA06C8

Computer For Liquid Meter Proving
Author(s): Guy R. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of a liquid meter, like any other instrument that is used to measure, is entirely dependent on its calibration. How are meters calibrated, or what is used as a known reference? Provers, sometimes called Meter Provers, are the known reference or standard needed to calibrate a meter. The procedure of calibrating a meter is normally done in accordance with standards set forth by the American Petroleum Institute manual of petroleum measurement standards.
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Document ID: 68E0CBA0

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Meters And Prover
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with problems commonly experienced with meters and provers. It is general in nature and cannot cover every problem with either meters or provers. We will confine our discussion to displacement and turbine meters and pipe and tank provers. We will also discuss problems experienced while proving meters with different types of proving equipment.
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Document ID: B262EF18

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Mickey Ashcraft
Abstract/Introduction:
Data gathered from distribution metering and regulating stations is used to determine the income of gas distribution companies. Since these stations are the cash registers of each company, proper station design is imperative. Obviously, improper design of these stations can cause problems with customer bills, but less obvious problems are also created. One major problem is the introduction of wrong information into the decision making process. For example, statistics created by poorly designed stations may result in inaccurate lost and unaccounted for gas figures and could cause needless expenditures in that area. Similarly poor measurement results in inaccurate sales reporting that may affect such seemingly unrelated areas as rate making. With these potential problems, proper station design is not an option, rather it is a necessity.
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Document ID: F420B680

Proving Test For Acceptance Of Automatic Liquid Sampling Systems
Author(s): James m. Strawn
Abstract/Introduction:
An automatic sampling system can be tested to verify the equipment, installation and operational procedures produce a representative sample. The test is called a sampling system proving test. The purpose is to validate the entire sampling system from stream conditioning to the analysis of the sample. The proving test is for water determination in crude oil, the W part of S&W.
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Document ID: 8221F4BB

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Guy R. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews pulse interpolation and the process of resolving whole meter pulses into fractional alucs. This technique, recognized by API. enables the use of a smaller volume prover in applications where larger provers arc not practical.
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Document ID: 31A1396A

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Paul A. Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the evolution of cwnputers as they apply to liquid meter proving. Mia-o-ccMnputer technology has found its place in virtually every area of instrumentation. From simple field transmittCTS to control room mounted central processing units, these powerful integrated circuits offer reliability, speed, convenience, and cost effective methods of saving woric.
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Document ID: 6780DF1E

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): George L.Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
While preparing this paper, the need to remain within the titles intended scope was recognized and duly noted. Many excellent papers have been written about the small volume proven, and most of them tend to address the technical aspects of the unit. This paper will endeavor to relate actual experiences with, and applications of small volume provers.
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Document ID: F1530C46

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): William R. Young
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is used to calibrate custody transfer meters to establish a meter factor- The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the prover volume during the time taken for a sphere or piston to pass between two detector switches. The prover vol ume must be determined by a procedure known as Draw method
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Document ID: 4ABD9D72

Onsite Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper examines a patented mobile gas turbine meter proving system that blends technology from liquid turbine meter provers with innovative ideas that particularly apply to gas measurement. Arkla Pipeline Group developed and now uses this mobile sonic nozzle prover on gas turbine meters ranging in size from 3 thru 16 at meter station sites under actual operating conditions. The prover also incorporates a gas chromatograph which uses the actual mass flow computations.
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Document ID: 5C1CC0E9

L.A.C.T. Unit Proving - The Role Of The Witness
Author(s): Ken A. Steward
Abstract/Introduction:
Introduct ion The simplest and most effective way to transfer the ownership of liquid hydrocarbons between a buyer and a seller is through the use of an accurate liquid meter. With the aid of additional components, the liquid meter is capable of unattended measurement. This measurement system is commonly referred to as a Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Unit when ownership is transferred at a production lease. When ownership is transferred away from a production lease, such as a transfer between Pipe Line Companies, a measurement system may be referred to as an Automatic Custody Transfer (ACT) Unit.
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Document ID: 5FA051B6

Testing And Monitoring Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper has been prepared by the author based on his experience and a review of the referenced API materials and is presented as aft aid to the reader. Neither the author nor Shell Oil Company makes any representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this publication and hereby expressly disclaim any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use or for any violation of any federal, state, or municipal regulation. Each individual is responsible for ensuring a full understanding of the procedures discussed and methods for safe implementation before using them.)
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Document ID: B4F5FEFD

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Lisa Bergson-Riddle
Abstract/Introduction:
No one knows all there is to know about whats called the black art of moisture analysis. Because moisture exists everywhere around and within us, it has, thus far, proven to be an ornery item to pin down and measure. No method, including that of my own company, is without its foibles, its detractors and its dielmrd supporters. Thats what makes this a particularly vital, albeit controversial, field.
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Document ID: A9792E45

HS Detections And Determination
Author(s): James W. Canterbury
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfide (HS) and total sulfur, in varying amounts, are found in almost all natural gas fields. In some cases, it is so small that the product is referred to as sweet gas. Many fields, however, produce sour gas, which is a gas with an HS and total sulfur level high enough to require its removal or sweetening. Several methods are available to do this sweetening. However, that is a separate subject and not a part of this paper.
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Document ID: BFCE8FDA

Full Scale Testing Of Gas Wells
Author(s): Charles R. Roberson
Abstract/Introduction:
A natural gas well as produced from a reservoir is often a complex mixture of hundreds of hydrocarbon compounds, non hydrocarbons such as Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide, Water and sometimes Sulfur compounds such as Hydrogen Sulfide and Mercaptans. These compounds all have different boiling points, densities, vapor pressures and other physical properties which cause some compounds to be in the gaseous phase while others are in the liquid phase. The liquid hydrocarbons are usually referred to as condensate or distillate. A typical well stream is a high velocity, turbulent, constantly expanding mixture of gases and liquids, mixed with water vapor, free water and other contaminants. The stream is undergoing constant pressure and temperature reduction. Gases evolve from the liquids, water vapor condenses, and some of the well stream changes in character from liquid to bubbles, mist, and free gas. The high-velocity gas is carrying liquid droplets, and the liquid is carrying gas bubbles. Stated simply, FULL SCALE TESTING is a production test procedure to separate and measure the relative amounts of gas, oil and water in the well stream. This paper shall discuss the use of trailer mounted test separators for production test procedures.
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Document ID: A44F35FB

Water By Distillation Vs. The Karl Fischer Method
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
For decades the accepted method for measuring water content in crude oils and other hydrocarbon stocks has been the centrifuge method. The centrifuge method is relatively quick and easy. However, it sometimes is limited in ability to accurately measure water content, particularly if the hydrocarbon stock has a high solubility for water. When maximum accuracy is required and/or high water solubility is encountered in hydrocarbons, a laboratory method called Water by Distillation is often used. The method is described in API MPMS (Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards) Chapter 10.2 and ASTM D4006, and has the ability to measure both solution water and suspended water.
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Document ID: 0A0BF90E

Pipeline Moisture Measuremen
Author(s): Jeff Moon
Abstract/Introduction:
The moisture content in pipeline natural gas is one of the many parameters that must be monitored as a part of controlling the quality of the gas. Other parameters that are monitored include gas composition, heating value, and relative density (specific gravity). The moisture content in natural gas will vary for a variety of reasons. There are various methods used to control the moisture in the gas and there are also dilTerent instrument tTpes used to measure the moisture content. In this article, we will discuss the measurement methods and we will present general guidelines for the use of typical moisture measurement instruments.
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Document ID: C9C15548

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Chromatograph
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
The methods used in determining BTU content of natural gas varies from on-line analysis to collection of samples in cylinder and transporting to laboratories for analysis.
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Document ID: 5DB098FF

Energy Measurement Utilizing On-Line Chromatograph
Author(s): Paul E. Kizer
Abstract/Introduction:
Most gas contracts today have at least a BTU specification and many use MMBTU (million BTU) rather than gas volume for custody transfer measurements. Gas chromatography is today being chosen more and more because the calculations of the gas volumes in modem electronic flow meters requires not only BTU information, but specific gravity, Mol % CO2 and Mol % N2 The new AGA-8 supercompressibility equations also require a complete hydrocarbon analysis. What then, is a BTU? BTU is the acronym for British Thermal Unit. One BTU is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 58.5*? to 59.5F (about 1055.056 joules (SI)).
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Document ID: C7E7284C

Characterization Of Heavy Components In Ngl And Natural Gas Extended( Analysis)
Author(s): James A. Collins
Abstract/Introduction:
Starting approximately 20 years ago, Chromatographic analysis of Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquids have been experiencing a change. At one time it was acceptable to report INERTS and HEAVIES, but now because of Environmental Concerns, focus on Internal Corrosion, FERC, and DEKATHERMS. the NEED TO KNOW is rapidly increasing.
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Document ID: E28960AF

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): James A. Collins
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Liquids are a complex mixture of petroleum fractions with carbon range from C, to C3Q+. Identifying and classifying these liquids is critical, not only to the buying/selling operations, but to testing. There are many ASTM test procedures which give insight into the quality of the product however, none have the potential of giving as much information about a product in a single run as Gas Chromatography.
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Document ID: 32B5AE35

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
The term Chromatography (Color Writing) is attributed to Tswett who first used the technique in 1906 for the separation of components of plant pigments. Keulemuns gave the following definition for the Chromatographic technique Chromatography is a physical method of separation, in which the components to be separated are distributed between two phases, one of the phases constituting as stationary bed of large surface area, the other being a fluid that percolates through or along the stationaiy bed.
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Document ID: 1351289D

Gas Measurement Laboratory
Author(s): John Renfrow
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the objective of a laboratory to obtain a sample from the system in question and analyze the sample product without changing the composition or its environment. To obtain this goal, the following procedures are recommended.
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Document ID: CC879DE7

Chromatograph Applications & Problems From A Users Standpoint
Author(s): Duane A. Neefe
Abstract/Introduction:
The chromatograph is becoming more iirportant to the pipeline industry due to the demand for Real Time volumes. To obtain volumes which do not need to be corrected for gas properties, it is necessary to have the gas properties such as specific gravity, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and btu values within the flow computers operating parameters. When these values are used within each flow calculation cycle, the accuracy of the measurement obtained is much greater than when corrections for supercompressibility are applied after the volume is accumulated.
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Document ID: 19C24753

Chromatograph Maintenance And Troubleshooting
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatographs used in Energy Measurement and Control Systems are designed for minimum amount of maintenance. With the Introduction of Microprocessors, Advanced Electronics and Self Diagnostics, the reliability of measurement devices has increased considerably. As new devices are introduced, chromatograph manufacturers incorporate these devices into their stem to increase reliability and reduce maintenance.
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Document ID: A15ED45A

About Ishm 1994
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: C705CE5B


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