Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1994)

The Near-Future Of Gas Control Scada Systems
Author(s): C. W. Lightner,
Abstract/Introduction:
It should come as no surprise to anyone in the gas control arena that the technology of the gas control system is changing dramatically. Furthermore, although a blow to the ego, the gas distribution industry is not the driving force behind this technological change. Lets face it, the gas industry has neither the money nor the time to spend in a mass technological explosion of this type. With this in mind let us explore what the computer industry will do to, er.., for us in the gas control system of the future.
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Document ID: 18A5773B

AMR-Industrial/Commercial Applications
Author(s): James N. Butch,
Abstract/Introduction:
The advent of the microprocessor chip in the early 1970s brought with it widespread acceptance of SCADA systems as tools for monitoring and control of natural gas pipelines. Later, as the size, cost and power requirements of microprocessor-based instruments and RTUs decreased through advances in technology, large scale installation of AMR systems became practical. Data collected by AMR systems are typically used for customer billing and trend analysis. Trends are very useful as input to the operators of SCADA systems. They give the operator a basis on which to make decisions required for the safe and reliable control of the pipeline. While current AMR and SCADA systems are very powerful and sophisticated, the operators of these systems require a great deal of training and experience in order to master the control of transmission and distribution pipelines. Some aspects of the installation of these systems also requires a great deal of training and experience. The next generation of SCADA systems will embody advanced Artificial Intelligence technology in order to incorporate some aspects of experience and judgement into the system, making the jobs of the installer and operator easier and more precise.
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Document ID: B9CE44FC

Stationary Emissions Monitoring For Pipeline Engines
Author(s): William E. Liss, Michael P. Whelan, And Robert Lott
Abstract/Introduction:
As the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 come into sharper focus, so also are the technical and economic implications. A complex and confusing aspect of the CAAA is the need to equip some emission sources with Enhanced Monitoring/ Compliance Certification (EM/CC) capability. This paper discusses how sources qualify for EM/CC and some options for meeting the proposed regulations.
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Document ID: F8C9D792

Gas Control Operations Planning
Author(s): Mike Forster,
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of the Gas Control Operation Planning System (GCOPS) is to develop an integrated, easy to-use system of models suitable for continuous use in a control room environment.
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Document ID: 265A0E35

Reducing Material Cost Through Standardization
Author(s): Christopher J. Glaeser,
Abstract/Introduction:
We are constantly striving for new methods to reduce expenditures in all areas of our operations. Material cost is a major part of the expense involved with operating and installing gas distribution facilities. Through standardization, material cost can be reduced in an efficient and productive manner. Standards Committees provide an excellent means of creating, reviewing and approving standards within a company. Once the standards are approved, the purchasing department can solicit bids from manufacturers. Additional savings can be realized by working in partnership with other gas distribution companies. Partnership bidding of materials can provide additional savings to all participating companies. Entex has reorganized its Standards Committee and initiated methods to reduce its inactive inventory. We also have entered into a joint partnership with two other gas distribution companies to jointly bid materials. This paper presents a case study of methods used by Entex over the past three years to reduce material cost.
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Document ID: C3A7253E

The Role Of Operating Areas In Developing Long-Term Relationships With Suppliers
Author(s): Michael W. Gozzo, Scott R. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays competitive and economic pressures have increased the expectations and requirements we have of our suppliers. Increased quality, greater overall value and excellent on-time delivery performance can only be achieved and sustained through long-term supplier relationships. To support these relationships, operating personnel will be called upon to embrace new behaviors as well as new business processes.
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Document ID: 19922B73

Gri Pipeline Engine Nox Control
Author(s): Michael P. Whelan,
Abstract/Introduction:
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have targeted significant NOx reductions as a means to control ground-level ozone concentrations. NOx control regulations for retrofitting existing equipment will extend to about 1200 reciprocating engines and 200 gas turbines in gas transmission service. A significant, but unknown number of engines engaged in gas production and gathering, at gas processing facilities, and at gas storage fields will also be affected. The Gas Research Institute has an extensive development program underway to significantly reduce the capital cost of retrofit NOx control equipment in the very near-term for both reciprocating engines and gas turbines.
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Document ID: 1A6BC8A4

Making A Difference Through Communication, Teamwork, And Process Redesign At The Peoples Natural Gas Company
Author(s): Kathi m. Jobkar,
Abstract/Introduction:
Redesigning a process can be difficult and time-consuming, often requiring input from employees outside of your section or department. Most people believe business process redesign will work best if the survival of the company is at risk, but an enabling, participative work environment can also be effective in supporting a redesign effort.
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Document ID: CA9FF043

Basic Corrosion Concepts For Non-Corrosion Personnel
Author(s): David H. Kroon
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper has been prepared for management to assist in understanding the language of corrosion protection. All industries and technical disciplines have unique phrases and acronyms that are commonly used. This is certainly true with respect to corrosion control where the speciality language can lead to difficulties in communication. For management to effectively make fact-based decisions and for the corrosion staff to contribute to the organization at the highest level, effective communication is essential. Language barriers hinder communication and ultimately prevent understanding.
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Document ID: 683CC6AE

Videographic Simulation Techniques To Depict A Compressor Station Noise Suppression Structure
Author(s): Michael J. Novak,
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been a common practice within the natural gas industry to locate gas compression facilities at sites which are relatively remote from populated areas. In recent years, however, an increase in urban development has, in some instances, eliminated the natural green belt isolation barrier which was inherent in site selection. ANR Pipeline has experienced this phenomenon at a compressor station located in the vicinity of St. John, Indiana, where the development of subdivisions has extended to the station fence limits
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Document ID: 1105CA88

Reconditioning Pipelines Attached To Bridge Structures
Author(s): C. Richard Reeves
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline Safety Regulation 192.479 which addresses atmospheric corrosion control states: each above ground pipeline or portion of a pipeline that is exposed to the atmosphere must be cleaned and either coated or jacketed with a material suitable for the prevention of atmospheric corrosion.
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Document ID: 529CC5D3

Cathodic Protection & Ac Mitigation Techniques In Joint Power Line/Pipeline Corridors
Author(s): Robert F. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline corrosion control and reduction of dangerous levels of AC Interference to pipelines and personnel can be combined in a cost-effective manner.
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Document ID: 9B7970B2

Digital Orthophotography For Pipeline Construction, Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Michael J. Davis,
Abstract/Introduction:
Use of Digital Orthophotography is rapidly gaining momentum to become the land base of choice. This paper presents practical applications for this emerging technology. Some applications already have widespread utilization, and some only exist in pilot projects or conceptual demonstrations. The life cycle of a project is followed from route selection through construction to operations and maintenance. A brief discussion of a pilot project on an emergency response system follows the life cycle.
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Document ID: E3618133

Right Sizing To Meet Customer Requirements
Author(s): T. D. Retseck
Abstract/Introduction:
Growing up in a house with six sisters provided me with an interesting education in the dating habits of teenage females. My childhood encompassed the sometimes navigable waters of the 1950s and 60s. During these years there was a revolutionary product advertised called the Playtex girdle.
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Document ID: BF64037B

Right Sizing To Meet Customer Needs
Author(s): Daniel Brewer
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays new competitive utility environment it is essential that companies identify their critical work functions, minimize their labor and capital costs, and accept new competition as the way of doing business. This task is made especially difficult when our customers are demanding more services than ever. This paper describes some strategies CG&E has utilized to meet this new challenge.
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Document ID: E8CD7256

Computer Aided Cathodic Protection
Author(s): Robert m. Morgan,
Abstract/Introduction:
Practices to maintain the integrity of pipeline facilities are improved by the use of computer-based systems. Periodic corrosion surveys conducted over the line are performed with the use of handheld battery powered computers that record data for future reference and trending. Surveys can be stored on local area networks and efficiently recalled as needed. The data can be retrieved and used by multiple users as needs dictate.
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Document ID: F2551416

Customer Satisfaction-Win, Lose, Or Draw?
Author(s): Richard P. Carlson
Abstract/Introduction:
An examination of what benefits can be derived from customer satisfaction management systems in the public utility industry. The author argues that such systems can not provide the same degree of profitability to a public utility as they can to other industries due to the nature of the product, the purchase cycle, and regulation. These perceived limited benefits have caused the authors company to concentrate on those customer defined performance measures that can be defined in terms of specific actions and behaviors and not on overall measures of satisfaction.
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Document ID: 3EF06BB8

The Pipeline Inspection And Maintenance Optimization System
Author(s): John E. Conroy, Rthomas m. Steinbauer, Am B. Kulkarni
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the Pipeline Inspection and Maintenance Optimization System (PIMOS), a software product designed to analyze and recommend the optimum inspection and maintenance strategy for transmission pipelines. The decision making process for evaluating pipeline integrity is discussed. The PIMOS multi-stage decision tree model with Bayesian updating is described as well as the inputs and outputs of PIMO
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Document ID: 6EDFA216

Codes, Standards And Harmonization In North America
Author(s): Allen J. Callahan
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas product standards for the gas industry have been historically sponsored in the U.S. and Canada by their respective trade associations, the American Gas Association and the Canadian Gas Association. Following the development of and maturing of the standards, the program became in the late 1960s and 1970s a maintenance program for existing standards. As we entered the 1980s and into the 1990s with higher efficiencies/energy conservation, new technologies, new trade agreements and greater international activity, more attention has been focused on standards.
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Document ID: 77914C4F

Expert Systems Applied To Operations Planning And Pipeline Optimization
Author(s): S. T. Hubert,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with how Union Gas Ltd. has applied Expert System Technology to the natural gas transmission business. Union Gas operates a natural gas transmission system consisting of some 800 miles of looped lines with approximately 330,000 horsepower on the system to move gas to our various markets. One application has been developed using expert system technology and is discussed herein. The paper covers what the application is, why it was chosen, the costs and benefits, and how it works.
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Document ID: FE23B507

An Overview Of Model Codes And Standards In The United States
Author(s): James A. Ranfone
Abstract/Introduction:
Before discussing the specifics of model code coverage for natural gas installations (i,e. piping, venting, etc) within the United States, it is important to understand the model code process. There is no single code in the United States that regulates gas installation. Building codes, including plumbing codes, are legally a state prerogative, but in the majority of states, the local code jurisdictions have assumed this authority.
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Document ID: CE9DC6F3

Factors That Affect The Performance Of Polyethylene Gas Pipe
Author(s): Raymond C. Henrich,
Abstract/Introduction:
Minnegasco has installed polyethylene mains and service lines since 1967. The overall performance of polyethylene (PE) gas pipe and tubing in our system has been very good. Even the earliest materials have performed well. A few main failures occurred at areas of severe bending due to ground settlement in areas of foreign construction. Service tubing failures have occurred at the main tap and at rock impingements.
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Document ID: F40A191A

Cost Reduction Through Innovative Use Of Plastic Pipe
Author(s): Frank W. Maxw
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1993, PG&E began an effort to reduce costs of operation in light of increasing competition and high rates to customers. As a result, the Distribution Department was challenged to help lead the company to reduce costs. The Gas Distribution group began its work to identify procurement, construction and maintenance improvements to cut expenses while maintaining service reliability and safety levels. While Gas Distribution continues to work at the strategic level initiatives for long-term implementation, the immediate need for PG&E was to enact practices that saved money in the shortterm. This paper describes these short-term cash savers.
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Document ID: 8C8A4333

Whos Home?-Meeting Customer Appointments In A Changing Society
Author(s): Charles Moore, Mike Pride
Abstract/Introduction:
General background about Oklahoma Natural and the amount of field work being done: Retails natural gas to 709,000 customers in 322 Oklahoma communities. Has a total base of 2,031 employees statewide. Service territory is broken down into 5 districts, 19 area offices, and 42 service locations. The corporate headquarters is in Tulsa.
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Document ID: B06076F3

Soft Close Procedure
Author(s): Arthur P. Guillet
Abstract/Introduction:
Southern California Gas Companys soft close procedure allows customers requesting to have their gas service closed to receive an accurate closing bill while leaving the gas service on for the next tenant. The procedure has reduced the need for our field representatives to enter the premises to turn the gas on and service the appliances. Several safety mechanisms have been incorporated into the procedure to monitor gas usage and to check for the possibility of gas leakage. The soft close procedure has significantly reduced our Company operating expenses without jeopardizing the safety of our customers.
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Document ID: 5224A82E

Joint Trench
Author(s): John T. Stenger
Abstract/Introduction:
Installing our gas main in the same trench with the electric, telephone, and cable TV utilities has greatly reduced our cost of doing business. This paper will focus on how we began our joint trench efforts, on some of the growing pains in the process, and on benefits that each of the participants has experienced. These benefits include reduced installation costs, reduced third-party damage, improved working relationships, and improved developer satisfaction due to reduced impact upon subdivision streets and other facilities. We will also describe how our main to curb service installation costs have been greatly reduced by requiring developers to install PVC casings for road crossings as opposed to our past standard method of boring.
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Document ID: 7FFCD2FD

Residential Water Heater Sizing Guidelines
Author(s): Britt E. Ide, Allen L Rutz, Darrell D. Paul, Sherwood G. Talbert, Robert J. Hemphill
Abstract/Introduction:
Existing residential water heater sizing guidelines contained in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 1991 Applications Handbook and Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)/Federal Housing Administration (FHA) minimum housing standards were developed in an era when the setpoint temperature of the water heater was typically around 150 F.
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Document ID: A5D83C84

New Product Developments For Plastic Pipe Systems
Author(s): Renny S. Norman,
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has worked with the gas industry for fifteen years to develop new information on plastic pipe operations, software, and hardware products. In this paper, four new technologies which are now available to the gas industry will be reviewed. GRIs overall distribution R&D program includes elements of basic research and development as well as a number of improved technologies for aiding the industry in maintaining an excellent safety record and containing the costs for new installations and repair/maintenance tasks.
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Document ID: 4C7F98CC

Pipeline Safety Issues
Author(s): E. Jackson
Abstract/Introduction:
At the organizational meeting, which is held as so you will be advised of our authority, of the manner in to proceed with the investigation, and of the opportun others to participate as parties to the investigation.
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Document ID: 9CBFC2C4

The Use Of Handheld Computers To Manage Catlhodic And Regulation Code Compliance
Author(s): Lynette m. Swann
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will describe computer technology being used by field personnel to collect and track information related to code-required inspections, surveys and repairs. Also described are the overall benefits, evaluation methods, and definition and design considerations. This technology change has allowed us to integrate complementary functional applications and reduce paper processing. Consumers Power Company (CPCo) sought to use advanced, yet reliable, technology.
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Document ID: 4CF2B2DF

Management Of Discharge Water From Hydrostatic Testing Of Natural Gas Pipelines: Treatment Options And Economics
Author(s): James T. Tallon, John P. Fillo, James m. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas pipeline companies maintain the integrity of mainline transmission and gathering system pipelines in accordance with federal and state regulations to protect the public from accidents involving the potential rupture or failure of the pipelines. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) is the primary governing body that regulates integrity testing. Criteria that can trigger testing include changes in class location, adding or replacement of pipeline segments, uprating operating pressure, or media conversio
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Document ID: 4656BA93

Benchmarking
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 21F40D3A

Leakage Surveys Working Example
Abstract/Introduction:
Effectiveness Measures Number of leaks per 100 miles of distribution mains and services reported by persons outside the Leak Survey area (including customer call-ins and other company personnel).
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Document ID: 1540425B

Rupture Prevention Design Procedure For Pe Gas Pipe
Author(s): m. F. Kanninen, S. C. Grigory
Abstract/Introduction:
A rupture-prevention design procedure for gas distribution pipe that can be used by the gas industry is in the final stages of development at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The work is being funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI). Given the pipe size, polyethylene (PE) resin and minimum operating temperature, the maximum safe operating pressure may be determined for which rapid crack propagation (RCP) cannot occur. A computer program call PFRAC has been developed for this purpose that uses Charpy energy as the measurement of fracture toughness of the PE. The current effort involves the replacement of Charpy energy with a dynamic toughness measurement obtained from the Small Scale Steady State (S4) test that is required in ISO 4437. The discussion in this presentation is restricted to the RCP requirements of ISO 4437, the specifics of the S4 test and the relationship of the S4 test to the rupture-prevention design procedure.
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Document ID: 6D845369

Gas Research Institute Update: Meeting The Challenge For Market Impact
Author(s): Marlon Mcclinton
Abstract/Introduction:
Local gas distribution companies are now undergoing major changes to improve efficiency and profitability, reflecting similar changes going on throughout U.S. industry. Gas companies are pursuing strategies to reduce costs and increase worker productivity. Strategies are also being addressed to expand the total customer base by ensuring the satisfaction of existing customers while focusing on extending service to new customers.
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Document ID: 5B97F5B2

New Us Rating Method For Pe Pipe- Route To Higher Operating Pressures
Author(s): Eugene F. Palermo
Abstract/Introduction:
In the first part of this paper, Ed Reaney described the desire of some US gas companies to operate their gas distribution, gas gathering or gas transmission (feeder line) systems at higher pressures. The current maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) for plastic pipe has been established by the Department of Transportation (DOT) at 100 psig (6.9 bar)( , ) However, some gas companies would like to operate their systems at higher pressures, up to 175 psig (12 bar). With the ductile strength of some polyethylene (PE) piping materials (rating method), retention of this ductile strength by improved resistance to slow crack growth (SCG), and improved resistance of these piping materials to rapid crack propagation (RCP), operation of PE piping systems at higher pressures is now feasible.
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Document ID: 48B2BB89

Use Of Fiberoptics And Video Optics For Remote Visual Inspection Of Pipeline Components
Author(s): Pamela A. Michalski, Donald R. Van Buren
Abstract/Introduction:
This document describes the utilization of fiberoptics and video optics for internal inspection of natural gas pipeline components. Visual inspection is the single most important means of nondestructive evaluation available. Fiberoptic and video optic systems are an extension and enhancement of visual inspection. For this reason, the term remote visual inspection is also used to describe fiberoptic and video optic inspection. The following will describe the history and use of this technology at East Ohio Gas. Included will be descriptions of current applications such as regulators, orifice runs, pressure vessels, compressors, etc. Future capabilities will also be addressed.
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Document ID: 1D49A3A3

Keeping An Eye On Distribution Systems
Author(s): George Ragula
Abstract/Introduction:
tiveness of operations while simultaneously reducing costs, P decided to evaluate various alternative methods of solving infiltration problems. The traditional procedure was on process of elimination generally involving the following basic s
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Document ID: BBFE09DB

Gas Scada Systems Overview-1994
Author(s): James L. Rosenthal
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA systems have been an integral part of system operations at gas pipeline and distribution companies for two decades. Today, SCADA systems utilize sophisticated software, take advantage of powerful microprocessors in distributed architectures, and provide superb graphic displays to enhance the productivity of operations department dispatchers and engineers. These improvements have increased the value of SCADA systems in todays more complex business environment and provide capabilities well beyond the traditional supervisory control and data acquisition.
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Document ID: 9B699921

Robotic Pipe Inspection Systems
Abstract/Introduction:
They had isolated the probable problem area piping that passed under the parking lot of i center. Aware of the development of our inspection system, they requested PLS Inte tance in examining this particular piping segrr the video example, the two leaks were pinpo the trail of foreign residue carried into the pi penetration. The residue remained after the i rated. Both leak points were verified by GCI immediate.
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Document ID: B577759B

Get The Press Coverage You Want
Author(s): R. Cohen
Abstract/Introduction:
Now heres the dilemma: a reporters job is to get a story, but he or she knows very little about the properties of natural gas and how it moves through our system. The people with the knowledge choose not to share what they know. Our Corporate Communications Department is available, but with a service territory spanning the entire state of New Jersey, hours could elapse before a representative from headquarters reaches the site of an emergency.
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Document ID: F04F7AE4

AM/FM-A Low Cost Approach
Author(s): James R. Forster
Abstract/Introduction:
Elizabethtown Gas Company has completed installation of a basic AM/FM system which provides an expandable geographically based information system. This system includes network analysis capabilities using the Stoner Workstation Service. This paper describes how this low cost system was made possible through the integration of PC hardware and AutoCAD, Cad Overlay ESP, ORACLE, and Generation 5 GEO/SQL software. Part II summarizes some of the learning points which should be considered by others contemplating AM/FM projects in the gas industry.
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Document ID: E98597FC

Plastic Pipe At Higher Pressures-The Future, Part I
Author(s): Ed Reaney
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper outlines the work of the Plastic Pipe Design Equation Task Group of the A.G.A. Plastic Materials Committee. It explains the reasoning and recommendations of the group as veil as some of the possible future effects of a change to the :quation.
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Document ID: 3C2C7923

Planned Natural Gas Explosions
Author(s): N. Roger L
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is one of the safest hydrocarbon fuels when used in approved appliances. However, due to accident or intent, natural gas can escape into an enclosed space such as a building and, if the conditions for ignition occur, an explosion can be caused. Very little is known about the events leading up to an explosion as evidence is often destroyed making time-line reconstruction very difficult. Canadian Western Natural Gas Company Limited, Calgary, and Northwestern Utilities Limited, Edmonton, joined with the local fire departments and law enforcement agencies and conducted two planned natural gas explosions under controlled safe circumstances. These events were code named HFOG 1 and HFOG 2. The purposes of these projects were:
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Document ID: C5B875F9

Smartmaps - Artificial Intelligence Software For Gas Maps
Author(s): Thomas C. Engel
Abstract/Introduction:
Smartmaps is a newly developed pattern analysis and symbol recognition program which uses artificial intelligence methods to convert gas distribution maps into a vectorized, object oriented data base format compatible with AM/FM and Geographical Information Systems. Use of the Smartmaps software has the potential to reduce the time required for map conversion by more than ten times over conventional methods.
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Document ID: B021A829

Crisis Management Issues: Media And Safety
Author(s): D Wheeler
Abstract/Introduction:
An analysis of how one company has decentralized its public ilations function and extended its communication capabilities iroughout the entire company. A concept developed fifteen years go by Ed Wheeler, accredited member of the Public Relations ociety of America College of Fellows and 30- year veteran of the atural gas industry, he discusses the importance of living in an xelerated communications age and the preparation required to ain employees to effectively react to crisis and safety issues that ttract the attention of the media.
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Document ID: 7200CFA1

Managing Cast Iron Systems
Author(s): Peter Collette
Abstract/Introduction:
Public Service Electric & Gas Company supplies electric and gas energy to approximately 7 1% of the State of New Jersey. The Company is organized into various Business Units which are responsible for their individual activities. The Gas Business Unit supplies gas to over 1,500,000 customers in its 2400 square mile service territory through 15,172 miles of mains and 14,200 miles of services.
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Document ID: 717C2ECC

Brittle Behavior Of Pipelines
Author(s): C.E. Naylor, David Davidowitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Mild steel commonly used in gas pipeline construction can undergo a change in fracture behavior from shear (ductile) to brittle with common temperature variations. Two recent catastrophic incidents attributed to brittle failure of gas pipelines will be reviewed in this paper along with the subsequent findings of the National Transportation Safety Board. Current regulatory activity as regards ductility of steel pipelines will also be discussed.
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Document ID: 879B5B99

Field And Lab Safety And Health Concerns With The Pipeline
Author(s): Lyn Berman, Dwight J. Romig
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years, safety and health concerns of the natural gas pipeline industry have surged due to public awareness and federal mandates. Ever increasing technological advances in laboratory analysis has enabled the industry to identify elements of health concerns that were once not considered to be of importance to the safety of the employee or the customer. Companies are complying to the need for identification, safe handling, and emergency planning and response of hazardous chemicals and substances in the work place and public domain. It is the intention of this paper to provide data and documentation regarding these substances and chemicals to possibly develop procedures for safe handling and emergency response.
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Document ID: 58731FC3

Employee Qualification In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): John J. Harper,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides the most recent available information on Employee Qualification. It focuses on two proposals for implementation. The first section summarizes the 1991 unpublished Draft of The Department of Transportations (DOT) Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM). The second section is the official unveiling of the alternative to DOTS proposal prepared by the Employee Qualification Task Group of A.G.A.s Human Resources Training Committee.
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Document ID: AB90162E

LNG Facility Safety Audit
Author(s): J. Thomas Raines
Abstract/Introduction:
There are several existing procedures for evaluating safety in an LNG facility. This paper outlines one way to accomplish this task that is very effective while allowing input and revisions as needed. It will support your corporate goal of conducting your business in a manner that provides a safe environment for employees as well as the public. It will support and reinforce the efforts of your facilitys safety program, team or committee.
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Document ID: 0CC1FB6C

Modernization And Automation Of Elizabethtown Gas Company LNG And Lpg Peakshaving Facilities
Author(s): Irving Weiss, Edward R. Vogel
Abstract/Introduction:
A review of the steps taken to modernize and automate a twentytwo year old LNG & LPG Peakshaving Facility with a State of the art distributed control computer system and Sub-X Vaporizer technology improvements.
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Document ID: B75F3941

The Practical Application Of Bi-Directional Turbine Meters
Author(s): Joseph E. Incontri
Abstract/Introduction:
Bi-directional turbine meter technology offers many practical dvantages in gas measurement applications. This paper will outline he meter technology and the application requirements. Perfornance data from an actual installation is also provided.
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Document ID: 1D18EC65

Measurement Field Operations Management Impact Of Order 636 On Gas Measurement At Cng
Author(s): David Kimball
Abstract/Introduction:
Order 436 (open access) and Order 636 (unbundled services) have changed the gas industrys business environment. The pre- Order 636, field measurement procedure required field employees to change charts and gather gas analysis samples on the first day of each month, including New Years Day, holidays and weekends. The charts, samples, end of the month meter test and electronic measurement adjustments were shipped overnight to the Measurement Office. The Measurement Office received the data on the second of the month and closed no later than the fourth day. Gas Accounting generated the customer invoices by the tenth. The pipeline, swinging on system supply, was balanced by the twelfth of the month.
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Document ID: 0138410D

Custody Transfer Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeter Q.Sonic
Author(s): Jan G. Drenthen, Floris J. J. Huijsmans
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper gives an introduction on the practical application of ultrasonic gasflowmeters. A general outline of the theory is given regarding e.g. the main parameters for determining the accuracy and the sensitivity of the meter, the generation of ultrasonic sound pulses and the possible path configurations. The practical applications are illustrated using the Servex 5-path Q.sonic custody transfer flowmeter.
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Document ID: 3EF90097

Influence Of Recent Changes To Industry Standards On Volume Determination Software
Author(s): Raymond G. Teyssandier, Paul J. Lanasa,
Abstract/Introduction:
Periodically, natural gas measurement standards are created or revised. In the period of 1990 through 1993 two industry gas measurement standards were revised and a third was created. It is the intent of this paper to discuss to influence the revisions to the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) Report Nos. 3 and 8 and the creation of American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Standards (MPMS) Chapter 21.1 will have on natural gas volume determination software.
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Document ID: 92243764

The Impact Of The Great Flood Of 1993 On Laclede Gas Company Operations
Author(s): Harry R. Haury
Abstract/Introduction:
During the flood of 1993, Laclede learned a great deal about coordinating the Companys response to a major crisis. The following outline spells out many of the strategic, as well as tactical steps taken to effectively deal with such a protracted disaster.
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Document ID: FD38A186

Pipeline Rehabilitation Using A Lining Process
Author(s): Michael Ruiz
Abstract/Introduction:
In May nineteen hundred and ninety three, Brooklyn Union began to replace two thousand five hundred feet of twenty inch, high pressure (fifteen PSIG) main in the Bay Ridge section of Brooklyn, an area spanning six city blocks and crossing three major avenues. Installed in nineteen hundred and twenty seven, the section of bare steel main had a series of leaks over the past several years.
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Document ID: D6EF7463

Indards And Procedures For Laboratory Iss Meter Testing
Author(s): Ias Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
paper is a discussion of how to achieve traceability to NIST boratory flowmeter calibration. It is organized into the foliix sections: lis section introduces the concept of traceability in flow ter calibration.
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Document ID: 59813C7D

Development Of Gallagher Flow Conditioner
Author(s): James E. Gallagher, Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the design and current evaluation for the Gallagher Flow Conditioner (GFC). Additionally, the design theory behind combining a flow profiler with an anti-swirl device is presented.
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Document ID: 81F153CB

Compact Gas Meter Development Program
Author(s): Renny S. Norman
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) surveyed the needs of the gas industry in the mid-1980s to determine where improved operations technology would assist the industry most in the residential gas market. A compact gas meter was identified as an advance in the metering area that would be beneficial for expansion of gas use, especially in the multifamily construction area. In this paper, key milestones are reviewed including the current plans by international and U.S. organizations to introduce these smaller designs into U.S. gas operations.
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Document ID: CED1ACB1

Instrumentation That Directly Measures Energy Flow
Author(s): William H. Vander Heyden
Abstract/Introduction:
Precision Measurement Inc., a subsidiary of Badger Meter Inc., has been developing new instrumentation, for the measurement of energy flow rate, volumetric flow rate, heating value and relative density. Final development, with continuing sponsorship by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), is nearing completion and field installations are underway.
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Document ID: F30D0DCF

Operation And Maintenance Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Thomas E. Mullen,
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters are rather remarkable devices. They allow us to accurately measure large quantities of gas over a wide range of flow rates and pressures. However, they can only do so when properly operated and maintained by knowledgeable and well trained personnel. It is in the best interest of every company that uses turbine meters to provide responsible field personnel with the information, training and equipment necessary to properly operate and maintain them. This paper describes the operation and maintenance procedures used by Columbia Gas Transmission (Columbia).
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Document ID: CCFD0AFF

Considerations For A Large-Scale Battery Replacement For Amr Programs And Electronic Correctors
Author(s): Mark Whitaker
Abstract/Introduction:
As use of electronics and automation becomes more prominent in the natural gas industry, issues related to batteries have become a topic for consideration. Companies should therefore plan to replace batteries in equipment in the most cost-effective way. Procedures should be developed to address battery types, logistics of the changeout, and environmental concerns associated with shipping, handling and disposal of the batteries before and after changeout.
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Document ID: F947F180

Techniques Of Gas Sampling
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will cover the philosophy, importance, and techniques involved in sampling Natural Gas to ensure the collected sample is representative of the gas stream and is repeatable.
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Document ID: 525A54FF

Regeneration Of Molecular Sieve Natural Gas Dryers For Ngv Fueling Station
Author(s): Robert D. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Molecular Sieve dehydrators serve as a cost effective mechanism for achieving pressure dew points required for NGV fueling operations. A study conducted by Brooklyn Union, however, confirmed that molecular sieve material typically utilized in NGV applications, exhibits an affinity for mercaptan. The study revealed that unlike typical mole sieve adsorption applications involving separation by molecular size differences, mercaptan co-adsorption is primarily a surface phenomena. This surface phenomena is induced by polarity differences between the sieve material and the polar mercaptan compound, coupled with partial catalytic oxidation on the sieve support structure.
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Document ID: A17D2639

Measurement Provisioning Strategies In A Competitive Environment
Author(s): Bill Volkmor
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy utilities are undergoing a profound change as they struggle to adopt successful strategies in an environment where their customers have energy choices not previously available. Success in this new competitive environment means providing customers with quality products and services at competitive prices, but doing so in ways that enhance shareholder value.
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Document ID: 8E171107

Pc Driven Electronic Transfer Provers- Challenges In Information Management
Author(s): Ronald J. Hairston
Abstract/Introduction:
A deluge of Personal Computer (PC) driven instruments and test equipment brings new opportunities for increased efficiency to the gas industry. Recent introduction of meter proving systems that operate with the use of MS-DOS personal computers opens new paths for test data transfer.
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Document ID: 7D227F21

Report On Research Results Of Flow Conditioner Effects On Meter Performance
Author(s): Thomas B. Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
New experimental data are presented from the Gas Research Institute (GRI) Metering Research Facility (MRF) on the performance of flow conditioners used in orifice and turbine meter installations to minimize velocity profile distortion and swirl that may cause flow rate measurement errors. Orifice meter installation effects tests were performed with new designs of tube bundle and perforated plate flow conditioners in the MRF Interim Low Pressure Loop (ILPL) flowing nitrogen at a pressure of 105 psia (0.72 MPa) and a Reynolds number of 9*105 through a 4 inch (102 mm) diameter meter tube with an upstream length of 17 D, corresponding to a minimum upstream length value for p 0.75 recommended by A.G.A. Report No. 3, Part 2 1. Turbine meter upstream effects tests were also carried out in the MRF ILPL at two pressures, 115 psia and 30 psia over a wide flow rate range in a short coupled installation designed to comply with A.GA. Report No.
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Document ID: 5999D63C

Use Of A Quick-Reference Field Test To Determine Pcb Levels In Soils During Site Remediation
Author(s): John B. Milledge, Jennifer L. Barth
Abstract/Introduction:
PCB contamination of soil and drainageway sediment occurred at Southern Natural Gas Companys (Southerns) Tarrant Compressor Station as a result of the discharge of contaminated condensate from the stations compressed air system and contaminated waste water from the stations rag wash operation. During excavation of the contaminated soil, the EnSys PCB screening test was extensively utilized.
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Document ID: AD846B76

Recycling Of Mercury-Contaminated Equipment
Author(s): Scott D. Reed, Carrie A. Berard,
Abstract/Introduction:
Mercury is considered a highly toxic material. High exposure to mercury vapors can adversely affect the nervous system with typical symptoms ranging from irritability, gum inflammation and insomnia to memory loss and constricted visual fields. What makes mercury so unique and dangerous is that mercury vaporizes at room temperature and absorbs quickly into porous surfaces and materials. The Occupation and Safety Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure level to mercury is O.lOmg/m over an eight hour period. Quantities as low as 1 mL can contaminate millions of cubic feet of air to excess levels.1 Unfortunately, gas utilities are just now becoming aware of how extensive a mercury problem exists on their systems.
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Document ID: 590F21AD

A Gas Turbine Flowmeter Flow Restrictor/Check Meter Concept
Author(s): Walt Seidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow restrictors have been used for a number of years to prevent damage to gas turbine flowmeters due to surges in flowrate, usually caused by large, sudden pressure fluctuations. These flow restrictors are typically orifices, nozzles, or Venturis.
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Document ID: 1E2BC8DB

He Westex Gas Storage Facility: An Integrated Bedded Alt Cavern, Horizontal Well Reservoir And Vertical Well Eservoir Storage Facility
Author(s): Jay Evans, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
rhis paper will describe the planning and construction involved he first gas storage facility to integrate into a single complex: rn storage (Salado), vertical well reservoir storage (Loop) and izontal well reservoir storage (North Felmac). The Salado Gas rage Project, with 3 Bcf of working gas under development, is the : storage facility constructed in bedded salt exclusively for the age of natural gas in the United States. The Loop Gas Storage ject is a vertical well reservoir with 9.4 Bcf of working gas. The th Felmac Gas Storage Project is a horizontal well reservoir with Bcf of working gas. This WesTex Facility combines high deliverity cavern and horizontal well storage with the capacity of reser- storage to make one of the most unique storage facilities for aral gas in the country.
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Document ID: 4BCB87DB

Assessment Of Air Toxic Emissions From The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): James m. Evans, Lisa m. Campbell Curtis, O. Rueter, Gunseli Sagun Shareef
Abstract/Introduction:
To assist the natural gas industry in their response to regulatory requirements such as Title III-Air Toxics, and Title V-Operating Permits, and various state air toxic programs, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) has initiated a broad research program with several activities currently underway: Glycol dehydrator sampling and analysis GRI-GLYCalcp development Air toxic emission measurements and GRI-HAPCalcp development.
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Document ID: 1F0C4863

Advances In The Use Of Geochemical Fingerprinting For Gas Identification
Author(s): Dennis D. Coleman
Abstract/Introduction:
Geochemical fingerprinting of natural gas involves conducting detailed chemical and isotopic analyses of gases from different sources to determine various characteristic parameters that will allow distinguishing these gases from each other. Carbon and hydrogen isotope analyses provides a particularly effective method of accomplishing this. Carbon and hydrogen each are made up of 3 naturally occurring isotopes, two stable isotopes and one radioactive isotope each. Determining the C/I2C and2HH ratios in hydrocarbons can generally allow distinguishing thermogenic gas from microbial gas and can be used to distinguish storage gas from native gas, and even to identify compartmentalization within one producing reservoir. Analysis of the two naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, l4C (radiocarbon) and3H (tritium), provides a definitive method if distinguishing thermogenic gases, such as pipeline gas and storage gas, from bacterially produced gases such as drift gas, marsh gas, landfill gas, and sewer gas. Because of the many different analytical parameters that can be measured on natural gas, geochemical fingerprinting is becoming an increasingly more powerful method for distinguishing gases from different sources.
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Document ID: 8E89C72A

Combined Use Of Reservoir Simulation And Horizontal Ling Technologies In Gas Storage Operations
Author(s): Ien R. Bergin
Abstract/Introduction:
se of both reservoir simulation and horizontal drilling techis relatively new in gas storage operations. Both full field e well simulation studies can greatly aid in the feasibility n, performance forecasting and deployment strategy of il wells. This paper examines some of the considerations for how to use reservoir simulation in the decision process for horizontal well, and looks at two cases that used different imulation models: a full field study and a single well study.
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Document ID: B2D49B5A

SCADA/EFM, 1 Rtu Or 2?
Author(s): Christopher W. Bradberry,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will give a review of Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) functionality and its application in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) Systems. It will focus on the advantages and disadvantages of integrating both functions into a single RTU.
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Document ID: BEFECE1A

Development And Implementation Of Waste Minimization Programs For Natural Gastransmission And Storage
Author(s): John P. Fillo, Scott m. Koraido, James m. Evans,
Abstract/Introduction:
Pollution prevention is increasingly becoming an integral part of the regulatory landscape. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has embraced this at the philosophical and practical level through specific regulations and guidance, and as a means of negotiating with industry over the resolution of past and present compliance issues. Numerous states have developed programs to assist industry and have passed legislation in certain cases. Certain industries and companies have responded to this by developing pollution prevention programs either to comply with specific regulations (typically at the state level) or on a voluntary basis.
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Document ID: 57CDD273

Coiled Tubing Applications For Underground Gas Storage
Author(s): Hampton Fowler, Don Holcombe
Abstract/Introduction:
Technological advances in coiled tubing (CT), CT handling equipment, and application techniques have provided new opportunities for the effective, economic use of CT for gas storage and retrieval. This paper presents a review of the CT capabilities that can be used for improving the performance of gas storage wells and discusses applications that could be performed with CT in the near future.
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Document ID: 64185652

Balanced Noise Control Design Specifications For Compressor Stations
Author(s): Leslie D. Frank,
Abstract/Introduction:
The Balanced Design Concept for Noise Control on centrifugal and reciprocating compressor packages for new compressor station designs and for existing compressor station retrofit programs represents a departure from conventional specification methods. The Balanced Design Concept first requires the owners design team to mathematically predict each noise sources contribution, and then apply appropriate Noise Reduction Requirements for specific mechanical equipment components. This concept permits the owners design team to measure and assess individual equipment acoustical performance in compliance certification tests. These tests can be conducted without other process equipment contaminating their results, and without variable effects of weather conditions. With these more precise specification methods costs can also be saved because vendors do not have to budget for excessive safety factors.
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Document ID: 2FFD6C2B

Reaching Across Pipelines Electronically
Author(s): Fred P. Schaan,
Abstract/Introduction:
Can pipelines work together to provide a true multi-pipeline Electronic Bulletin Board? Can multi-pipeline information be available to support gas shippers? This paper describes the work undertaken by NOVA Corporation, TransCanada Pipelines and Westcoast Energy to establish a common electronic bulletin board that will provide their customers one access and facility to make the necessary contractual and operational arrangements for the movement of gas across their pipelines. The concept and the benefits, along with the services provided and an overview of the technical and administrative infrastructures will be discussed. The involvement of three additional pipelines in the subsequent releases currently underway will also be reviewed.
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Document ID: ED3D87CA

Environmental Cleanup Of A Manufactured Gas Plant Site
Author(s): Alan D. Hatfield,
Abstract/Introduction:
A manufactured gas plant site, located in Columbus, Georgia was the location of an environmental cleanup in 1992. Manufactured Gas was produced at this site for the years 1854 to 1931. The availability of natural gas in 1931 from a transmission pipeline ended the necessity to routinely manufacture gas however the waste products, primarily coal tar, from the earlier years of plant operation, remained with the site. Insitu solidification was the cleanup method selected, and post monitoring activities indicate that the project was a complete success. The site is now a park and a leading part of riverfront development.
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Document ID: CFC94E76

Negotiating Transactional Environmental Risks
Author(s): Jeremy A. Gibson,
Abstract/Introduction:
When about to strike a business deal, a party often faces environmental unknowns because of unfamiliarity with the venture, party or property involved. For better or worse, there are few rules governing business transactions. The parties usually must decide what should be the breadth and depth of environmental terms. Their tools for negotiating a mutually-acceptable contract are closing conditions, representations and warranties, covenants and indemnities. Some contract issues are universal issues and others depend on whether a party is the Buyer, Seller, Lessor, Lessee, Lender and Borrower. Their concerns are illuminated by sample document provisions.
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Document ID: 749C7362

The Future Of Oem Ngvs In Fleets
Author(s): John H. Stark,
Abstract/Introduction:
Advancements in all areas of transportation will continue, during and well after our lifetime. We will always strive for a better tomorrow and a brighter future. The keyword is FUTURE and vehicle fuel is no exception.
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Document ID: B2F1C1E6

Ngv Codes, Standards And Certification
Author(s): Doris Pinchombe,
Abstract/Introduction:
Compliance with equipment safety standards and certification is not generally directed at a federal government level in the United States. However, on a state and local level certification requirements are normally legislated or specified in codes. Standards are developed voluntarily by interested parties.
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Document ID: 78EAC4F6

Electric Vehicles: An Update The Electric Transportation Revolution
Author(s): John Dabels,
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to assess progress being made toward the introduction of electric vehicles EVs for fleet use. The paper is divided into five sections:
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Document ID: 7EB8B2D7

Ts To Utilities From Changes To The Department C Dortations Hazardous Materials Regulations
Author(s): Iose, Coordinator,
Abstract/Introduction:
iception of the Hazardous Materials Transportation y Act of 1990, several changes have been made to the terials Regulations which have significantly impacted transportation of hazardous materials.
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Document ID: 0538C887

Benchmarking Fleet Activities Using A Market Target Index
Author(s): Peter G. Girard,
Abstract/Introduction:
Fleet managers must set priorities for allocation of labor and capital resources in light of competitive markets which provide fleet services. A benchmarking technique for comparing internal and external costs called the Market Target Index can be used to assess these priorities.
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Document ID: 9BCCB631

Fleet Standardization At Duke Power Company
Author(s): Mac Burris,
Abstract/Introduction:
Duke Power is headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina. Duke Power supplies electricity to more than 1.7 million residential, commercial and industrial customers in a 20,000 square-mile service area in North Carolina and South Carolina. Founded 89 years ago, the Company is the nations sixth-largest inventor-owned electric utility as measured by kilowatt-hour sales.
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Document ID: A3419C62

Engineering Critical Assessment As Part Of A Compressor Station Integrity Program
Author(s): Ivan Bosnjak
Abstract/Introduction:
The integrity of the Dawn South Station piping was evaluated by an Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA) to determine whether the plant was safe to remain in service. The station has been operating safely since the late 1950s with inherent weldment and pipe defects, which were found not to be in compliance with the current piping code. The integrity assessment was conducted due to an increase in the station throughput which generated more stringent operating conditions.
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Document ID: A3F8A5B4

Application Of Multidisciplinary Teams In The Regulated Natural Gas Storage Business
Author(s): William C. Fay
Abstract/Introduction:
Union Gas is Canadas largest operator of underground natural gas storage facilities with over 126 Bcf of working capacity in Southwestern Ontario. Recent advancements in the technology (3D seismic, reservoir simulations) used in the exploration and production sectors have been successfully applied to the storage sector. This technology has revealed a high degree of complexity in the storage reservoirs that had been previously considered relatively simple systems. Critical to the success of this technology transfer was the creation and management of multidisciplinary teams.
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Document ID: 09FAC34B

Computer Simulation To Determine The Applicability Of Horizontal Wells In An Infill Drilling Prog
Author(s): A. Penabaker
Abstract/Introduction:
The field is certificated for 46 Bcf of total capacil includes 30 Bcf of working capacity and 16 Bcf of base gas However, Capac is normally operated at about 20 Bcf wor age capacity due to the low well density in the north end of The existing well pattern approximates a 40 acre spacii south end, but drops to only one well per 160 acres in the n Owing to the low permeability and thin nature of the storaj tion, all of the wells in the field required hydraulic frac achieve designed production levels.
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Document ID: 3C2BE68E

Nics And Human Aspects Of ating/Modernizing Compressor Stations
Author(s): Imith, Manager,
Abstract/Introduction:
md Factory automation have propelled facility and ators as technical workers into the forefront of U.S. Transmission Corporation is not immune to this 3NG Transmission Corporation is an interstate ny operating principally in West Virginia, Ohio, ew York, Maryland and Virginia. In the late 80
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Document ID: CC5EFD4C

Equipment Standardization Status By W.E.C.A. Western( Energy And Communications Association)
Author(s): Peter J. Konesky,
Abstract/Introduction:
Efforts to standardize equipment in an individual utility have been difficult. To standardize equipment across a geographical segment of utilities was considered nearly impossible. The solution was to initially standardize on soft items. The first two items standardized were fleet classification and fleet counting. These two items served as a basis for meaningful benchmarking. The benchmarking in turn became a catalyst and incentive for equipment standardization.
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Document ID: C7E7F40A

A 3D Seismic Investigation Of The Ray Gas Storage Reef In Macomb County, Michigan
Author(s): Stephen F. Schaefer
Abstract/Introduction:
A 4.2 square mile 3D seismic survey was acquired over the Ray Niagaran Reef Gas Storage Field in southeast Michigan as part of a program to maximize storage capacity and gas deliverability of the field. Goals of the survey were: 1) to determine if additional storage capacity could be found, either as extensions to the main reef or as undiscovered satellite reefs, 2) to determine if 3D seismic data can be utilized to quantify reservoir parameters in order to maximize the productive capacity of infill wells, and 3) to investigate the relationship between the main reef body and a low relief/low volume gas well east of the reef.
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Document ID: 1FAF32B0

Simulating Gas Storage And Purchase Policies Under Uncertainty
Author(s): Paul R. Gribik
Abstract/Introduction:
When setting storage and gas purchase policies, a gas Local Distribution Company must take into account the demand for services by different classes of customers, the supplies available and their costs, and operating constraints. Many of the factors that influence the policies are subject to considerable uncertainty. We outline an approach for setting storage policies that balance present costs with operating costs in an uncertain future.
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Document ID: C2D84621

Real Time Model-Success
Author(s): Michael L. Wheeler, William E. Brogan
Abstract/Introduction:
Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company has implemented a Real Time Transient Pipeline Model as an aid to Gas Control. The original intent of the implementation was to supply on-line pack and calculated values where measurements were unavailable. This paper describes the problems encountered during the implementation and the degree of success in addressing them. Implementation on the Panhandle system presented several special challenges due to the size of the Panhandle system, number of, and availability of measurements, the configuration of compressor stations and the work required to set up and maintain the model.
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Document ID: 40F2AA30

New Catalytic Combustion Technology To Minimize Emissions From Gas Turbines
Author(s): James C. Schlatter, Sarento G. Nickolas, Toru Shoji
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasingly stringent emissions regulations are focusing attention on new technologies for lowering the production of NOx in gasfired turbines. Catalytic combustion has been recognized as potential route to very low NOx levels however traditional approaches to catalyst development have not provided a workable solution. Recently Catalytica and Tanaka have developed a catalytic combustion system that controls emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons at very low levels while avoiding the high internal catalyst temperatures that cause rapid deterioration in typical combustion catalysts.
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Document ID: 9C5E2411


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