Measurement Library

Measurement Science Conference Publications (1993)

International Quality Standards For Calibration Laboratories A Comparative Analysis Of ISO/IEC Guide 25 With IS0 9001
Author(s): Peter S. Unger
Abstract/Introduction:
International standards for assessing the competence and quality systems of calibration laboratories have changed recently. The standard adopted worldwide for use in accrediting laboratories is ISO/IEC Guide 25-1990. The standards adopted worldwide for use in assessing and registering quality systems are the IS0 9000 series standards (i.e., 9001, 9002, or 9003). This paper presents a comparison between the standard for laboratory accreditation (IS0 Guide 25) and the standard for quality system registration (specifically IS0 9001),
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Document ID: 573726FF

Coordinate Measuring Machine Statistical Process Control
Author(s): H. L. Roberts
Abstract/Introduction:
The quality of the measurements from a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) is in large part dependent on the stability of the environment surrounding the CMM and the stability of the processes that produce output from collected data points.
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Document ID: F5330F8A

Optical Time Domain Reflectometer Calibration: Passive Approach Versus Active Approach
Author(s): Luan Ta
Abstract/Introduction:
Even though optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are widely used to maintain fiber optic systems, the OTDR calibration method has not been well established. A review of the passive and the active approach for OTDR calibration will be presented:Based on the review, a new OTDR calibration method will be proposed.
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Document ID: FAAC80F7

Low Level Laser Peak Power Radiometer
Author(s): Jeffrey W. Walden
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the design, development and application of a unique Navy laser radiometer calibration standard. Test and measurement techniques are discussed 3s well as design considerations in the Navys deployment of a subnanowatt/cm low level Nd:YAG laser radiometer.
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Document ID: 81F8E10A

Using A Multifunction Transfer Standard To Support Deployed Calibrators
Author(s): Peter B. Crisp
Abstract/Introduction:
Maintaining a large population of multifunction calibrators can be a major lo requirements of 8% istical problem - particularly when the accuracy digit DMMs dictate a relatively short calibration interval for each calibrator of 90 days. Metrologists in the commercial sector are expected to improve the efficiency of their operations - yet must achieve this with out compromising measurement quality. Any method of improving efficiency must satisfy the following criteria:-
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Document ID: 38D80A78

A Metrology Model For Submicrometer Dimensional Measurements
Author(s): James Potzick
Abstract/Introduction:
A model for the accurate. dimensional measurement of small planar objects is developed in term8 of the comparison of the images of the test object and a standard object in a measuring device. A length measuring instrument is thus a comparator. The calibration of the standard and the conditions necessary for a valid comparison rue discussed. The principles discussed here apply to many other types of measurement as well.
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Document ID: D28B735E

The Effects Of Ambient Temperature Changes On Dimensional Calibrations
Author(s): James, Kerwin
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is based on a study that was done to determine the relevance of the temperature constraints that are placed on the dimensional calibrations areas of land-based Navy Type-3 laboratories. The aim was to get estimates of the errors that would result when the temperature variations in these labs exceeded the limits specified for them in instrument calibration procedures and facility requirements documents. Using heat transfer theory as it applys to metalic gage blocks in air, this paper derives a formula which gives the temperature variation error as a function of the amplitude and frequency of the ambient temperature variations.
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Document ID: CABE232D

Outlier-Resistant Fitting Of Gray-Scale Images Illustrated By Optical Fiber Geometry
Author(s): Dominic Vecchia, Chill-Ming Wang, Matt Young
Abstract/Introduction:
Using the measurement of geometric parameters of optical fiber ends as an example, we discuss a curve-fitting technique, called least median of squares (LMS), that is highly resistant to the influence of outlying data points. The LMS method is a form of robust regression that can resist the effect of nearly 50% contaminated data. W C fit ellipses to the digitized gray-scale images of each of two fiber ends by LMS and by ordinary leastsum- of-squares regression. The two methods yield nearly identical results on a pristine fiber end, but the LMS method is far superior on a damaged fiber end, even though we make no effort to identify spurious data points explicitly.
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Document ID: 66428FD2

Developing Resistance Measurement Software
Author(s): Thomas A. Marshall, James A. Marshall Kenneth L. Garcia
Abstract/Introduction:
Several excellent methods for automating measurements for resistance standards have been introduced recently. Even though these methods are achieving superior results, they are not widely used due to the programing time required. Also, many people who have developed their own software are linding themselves limited by their single application programs. A commercially available software package has been developed that provides a choice of methods to select from, enabling users to take advantage of the strengths of each method.
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Document ID: 21C79249

The Design And Implementation Of A Stability Verification System For Solid State Voltage References
Author(s): Steven Haynes
Abstract/Introduction:
Solid-state voltage references have improved to the point where commercially available instruments are now available with stability specifications of 1.0 ppm per year. Since the physics of what causes stability in individual components at the sub-ppm level is poorly understood, proving stability is generally done by observing the time rate of change of the output voltage of instruments and selecting those units that meet the stability criteria. However, verifying this type of stability specification in a production environment is an expensive proposition.
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Document ID: 78E743EE

Simplified Voltage Scaling
Author(s): Thomas A. Marshall, James A. Marshall
Abstract/Introduction:
A simplilied method for comparing the different outputs of voltage standards has been developed. This method provides results simiiar to the NET Ten-to-one system, but at much lower cost using off the shelf equipment. In addition to the cost savings, this system is more flexible. It enables users to make comparisons between any output up to twelve volts. Comparisons can be made between 1, 1.018 and 10 volts to better than 0.5 ppm. All required equipment and software is commercially available and takes advantage of equipment already existing in many standards laboratories.
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Document ID: A5800C69

Capacitance Measurement Assurance Program Map()
Author(s): Y. May Chang
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the recently developed capacitance Measurement Assurance Program (MAP) service at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Using a commercial digital capacitance meter as the transport standard, two separate pilot programs for the capacitance MAP have been carried out for standards at both the 1000 pF and 100 pF levels. The first was carried out as a single transfer with a government standards laboratory, and the second was designed for round-robin measurements as a multiple transfer by three industrial standards laboratories.
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Document ID: F11C0980

Analysis Of Mechanical Convertors Of Electronic Balances
Author(s): Emil Hazarian
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper addresses both manufacturers and users of electronic balances with elastic elements in their design. A detailed analysis of elastic elements of electronic balances, the first link in the mass measurement process conversion chain: mechanical force - deformation - electrical size, is undertaken.
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Document ID: 11D85757

Formal Mass Assurance Under Regulatory Control
Author(s): Walter E. Kupper
Abstract/Introduction:
Governments have supervised the field of weighing since the beginning of civilization. It is easy to see why: as soon as commodities are traded and accounted for by the pound, ounce, grain and scruple, there needs to be an authority that sets and safeguards the standards for the weights and the process of weighing. This authority has traditionally been exercised by governments through their Weights & Measures organizations. The regulatory control over measurements is known as legal metrology, and its core objective is to ensure equty in commercial transactions. In the broadest sense, commercial transactions enc0mpas*es all situations where a price, toll, tariff, tax, bonus. penalty, etc., is charge,3 or paid on the basis of mass.
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Document ID: 7C6B5607

The Role Of Buoyancy Correction In Process Measurements
Author(s): Frank E. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
The origin of buoyancy and its application to weighing are traced, and the Principle of Archimedes is developed. The form of buoyancy corrections and their application to weighing on an electonic balance and on a single-pan direct-weighing analytical balance are presented and analyzed. The definition and application of the concept of apparent mass are discussed, stressing that it is the true mass of an object that is the desired quantity in accurate weighing. The extremes of the values of buoyancy corrections and errors due to variations in both air density and object density are discussed.
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Document ID: 049E5D96

Emerging Applications Of Computer Graphics As A Decision Making Tool
Author(s): Jetty A. Van
Abstract/Introduction:
Information from todays management information systems is often presented in the form of a graph. Information presented in a properly constructed graph can highlight and clarify signilicant trends in data for managers and decision makers. Current display technology and software tools can accommodate a managers preference for a gtaphical display of output ln place of, or, in addition to, numerical displays of infotmation.
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Document ID: D1E2EE0A

Laboratory Instrumentation Training Using Computer Aided Instruction And Expert Systems
Author(s): James C. Triplett
Abstract/Introduction:
Every time a laboratory buys a new piece of equipment some type of training is required. Vendors recognize this need for training, so they supply technical documentation, usually in the form of a written manual. And each one of the manuals comes with a wish: vendors wish customers would read them.
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Document ID: 08CCE7A4

The Central Role Of Leadership In The Changing Paradigm
Author(s): Gail R. Dimitroff
Abstract/Introduction:
Quality is aproduct, not a method. The quality of a product or of a service is prescribed by the top management. All processes may run without blemish, yet the quality of the output may be unsatisfactory. Nothing can take the place ofproper design, which is the responsibility of top management. The differences between a country with rich natural resources and one with no natural resources could be taken as Brazil on the one hand and Japan on the other. Japan has no nature resources except waterpower. The difference between two countries, one rich in natural resources, the other on economic power in the world -for example Brazil on the one hand and Japan on the other-is the management of people.
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Document ID: B3B9D465

Four Steps To Process Management
Author(s): Steve D. Doherty
Abstract/Introduction:
Total quality is rapidly changing the way the U.S. Air Force is managing. At the Directorate of Metrology, Newark Air Force Base, Ohio, this change equates to documenting, measuring, controlling, and improving work processes, i.e., process management. It also means learning, and mastery of the techniques and skills to implement systems thinking, the basis of process management and total quality.
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Document ID: 9FEDAE65

Measuring The Maturity Level Of The Business Processes
Author(s): Denis Faunce
Abstract/Introduction:
The focus of Aeronutronics process improvement efforts and the role of Product Assurance in facilitating those efforts has been evolving over recent years. After concentrating on the manufacturing process and realizing significant improvements, it became clear that there were many other business processes that needed to be improved if the company was to remain competitive. Aeronutronics management created a top level definition of the company processes, and directed Product Assurance to develop a methodology to assess these processes and provide recommendations for improving them. This paper describes the assessment framework and methodology and explains how the process assessments were implemented. Assessments of the engineering and procurement processes were very successful, and significant improvement efforts have been initiated. Using the same techniques, a program management process assessment is being developed and will be implemented in 1993. The generalized results of these assessments will be presented along with lessons learned.
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Document ID: 8582B5F3

Measurement Service For High-Power Cfv WATTMJ3TERS At The National Institute Of Standards And Technology.
Author(s): Jeffrey A. Jargon, Gregorio Rebuldela
Abstract/Introduction:
In response to recent interest and demand for accurate high-power calibrations, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has established a measurement service for high-power continuous wave (cw) wattmeters. The automated calibration system operates at power levels of 1 to 1000 W for frequencies from 1 to 30 MHz and 1 to 500 W for 30 to 400 MHz. The high-power source is calibrated using a transfer standard, which was calibrated using a cascaded coupler technique that is traceable to a 10 mW standard. Wattmeters are calibrated directly against the high-power source and must meet the following specifications: an IEEE- 488 inlerface bus, a type N male input .connector, and either a type N female output connector or an attached load.. At each measurement point the calibration faktor is defined as the ratio of the wattmeters indication to the power incident on it. Systematic uncertainties are due to the high- * Contribution of NIST, not subject to copyright in the United States. power source calibration factors, instability of the source, resolution of the wattmeter, and reflection coefficient measurements. Random uncertainties are due to connector repeatability of the devices, environmental effects, long term system variations and system noise. The measurement uncertainty is less than plus or minus two percent and is dependent on the frequency and power le
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Document ID: 7B5D3DBB

Dimensional Characterization Of Precision Coaxial Transmission Line Standard
Author(s): Glenn V. Sherwood
Abstract/Introduction:
Precision, air-dielectric coaxial transmission line standards are commonly used with automatic network analyzers for impedance measurements. The dimensional and geometric integrity of these devices has been the subject of careful study. This report summarizes recent efforts at NIST to attain improved dimensional and geometric characterization of coaxial lines. The use of computer-aided methods that augment traditional air gaging, roundness testing and coordinate measuring machine analysis will also be discussed.
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Document ID: 7204D13E

Measurement Assurance Using Proficiency Testing Programs
Author(s): J. R. Barr
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibrations to satisfy customer requirements normally evolve by designing the measuring system, acquiring the measuring equipment, preparing the procedure, and training the calibrationists. The overall quality, at this point, is not statistically established and Measurement Assurance is needed. The Measurement Assurance Method discussed is Proficiency Testing using special Design of Experiments (DOE) Arrays.
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Document ID: 340B05BD

Transient Pressure Measurement And Calibration
Author(s): Vern E. Bean, Walter J. Bowers, Jr., Wilbur S. Hurst, Gregory J. Rosasco
Abstract/Introduction:
The properties to be determined when calibrating a transient pressure transducer are sensitivity, amplitude as a function of frequency, phase as a function of frequency, resonant frequency, ringing frequency, damping ratio, rise time, and overshoot. A static calibration yields only the sensitivity. Calibration with a shock tube of known pressure amplitude yields all eight parameters. NIST has installed a shock tube capable of reflected pressures up to 20 MPa which is intended for pressure transducer calibration. NIST is also developing primary standards for the measurement of transient pressure and temperature based on the fundamental properties of selected diatomic gas molecules determined through laser spectroscopy. The pressure amplitude in the shock tube is to be calibrated with these primaly standards.
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Document ID: CD52D12A

1993 Measurement Science ConferenceStatus Of The Ncsl Recommended Standards Pratice On Deadweight Pressure Gauges
Author(s): Charles D. Ehrlich
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Conference of Standards Laboratories (NCSL) Recommended Practices Committee on Deadweight Pressure Standards is in the process of drafting an intrinsic/derived standards practice on deadweight pressure gauges. This talk will review the direction and progress of this consensus standards writing activity, and provide particular details concerning the assessment of uncertainties in pressure measurement using deadweight piston gauges
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Document ID: 2E4C66CF

The New NIST Policy On Statements Of Uncertainty*
Author(s): Barry N. Taylor, Chris E. Kuyatt
Abstract/Introduction:
In October 1992, NIST Director John W. Lyons announced a new NIST policy regarding statements of uncertainty associated with NIST measurement results. The new policy is effective immediately with a full implementation date of January 1, 1994. This paper gives that policy. The talk itself will include, in addition to a review of the policy, a discussion of how it was developed and the contents of a soon-to-be-published NIST Technical Note that provides guidance to the NIST staff on how to implement it.
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Document ID: A0769856

Six Sigma Advantages And Liabilities In Metrology
Author(s): Russell D. Brady
Abstract/Introduction:
We have heard much lately of six sigma companies and the perceived level of quality achievement related thereto. Bow does this affect machining and measurement sciences in real everyday functional terms?
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Document ID: 95230F88

Dhi Calibration Chain
Author(s): Michael L. Bridge
Abstract/Introduction:
As previ,ously described in other calibration chain reports, the chain has been implemented and maintained as a vehicle for transferring effective areas from the national reference levels to all DHI reference iston-cylinders. In addition, the chain enables these transfers to be done with as littP e degradation in accuracy as possible.
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Document ID: 5C16BC5E

Using Process Metrology For Continuous Improvement In A Manufacturing Environment
Author(s): Jim Hirning
Abstract/Introduction:
Statistics have been used in the manufacturing environment for years to control processes including final verification. Metrologys influence has been notable in the calibration of test and measurement equipment to assure that the measurement equipment is accurate and precise enough to verify the products which customers are demanding. Metrologys long use of statistical tools enables a natural marriage of metrology and manufacturing through the use of process metrology. Process metrology can thus be used by production, quality and metrology personnel to verify process control, certify final verification equipment, and provide traceable calibrations to NIST and through this process attain lower costs and higher quality with the result being customer satisfaction.
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Document ID: 16D582B7

The Application Of Taguchi Design In The Calibration Laboratory
Author(s): Steven F. Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
During a graduate statistics class while students were bemoaning our collective ability to forget what had been learned during undergraduate studies, the instructor stated the first statistics class a person takes is a sacrifice to the gods, you really arent expected to retain much from it. Since that time the importance of statistics in measurement is something, as well as the study of statistics itself, that I have spent a great deal of time trying to understand. As the science of collecting, tabulating and analyzing data statistics has been relegated to the lofty role of the language of the professors, and used mainly in the application of the scientific method in research, yet the application of statistics to other sciences has made dramatic advances (Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Optics) and the application of statistical methods is well within the ability of anyone willing to spend the time to learn them. It is not by chance that many of the tools tied to the Japanese quality successes are based on the application of statistics, nor the fact that statistics is a required class at the high school level in Japanese Schools. The value of statistical analysis is based on the existence of random variation in all measurements or observations. The idea in utilizing statistics in measurement is to filter out the noise of random variation sufficiently to obtain information otherwise obscured. Another important benefit is the ability to characterize a source containing random variation utilizing a Probability Distribution.
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Document ID: 063DD578

Tbe Statistical Use Of Measurement Testing Costs And Rises Or Whatever Bappened To Bet
Author(s): Barker, T. B
Abstract/Introduction:
There are a number of valid reasons for making an analytical measurement. Some of them are listed in Table I. Table I 2: Specification Testing Statistical Process Control 2: Process Adjustment Designed Experiment Response Variable Z: Problem Solving Labeling/Disaster Control
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Document ID: A7FB6B47

Traceability In Measuring Frequency Standards
Author(s): John A. Kusters, Charles P. Little, Robert Pitcock
Abstract/Introduction:
In the manufacturing of cesium-based primary frequency standards, a requirement exists to verify that the cesium standards normal operating frequency is within the basic accuracy specifications set for that standard
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Document ID: E323177F

Common-View Clock Synchronization Usingthe Globalpositioning System
Author(s): Christine Hackman
Abstract/Introduction:
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a set of satellites which orbit the earth at a distance of about 4.2 earth radii from the geocenter. These satellites are owned and operated by the Department of Defense (DOD). When complete, the constellation will consist of 21 satellites: 3 in each of 6 orbital planes, and 3 spares. There are currently 4 Block I and 13 Block II satellites in orbit. The Block I satellites are the prototype satellites launched by the DOD, and are gradually being phased out. The Block IIs are the more modern version.
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Document ID: 53890B36

Platinum Resistance Thermometer Data Analysis
Author(s): David C. Parrish
Abstract/Introduction:
A capsule platinum resistance thermometer is an interpolation instrument for the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) over the range of 13.8 Kelvin to generally 505 Kelvin. This presentation examines four NIST calibration curves characterizing a single standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT) over a time span of 15 years. Temperature differences expressed on the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968, Amended edition of 1975 (IPTS-68) and the ITS-90 for an actual thermometer are evaluated. Comparisons of absolute resistance as well as resistance ratio curves from calibration to calibration are made. Results of these comparisons are used to estimate the predictability of SPRT performance trends with time and usage. Given acceptable predictability, periodic measurement of the triple-point of water temperature is evaluated as a means to validate the existing temperature versus resistance calibration curve and estimate when a new calibration is required.
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Document ID: 52E9E1BF

How To Achieve More Accuracy At High Capacities, Design Principles Of A 50 kg Mass Comparator
Author(s): Arend Helms, Sartorius
Abstract/Introduction:
In industrial and legal metrology, the accuracy required for heavy load weighing instruments has become tremendously high. Thus, for the test and calibration of high capacity scales more and more a accurate mass pieces are necessary. For the calibration of those, also highly precise mass standards are needed.
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Document ID: 94CC9C5E

Liquid Density Measurement Using The Buoy& Force Method
Author(s): W. G. Cleveland, Jr., J. F. Houser, G. E. Mattingly
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a new liquid density measurement device recently developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD. This device is capable of measuring liquid hydrocarbon densities by applying Archimedes principle of buoyancy. The design of the device, the pertinent equations, and the procedures used for its operation are described. The device is found to have an estimated total uncertainty of +0.016% for liquids with densities near that of water at ambient conditions. Test results are described which substantiate the performance levels of this device using a hydrocarbon liquid. The capability provided by this device to measure liquid density more accurately than conventional methods is expected to improve significantly the uncertainties of related measurements and calibration services provided by NIST, such as hydrometry, containment volume, and liquid flowrate.
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Document ID: 8F3775DA

NIST Measurement Assurance Of Sprt Calibrations On The ITS-90: A Quantitative Approach
Author(s): G. F. Strouse, B. W. Mangum
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is responsible for realizing, maintaining and disseminating the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) for the United States of America. Oue of the methods used for the dissemination of the scale is the calibration of standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) and hightemperature SPRTs (HTSPRTs), using thermometric fixed points. At NIST, the calibration of these thermometers as defining, interpolating devices for the ITS-90 includes various internal quality control checks in order to minimize the uncertainty associated with a calibration. The internal measurement assurance program incorporated at NIST includes the use of check (HT)SPRTs, control charts, redundant fixed points, and statistical process control. This program, as well as some results showing fixed-point reproducibility and calibration uncertainties, will be discussed.
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Document ID: FBAF0ECF

Tracking Embodiments Of Intrinsic Standmds Suhmary
Author(s): P. J. Spellman,
Abstract/Introduction:
Triple, freeze or melt points of very pure substances have been selected as fixed points of ITS 90. They have been assumed to be pure and either under the vapour pressure of the cell material, in Triple Point Cells, or at 1 atmosphere in freeze or melt point cells. The temperature assigned is the temperature at the surface of the cell contents. To obtain perfect, or near to perfect results the cells are assumed to be in concentric shells of liquid/solid/liquid (as in the water triple point) or solid/liquid/solid (as a freeze cell).
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Document ID: CBE3A645

ACCURACY,STABILITY And Factor Saffecting Calibration Of Thermocouples
Author(s): Dr. T.P. Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
IN THIS PAPER, THE ACCURACY, PRECISION AND UNCERTAIN-lY OF CALIBRATION OF THERMOCOUPLESAREPRESENTED.,THEBASlCSANDSPECIFICATIONSOFTHERMOCOUPLES ARE REVIEWED WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON TYPES J, KAND N THERMOCOUPLES. FACTORS AFFECTING CALIBRATION OF THERMOCOUPLES ON REVERSIBLE CHANGES SUCH AS COLD WORK. AGING AND IRREVERSIBLE CHANGES SUCH AS PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION AND CONTiMlNATlON ARE DESCRIBED. CALIBRATION ERRORS INTRODUCED BY CIRCUITRY PROBLEMS ARE ANALYZED.
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Document ID: 4DE8E781

Vxlbus Hardware Overview
Author(s): David Haworth
Abstract/Introduction:
VXIbus is a multi-vendor architecture for modular instruments that was designed to satisfy the growing need for an open modular instrument standard. It is a system architecture that is composed of hardware and software specifications. This paper focuses on VXIbus hardware specitications and includes an in-depth discussion and examples of the VXIbus electrical functionality.
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Document ID: EF3088C2

Stealth Aircraft Thermal Insulation Automated Dimensioning
Author(s): James D. Tostenson
Abstract/Introduction:
B S T R A C T . T h e r e - e n t r y o f S p a c e V e h i c l e s i n t o t h e a t m o s p h e r e a f t e r completing missions in orbit around the earth or the moon has been accomplished many times in the past two decades. Past man-rated v e h i c l e s like Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo carried from one to three astronauts and were quite small and compact in size compared to the Space Shuttle Vehicle and required much less of an area to have re-entry insulation to protect the capsule and its occupants from the heat during re-entry. Insulation on past vehicles was an ablative type that actually charred and peeled away the dynamic heating of re-entry carrying the heat away from the capsule. These vehicles were used for only one mission.
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Document ID: 626EFEC9


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