Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1992)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Testing Odorant Concentration: Various Methods Of Testing For Proper Odorant
Author(s): Edwin H. Roberson
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorant monitoring is a complex subject. Odorant concentration test instruments have been in use for approximately fifty years and many users are satisfied with their reliability. There are others, however, who feel that the test results of diese instruments are meaningless. Since both sides in this disagreement are using the same type of instrument, the problem spears to surround the manner in which the odor level test is taught and run.
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Document ID: 9F31AE62

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Larry Irving, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide information for use in the understanding of the fundamentals of orifice metering with an emphasis on gas measurement. The reference for specific mechanical tolerances is the American Gas Association Report No. 3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, published as ANSI/API standard 2530. The intent of this paper is to provide an overview of the various parts that comprise orofice metering and how these parts work together to form a meter installation.
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Document ID: 2BEF061E

Btd Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Chromatograph
Author(s): B. R. Tompkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Fast, accurate, and low cost analysis has become more important with the increased demand for on-site results in many industries. The ability to have answers in real time without being tied to a laboratory and its schedule saves valuable time and resources, The use of on-line gas chromatographs in the natural gas industry has become the standard for high volume custody transfer locations, as well as plant inlets and outlets. This typically is the most accurate way to determine energy content of natural gas but is expensive for low volume locations. The portable gas chromatograph offers a solution to this problem.
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Document ID: B85859B5

Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas can be defined as the difference between the amount of gas purchased and the amount of gas sold through a measured gas distribution system. This difference is commonly described as agas purchased than sold) or negative (more gas sold than purchased). In either case, it is important to determine what factors are contributing to the unaccounted-for gas and eliminate them. We are concerned about imaccounted for gas for two reasons safety and economics. Concern about unaccoimted-for gas for public safety include: leakage, third party damage and gas theft. These factors contribute to unaccoxmted-for gas that can adversely affect the safety of our customers. Economically, unaccoimted-for gas represents lost revenues that are not recoverable. It is gas purchased from a supplier but not sold to customers (positive unaccounted-for gas) percentage of gas purchased.
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Document ID: 127D5902

Mechanical Vs. Electrical Correction Devices
Author(s): Charles Guzowski
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering devices such as displacement meters and inferential meters measure gas at line conditions. Since gas is a compressible fluid it responds to changes in pressure and temperature. The gas meter then should be capable of accounting for these varying line conditions. Since the 1930s meters have been mounted with mechanical instruments which correct for metered gas volume with varying line conditions. A change in line conditions, be it pressure or temperature, change the position of linkages within the instrument. The linkage changes give the instrument the capability to vary the speed of the correct volume counter to a given base standard volume. The most common base standard for a cubic foot is considered to be a measured volume at a temperature of 60F and a pressure of 14.73 psia. Mechanical instruments have been, for many years, meeting the gas industries need for metered volume correction although, in the 1970s the advancements in microprocessor technology gave way to the design of electronic base volume computers. The electronic correctors have the capability to compensate for pressure and temperature changes but also have additional capabilities not found with mechanical devices.
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Document ID: C065BBA9

Fundamentals Of Positive Displacement Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Charles Guzowski
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1800s when the need arose for an accurate method of gas measurement the positive displacement diaphragm meter has been the industrys choice for volumes up to 10,000 CFH, The basic advantage of diaphragm meters in comparison to various types of meters is their capability to accurately measure flow rates varying from small pilot loads to the maximum rated meter capacity. The term rangeability defines the ratio of the maximum meter capacity to a minimum flow rate within a + 1% accuracy band at a constant net pressure. The rangeability of other types of metering devices does not even approach the performance curve of a diaphragm meter.
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Document ID: 3B4754B5

Operational Procedures Of Electronic Chart Processor
Author(s): Chuck Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
The UGC Chart Processor is a microprocessor based system designed to translate orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data of integrated flow (chart extension), flow time and average pressure. It will handle American (Westcott) and Foxboro charts as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Processor can be fitted with pen mounts for Taylor and/or Rockwell charts. The operator directs the pens to follow the records by moving the trace handles as the chart rotates. The rotational speed of the chart table is governed by a variable foot control. The chart is secured to the chart table so its rotation and the motion of the pens by the operator simulate the actions in the recording meter. The Chart Processor computes and prints (for each chart) the chart extension ( /HP), average pressure and flow time. It also stores and prints batch totals on command.
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Document ID: 3F44FDC0

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): Thomas E. Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
It has long been the practice of gas companies to record custody transfer strictly on a volumetric basis. This practice began to change, however, when Congress passed the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Federal intervention came as a result of large price differentials between state and federally regulated natural gas. The Act sought to restore consumer confidence and instill a sense of fairness in the gas system. One of its provisions specified that natural gas was to be bought and sold on the basis of energy content. End users were free to purchase gas on a commodity market basis and use participating pipelines as conduits to transport gas to their particular locale. The cost benefits were initially impressive - but only to some customers. It soon became apparent that gases were of varying qualities resulting in Increased consumption at some sites whereas others used less. As a result. unknown qualities had an unsettling effect on the entire system.
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Document ID: F3AF48BC

Fundamentals Of Ethylene Measurement
Author(s): Dennis L. Casto
Abstract/Introduction:
Every year 40,000,000,000 pounds of ethylene are produced in the United States with a value of 9,223 billion. This is roughly equal to 25 billion cubic feet/day of natural gas sales or 1,200,00 bbls/day of crude oil sales. Like oil and gas, ethylene is measured several times before its final consumption, therefore the above quoted values only give a glimpse into how much ethylene is measured daily. In its early years, ethylene was transferred and measured like natural gas. Low pressure (less than 600 psig) pipelines moved it from production units to the consumers. Measurement was handled on a cubic foot basis, like natural gas using mechanical charts. Because the consuming units converted the ethylene to other forms, hke polyethylene or glycols, it was hard to calculate plant efficiencies using standard gas measurements system as the basis. Therefore, the consuming units relied on a mass balance and all volumes were converted to pounds.
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Document ID: E63A8C9E

Chart Editing And Integration Methods To Reduce Errors And Obtain Accurate Gas Volumes
Author(s): Gary P. Menzel
Abstract/Introduction:
The title assigned to us for this presentation may imply that we can define specific means to reduce errors and thereby improve measurement accuracy. Certainly we hope that our observations may contribute to that purpose but there is something unique about each companies operations which prevents the application of a single procedural formula to everyone, and we will make no attempt to do so.
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Document ID: 53C064E3

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Jerry Bernos
Abstract/Introduction:
At the thought of having to study and learn chemistry, most individuals feel that the subject is far to complex to be within the realm of their understanding. NOT SO! Just as a person does not have to be an auto mechanic to drive a car, one does not have to be a graduate chemist to learn a few basic chemical concepts. This presentation will not turn you into a trained chemist. It should, however, give you a very basic and simplified understanding of the nature of the materials that we are required to deal with on an ongoing, everday basis.
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Document ID: 2E5CEAEE

Periodic Inspection Of District Regulators And Relief Valves
Author(s): George L. Bell, Sr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspections of district regulating stations and overpressure protection devices are essential in complying with Federal and State Regulations. District regulators reduce high inlet pressure to a lower outlet pressure that is below the maximum allowable operating pressure (H.A.O.P,) for a segment of pipeline. The district regulators may also be used to reduce an intermediate pressure to an even lower utilization pressure. District regulators may be installed for your companys operation to reduce a line segments lost and unaccountable, gas purchased, tapping requirements, or odorization problems. Overpressure protection devices are devices that protect the downstream pipeline in the event of a regulator failure. These devices include the relief valve, the monitor, and the pressure shutoff. These regulators and overpressure protection devices, because of their importance to system operations, must be inspected in accordance to federal and state regulations.
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Document ID: A4E12454

Electronic Flow Meter Auditing
Author(s): Gary P. Menzel
Abstract/Introduction:
As Electronic Flow Meters (EFM ) replace the more traditional chart recorders as the method of recording and calculating custody transfer volumes in the natural gas industry, it becomes more and more important to be able to audit the volumes produced by these devices Our company has been doing some audits on electronic flow meters since 1984 and currently audit over 25 different pipelines at EFM custody transfer stations. Over the twelve moth period ending November, 1991, we found errors on over 3% of all of these stations audited which were resolved by agreement between the parties involved. The incidence of error on the EFM stations we audit falls in the same range as that of the chart recorder stations audited.
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Document ID: E5B1AD99

Sample Conditioning
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the general consensus of opinion that sample gas should be kept representative during the process of extracting, transporting and conditioning It for analysis. There have been conflicting opinions as to how this is best accomplished. After reflecting on the recommendations to the natural gas industry by a number of authors, I have come to the general conclusion that the source of this conflict is primarily due to the lack of an appropriate definition for the term representative sample. In an ideal setting this term means that all components are delivered to an analyzer in the exact concentrations in which they exist in the gas sample source. This ideal representative condition is very rarely achieved nor is it absolutely necessary in order to fulflll the general requirements of our analysis. The entire matter of representative sampling Is very complex and would require many hours of discussion to cover completely. Therefore, this presentation will address only liquid entrainmenl, which is a small, but very important segment of gas sample conditioning problems.
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Document ID: 4FD2F47B

Field Testing Of High Volume Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper examines a patented mobile gas turbine meter proving system that blends technology from liquid turbine meter provers with innovative ideas that particularly apply to gas measuranent. Arkla Pipeline Group developed and currently uses this mobile sonic nozzle prover on gas turbine meters ranging in size from 3 thru 16 at meter station sites under actual operating conditions. The prover also Incorporates a gas chromatograph which is used in the actual mass flow computations. This system has numerous enhancements over former methods of proving gas turbine meters. Arkla formerly proved its larger turbine meters, having capacities of 60,000 ACFH (Actual Cubic Feet per Hour), with a Roots transfer prover capable of only 10,000 ACFH. This meant that the provings were at or near locations on the proving curve where the K-factor (Pulses per Actual Cubic Foot) might be in error for the turbine meters normal flow rate.
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Document ID: 31EBF6D6

Final Development Of The Total Gas Energy Flow Instrument
Author(s): Thomas E. Sowell V
Abstract/Introduction:
Direct measurement of energy flowrates in pipelines is a desired form of instrumentation. Direct measurement instruments eliminate the requirements for approximations and interpolations of natural gas properties. Direct measurement metiiods bypass the traditional need for composition analysis, supercompressibillty, density, and viscosity estimates in natural gas measurement.
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Document ID: ABE46CCE

Fbom Pen Tip To Volume Statement
Author(s): Philip C. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate and reliable gas measurement depends on a combination of efforts and investments. In large companies these efforts include the legal department for contracts, the engineering department for specifying equipment and the purchasing department for buying that equipment. The field service department must then install the equipment. By the time the meter pen tip records the first gas production, there will have been literally dozens of people involved, from land men and geologists to drilling and production people. Regardless of company size there is always a major investment of time and money before the actual measurement process begins. It is the measurement departments job to deliver the results of all of the hard work and money invested.
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Document ID: 7A050176

Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Author(s): J. m. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulation is the control of the media flow by maintaining a desired media pressure while reducing the media supply pressure to a desired delivery level. The regulation of natural gas is the most common media controlled and delivered to consumers all over the world. The basic regulator could be an operator at a control valve watching a pressure gauge. The valve is manually opened to allow the line pressure to achieve the desired gauge setting. The operator visually monitors the gauge and either opens or closes the valve to maintain the desired pressure. The problem with this type of system is it would require full-time operators for daily operation and continuous monitoring of the gauge. The regulator products on the market do not monitor the gauge however, via monitoring the delivery pressure, they do automatically control the outlet pressure at an established value.
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Document ID: A96E0266

Economics Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 12 years an emergence of low powered flow computers along with government intervention, helped push the gas Industry into considering automating its long standing custody transfer measurement systems. Low powered Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) has become a reality with an estimated installed base of over 50,000 units. These Low Powered Flow Measurement systems consist of batteries, solar panels, differential, static pressure, and RTDs. - The purpose of this paper is to review chart technologies as compared to EFM and discuss the value added by not only implementing EFM, but how communications and the integration of data into other departments effect the overall climate of todays natural gas business.
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Document ID: C63CB235

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Anthony A. Schneemann
Abstract/Introduction:
As gas prices and cost of equipnent rise, the measurement of the product will increase in inportance and it will be up to the measurement engineer to design the most efficient and econcmical meter station possible after all, the gas meter is known as the Cash Register of our business. The gas meter is used to measure and record the volume of gas through a gas line at existing conditions. There are two classes of meters, the positive displacenent and the inferential. In positive displacement meters, the gas passes through a known volume. Inferential meters use physical facts related to velocity through a known area in order to derive volume measurements.
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Document ID: 2F54FAD0

Fundamentals Of Rotary Metering
Author(s): James B. Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built In 1920 by the PH A FM ROOTS Company and the Connersvllle Blower Company, both located in Connersvllle, Indiana. In 1966, this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS* Meters. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 1960s with a rotating vane design known as the ROTO-Seal* Meter, and In the late 1960s Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating design known as the CVM gas meter. There are several foreign competitors who also manufacture a lobed rotary meter.
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Document ID: A714FE65

Determination Of Specific Gravity By Various Methods
Author(s): E. D. Woomer, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with the determination of specific gravity via various methods and pieces of equipment. Also covered are definitions, relationships, and effects of specific gravity. The information presented herewith is applicable to United Gas Pipe Line Co. and conforms to accepted standards of the natural gas transmission industry.
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Document ID: F34174F8

Applying Process Gas Chromatography For Natural Gas Use
Author(s): Wayne O. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of process chromatography by the natural gas industry started in the 1960s. These early uses were primarily in gas processing plants. During the late 1970s gas companies started looking for more accurate methods of determining the Btu than the traditional caloremeter. Chromatography became the choice of most gas companies. Process gas chromatography is a special application of the more widely used laboratory chromatographs. The primary difference is process chromatographs are designed to operate with a minimum of operator intervention while laboratory chromatographs are typically controlled directly by the operator.
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Document ID: F74920AC

Field Inspections And Calibrating Measurement Instruments
Author(s): George E. Brown III
Abstract/Introduction:
The following paper details methods and equipment used for checking volume recording and correcting devices that would normally be connected to positive displacement, rotary and turbine meters in lieu of a direct reading/compensating index. The scope of equipment types that are applicable to these procedures are as follows: 1. Volume and Pressure/Temperature Recording Gauges 2. Mechanical Pressure/Temperature Volume Correctors 3. Electronic Pressure/Temperature Volume Correctors 4. Electronic Flow Computers volume calculations. The end result is the ability to use smaller or fewer meters, by elevating measurement pressures, and either recording or correcting for changes in pressure/temperature. In many cases, this scheme is an acceptable alternative to high maintenance orifice meter applications.
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Document ID: 19609761

Troubleshooting Glycol Dehydrators
Author(s): Don Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
The ability to quickly identify and eliminate costly operating problems can frequently save thousands of dollars. There are some troubleshooting resources which are required to quickly solve problems and to optimize the glycol unit to achieve an efficient and economical operation. The resources should include a good understanding of glycol dehydration fundamentals, an accurate flow diagram of the system, vessel schematics, current operating conditions and periodic glycol analyses. With this useful information, a troubleshooter can do an excellent job. Here are some common problems that occur in glycol units and some helpful hints to solve the problems.
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Document ID: 21B80EA6

Chart Auditing
Author(s): Michael D. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary purpose for auditing charts is to verify the integration and volume calculation for a particular site. There are a number of additional benefits to be realized, which we will briefly illustrate. Errors in reported volumes can usually be attributed to one or more of the following reasons: * Mistakes in integration interpretation. * Improperly calibrated machine. * Integrated with incorrect range setting. * Data input errors. * Missed orifice or range changes. * Incorrect meter tube ID used. * Improper or missed averaging during times of recorder malfunctions, freezing, etc. * Unaccounted for hours of flow. * Misinterpretation and/or missed flow around zero line. * Missed gravity or BTU updates. * Unaccounted for recorder errors, found and corrected at inspection. * Incorrect pressure base used. * Temperature averaged incorrectly. * AGA recommended factors not all utilized. * AGA procedures not used.
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Document ID: 87DE6C6E

Communication Between Office And Field
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays gas industry is constantly changing, with increasing demands on office and Held personnel. To meet these demands requires timely communication between the office and fleld employees. Both of these locations (field and office) have been impacted with increased work loads and constant upgrades in equipment and software. With all of this happening, it is very easy to overlook one of the key links to accurate measurement and that is communication. By the time that a gas day has started on a chart or RTU until the volume has been calculated or verifled, anywhere from 1 to 30 days can pass with as many as 8 to 10 people handling each individual chart. With this many people involved covering that span of time, communication becomes a vital part of the measurement process.
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Document ID: 63EC6B75

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): E. D. Woomer, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A practical, meaningful, and comprehensive training program in an appropriate learning environment is essential to fully develop the human resource. This statement is particularly applicable to field measurement personnel in the natural gas industry. Natural gas measurement is a very specialized and technical field. Todays measurement technician must have a broader and more detailed knowledge of a vast variety of equipment. Comprehensive training of field measurement personnel becomes of paramount importance.
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Document ID: B58416E2

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): T. Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
To fully understand measurement accuracy, it is first necessary to look at the measurement process from a business stand point. All business transactions, such as purchases, sales, transportation, exchanges, compression, and treating fees are based upon the gas volumes recorded during a predetermined time period. Company departments cannot complete their functions until volumes are reported. It is critical to the business process that these volumes be as accurate as possible. Many people have been striving for years to refine the measurement process to make it as accurate as possible. Unfortunately, there are still limitations to measurement accuracy. This paper will attempt to examine some of these limitations.
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Document ID: 56EE3CF2

New Ideas In Measurement Real-Time A Measurement Perspective
Author(s): R. C. Leitschuh, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The environment of the natural gas industry is changing. The state of the industry is in tremendous flux concerning the handling of natural gas business, both physically and contractually. To adapt, it is imperative that we step forward to the challenge ahead of us. That challenge is to be a major contributor to the success of becoming an ideal pipeline operating system. As progressive pipeline companies confront the challenges of todays demanding and competitive environment, trends will continue to develop in the quest for the ideal pipeline operating systems. The ideal pipeline operating system might take on one of several scenarios, however of premium importance is its ability to adapt to change.
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Document ID: 77BC63E4

Application Of Electronics In Odorization
Author(s): Joe F. Arnold
Abstract/Introduction:
The field of odorization has been significantly enhanced by the expanded use of electronics in the last few years. The introduction of the injection type odorizer opened the door for more precise control by incorporating more modern technology. Injection type odorizers generally require signals from electronic flow measurement devices to effectively operate the injection pump. The recent advances in flow measurement technology have enabled odorizers to become far more accurate and reliable. The wide use of Electronic devices such as Electronic Gas Flow Computers, SCADA Systems, and Digital Mainframe Computers have opened the door to a much broader use of electronics.
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Document ID: 83DCB3E7

Reducing Measurement Uncertainty Conventional Versus High Accuracy Microprocessor Transmitters
Author(s): Wayne m. Powell
Abstract/Introduction:
Three of the most common gas flow measurement applications are flow monitoring, allocation measurement, and custody transfer. All three are important, with custody transfer requiring the most accurate measurement possible. Custody transfer metering is the cash register of the Natural Gas Industry, and inaccuracies can cause a substantial economic impact. The work of the American Petroleum Institute (API) committee, revising API Chapter 14.3-Natural Gas Fluids Measurement American Socie for Testing and Materials (ANSI)/API 2530 American Gas Association (A.G.A.) Report No. 3, is nearing completion. The revision of API Chapter 14.3 is causing many users to re-evaluate electronic transmitters and die amount of uncertainty transmitters contribute to custody transfer metering.
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Document ID: F701BF75

Field Experience With Composite Sampling Natural Gas
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas was sold in prior years by MCF and its composition was of little concem. With the Industry changing and more uses being found for Natural Gas, it was established that the BTU made a difference in the quantity of gas being used to create the same amount of energy. The answer was to bill on MMBTU rather than MCF. This created problems on how the MMBTU could be detennined and the most efficient method was composite sampling. This paper will address the selection, set up, problems and maintenance of composite samplers.
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Document ID: 0D8AE0F5

Spot Sampling Techniques
Author(s): Jerry Bernos
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1978 the United States Congress passed the Natural Gas Policy Act. This legislation required that natural gas be priced according to its energy content rather than by volume alone. At the same time, the economics of the natural gas industry caused natural gas prices to soar. These two factors resulted in a vast increase in the demand for accurate analyses of natural gas systems. Since It was not economically feasible to place analytical instruments at each and every location requiring BTU determinations, a corresponding Increase occurred in the need to obtain spot samples of these systems. This paper is intended to present the problems that arise in spot sampling and to introduce the industry accepted methods which can overcome these problems.
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Document ID: 636CE935

Electronic Chart Integrators
Author(s): Bryan Billeaud
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, measurement and calculation of gas volumes have long been accomplished through the use of orifice meter chart records. Machines which make the calculation from these records are a common sight to most companies involved in gas measurement. Electronic equipment, especially, have brought about substantial improvement to measurement and calculations due to their ever increasing speed, accuracy and mathematical abilities. There are many variables and methods used in the volume calculations generated from these chart records. One important consideration is the pressure extension. The pressure extension is derived directly from a chart record. It is computed from two independent curves on the chart which depict the pressure, in psi, found in an orifice meter tube and the differential pressure, in inches of H2O, of the opposite sides of the orifice. In accordance to the Bernoulli theorum, these two curves are considered as continuous records over a specified period of time.
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Document ID: 1597CC97

Charts, Pens And Ink
Author(s): Douglas Eberhardt
Abstract/Introduction:
How did the recording chart evolve to its present state? There are many factors which contributed to the design of the circular recording chart. The charts size. shape and arc lines are varied with each instrument manufacturer. The original paper and printing inks used to produce recording charts were based on the state-ofthe- art technology. These materials varied widely from manufacturer to manufacturer. When a printing company evaluates paper, there are a multitude of factors that must be taken into account. The paper companies manufacture their products from trees, and not every tree is alike therefore, not every paper company prepares or processes their paper in the same manner with regard to furnish, opacity, finish, tear and tensile strength, ink penetration or sizing, and dimensional stability. The printing media (paper) will be dimensionally affected by humidity and temperature based on the site of usage (ex. Alaska vs. Gulf Coast).
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Document ID: 653B28B8

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Carlos T. Ponce
Abstract/Introduction:
There currently exists three types of field proving equipaent for testing large diaphraa, rotary and turbine Meters. The three types are low pressure, critical flow and transfer provers. Both low pressure and transfer proving are generally performed with air and at a vacuum (or in the case of low pressure proving optionally at a slight positive pressure) while critical flow proving is done with gas at 15 #s plus. For transfer proving, the prover is located on the outlet side of the meter being tested, as it is for critical flow proving. However, it nay be located upstreaa or downstream for low pressure proving. Similarly when low pressure proving the blower can be on the inlet or outlet (but always on the opposite end froH the prover). The blower location for transfer proving is not only downstreaa of the meter but also downstreaa of the prover. In critical flow proving a blower is not necessary.
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Document ID: 65413C2A

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Arnold Del Toro
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics in Orifice Measurement has only recently become more prevalent for on-site use. When gas was inexpensive the need for accurate measurement was not there. Historically, mechanical circular charts have filled the need to record flows, pressures and temperatures. But today we in the gas measurement business have seen an ever increasing demand to know what the true volume is at the site. With this demand comes electronics in the form of transducers and flow computers. The purpose of this paper is to make you- the field measurement operator- more aware of electronics and how it relates to our future field measurement systems.
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Document ID: BD31FAC1

Orifice Recorder Testing
Author(s): John D. Utter
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice recorder testing plays a vital role in an attempt to account for a volume of gas having passed hrough a metering point. Without reliable recordings, efforts to accurately measure gas volumes will be hindered, and may create a domino effect on field balances as well as monetary disbursements to the companies, investors, and royalty owners involved. The frequency at which testing is to be performed may vary from station to station due to contractual stipulations, company policies, volume of gas passing, or any time that a meter is thought to be recording in error.
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Document ID: 0AADEEA9

Low Power Field Computers
Author(s): Charles Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
As we enter the second decade of use of LOW POWER FIELD COMPUTERS, (LPFCs), we do so with significantly different hardware, software, economics and motivating forces. These differences are worthy of close examination as they ultimately will affect all of us in this industry. In order to focus cm the majority of applications for LPFCs, we will limit this discussion to those operating on battery only or batteries with recharging systems. We will particularly focus on the stand-alone flow computing RTUs and their measurement and control functions. Remote communication, data gathering, data concentration, editing, automatic billing and remote gas system control are of such importance in Uiis era of low gas prices as to be a virtual requirement for staying efficient enough to be competitive. These considerations significantly effect the selection criteria of LPFC hardware, software, telemetry and gas control schemes.
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Document ID: 13D44B0C

Computer Applications To Chart Office Operations
Author(s): Vernon W. Downing
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement office operations in the 1990s involve increasingly complex activities and processes. With increasing amounts of detail associated with the measurement function, from a wider range of measurement data sources, there is a corresponding need for more verification checks. The situation is compounded by the fact that, in the business climate of the 1990s, there is increased emphasis on measurement accountability and on providing other departments with more timely flow results, often to be done with the same - or fewer - people.
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Document ID: C864C5F4

Electronic Measurement: From Transducers To Rtu To Gas Control To Measurement
Author(s): Lohit Datta-Barua
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1990s, we face lots of challenges. Challenges from competition, from changes in business environment and from technological changes. Challenges offer opportunities. To avail these opportunities one has to adapt to changes, understand changing business and customer needs and take advantage of technology as necessary business tools. We must be able to make faster and accurate decisions along with certain amount of risk. Our approach must not be purely short term or immediate. Just because certain process, procedure, functional/organizational structure, equipments, etc. are in working condition today, do not necessarily justify maintaining status-quo. We must continually evaluate everything we do, question why we do the way we do, look ahead to see where we are going and continually reprioritize our needs and refocus on our objective.
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Document ID: 88B05503

Natural Gas Sweetening
Author(s): Stephen R. English
Abstract/Introduction:
Sour gas is a term used to describe a gas stream which contains hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Natural gas streams which contain hydrogen sulfide or considerable amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) are also called acid gases because they form weak acids when combined with water. Hydrten sulfide is highly toxic. It must be removed from natural gas before it can be used as a commercial fuel. It may also be necessary to remove carbon dioxide to meet pipeline quality specifications. The process of removing the acid gas compounds from a gas stream is called sweetening.
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Document ID: 045161DA

The Metering Of Pulsating Flow - One Companys Case History
Author(s): Grin Flanigan
Abstract/Introduction:
For Arkla, the problems of pulsation were first addressed in 1950 when it was discovered that there were symptoms of pulsations at its reciprocating compressor stations. Hold down straps broke, vibration was excessive, and piping failed. An investigation revealed that other transmission companies were having similar problems with their reciprocating compressor stations. In order to attack this problem, 13 gas companies and compressor vendors formed a group called the Pulsation Research Council under the administration of the Southern Gas Association. The group put up some money and retained the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio to study the problem.
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Document ID: EC44928F

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Charles R. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter is only one of many types of meters that are used to measure natural gas. While each type of meter, each with its own design, has a particular application for which it is well suited, the gas turbine meter is one of the most versatile, due to its high accuracy, wide rangeability, and moderate cost. In the gas industry today there are basically two types of meters that are in widespread use. These two types of meters are based on two different physical principles and are classified as positive displacement and inferential.
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Document ID: 0D707091

Regulatory Commission Safety Evaluation And Training
Author(s): Carl Nordstrand
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1970, the Railroad Commission of Texas began enforcing the Federal Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968. These standards are published in the Federal Register, A9 CFR 192). A copy of these rules along with additional State safety rules can be obtained from the Transportation/ Gas Utilities Division of the Hailroad Commission of Texas in Austin. Actually Texas has been regulating gas suppliers since 1920 when the legislature passed the Cox Act placing gas pipeline operators under the control of the Railroad Commission of Texas for rate determination. The first pipeline safety rule occurred in 1937 and required operators to odorize gas after unodorized gas was blamed for the explosion at the Consolidated School in New London that killed 293 children and teachers.
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Document ID: 90475A85

Contract Interpretation - Evolution In Gas Marketing And Gas Measurement
Author(s): Gerald E. Hahn
Abstract/Introduction:
As everyone knows, tremendous change began to occur in the infrastructure of the natural gas industry starting in the mid to late 80s. From the contractual viewpoint, the way natural gas would find itself to market changed significantly. Ten years ago, the interstate and intrastate pipeline companies in the U.S. were the purchasers of gas from the producing industry and the sellers of gas to the consuming industry. However, with the advent of changing regulations and a move to decontrol, a tremendous number of companies and people entered the merchant phase of the natural gas business. Very few people, if any, could foresee the magnitude of diange that this shift in merchant mentality would bring.
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Document ID: B62D3D8F

Natural Gas Odorization
Author(s): Vicki L. Quinn
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays world all industry must of necessity be concerned with providing products and/or services that take into account the health and safety of their customers. For the gas industry one essential way of providing this product/ service to their customers is by odorization of natural gas. Odorization has become an increasingly established practice throughout the United States because it is required by governmental regulation and advantageous from the standpoint of safety.
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Document ID: 3EF0E8CB

H2S Detectors And Determination
Author(s): John A. Kramer
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfide is measured in the natural gas industry for three main reasons: 1. Personal Safety 2. Corrosion Control 3. Contractual Obligations Hydrogen sulfide is a colorless gas with a characteristic rotten egg odor. It is nearly as toxic as hydrogen cyanide, which is used in death chambers in some states for capital punishment.
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Document ID: 736BE981

Design Considerations For Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Kendrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent testing has re-confirmed the orifice meter as an extremely accurate device. This in-depth study, involving various sizes and numerous test facilities worldwide, has resulted in certain revisions to previous guidelines. This newly-released standard is published as API Chapter 14, Section 3, Part 2 and is essentially an update of the 1985 ANSI/API 2530 (AGA-3) document. Certain manufacturing tolerances have been reduced from the previous standard and new test requirements added. This paper will cover basic overall orifice meter tube design guidelines as well as indicating some of the changes noted in the new API 14.3 document.
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Document ID: 9E9F1912

Fundamentals Of Orifice Recorders
Author(s): Kenneth W. Blackburn
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the fundamentals of the orifice recorder and application in the natural gas industry. in the natural gas industry, accounting for gas is of extreme importance. Gas measurement and gas accounting is the life line of any company engaged in the trading of natural gas. In natural gas measurement, the orifice recorder is the most widely used instrument for volume determination. The orifice recorder has been the principle device for natural gas measurement for many years. Orifice recorders are used by natural gas producers, transporters, distributors, and customers alike, in the roll of gas volume recording, calculation, and accounting. The orifice recorder has been popular many years as a result of its proven characteristics of accuracy, reliability, versatility, durability, and cost effectiveness.
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Document ID: 82271F67

Meter Shop Equipment And Operations
Author(s): Jon T. Payne
Abstract/Introduction:
The meter test and repair function is an essential element of the gas distribution industry. The role of the meter shop in a typical distribution company has undergone revision, driven primarily by changing economic and technological factors. For most of the 1980s, rising labor costs and low efficiencies compelled many distribution organizations to curtail meter repair operations. One school of thought viewed the residential gas meter as evolving into a disposable item. As new technology and modern automation techniques have been applied to the meter shop, this trend has been reversed in recent years. A renewed interest in meter test and repair operations has resulted in modernization of several meter shop facilities across the country.
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Document ID: 05C6E6CF

Application Of The New Orifice Standard (ANSI/API 2530 1992)
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty, Raymond G. Teyssandier
Abstract/Introduction:
The new API, A.G.A., GPA Orifice Metering document represents a significant improvement over the previous editions of this ANSI standard. The changes that were made to reach these improvements were all based on the latest available data that had been gathered by various researchers both in the United States and in Europe. In a global sense, there were two types of changes that resulted from these efforts. The first were software changes or equation and procedural changes while the second were hardware changes which effect the mechanics of the device. In this paper only the software changes will be addressed as they will impact the largest quantity of meters that are currently in service.
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Document ID: D180BC30

Field Experience With Electronic Calibrations
Author(s): Claude A. Winslow
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronic pressure calibrators in the gas industry has added new concerns and issues in pressure measurement. With the onset of electronics, new and strange words began appearing. Readings appeared that perhaps didnt match the old reliable standby calibration methods. Terms like sensitivity, accuracy, resolution,traceable standards, and correction factors gave the technicians a challenge when performing their calibrations - One can add to this already complicated list, the effects that temperature has on the test instrument and how that effects the accuracy of gas measurement. When using electronic pressure calibrators, technicians will be ahead to look carefully for an instrument that is traceable, precise, accurate, and sensitive.
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Document ID: 1C3C6F6D

High Pressure Measuring & Regulation Station Design
Author(s): Patrick O. Deangelo
Abstract/Introduction:
Typical applications for high pressure measuring and regulation stations are pipeline interconnects, high volume industrial customers, power plants, mumcipal city gates and purchase points. Although some stations are used internally for loss unaccounted gas balancing zones, the majority are used for custody transfer and therefore directly impact revenue generation. Consistent, accurate measurement and trouble-free operation are the over-all objectives of a high pressure measuring and regulation station. The purpose of this paper is to discuss briefly the design criteria which wiU successfully accomplish these objectives. This paper will cover the following
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Document ID: 9783AB4F

Gauges And Dead Weight Testers
Author(s): Leo R. Lombardo
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an inch of water? The correct answer to this question has taken on increased importance with the demand for better accuracy and the introduction of digital pressure indicators. For example, lets assume that you have just received your new digital pressure indicator and you decide to verify its accuracy. The manufacturer claims 0.1% accuracy at 100 inches of water. You set up a test using a deadweight tester and a water manometer. After placing a 100 inch of water weight on the deadweight tester, you record a reading of 99.8 inches of water on the digital pressure indicator and 100.3 inches of water on the manometer. Which is right? The answer to this question will be evident after the following discussion of manometers and dead weight testers and their relationship to digital pressure indicators. I will also include a discussion of accuracy and resolution as it applies to digital pressure indicators.
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Document ID: CEE7077A

Pulsation Reduction
Author(s): Stephen B. English
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation has, long been recognized as potentially creating significant errors in gas measurement. Pulsation indmed error is most comnonly associated with the orifice meter. However, it is not a problem restricted solely to this type of primary measurement device. The turbine meter, vortex sheduling meter, and diaphragm meter are all subject to errors induced by pulsating flow. The value placed on the gas passing through these purchase and sales meters makes accurate measurement imperative.
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Document ID: 15C2438B

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): Rogers G. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
We as gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: 986355F3

Minimizing The Effects Of Pulsation Induced Gage Line Error
Author(s): Dale Schafer
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsations created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators, and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas flow measurement. In recent years the Pipeline and Compressor Research Council (PCRC), a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas. This research culminated in the pubhcation of several technical papers, including the April 1987 PCRC report 10.87-3 titled Pulsation and Transient- Induced Errors at Orifice Meter Installations and the most recent technical report An Assessment of Technology for Correcting Pulsation Induced Orifice Flow Measurement dated November, 1991.
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Document ID: 119766DA

Effects On Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3, (1), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduate-engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory eind in the field.
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Document ID: 4DB05A3E

Using Electronic Optical Chart Processors
Author(s): John Barber
Abstract/Introduction:
With electronics and computers having taken over our business and personal lives by storm over the past 10 - 15 years, the very way that chart recordings are calculated could not be excluded from this ever present advancement. That is why Cascade Natural developed what we feel is the most efficient accurately repeatable chart reader on the market today. By combining a solid state camera and fiber optics this new chart reader can read up to three pen charts by distinguishing the color of the pen recordings with their function. And with the unique design and applicable software we are able to read orifice and displacement charts with nominal diameters of 8, 10 and 23 inches. But, what was I to say that hasnt been said before? That was my problem- It finally dawned on me, the technology itself has not really been addressed. Only what it does and how it is packaged. So, maybe there are a few items we can review today to provide you with a new insight into chart scanning. Any chart in general use by our industry, orifice meter, volume & pressure, specific gravity, temperature, pressure, one pen, two pen or three pen charts. How did this all come about? Well, the old phrase Necessity is the mother of invention best matches why a new technology became a usable reality.
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Document ID: 3B61D920


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