Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1990)

Reclaiming Ditch Spoil
Author(s): Richard J. Grosner
Abstract/Introduction:
Approximately one year ago. Southern Connecticut Gas Company, in its Bridgeport Division, began recycling its backfill materials by utilizing a facility operated by an outside contractor. The process of recycling backfill material was inifiated when suitable sites for dumping materials became unavailable or scarce in the greater Bridgeport area. A department objective was initiated two years ago to research various alternatives to this growing problem. One of the alternatives was to purchase low cost, unbuildable land and use it for dumping our spoils, but this approach proved to be unsuccessful because such a parcel of land was nonexistent in Fairfield County. The length of time to pursue this alternative involves considerable research, since the location and access to a major highway would have to be a prerequisite for the purchase. In our area, most communities require approval by conservation boards, the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, the Planning and Zoning Commissions, and, in some cases, the chief governing body of the community.
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Document ID: 5E4C538E

Survey Of Test Procedures-Task Group 83-4
Author(s): Frederick D. Joels
Abstract/Introduction:
Early in 1984, the natural gas industry was confronted with some concern on certification of plastic products and whether there was a need for third-party certification. A few thought it might be necessary, but the majority thought there were enough standards, policies, and procedures in place to ensure the supply of good products. The real questions were: What is in place? How are they being used? Do they provide the assurance the industry thinks they do? To this end a Task Group of the American Gas Association Plastic Materials Committee was formed whose objective was to collect and categorize test methods used for evaluation of new plastic system components. The scope of this group was to conduct and issue a report on a survey of A.G.A. Plastic Materials Committee membership concerning test methods used, including those covered by ASTM Standards, other standards, or individual company procedures. The report would not contain any comments on, or evaluation of, information received. The task group, known as 83-4 Survey of Test Procedures, was formed with Mr. James DeVore of San Diego Gas and Electric as Chairman, but no workers were appointed to the task group. Mr. DeVore decided he would communicate his need for knowledge from the industry by circulating a survey questionnaire to all Plastic Committee Members.
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Document ID: 8CC78617

Unaccounted-For Gas-Lost Or Just Misplaced?
Author(s): James R. Grinstead, R. Michael Cowgill
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas (UAF) is the difference between the quantity received into a system and the quantity delivered out over a specific period of lime. The restructuring of the natural gas industry, the increased competitiveness of natural gas, and the environmental significance of the emissions of methane have focused increased attention on UAF. Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) has conducted a comprehensive research project to evaluate UAF on its system. The project produced results and methodologies for the gas utility industry to use in taking the lead with regulatory agencies and with the energy industry regarding UAF. PG&Es operating UAF consists mainly of measurement and accounting-related elements.
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Document ID: A8396313

Ovality In Coiled Medium-Density Polyethylene Pipe
Author(s): Katherine Lynn
Abstract/Introduction:
Problems encountered by the Southern California Gas Company with ovality in medium-density coiled polyethylene pipe are discussed. The definition, cause, and measurement methods for polyethylene pipe ovality are detailed. Different approaches to quality control measurements to detect ovality in plastic pipe are presented. The quality control program now in place to monitor plastic pipe ovality at the Southern California Gas Company is described.
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Document ID: 09E28B16

Getting The Most Out Of Piping Systems
Author(s): Robert Malo
Abstract/Introduction:
Utilization of elevated pressure in piping systems has evolved tremendously since natural gas was first utilized commercially as a source of energy. As gas demands grew and markets got farther away from the gas well heads, the technique of elevating the gas pressure in piping systems was soon identified as an efficient and economical means to get more gas to the consumers appliances with the same or even smaller diameter piping systems. New piping techniques, technologies, and materials were developed rapidly and upgraded periodically to respond to the industry needs, whether they were for pipeline applications, for gas distribution systems, or for piping installations intended for commercial or industrial building applications. It seems that the only sector that had not evolved with regard to the technique of supplying gas to appliances by elevated pressure piping systems, was the residential market.
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Document ID: ECFC0F93

Field Test Results Of The Gas-Sentry-A Combined Co And Combustible Gas Analyzer And Leak Tracer
Author(s): Dennis N. Grouse
Abstract/Introduction:
A field test of the hand-held Gas-Sentry at three gas distribution companies in the Northeast during the first quarter of 1990 demonstrated that the Gas-Sentry accurately and reliably performs four functions required by gas company service personnel Leak tracing Indoor air analysis Flue-gas analysis Bore/bar hole analysis The Gas-Sentry, with its optional CO cell, was developed by Bascom-Turner Instruments with funding by The Gas Research Institute (GRI) as an indoor air quality monitor. The expanded capabilities were evaluated successfully during the field test. The leak tracer mode for quickly locating gas leaks was added as a result of the field test.
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Document ID: 84AF522B

Valve Selection-TransCanada Pipelines Methodology
Author(s): Richard A. Drabble
Abstract/Introduction:
Valve selection is entirely dependent upon the product that is being transported and the application in which the valve is required to operate. The paper discusses these aspects in relation to historical use and present valve selection by TransCanada PipeLines, a large natural gas transmission company.
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Document ID: DC058C1C

Flexible Software For Performance Analysis, Diagnosis, And Control Of Reciprocating Compressors
Author(s): Ralf E. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Under a research program at Southwest Research Institue (SwRI) jointly sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the Pipeline and Compressor Research Council (PCRC) of the Southern Gas Association, a computer-based diagnostics system is being developed for analyzing the performance of compressor cylinders of reciprocating compressors, such as those operated by the gas transmission pipeline industry and others. When fully implemented, the system (which includes several software modules) will provide a promising opportunity for significantly reducing operations and maintenance costs and for improving the operating efficiency of the compressors- The elements of the unique GRI/PCRC/SwRI diagnostic system are described, and the results of field tests are presented.
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Document ID: 4929C808

The New ANSI/API 2530/A,G.A, Report No, 3- Part 2: Specifications And Installation Requirements
Author(s): Raymond G. Teyssandier
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the process used to revise the new orifice standard and summarizes the changes made. The effort included inputs from over 30 individuals of almost as many member companies of API, A.G.A., GPA, from individual members of those organizations, and from equipment manufacturers. Most of this effort was concentrated over the past two years, but it represents an accumulation of over ten years of work starting from the initial test phase of the orifice coefficient program. The changes noted in this paper were correct as of mid- March 1990. They may not reflect all of the final changes and therefore this paper should be taken only as a preliminary guide.
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Document ID: 5A741338

Customer Service System And Survey Of Customers Satisfaction Degree
Author(s): Shingo Tanaka
Abstract/Introduction:
To compete with other types of energies and to meet sophisticated and diversified needs of customers, Osaka Gas has been required to provide a higher level of service. Osaka Gas has tackled this problem by building a New Customer Service System since 1982 as one of its image-promotion campaigns as a public utility. Osaka Gas calls it Hello Service. As a result of estabUshing our own Customer Satisfaction Survey and continually implementing it, Osaka Gas has learned how to improve the level of services and how to provide greater satisfaction to our customers. This paper introduces the Hello Service and the outline of our Customer Satisfaction Survey.
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Document ID: DEA0A159

Borehole Seismic Technology And Applications To Gas Storage
Author(s): Vicki Cowart
Abstract/Introduction:
Borehold seismic techniques, including the vertical seismic profile (VSP) and offset seismic profile (OSP) have been used during the last ten years in petroleum exploration and development settings. Based on the same physical principles as conventional surface seismic methods, the borehole seismic technique can provide greater detail in the immediate area of the borehold. The VSP method can be used with other well logs to make a specific tie between depth, seismic response, and geologic/ lithologic information. The offset seismic profile, used with recent data processing innovations, provides a good image of the seismic response away from the well bore. Gas storage applications can be derived from what has been done with borehole seismic in petroleum exploration and development. Since the technique provides information about the structure or geometry of the reservoir, and in some cases the stratigraphy or porosity extent, applications to gas storage problems are possible. A review of VSP data from exploration and development wells illustrates the application to reservoir description.
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Document ID: 3BDDDF25

Supply Demand Balancing On Dally Basis Over A Year
Author(s): Tom Van Der Hoeven
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a computer program used to balance supply and demand of gas. Daily simulations of a gas network are performed over a yearly period. All kinds of flow and quality restrictions are taken into account. For each day, a match is made by use of linear programming.
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Document ID: 8275B7A1

Vapor Fences For LNG Vapor Dispersion Control
Author(s): Steve J. Wiersma, Ted A. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Dispersion of LNG vapor in the event of an accidental spill is a major concern in LNG storage safety planning, hazard response, and facility siting. This paper addresses the potential effectiveness of solid vapor fences as a means of reducing downwind dispersion distances of flammable concentrations of LNG vapor at ground level. Observations are based on a series of large-scale field experiments performed at the US. Department of Energys Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility in 1987 and computer simulations of the spills using the FEM3A threedimensional computer mode! developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The tests and analyses show that vapor fences can significantly reduce downwind dispersion distances of flammable vapor clouds. Results and conclusions presented by this paper augment earlier analyses of vapor-fence effectiveness published by GRI and others.
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Document ID: 8D365337

Fleet Statistics And Computer Information Systems- A Task Force Update From The A.G.A. Automotive And Mobile Equipment And Eei Transportation Committees
Author(s): David K. Hewett
Abstract/Introduction:
Experienced managers and administrators in transportation, and especially in the utility sector, are very aware of just how complex and changing the operating environment has become over the past ten years. In general, our primary fleet-management responsibilities and objectives with respect to vehicle/equipment procurement, maintenance, and availability have become a balancing act, as our budgets have become more restrictive, equipment has become much more technically advanced and customized to meet our users needs, and local, state, and federal government regulations have become more stringent and costly to us. To manage the business effectively, the need for timely and accurate information has become essential. We are becoming more dependent on business models to provide us with life cycle costing, predictive maintenance, and reliability tools. In our garages, we have discovered the need for real-time reports on our parts and materials inventories, work method and standard labor unit measurements to monitor the productivity of our maintenance staffs, and scheduling systems to assure compliance of our preventive maintenance inspections and servicing needs. Our needs for information, especially on an historical basis, are further compounded by the growing nature and impact of legal liabilities due to accidents.
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Document ID: 2B8A3EB2

Measurement Technician Training Guideline As Developed By The Transmission Measurement Committee
Author(s): Anita m. Raether
Abstract/Introduction:
The Department of Transportation (DOT) has taken an active role and has drafted proposed regulations to require operator qualification as directed by Congress in the Pipeline Safety Reauthorization Act of 1988. The issue of operator qualification/certification is receiving increased public and regulatory attention. Gas transmission and distribution companies are under increasing pressure to implement and manage training/ qualification programs for their measurement and pressure-control personnel. The A.G.A. Transmission Measurement Committee has also taken an active role on this issue. A Training Task Group was formed and assigned the responsibility of publishing a guide that can be used by the industry as an aid in the development of training programs for gasmeasurement and pressure-control technicians. The expertise of the committee members and personnel from their affiliated companies was used to develop a training guideline. This paper is to inform companies of the proposed regulations by DOT and to provide an overview of the Guide for Measurement/ Pressure Control Technician Training document being developed by the A.G.A. Transmission Measurement Committee.
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Document ID: E90A939B

Coalbed Methane: The Impact Of New Technology
Author(s): Charles F. Brandenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
Coal seams have long been recognized as a source for natural gas. Operators of coal mines dread the methane that seeps and bursts into the underground shafts causing the countless tragic explosions. Their objective has always been to remove and vent this hazard to mining. Exploration geologists look for deeply buried coals as a source rock for natural gas. However, their objective has been to find the overlying conventional sand or carbonate layers that are the reservoirs for this gas. What is different now is that the coal itself is being viewed as the reservoir rock, not just a source rock, and the released methane is being viewed as a valuable commodity, not just a mining hazard. What is also different is that coal mining and gas production science and technology have been combined to form a new energy industry -coalbed methane, the economic production of natural gas from coal seams. The coalbed methane industry has grown rapidly during the recent years, powered greatly by new science and better technology. Still, major challenges remain that require research and fresh ideas, particularly for developing new basins, deeper coals, and geological complex settings. This paper provides a brief perspective on the coalbed methane industry-its status, its underlying resource base, its integral technologies, and the impact that technology has had on its economics.
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Document ID: EEBD2DC6

Design Considerations And Innovative Concepts In Pressure Regulator Station Design
Author(s): James A. Skovera
Abstract/Introduction:
Wisconsin Natural Gas Company, headquartered in Racine, Wisconsin, has made significant improvements to its distribution system to adequately serve new customer additions and access new gas supphes. These improvements consist of the construction of over 80 miles of 8 through 20 high-pressure mains operating at pressure from 200 to 600 psig, four new city gate stations and the reconstruction of three others, and numerous distribution regulator stations over a lO-year period. Innovative methods in the design and construction of these city gate and distribution regulator stations were used to reduce construction and operating costs while addressing regulatory and community concerns.
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Document ID: 9DC57E42

History And Status Of A.G.A, Report Number 8
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The first ideas to modify or expand the supercompressibility factors in the PAR Research Project NX-19 were conceived in 1977 or 1978. At that time, the Transmission Measurement Committee had requested and the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) had granted funding in 1978 for revisions to NX-19. Three thousand dollars was approved to engage Professor R. H. Zimmerman of Ohio State University to write an equation to calculate Fpv using NX-19 methods at an absolute zero pressure base rather than the 14.7 psia pressure base used in NX-19. Because of Professor Zimmermans busy schedule, very little, if any, work had been done even into 1979. By this time, there was growing evidence that there was a need for supercompressibility factors over a larger range of temperatures and pressures than those covered by NX-19. Also, there was a need to include higher concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen plus other nonstandard gas components such as hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and water vapor. With these requirements, the contract with Professor Zimmerman was canceled, and the scope of the project was expanded. It would require much more work than the original project, and funding had to be secured.
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Document ID: 40C13846

Digital Microwave-Upgrading From An Analog To A Digital System
Author(s): Kenneth E. Myers
Abstract/Introduction:
In the event that a microwave radio user decides to upgrade his microwave system by replacing existing analog FM radio with digital radio, the important performance objectives and design criteria that must be considered to achieve an optimal radio route design requires a thorough study of the performance and route cost with respect to the following items: Number of radio hops in the route Radio configuration (protected or nonprotected) Hop lengths Transmitter power Climate and terrain roughness of each hop System gain (digital or analog) Frequency band (2GHz or 6GH2) Channel capacity DC power requirements Antenna system (diversity or nondiversity) Transmission line losses (waveguide/coax) Performance objectives The theme of this paper is to discuss the differences in these technical constraints as applied to analog versus digital and how they interact with the design requirements needed to meet digital radio design objectives.
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Document ID: 570F25EE

Environmental Impacts On Pipeline Construction
Author(s): W. Thomas Raines
Abstract/Introduction:
In December 1987, Atlanta Gas Light Company (AGLC) completed installation in north Georgia of 78 miles of 16-inch line to connect with East Tennessee Natural Gas Company at the Tennessee-Georgia state line. Before construction began, AGLC completed environmental impact studies required for approval of the project by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Securing that approval took 10 months, while installing the pipeline took only four. AGLC concluded that environmental issues negatively impacted pipeline construction in terms of cost and time.
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Document ID: 80B1DE45

Diesel Fuel-The Changing Commodity
Author(s): David E. Grote
Abstract/Introduction:
In light of todays current situation regarding the source of crude oil and the refining methods of producing diesel fuel, fleet managers are faced with potential problems that did not exist a decade ago. This paper defines those problems and looks at two methods of solving them along with their associated costs.
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Document ID: B516F568

Leak Management System
Author(s): Edward J. Lacey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Leak Management System at Boston Gas begins with a special phone number printed on the customers gas bill. A call to this number is positioned at the top of the queue for immediate response. The computer prompts the operator with specific questions and, based on the responses, will assign a leak priority. The telephone representative may also advise the customer to evacuate the premises. The leak order sets off an audible alarm at the printer in Dispatch, which must be physically released. In addition, a color display terminal provides the Dispatcher with the individual processing status of every leak order. Service manuals provide guidelines to be followed by personnel when dispatching or responding to emergency calls. The Basic Operating System Simulator (BOSS) system or video game has been developed to improve the service representatives skills in leak investigation. We are also in the process of installing a Computer Aided Dispatch System, which should further improve our ability to respond to emergencies.
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Document ID: CFCE9B64

Compressor Flow Measurement Using A Tracer Technique
Author(s): Peter L. Lagus, Brian S. Flanagan, Michael E. Peterson, Sam L. Clowney
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of this program was to demonstrate the viability and utility of a constant flow tracer dilution technique for inferring the fiowrale through an operating natural gas centrifugal compressor for test or analysis purposes. This technique entails introducing a constant known flowrate of tracer into a flowing stream and measuring the equilibrium concentration of tracer downstream from the injection point. This technique is unaffected by pulsation of the natural gas stream and/or piping configuration upstream or downstream of the compressor. Under the assumption of good mixing, the injection flowrate divided by the equilibrium concentration measured downstream is equal to the stream flowrate. A phased program of field testing and instrument development has resulted in a field-usable system capable of inferring the flowrate through an operating natural gas centrifugal compressor to a precision of better than 2 percent. A description of the hardware is followed by data from a number of field trials at natural gas compressor stations in North America.
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Document ID: 9152159A

Two-Psig Delivery Pressure For Residential Market Measurement Considerations
Author(s): Gregory S. Veraa
Abstract/Introduction:
Washington Gas Light Company serves natural gas to approximately 650,000 customers in Washington, D.C., and the surrounding counties in Virginia and Maryland. The Washington suburbs have been growing extremely fast over the last decade. Over the last few years, Washington Gas has been adding about 20,000 new customers per year. Earlier in the decade, however, our growth rate had been much more modest. In the early 1970s, when natural gas was in short supply, a moratorium on adding new customers was imposed. When the moratorium was finally lifted in the late 1970s, the electric utilities had captured most of the new-housing energy market. New and innovative marketing efforts were needed to win market share and compete with the electric utilities. Several factors combined to inhibit new business gas sales after Washington Gas reentered the market. First, the builders had grown accustomed to specifying electric heat pumps for house heating and there was a certain amount of resistance to change. Although our marketing research indicated that new-home buyers preferred natural gas, many builders did not want to have to deal with another utility. While electricity is essential, gas is optional. The more utilities the builder has to deal with, the greater the opportunity for something to hold up his project. Gas piping also added to the builders construction costs. Traditional gas house piping is constructed of rigid black pipe that is cut and fit on the job. The right-angle turns limit where the pipe can be run, and makes the installation labor intensive.
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Document ID: 5C4FF953

Experimental Evaluation Of Selected Orifice Flowmeter Upstream Installations
Author(s): James A. Brennan, Charles F. Sindt, Michael A. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
There are two standards for orifice flow measurement that are the primary references used in the gas industries around the world. These standards differ significantly on some installation specifications. The differences can profoundly affect the design, cost, and measurement accuracy of meter stations. Revisions to the standards currently are being completed. A new flow equation has been developed, and serious consideration given to changing some of the installation specifications. New experimental test results are the basis for changing the installation specifications on pipe roughness and flow conditioner location. These two parameters are being studied both individually and collectively. Results from tests on orifice flowmeters ranging from 3 to 24 inches are presented.
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Document ID: A80348C5

Integration Of Transportation Management And Scada Systems
Author(s): Kate Halliwell, Joyce Kapler
Abstract/Introduction:
Nova Corporation of Alberta is a major shareholder-owned energy company, which operates internationally with world headquarters in Calgary. NOVAS Alberta Gas Transmission Division (AGTD) is responsible for the gathering, measuring, quality control, and transmission of Alberta natural gas from the province. Although the primary function of the Gas Control area is the safe, reUable, and efficient monitoring and control of the pipeline systems that are operated by AGTD, the execution of this responsibility has changed significantly. This paper describes the information required for pipeline system control and transportation management and illustrates our experience in developing and integrating the information systems that support the business activities.
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Document ID: 5092A9AB

Proper Partial Penetration Of A Gas Well To Allow Maximum Drawdown And Still Prevent The Coning Of Water
Author(s): Walter m. Rzepczynski
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this study was to obtain the maximum gas flow from a well without coning water when the well is completed by partial penetration of a gas bubble with a defined thickness and an underlying gas-water contact. By theoretical computations, using Muskat and Arthurs equations and graphical charts, one can compute both the maximum safe pressure drawdown in the well and the height of the water cone below the gas well. Any thin, low, vertical permeability layers existing between the bottom of the gas well and the gas-water contact would additionally help to prevent water coning. When a partial penetration of 20 percent of a 95-foot gas bubble or 30 percent of a 50-foot gas bubble are used, the computations show that the water cone can rise about 60 percent of the distance from the gas-water interface to the top of the gas bubble.
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Document ID: D20B14D9

The Gri Metering Research Facility-A Program Update
Author(s): Robert L. Bass
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an update on the Gas Research Institute (GRI) program to develop a unique world-class Metering Research Facility (MRF) at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The review includes a description of the MRPs capabilities, the research and testing activities in the recently commissioned Low Pressure Loop (LPL), and the construction status of the High Pressure Loop (HPL).
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Document ID: C7361954

Natural Gas Transmission And Distribution Methane Emissions
Author(s): Lori S. Traweek
Abstract/Introduction:
In response to a request by the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the American Gas Association has surveyed a group of natural gas companies to determine the amount of methane emitted during natural gas distribution and transmission. A.G.A.s findings indicate that 0.30 percent of total gas consumed in the United States was emitted during transmission and distribution operations in 1988. Separating transmission and distribution methane emissions as a percent of gas sold and transported during 1988 yields the following. Transmission -0.6 percent Distribution -0.28 percent The percent of total sales does not equal the sum of the transmission and distribution percents because a fraction of gas sales moves through distribution but not transmission and vice versa. Coinciding with the A.G.A. survey, Pacific Gas and Electric Company has completed a comprehensive project to identify and quantify the components of its unaccounted-for gas (UAF) for the year 1987. The Gas Research Institute co-sponsored the study. PG&E operations consist of both transmission and distribution systems. The results of this comprehensive study are consistent with A.G.A.s findings. Emissions attributable to distribution and transmission operations accounted for 0.14 percent.
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Document ID: D7B0F5CF

Converting A Nuclear Facility To A Combined Cycle Cogeneration Ccc() Plant
Author(s): Donald E. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides a brief history of the conversion of the Midland Nuclear facility to a combined cycle cogeneration (CCC) plant. It is the first conversion of a nuclear facility to a CCC plant and upon completion will be the largest such facility in the United States. The following phases of the conversion are addressed (I) the study to determine the available options (the Midland Options Study) (2) the formation of the company (the Midland Cogeneration Venture Limited Partnership) (3) the securing of a reliable fuel supply (4) key environmental issues and (5) construction and startup of the plant.
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Document ID: 99C9DA57

Reactivation Of Trunkline Lngs Receiving Terminal At Lake Charles, Louisiana
Author(s): David m. Cobb
Abstract/Introduction:
Trunkline LNG Companys LNG Receiving Terminal in Lake Charles, Louisiana, initially operated from September 1982 through July 1984. A series of external events resulted in the deactivation of this facility from that time until December 1989, when product was once again received and regasified for pipeline sales. This paper provides a brief history of the project from its original approval in 1977 through its deactivated period, then it details the activities required to recommission the Terminal from May 1989 through initial pipeline deliveries.
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Document ID: 34C549BE

Power Generation With Turbo Expanders
Author(s): Anthony Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbo expanders can be used in place of regulating valves to control pressure of gas supplied to the customer from transmission or distribution systems. The turbo expander captures some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in the regulation process, and this energy can be put to use in the generation of electricity. This application of turbo expanders is particularly useful where electrical energy is relatively costly, unreliable, or unavailable This paper considers the background to work that is being done in Canada on the development of a small economical turbo expander specifically designed to recover the energy from pressure regulating stations. The theory behind the simple single-stage turbo expander is discussed, and the key operating parameters are defined. The application of turbo expanders to generating electricity in typical regimes of electrical price and gas cost are discussed.
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Document ID: 413FAB8C

Employee Qualification Test Development And Validation For Operating And Maintenance Personnel
Author(s): Deborah L. Gebhardt
Abstract/Introduction:
The Department of Transportation Research and Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) draft document (49 CFR Parts 192 and 195) entitled Qualification of Pipeline Personnel expresses the need for qualification standards for personnel who perform regulated operation, maintenance, and emergency-response functions on gas and hazardous liquid pipelines. These proposed regulations will require that gas companies develop training and testing programs for workers involved in the operations and maintenance functions. If implemented, such programs would benefit the employer in terms of (I) an increase in worker effectiveness and productivity and (2) a decrease in accidents and injuries. This paper describes a testing program that establishes job-related standards of performance and testing procedures for operations and maintenance jobs in a gas transportation company. The paper focuses on the compressor station operator (Operator A) and pipeline maintenance (Maintenance Mechanic) jobs.
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Document ID: 5F3DF256

An Evaluation Of An Expert System For A Gas Control Scada System
Author(s): Walter m. Proc
Abstract/Introduction:
An expert system is a software tool that uses Artificial Intelligence technology along with the knowledge of an expert to build applications that could not be addressed with conventional programming or development tools. In essence, an expert system has the ability to capture the experience and knowledge of all senior or expert operators and make this knowledge available to anyone who accesses the system. This paper addresses Unions attempt to evaluate the feasibility of a real-time expert system and tries to demonstrate its effectiveness in process and SCADA control in the Gas Control area. The paper will focus on the application problems that are being solved and addresses the key elements in making this a successful venture.
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Document ID: C914F30F

New Approaches To Serving Customers
Author(s): Daniel Brewer, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company (CG&E) recently sharpened its focus on customer service. The previously separate gas and electric marketing departments have been combined to form a new energy marketing organization. New marketing approaches are being used to meet changing customer needs. Providing gas service to floating riverboat restaurants, installing vertical mains in multi-unit apartment buildings, and a new method of installing gas meters in street cul-de-sacs are only three of the unique concepts being implemented at CG&E to keep pace with the changing needs of our customers.
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Document ID: 82CEF588

Decorative Appliances
Author(s): Owen D. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
Decorative gas appliances have been utilized in the Gas Industry for many years. Normally, they have consisted of vented fireplace inserts, gas log sets, vemed free-standing gas fireplaces, and gas-fired coal baskets. Because of new EPA regulations concerning emission standards for wood-burning stoves and fireplaces and increasing pressure in the environmental area for control of wood-burning emissions, the consumer demand for gas-burning decorative appliances has increased dramatically. This increased demand by consumers represents a unique marketing opportunity for the Gas Industry but has resulted in major areas of concern. The foremost concern represented by interested parties was the issue of the yellow-flame burner characteristics desired by the consumers that more realistically simulated burning wood. To address this issue, the Gas Industry, represented by manufacturers, utilities, code agencies, testing labs, and researchers, joined together in an attempt to resolve these concerns.
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Document ID: 2A51FFE9

Risk Analysis In Distribution Design
Author(s): James W. Peters
Abstract/Introduction:
Cost control and service reliability are popular topics when strategic issues facing Local Distribution Companies (LDCs) in the QOs are under discussion. The ability to provide secure and uninterrupted gas service is crucial for growth and company image, both with the pubhc and regulatory agencies. At the same time, the industry is facing unprecedented competition from alternate fuels, and cost control is essential to maintain a competitive edge in the market. On the surface, it would appear that these issues are contradictory. Improvement in service reliabihty should cost something-or does it? Risk analysis can provide the answer especially from a distribution design perspective. From a distribution engineers perspective, projects such as loops, backfeeds, and even valve placement are designed to reduce, minimize, and/or eliminate potential customer outages. They improve service reliability by acting as backups should a failure occur on a component of the distribution network. These contingency projects are easy to cost out, but what about their benefits or true value. Their purpose is to maintain supply to an area of the distribution network in the event of a failure somewhere else. TVJO phrases stand out potential customer outages and in the event of a failure. They identify uncertainty.
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Document ID: 0891330D

Causes And Effects Of Compressor Fouling
Author(s): Calvin C. Lawson, R. Bruce Tatge, Lawrence J. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Analysis of the field experience of 60 users shows that the typical average gas turbine output power loss attributable to inlet air quality is approximately 3.5 percent. The loss is minimized by proper maintenance practices and by the choice of appropriate filtration equipment. The contract effort was composed of two major sections: Literature Search to establish the state-of-the-art of gas turbine inlet air filtration Field Experience Survey to determine the extent and economic impact of particular composition and concentration on gas turbine compressor fouling and to document the inlet filters ufilized at selected sites, including their effectiveness, reliability, and maintenance requirements. This paper summarizes the results of the Field Experience Survey. See A.G.A. Report Gas Tkrbine Intake Air Quality (A.G.A. Catalog No. L51558) for details of the literature search.
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Document ID: 343603F0

Status Of Remediation Techniques For Pcb Contaminated Soils And Sediments
Author(s): J. Roger Hathaway, James R. Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
A number of recent changes in regulatory programs and in the development of technologies have affected the way remedies are chosen for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. This paper presents a discussion of the effects of recent internal US. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) policies, changes to the National Contingency Plan, and Land Disposal Restrictions. The paper also reviews the status of developing technologies. The major conclusion is that site remediation parties are increasingly faced with a decision between on-site containment and highly expensive treatment options.
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Document ID: 46CB7397

Remediation Alternatives And Costs For The Restoration Of Mgp Sites
Author(s): David G. Linz, David V. Nakles
Abstract/Introduction:
Utilities that have owned, or currently own, manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites are often faced with the need to estimate the financial liabilities associated with their management. These liabilities typically include three primary cost elements: the investigation of the sites, the determination of the risks posed by the site, and, if necessary, the design and implementation of a site remediation. While all three cost elements can be significant, it is the site remediation efforts that generally represent the greatest cost liability. This paper summarizes a methodology for rapidly generating an order-of-magnitude cost estimate for the remediation of an MGP site. It was abstracted from a topical report of the same name which was developed for the Gas Research Institute as part of its MGP research efforts. The topical report will be available in May, 1990. The methodology includes the generation of a source-waste matrix, the identification and costing of waste-specific remediation technology options, and the formulation and costing of integrated site remediation strategies. The application of the methodology to a generic MGP site is utilized throughout the paper to demonstrate the development and use of each of these elements.
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Document ID: 4B9B88AB

Automated Data Collection From Multiple Vendor Measurement Hardware
Author(s): Chris L. Dart
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a translation system that was developed to enable the use of metering products from multiple vendors. The system was developed as a replacement for magnetic tape metering. Magnetic tape has been the primary data collection method in the Electric Utility business for the last 20 years. Consumers Power Company also has utilized magnetic tape metering for its largest gas customers since 1975. We have utilized the term generic to describe the translation system, since it was developed to enable the use of hardware products from many supphers. The generic translation system has been developed to address data collection needs for both the gas and electric areas within Consumers Power Company.
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Document ID: 5C9F1D06

The Gas Research Institutes Pull Rig For Nondestructive Evaluation Technology Development
Author(s): Renny S. Norman, Thomas m. Steinbauer
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) first sponsored nondestructive evaluation (NDE) research and development (R&D) in 1982. GRIs initial NDE project addressed the inspection of plastic pipe joints made by heat fusion. This project culminated in the commercialization of an ultrasonic inspection technology units are commercially available from two sources. GRI initiated an NDE study on steel and cast iron piping for gas distribution systems in 1984. This work explored the possibility of employing accustic emission technology to detect defects in these types of systems. In October 1986, the American Gas Associations Pipeline Research Committee (PRC) issued its Final Report on NDE Needs for Pipeline Integrity Assurance, which was focused on the natural gas pipeline industry. Some of the objectives of this report were to determine specific R&D programs to improve existing NDE technologies and to develop new NDE technologies for cost effective assessment of specific integrity problems. It also sought to identify the facilities required to conduct these types of R&D programs. The report identified the following technical needs:
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Document ID: 6D927470

Utilization Of Elevated Pressure Two-Psig( Piping)- How A Distribution Company Gets Started In This Business
Author(s): Robert H. Regester
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper looks at the steps necessary to get started in marketing 2-psi gas to small and large customers. It covers metering concerns, selection of service regulators, computer and paperwork constraints, internal and external familiarization and communications, and particularly, regulatory constraints. Pressure factor meter corrections and pressure correcting index attributes are compared. The paper is intended to glue together the work of GRI and the companies who have had copper fuel lines for many years for the pioneers getting started without local familiarity.
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Document ID: 5F782904

Air Permitting For Engines And Turbines Fired By Natural Gas
Author(s): Tamra S. Van Til
Abstract/Introduction:
Engines and turbines fired by natural gas require air use permits primarily because of their emissions of nitrogen oxides (Nd) and carbon monoxide (CO). Federal regulations that apply to these sources were initiated with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970 and 1977, and include New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for gas turbines and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD). The primary concern for permitting a source subject to PSD is the requirement to install the Best Available Control Technology (BACT). This may include water or steam injection, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and modified combustors for control of NO, emissions, and catalysts for CO emissions. For other internal combustion engines such as reciprocating engines, this may include lean burn, non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR), prestratified combustion, or SCR. As technology progresses over time, emissions limits invariably become more stringent, thus increasing the likelihood that emission controls such as those mentioned above will be required.
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Document ID: 733B0009

Natural Gas Transmission And Distribution Methane Emissions
Author(s): Lori S. Traweek
Abstract/Introduction:
In response to a request by the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the American Gas Association has surveyed a group of natural gas companies to determine the amount of methane emitted during natural gas distribution and transmission. A.G.A.s findings indicate that 0.30 percent of total gas consumed in the United States was emitted during transmission and distribution operations in 1988. Separating transmission and distribution methane emissions as a percent of gas sold and transported during 1988 yields the following. Transmission -0.6 percent Distribution -0.28 percent The percent of total sales does not equal the sum of the transmission and distribution percents because a fraction of gas sales moves through distribution but not transmission and vice versa. Coinciding with the A.G.A. survey, Pacific Gas and Electric Company has completed a comprehensive project to identify and quantify the components of its unaccounted-for gas (UAF) for the year 1987. The Gas Research Institute co-sponsored the study. PG&E operations consist of both transmission and distribution systems. The results of this comprehensive study are consistent with A.G.A.s findings. Emissions attributable to distribution and transmission operations accounted for 0.14 percent. Extrapolating data provided by survey respondents to provide nationwide estimates suggests that transmission and distribution operations emit approximately one teragram (1,000,000,000,000 grams) of methane annually. Annual global methane emissions from all sources are estimated to be between 400 and 600 teragrams.
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Document ID: 3340286A

Compressor Station Design Checklist
Author(s): Paul J. Colwell
Abstract/Introduction:
As is the case with most major projects, compressor station facilities encompass a wide variety of mechanical, civil, and electrical installations. To properly assess a given project and establish accurate design/construction schedules and budget estimates, a thorough project scope of definition is essential. Project scopes are generally determined through discussions between the engineering, operations, and facilities planning groups close to the project.
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Document ID: 4E66C28A

Criminal Liability Of Corporate Officers, Managers, And Supervisors For Occupational Injuries
Author(s): David m. Norris
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years, local prosecutors have initiated an increasing number of criminal actions in state courts against corporations and their supervisory employees for occupational injuries, particularly where a death occurs. Given the perceived inadequacy of state and federal OSHA criminal provisions, prosecutors are charging corporate employers and their individual officers, managers, and supervisors with crimes ranging from criminal negligence to murder under traditional state criminal statutes. The discussion below explores the basis of criminal liability against individual supervisors for work related injuries as well as the related question of corporate indemnification.
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Document ID: CF6DE2D4

Gas Transmission System Simulation
Author(s): Theo A. G. Barker
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas transmission system simulator consists of a computer-based model used in an operational environment. The effect of any control action the gas dispatcher might execute can be examined by use of the simulator. With the simulator, the behavior of the gas network can be simulated from the current moment up to 48 hours ahead. The Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system provides measured pressures and flows to the simulator. With a parallel model State Estimator) ail pressures and flows over the whole grid are calculated to provide a starting situation for the predictive model. A hundred offtake flows are predicted by a load-forecast model, which receives direct information from the meteorological office. All compressor and reducer setpoints can be provided via graphic screens. The same applies to pipeline connection changes in the network. As a result of a predictive simulation, predictive messages are generated. Via plots and predictive mimic diagrams, the results can be evaluated. The gas transport system that is simulated consists of 4500km of pipehne segmented into 600 sections, 20 supply points, 100 offtake points, up to 7 pipelines in parallel, 7 compressor stations, 2 interlinked transport systems each carrying a different type of gas, and 5 mixing stations. The computer hardware used is a VAX 11/785 with 500 Megabytes of background storage and an attached processor: FPS 164. The simulator was put into operation during 1985 at Gasunie in the Netherlands.
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Document ID: 03A423E1

Heat Fusion Guidelines-A Study Of Strength As A Function Of Joining Conditions For Butt, Socket, And Saddle Fusion
Author(s): Sudheer m. Piputkar
Abstract/Introduction:
The most common method of joining polyethylene pipe used in gas distribution applications is by heat fusion. Butt joints, socket joints, and saddle joints are common heat fusion joints and are discussed here. Typically, when fusing polyethylene, surfaces to be joined are heated, melted, and then held together under pressure. The heating temperature, heating time, interfacial pressure, cooldown time, and other joining specifications are recommended by the manufacturer of the polyethylene pipe. If these recommended procedures are followed, strong joints can be expected. However, the consequences of deviations from recommended joining procedures, no matter how inadvertent, are not definitively known. In particular, it is not clear which variables are more critical to proper joining and how great the deviations from recommended practice have to be in order to produce an unacceptable joint. A semi-empirical approach was used to relate the strength of the heat fusion joints to the joining conditions. In this approach, the macroscopic thermofluid consequences of the joining conditioners were determined by using theoretical models that were validated by use of extensive measured data. Strength of the joints was defined by mechanical tests that gauged the integrity of the fusion interface. Examination of the thermal and flow parameters for butt and socket joints indicated that they could be combined into one (joining) parameter that described the thermofluid effects of material, pipe size, and joining conditions. It is expected that a similar joining parameter will be found for saddle joints.
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Document ID: F1713985

Gas Storage And Enhanced Oil Recovery
Author(s): Rudy Weisel
Abstract/Introduction:
Converting the 20-year-old Honor Rancho oil field to gas storage gave the oil production operations a new life. Each year, the reservoir is returned to discovery pressure by the injection of storage gas. The facilities and the reservoir maintenance technique needed for the gas storage operation combine to enhance oil production. The unique aspects of oil production economics in a regulated utility are considered. Gas storage in southern California began in 1941. Gas storage in depleted southern California oil fields began in 1942. That first venture into an oilfield was at the Playa del Rey field near Los Angeles International Airport. The project was under the direction of the War Department to meet urgent needs of the defense industry and war effort. Later, two other significant oil fields were developed for storage- Montebello in 1954 and Aliso Canyon in 1973. In both cases, however, oil reserves were owned by others. Finally, Honor Rancho field was developed in 1975, and here the Gas Company owned the oil reserves. This ownership gave SoCal Gas Company an opportunity to not only manage the reservoir as we saw fit, but also gave access to oil revenues to help offset operating costs.
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Document ID: CED3A0D6

Assessment Of External Fusion Bonded Pipeline Coatings
Author(s): Cecil C. Chappelow, Howard W. Christie, Gary R. Cooper
Abstract/Introduction:
Three test methods and equipment were developed for the rapid evaluation of fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) pipeline coatings. The tests provide for measurement of the adhesive bond strength of the FBE coating to the pipe surface, determination of the porosity (void content) of the coating created by gas entrapment, and estimation of the degree of reaction of the applied coating. In addition, a facile sampling technique was developed for readily removing intact free-standing coating samples from freshly coated pipe.
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Document ID: 38F80EED

The New ANSI/API 2530/A.G-A- Report No, 3 Part 4: Implementation Procedure
Author(s): T. A. Coker, D. L. Embry
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of Part IV of the proposed revisions to A.G.A. Report Number 3 is to outline the procedure to be followed when a computer program that calculates gas flow through an orifice meter is being developed. The implementation procedure presented in this standard serves the following purpose: It defines the precision of all variables used in the calculation of either mass or volumetric flow rate. It structures the calculations for a standardized solution procedure. It demonstrates a practical solution technique for either mass or volumetric flow rate. A computer program for determining gas flow through an orifice meter developed in compliance with this implementation procedure will produce results that agree within 50 parts per milUon to results calculated by any other similar program. This paper presents background information on the development of the implementation procedure, including the selection of the rounding rules, the iterative technique, the precision criteria, and the formulation of the equations.
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Document ID: DCE48439

Two-Pound Piping System At Alagasco
Author(s): Gary C. Youngblood
Abstract/Introduction:
Almost since the beginning, the gas industry has been using six inches water column or one-quarter pound pressure in piping for residential and multi-family dwellings. (Figure 1.) Appliances were built to operate at this pressure and, generally, a minimum three-quarter-inch pipe was used. In 1961, the two-pound piping concept was investigated for the first time. Alabama Gas began experimenting with two-pound systems in the mid and late sixties. Basically, a two-pound system consists of gas metered at two pounds pressure, with small diameter tubing being used for internal house piping. At or near the appliances, gas pressure is reduced to six inches water column by a regulator. (Figure 2.) There are several advantages in using a two-pound system: Reduced installation costs Opportunities in new markets Improved safety
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Document ID: 8982ECC9

Transition To Electronic Flow Measurement
Author(s): William H. Ryan
Abstract/Introduction:
El Paso Natural Gas Company is a major gas production and transmission subsidiary of Burlington Resources. EPNG operates facilities in six states and moved 1.35 trillion cubic feet of gas through 22,644 miles of pipeline in 1988. El Paso operates and maintains approximately 14,000 orifice metering installations involved in the measurement of purchase, sales, exchange, transportation, and company usage of natural gas volumes. Each of these facilities requires an accounting of measured volumes/MMbtu for use in the operation and custody transfer for gas volume settlement. The most widely used device for the measurement of natural gas is the flange tap orifice meter, which consists of two separate devices. The first and Primary Element is an orifice plate installed between flange taps of a meter tube. The orifice plate and the meter tube are designed and constructed to meet or exceed the minimum specifications outlined in the American Gas Association Report #3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas.
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Document ID: 172E41AE

Update On Office Of Pipeline Safety Activities
Author(s): Cesar De Leon
Abstract/Introduction:
The Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) has a large number of current regulatory and research projects, many of these required by the Pipeline Safety Authorization Act of 1988. Some important regulatory projects are operator qualifications, prevention of excavation damage, maps and inventory of pipelines, hydrostatic testing of liquid pipeline, carbon dioxide pipelines, hydrogen sulfide in gas pipelines, and gas pipehnes that are operating in excess of 72 percent of SMYS. Some important research studies are criteria for the use of instrumented internal inspection devices, criteria for the location and use of valves, assess inspection programs for master meter systems, and assess the feasibility of regulating excavators.
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Document ID: E3E75B23

Reconditioning Of High-Pressure Gas Transmission Lines At Natural Gas Pipeline Company Of America
Author(s): Ronald L. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Maintaining pipelines as the safest mode of transportation has been no accident. But, as our pipelines become older and older, we cannot slack off in our efforts, even though budget monies become tighter and tighter. There are two approaches a pipehne company can take. One is the Band-Aid Approach, which is letting well enough alone until there is a leak or failure and then fixing only the specific problem. The second approach is having an ongoing maintenance and rehabilitation program to identify future problem areas and rehabilitate those areas before problems arise. Natural decided long ago that, in the short term, the Band-Air Approach might be cheaper, but, in the long run, having an ongoing rehabilitation program would be more cost-effective. This program may save us from spending hundreds of millions of dollars in the future to replace an entire pipeline or having our deliverability severely curtailed by a pipeline failure in the winter months. In the 1970s, Natural estabHshed a hydrostatic testing program for existing pipehnes. By the 1980s, we had tested almost all of the pipelines that had not been hydrostatically tested at the time of installation. In the 1980s, Natural embarked on a program to replace and/or retire critical sections of its original Dresser-coupled line, which had been installed 50 years earlier. And as we enter the 1990s, Natural has established itself as a leader in rehabilitating high-pressure gas pipelines.
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Document ID: 83F7105C

A Hybrid Natural Gas Vehicle
Author(s): Tiff T. Nelson
Abstract/Introduction:
Keeping up with the ever changing California emission requirements is an important part of San Diego Gas & Electrics (SDG&E) business. It touches all aspects of company operation. To reduce emissions in its vehicle fleet, SDG&E has instituted a program of converting certain vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel. By demonstrating the emission reductions and operating and maintenance cost savings that NG vehicles can generate, SDG&E will be acting as a pathfinder for other vehicle fleet operators in its service territory as anticipated tighter emission controls on California vehicles are enacted. In parallel with ihe CNG conversion program, the Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) Department of SDG&E is developing a prototype natural-gas-powered hybrid vehicle that offers the potential for even lower emissions than the CNG conversions. The hybrid vehicle concept is a spinoff from all-electric vehicles, which are performance and range limited by current battery technology It is based around replacing most of the electric vehicles battery pack with a small, light-weight engine-driven electric power supply.
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Document ID: 84C92BD1

Remediation Alternatives And Costs For The Restoration Of Mgp Sites
Author(s): David G. Linz, David V. Nakles
Abstract/Introduction:
Utilities that have owned, or currently own, manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites are often faced with the need to estimate the financial liabilities associated with their management. These liabilities typically include three primary cost elements: the investigation of the sites, the determination of the risks posed by the site, and, if necessary, the design and implementation of a site remediation. While all three cost elements can be significant, it is the site remediation efforts that generally represent the greatest cost liability. This paper summarizes a methodology for rapidly generating an order-of-magnitude cost estimate for the remediation of an MGP site. It was abstracted from a topical report of the same name which was developed for the Gas Research Institute as part of its MGP research efforts. The topical report will be available in May, 1990. The methodology includes the generation of a source-waste matrix, the identification and costing of waste-specific remediation technology options, and the formulation and costing of integrated site remediation strategies. The application of the methodology to a generic MGP site is utilized throughout the paper to demonstrate the development and use of each of these elements.
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Document ID: 2FA6AFF4

A Modified Criterion For Evaluating The Remaining Strength Of Corroded Pipe
Author(s): J. F. Kiefner, P. H. Vieth
Abstract/Introduction:
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a criterion was developed through research sponsored by Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation and the Pipehrie Research Committee of A.G.A, to evaluate the serviceability of corroded pipe. This criterion has been embodied in both the B31.4 and B31.8 pipeline design codes and is described in detail in a separate document: ANSI/ASME B31GI984 Manual for Determining (he Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines. The criterion, commonly referred to as the B31G criterion, can be used by a pipeline operator to assess corroded pipe for rehabilitation purposes. The remaining pressurecarrying capacity of a pipe segment is calculated on the basis of the amount and distribution of metal lost to corrosion and the yield strength of the material. If the calculated remaining pressure-carrying capacity exceeds the maximum allowable operating pressure of the pipeline by a sufficient margin of safety, the corroded segment can remain in service. If not, it must be repaired or replaced. Applying this criterion, pipeline operators have saved millions of dollars by not removing corroded pipe that is still fit for service in spite of having sustained some loss of metal. From its inception, the B31G criterion was intended to embody a large factor of safety to protect pipelines from failure. Experience has shown that the amount of conservatism embodied in the criterion is excessive, resulting in the removal or repair of more pipe than is necessary to maintain adequate integrity. Therefore, it is desirable to have a modified criterion that will still preserve adequate pipeline integrity but result in less removal of pipe. A modified criterion that meets this requirement is described in this paper.
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Document ID: EEA8107D

Gas Service Training Program For Gas Utilization Personnel
Author(s): J. W. Mcclintock
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper covers the training efforts that are in place at Consumers Gas for gas service technicians. Emphasis is placed on the need for a comprehensive training program and how to deal with the influx of new-generation equipment, including furnaces, ranges, and fireplaces. A structure for administering training on an ongoing basis is described and the use of the generic training approach is outHned. In addition, the concept of personalized training and the method of implementing it are examined. The requirements to perform service work as we enter the 1990s are also explored.
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Document ID: E0F74490

Stresses In Distribution Piping Systems
Author(s): J. D. Mcnorgan
Abstract/Introduction:
When pipelines are subjected to traffic loads, ground settlements, blasting, or earthquake ground ruptures, detrimental stresses can be induced. Current design methods used to determine these stresses are identified and recommendations are made to develop rule-of-thumb solutions. Distribution piping systems differ from Transmission systems in that generally they are smaller in size, operate at lower pressures, and are located closer to the consumers -usually in city streets. While these two systems differ, they are subject to many similar loading conditions that can produce potentially damaging stresses. These stresses have to be limited in their design to safe values and to meet prevailing code requirements.
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Document ID: A449FF06

Squeeze-Off Of Large-Diameter Polyethylene Pipe
Author(s): Gene Palermo, Karl Gunther, Daniel Van Deventer
Abstract/Introduction:
The proven cost savings of targe-diameter polyethylene pipe was an important factor driving Washington Gas to utilize 8 and 12 IPS polyethylene in 1986 and 1987. However, it was crucial to obtain a suitable flow-control mechanism before the use of this pipe could commence. The only flow-control mechanism for repair at that time was to do a squeeze-off, and the units that were available were either too heavy and bulky or did not possess sufficient strength to be able to accomplish squeeze-off quickly. The pipeline suppher worked with a toolmaker to develop a better squeeze-off tool that would be capable of accomplishing these tasks. The Washington Gas Light Companys Materials Testing Lab (MTL) then extensively tested the squeeze-off unit and found it to be acceptable for flow control of 8 and 12 IPS polyethylene pipe.
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Document ID: 53C06166

Orifice Metering Uncertainties And Their Impact On Unaccounted-For Gas At PG&E
Author(s): John W. Stuart
Abstract/Introduction:
In a recent study, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) attributed 38 percent of its unaccounted-for gas to orifice metering uncertainty biasing caused by straightening vanes. How this was determined and applied to PG&Es family of orifice meters is briefly described. In 1989, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) completed a comprehensive study of its lost and unaccounted-for (UAF) gas. The study, which was co-funded by GRI, investigated and quantified many causes of UAF for the test year 1987. Almost all (97 percent) of PG&Es UAF was found to be attributed to identifiable accounting procedures, measurement problems, theft, and leakage (see Figures 1 and 2). In 1987, PG&Es UAF was calculated to be 1.61 percent. Of that 1.61 percent, 63 percent was attributed to measurement problems such as temperature and atmospheric pressure assumptions at residential meters, mechanical volume integrators used on power plant flow recorders, and orifice meter coefficient shifts caused by straightening vanes. The orifice meter coefficient shifts were estimated to account for 38 percent of the total UAF. This paper will describe the nature of these shifts, how they affect only certain meters, and their impact on UAF at PG&E.
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Document ID: 291F8E59

Equipment Testing And Evaluation Of Electronic Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Cathy K. Chang
Abstract/Introduction:
The instrumentation for gas measurement of gas for non-core customers consists of electronic volume-corrector and data-communication devices. This provides the timely data needed for competitive gas sales. This is the first time that Southern California Gas Company has used electronic devices for both gas measurement and billing process. An extensive testing procedure has been designed to verify the performance of these devices and to evaluate the impact on the existing operation systems. The test results assist in selecting proper devices and provide guidelines in quality control, calibration procedure, field maintenance, and personnel training.
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Document ID: F9CF59A8

Environmental Issues In The Meter Shop
Author(s): H. Bryan Batson, Joseph Fabrizi, William E. Grey, m. Floyd Fuller, George E. Mullen, William S. Patillo
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper -comprising seven Parts written by different authors -is to collect and disseminate information concerning some of the environmental issues in the meter shop. It identifies issues and proposes methods or considerations to meet meter shop needs. The seven Parts are as follows: Part I Lithium Batteries and Their Environmental Impact on The Meter Shop Part II Mercury Handling and Hygiene Practices Part III A Laymans Guide to Paint Waste Disposal Part IV Analysis of Laws Applicable to Hazardous Waste Part V Respiratory Hazards In the Meter Shop Part VI Asbestos In the Meter Shop Part VII Lead Sal-Ammoniac and Soldering Applications Part VIII Noise Characteristics in Occupational Environments The material contained herein is not intended to be a substitute for local, state, or federal environmental regulations or a step-by-step solution to ail environmental issues a meter shop might face. It is intended instead as a possible starting point in investigating some specific metershop environmental issues. Readers should also check environmental regulatory requirements in the specific companys territory.
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Document ID: F115997A

Recent Changes In Plastics Gas Piping Specifications
Author(s): Stanley A. Mruk
Abstract/Introduction:
The keystone document in North American regulations governing the use of plastics gas distribution piping is ASTM D 2513, Standard Specification for Thermophstic Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing and Fittings. The most frequently used gas piping is made from polyethylene (PE). Recent changes have been made to D 2513 that upgrade those PE material requirements related to durability and performance - specifically, resistance to weathering during prolonged storage and to oxidative degradation and slow crack growth (SCG) while in service. Research and experience have shown that high resistance to SCG is particularly important to resist failure under the complex stressing to which buried pipe is exposed. The new edition of D 2513 incorporates new requirements based on elevated temperature testing, which effectively exclude the use of materials with inadequate SCG resistance. The new D 2513 also includes new product and test requirements that enhance product quality. In addition, this standard now requires the use of a minimum in-plant quality control program in the production of plastics gas piping.
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Document ID: 58EBD312

Recent Advances In Understanding Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion In The Gas Industry And New Approaches To Mitigation
Author(s): Daniel H. Pope, David Dziewulski, James R. Frank
Abstract/Introduction:
Investigations of microbiologically-influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel in natural gas industry operations have been underway since 1986 under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute (GRI). Work has focussed on improving the scientific understanding of MIC and its role in the corrosion process and on the development of more costeffective, targeted treatment approaches useful for gas industry operations. This paper describes some of the recent results of the program and discusses some of the newer detection and mitigation approaches under development or consideration.
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Document ID: E42E1495

Unaccounted-For Gas-Lost Or Just Misplaced?
Author(s): James R. Grinstead, R. Michael Cowgill
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas (UAF) is the difference between the quantity received into a system and the quantity delivered out over a specific period of lime. The restructuring of the natural gas industry, the increased competitiveness of natural gas, and the environmental significance of the emissions of methane have focused increased attention on UAF. Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) has conducted a comprehensive research project to evaluate UAF on its system. The project produced results and methodologies for the gas utility industry to use in taking the lead with regulatory agencies and with the energy industry regarding UAF. PG&Es operating UAF consists mainly of measurement and accounting-related elements.
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Document ID: 8749F57C

The New ANSI/API 2530/A,G,A, Report No. 3 Part 3: Natural Gas Applications
Author(s): Paul A. Hoglund
Abstract/Introduction:
Part 3 of the proposed revisions to ANSI/API 2530 (A.G.A. Report No. 3) has been developed as an application guide to the computation of natural gas flow through an orifice meter. The major change from the current standard is the introduction of the SRG equation for the coefficient of discharge. The other changes are structural in terms of organization and the use of common units. The revisions restructure Parts 5, 6 and 8 of the current standard and incorporate tables similar (and in some cases, identical) to those in appendices B, C and D of that document. Those with a casual aquaintance with the current standard may feel that they are seeing something new. Those with broader experience, will recognize that much of the text of the current standard has simply been reorganized. This paper is intended to highlight both the structural and technical changes. The technical changes are covered within the structure of the revision.
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Document ID: 8E7F747C

Pressure Regulation Update-Summary Of Survey
Author(s): George Mullin
Abstract/Introduction:
The Distribution Construction and Maintenance Committee of the American Gas Association conducted a survey of its committee members on pressure regulation of natural gas. This paper highlights the results of the survey with emphasis on current practices of the industry. One point must be made at the outset the industry is dynamic and in constant change. The survey is only a point in time and today events may cause you to change some long estabhshed practices. The survey comprised 392 questions covering eleven areas: 1. Physical location of regulator settings 2. Upkeep of stations -Maintenance 3. Security 4. Safety requirements of personnel 5. Types of regulators used on various pressures 6. Records -office and crew 7. Special or unique equipment used by personnel 8. Design considerations 9. Other duties of regulator personnel 10. Other equipment or material used in typical settings U. Training Each area will be reviewed briefly and some points made on general and, where applicable, unique items. It must be kept in mind that the size of the 41 companies responding ranged from 75,000 to 4,250,000 customers. Companies were from various parts of Canada and the United States. Consequently, climate, location, terrain, population density, etc. may have had a significant impact on the response.
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Document ID: 494CC65B

Air Permitting For Engines And Turbines Fired By Natural Gas
Author(s): Tamra S. Van Til
Abstract/Introduction:
Engines and turbines fired by natural gas require air use permits primarily because of their emissions of nitrogen oxides (Nd) and carbon monoxide (CO). Federal regulations that apply to these sources were initiated with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970 and 1977, and include New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for gas turbines and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD). The primary concern for permitting a source subject to PSD is the requirement to install the Best Available Control Technology (BACT). This may include water or steam injection, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and modified combustors for control of NO, emissions, and catalysts for CO emissions. For other internal combustion engines such as reciprocating engines, this may include lean burn, non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR), prestratified combustion, or SCR. As technology progresses over time, emissions limits invariably become more stringent, thus increasing the likelihood that emission controls such as those mentioned above will be required.
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Document ID: 69329168

The Plastics Pipe Institutes Contribution To The Training Of Installers And Inspectors Of Plastics Gas Piping
Author(s): Norman T. Bryan, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Safety is a paramount issue to gas utilities it depends on a number of factors, including regulations, materials, and training. The contribution to safety through training is examined from several aspects. One of these is the training of pipeline inspectors in the standards and the regulations governing this application. For this purpose the Plastics Pipe Institute has recently totally revised and updated a series of slide presentations that form the core of plastics gas piping training courses given by the Transportation Safety Institute of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Another aspect discussed is the array of FPI Technical Reports and Technical Notes which provide basic information to installers and inspectors.
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Document ID: 6BA92B75

Proposed Compressor Station Personnel Qualification Regulations
Author(s): Lucian m. Furrow
Abstract/Introduction:
Accident records and enforcement experience indicate that not all personnel in the pipeline industry have the knowledge and skills needed to understand and apply safety standards and procedures in their jobs and to prevent or mitigate the effects of accidents. Congress and Federal and State agencies have recommended licensing, certification, or regulatory action to assure that each pipeline operator uses qualified personnel to carry out safety-related functions. The Federal Office of Pipeline Safety plans to adopt qualification standards for pipeline operation, maintenance, and emergency-response personnel, including personnel at compressor stations. These standards would require training in specific safety topics and testing to demonstrate competency.
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Document ID: 2A936606

SECO2 Stored( Energy In CO2)-Cold Recovery From Base Load LNG Vaporization For On-Peak Electric Power Generation
Author(s): John S. Andrepont, Don H. Goers, Richard J. Kody
Abstract/Introduction:
An electric power generation system is described that efficiently utilizes the recovered cold from base-load LNG vaporization in conjunction with low temperature thermal energy storage to produce power during on-peak (high demand) periods, when the value of electric energy is maximized. The on-peak power-production system employs a high-efficiency Rankine power cycle utilizing carbon dioxide (CO2) as the working fluid specifically, the CO2 cycle is designed as a bottoming cycle driven by the high-temperature waste heat from a combustion turbine exhaust and using a low-temperature heat sink for condensing the discharge of the CO2 expanders. The heat sink is an isothermal mass of CO2 liquid-sohd slush at its triple point. Recovered cold from base-load LNG vaporization is used to recharge the heat sink by converting CO2 liquid to sohd simultaneous base-load power generation also can be accomphshed if desired.
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Document ID: 774B6CB3

Centralized Inventory Management
Author(s): John S. Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
Centralized inventory control, including the use of a central storage and distribution facility and three pipe yards, is a profitable venture for the Gas Business Unit (GBU) of Public Service Electric & Gas Company. For over 20 years, this materials management operation has resulted in lower material costs, more economical inventory levels, higher turnover ratios, better material availability, and improved quality control. Public Service Electric & Gas (PSE&G) is a combination gas and electric utility serving 72 percent of New Jerseys population in a territory of Over 2,500 square miles. We have 3.2 million customers with approximate revenues of 4.8 billion. The Gas Business Unit (referred to as GBU) serves 1.4 million residential, commercial, and industrial customers in a territory that serves the area between New York City and Philadelphia. GBU operations is organized into three regions and 13 districts. Although the districts vary in size, an average one serves 191,000 customers, has 188 employees, an annual usage of general stores materials equalling 1.7 million, and an average inventory of approximately 400,000.
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Document ID: CF697274

Natural Gas Disaster Planning And Recovery: The Loma Prieta Earthquake
Author(s): Steven H. Phillips, J. Kris Virostek
Abstract/Introduction:
On October 17, 1989, at 5:04 p.m., a 7.1-magnitude earthquake ruptured a segment of the San Andreas fault approximately 60 miles south of San Francisco, California. Also referred to as the Loma Prieta earthquake, this was the worst natural disaster in Northern California since 1906. More than 60 lives were lost and property damage estimates range from 7 to 11 billion. Included in the damages were portions of PG&Es gas facilities. Three low-pressure gas systems were shut down and rebuilt, and over 160,000 customers required service restoration. This paper describes PG&Es emergency preparedness programs, the companys response during the earthquake, and the restoration process. Starting with the evening of October 17, the paper details the recovery operation from initial damage assessments through the rebuilding of damaged systems. The paper discusses cost recovery alternatives and communications within and outside the company. Lessons learned from the disaster also are documented.
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Document ID: 43AC091C

Optimizing Performance Of A Low-Pressure District Regulator Station
Author(s): Robert Zlokovitz, Randy Goffred
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the evolution of a Pressure Control Program instituted at Con Edison to reduce leakage in the low-pressure gas distribution system. The program is a joint effort of personnel of Central and Division Gas Operations with support and guidance of Research and Development. It details the testing and evaluations used to quantify the expected benefits of the program and the results of the program to date. The paper also discusses Con Edisons plans for continued development and deployment of this technology.
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Document ID: 1A359E6B

Two-Psig Delivery Pressure For Residential Market Measurement Considerations
Author(s): Gregory S. Veraa
Abstract/Introduction:
Washington Gas Light Company serves natural gas to approximately 650,000 customers in Washington, D.C., and the surrounding counties in Virginia and Maryland. The Washington suburbs have been growing extremely fast over the last decade. Over the last few years, Washington Gas has been adding about 20,000 new customers per year. Earlier in the decade, however, our growth rate had been much more modest. In the early 1970s, when natural gas was in short supply, a moratorium on adding new customers was imposed. When the moratorium was finally lifted in the late 1970s, the electric utilities had captured most of the new-housing energy market. New and innovative marketing efforts were needed to win market share and compete with the electric utilities.
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Document ID: B4F249BE

Career Path Vehicle Mechanic Training Program
Author(s): Daniel Rice, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
An influx of helper (apprentice) vehicle mechanics, coupled with a vehicle fleet that was becoming increasingly complex, demanded an improved approach to mechanic training. Similar conditions existed in other craft lines. To address this need, a training center was built, instructors were trained, and lesson plans developed to cover training requirements for new Apprentices to seasoned Journeymen. Instructors are part-time, trained to instruct, and drawn directly from the work force to be trained. After about a year of actual training, results appear to be very positive. We are now looking at more objective measures to judge results.
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Document ID: F8936F1E

Centralization-A Case Study Of Materials Management At Indiana Gas
Author(s): Herb Van Keuren
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a summary of the development of the centralized Materials Distribution Center (MDC) at Indiana Gas Company. The intent of this paper is not to promote any particular materialsmanagement concept over another, i.e., centralization, decentralization, regionalization, etc. Each company must examine its own circumstances to see what makes sense for it. Many times, other factors like size, regulatory environment, geographic location, type of utility (gas, electric, or combination, urban/rural, service area make-up) will determine this direction, The purpose is to show what our circumstances were and then explain the processes and steps that were taken during this project to achieve the successes that we accomplished.
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Document ID: 096880B1

Characterization And Ivianagement Of Produced Waters From Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoirs
Author(s): John P. Fillo, James m. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1985, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) initiated a research program to investigate the characteristics and management of production waters from natural gas industry operations. Initial efforts on this program determined that there was a general lack of comprehensive data available. In addition, regulations governing oil/gas exploration and production waste management, underground injection of produced waters, and surface discharge of production waters all were changing and thus would affect management practices in the future. Underground storage of natural gas is an essential element of gas industry operations. Natural gas is stored in underground reservoirs virtually nationwide, and these operations represent the most complex combination of operations and processes in the gas industry. Produced water, which is the largest volume of waste generated from oil/gas production and from gas storage, is withdrawn from storage reservoirs along with the gas and must be managed.
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Document ID: 0CDF57B0

Charge And Contract Appliance Service
Author(s): Robert H. Regester
Abstract/Introduction:
Charges for appliance service work and heating service contracts are discussed. Particular attention is paid to establishing working relationships with contractors. Pricing philosophy is discussed. Regulatory constraints are considered. Many facets of appliance service are considered for distribution companies who may wish to enter this business.
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Document ID: 185236B9

The New Natural Gas Industry: The Operating Section Is A Key Part Of It
Author(s): George H. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
As many of you know, I wear two professional hats-engineer and lawyer. Its been a while since Ive done any constructive work with either but I used to work for a living. As a matter of fact, I got a plaque Saturday night from your section leadership that revoked my law license. I thought that was rather a creative way to get disbarred. But it seems in Washington, its my lawyers hat that gets a lot of wear. Thats not necessarily my choice. Its just the fashion. Lets face it, Washington has more than its share of lawyers. So, you can imagine my surprise-and subtle delight-when one of the Capitals smartest and most experienced lawyers, and former Member of Congress, Deputy Department of Energy Secretary Henson Moore said what his department needs is a few more engineers and a few less lawyers at his department. Now, speaking to this huge gathering of engineers, its hard to imagine needing more of you, but Deputy Secretary Moore was right. He knew that if the United States was going to be an efficient, competitive, and successful economic power in the future we needed more engineers . . . to make the wheels of progress work. And he knows - as does his boss, Energy Secretary James Watkins, who has emphasized this point repeatedly-that the U.S. is falling behind its principal international economic competitors in preparing mathematicians, scientists . . . and engineers. So people in high places are once again coming to recognize the importance of your contributions.
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Document ID: E4BF7B19

We Care-A Comprehensive Customer Service Project At The Cincinnati Gas And Electric Company
Author(s): David E. Zanitsch
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper explains how the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company in 1987 began the most comprehensive study of Customer Service in the history of our company, terming it the We Care project. The forming of the employee teams to review several key areas and their recommendations are discussed first. Next the status report on the Natural Work Teams formed to address these issues and the results to date are described. Lastly the goals and expectations of the Natural Work Teams presently in existence are examined.
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Document ID: 9045012C

Natural Gas: A Solution For Air Quality Problems
Author(s): Richard D. Farman
Abstract/Introduction:
I want to discuss the indispensable role of natural gas distribution in bringing solutions to problems faced by the areas we serve and the need for us to be active participants in such efforts. This need is especially acute for natural gas utilities, such as Southern California Gas Company, which serve the urban areas of this country. Our viability as institutions is dependent upon the health of our service areas. We need to be vigorous participants in public-private partnerships to sustain the increasingly fragile fabric of our urban areas. We have unique skills and resources to be problem solvers. We are, and must continue to be, part of the solutions to the problems of our respective communities. Clearly, this is the case in the life-sustaining efforts to improve the quality of the air we breathe. It is this challenge-clean air-on which 1 want to focus my remarks. There is no region in this country whose very name has become as synonymous with dirty air, and the effort to cope with it, as has Los Angeles. Smogville has replaced Tinsel Town as a frequent nickname for our city and our region. This is no surprise Southern California suffers from the worst air pollution problem in the nation, exceeding federal air quality standards more than any other city. The extent and nature of the air pollution problem is due to a combination of factors:
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Document ID: 75E51E2C

Gas Transmission System Simulation
Author(s): Theo A. G. Barker
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas transmission system simulator consists of a computer-based model used in an operational environment. The effect of any control action the gas dispatcher might execute can be examined by use of the simulator. With the simulator, the behavior of the gas network can be simulated from the current moment up to 48 hours ahead. The Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system provides measured pressures and flows to the simulator. With a parallel model State Estimator) ail pressures and flows over the whole grid are calculated to provide a starting situation for the predictive model. A hundred offtake flows are predicted by a load-forecast model, which receives direct information from the meteorological office. All compressor and reducer setpoints can be provided via graphic screens. The same applies to pipeline connection changes in the network. As a result of a predictive simulation, predictive messages are generated. Via plots and predictive mimic diagrams, the results can be evaluated. The gas transport system that is simulated consists of 4500km of pipehne segmented into 600 sections, 20 supply points, 100 offtake points, up to 7 pipelines in parallel, 7 compressor stations, 2 interlinked transport systems each carrying a different type of gas, and 5 mixing stations. The computer hardware used is a VAX 11/785 with 500 Megabytes of background storage and an attached processor: FPS 164. The simulator was put into operation during 1985 at Gasunie in the Netherlands.
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Document ID: 81C37AB9

Synthetic Natural Gas From Lignite-Status Of The Great Plains Coal Gasification Project
Author(s): Kent E. Janssen
Abstract/Introduction:
The Great Plains Synfuels Plant in North Dakota is the nations first commercial-scale effort to demonstrate energy independence using this nations vast coal resource to produce synthetic natural gas (SNG). The gasification plant is part of a huge energy complex owned and operated by Basin Electric Power Cooperative. Antelope Valley Station, the 900-MW generating station supplies power to the Great Plains facility. The Freedom Mine, also controlled by a subsidiary of Basin Electric, Dakota Coal Company, mines 11.6 million tons of lignite per year over 6 million for the synfuels project and over 5 million for the power plant. The synfuels plant was conceived by American Natural Resources of Detroit, Michigan, during the early 1970s when there was thought to be a natural gas shortage. The development and operation of the Great Plains plant demonstrates the national effort toward energy independence.
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Document ID: 75B5872F

Maintaining Construction Quality While Reducing Cost
Author(s): Louis Sanchetti
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the utility industry has become a competitive market place, we are at the crossroads for innovative approaches to cut costs yet maintain quality service. Our gas construction crews at Pacific Gas and Electric Company have developed two solutions for saving money on our construction projects in San Francisco: Spoil recycling. A shaker screen is being utihzed to separate reusable trench spoil material for use as backfill material, thus reducing import material cost as well as reducing disposal and transportation charges. Asphalt and concrete grinding. A Vermeer concrete cutter is being used as an alternative to saw cutting and pavement breaking over trench locations in streets where paving sections can be as thick as 18 inches. The material from the grinding operation is used as temporary backfill until trenching is completed, then processed through the shaker screen for backfill material.
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Document ID: 494DEEAF

Equipment Testing And Evaluation Of Electronic Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Cathy K. Chang
Abstract/Introduction:
The instrumentation for gas measurement of gas for non-core customers consists of electronic volume-corrector and data-communication devices. This provides the timely data needed for competitive gas sales. This is the first time that Southern California Gas Company has used electronic devices for both gas measurement and billing process. An extensive testing procedure has been designed to verify the performance of these devices and to evaluate the impact on the existing operation systems. The test results assist in selecting proper devices and provide guidelines in quality control, calibration procedure, field maintenance, and personnel training.
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Document ID: 0958290D

The New ANSI/API 2530/A-G-A. Report No, 3- Part 1: General Equations And Uncertainty Guidelines
Author(s): J. E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
Part 1 of the proposed revisions to API MPMS Chapter 14.3 (A.G.A. Report No. 3) contains the general equations and uncertainty guidelines for concentric, square-edged, flange-tapped orifice meters. This part is applicable for any fluid in the petroleum, chemical, and natural-gas industries that is considered to be clean, single-phase, homogeneous, and Newtonian. This Part is intended to provide the user with an understanding of the physical principles for orifice meters, the basis for the empirical coefficient of discharge and expansion factor, the need for predicting or determining) the fluids properties at flowing conditions, and how to estimate the uncertainty associated with the users orifice metering application.
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Document ID: 4B47F8DC

Network Analysis System Automation
Author(s): Tom E. Stevens
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of this paper is the system developed by the Southern California Gas Company to automate the network analysis process and how it is used to analyze the distribution piping system for system planning and pressure/flow studies. The various problems encountered and the resulting solutions are identified and discussed. The cost benefits associated with the use of network analysis for system planning and the overall project are examined and evaluated. Future system developments, plans for the expansion of the Network Analysis System Automation database and integration with a full AM/FM system are explored.
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Document ID: 6F308F45

Industrial Hygiene Study-Removal Of Coaltar Wrap Containing Asbestos
Author(s): G. Lyn Berman
Abstract/Introduction:
Asbestos has been found to be prevalent in coal-tar-based pipewrap, which has been installed on distribution and transmission pipelines since early this century. Determination of the presence of asbestos can be done only through laboratory analysis. Concern for the potential employee exposure during removal of the wrap and for the environmental impact of the disposal of the wrap has led to industrial hygiene studies for the presence of asbestos fibers during wrap removal. The wrap removal jobs studied have all been large scale removals, that is, more than 100 square feet of wrap to be removed. The jobs were monitored for the presence of asbestos fibers. Background samples, area samples, and employee time-weighted averages (TWA) were calculated. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400 method was used to collect and analyze these samples.
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Document ID: 3EA3ADCC

Preliminary Observations Of The Shielding Effects Of Con Crete And Foam External Pipeline Barrier Coatings
Author(s): Daniel P. Werner, Thomas J. Barlo, Keith E. W. Coulson
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas transmission pipelines are protected by the application of an anti-corrosion coating and cathodic protection. To protect the coating from damage, an impact-resistant barrier-coating is applied over the anti-corrosion coating when the use of traditional sand backfill is not feasible. However, concerns have been raised that these barrier materials could shield the pipeline from cathodic protection currents. As a result, a laboratory program was initiated to determine which types of barrier materials posed a problem from the standpoint of cathodic protection current shielding. Laboratory exposure experiments have led to the tentative conclusion that the most commonly used barrier materials have tradeoffs in their physical and electrochemical properties but do not appear to significantly shield cathodic protection currents.
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Document ID: 3E0201B4

Engineering Manager Is Not A Contradiction Of Terms
Author(s): Glyn Hazelden
Abstract/Introduction:
Despite the enlightened approach to selecting and training workers, the most basic criteria often are ignored when engineers are recruited or when the time comes to promote them to supervisory or managerial positions. Initially, we must select the potential employees who match our particular corporate environment, and then ensure that they are given a comprehensive orientation. To complete the seasoning, there should be time spent in field operations and other corporate departments. Where potential is identified, supervisory training must be planned, and formal sessions must be combined with informal personal discussions between manager and subordinate. It is important to have oneon- one contact so that experience and advice can be passed along. As managers, our education is continuous it should be supplemented daily by the information and experience we gather. Keeping current on trends in our profession is both a necessity and a standard we set for those that see us in the spotlight. The people that work in our area are important it is critical that we plan their development and make sure that they have the opportunity to grow.
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Document ID: 54262ECD

The New ANSI/API 2530/A.G.A- Report No, 3-Overview
Author(s): Paul A. Hoglund
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides both an introduction and a summary of four associated papers on the proposed 1990 revisions to ANSI/API 2530 (A.G.A. Report No. 3) covering Orifice Measurement of Natural Gas and Other Newtonian Fluids. Each of the other four papers addresses a part of the proposal. While the work represented concludes one phase of the needed work in this area, much more is planned and underway. The continued involvement of our industry in this effort is mandatory as further research moves to reality.
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Document ID: E47BE681

Effects Of Multiple Pipeline Suppliers On The Design And Operation Of Distribution Systems
Author(s): John C. Place
Abstract/Introduction:
Wisconsin Natural Gas Company, a gas distribution utility serving approximately 255,000 customers in southeastern Wisconsin, was connected to a single pipeline supplier from 1949 to November 1988. Federal deregulation of gas enabled Wisconsin Natural to complete ties with two other pipelines between November 1988 and May 1989 in an effort to be a more competitive supplier of natural gas to the region. The connection to these new pipelines affected the design and operation of Wisconsin Naturals distribution system. This paper presents nine areas of distribution design and operation that are affected by having multiple pipeline supplies and the special consideration given by Wisconsin Natural to address these issues.
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Document ID: 9C127B93

Carbon Monoxide Detectors For Residential Use
Author(s): Bruce D. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
Stan Blackman, Executive Director of COSHA, recently noted that: More than 5,000 people are killed by carbon monoxide (CO) each year in the US. 1500 of these are CO-related appliance accidents. Each year 10,000 people suffer from CO poisoning, producing brain damage from mild to severe. It is estimated that 200,000 people each year suffer heart attacks caused by chronic CO poisoning. Dr. M. Dolan in Annals of Emergency Medicine notes: 23.6 percent of those tested with flu-Hke symptoms had CO poisoning. In our territory in 1989, we investigated 40 incidents involving CO 42 people were hospitalized for CO sickness and another 31 were sick but not hospitalized. Most of these cases involved CO resulting from: Dirty furnaces (soot, rust etc.) Chimney stoppage Products of combustion being recirculated There were surely other cases that we were not called on to investigate. As a result of statistics like these, a great deal of interest has been raised on the subject of CO detection. For example, efforts were made in 1989 to have the Uniform Building Code changed so that a CO sensor would be required in all new construction where a fossil-fuel-fired appUance or attached garage was present. This effort failed to be approved yet the feeling is that it will be proposed again, perhaps in a few years when some of the unanswered concerns are addressed.
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Document ID: E16594E2

Characterization And Management Of Produced Waters From Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoirs
Author(s): John P. Fillo, James m. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1985, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) initiated a research program to investigate the characteristics and management of production waters from natural gas industry operations. Initial efforts on this program determined that there was a general lack of comprehensive data available. In addition, regulations governing oil/gas exploration and production waste management, underground injection of produced waters, and surface discharge of production waters all were changing and thus would affect management practices in the future. Underground storage of natural gas is an essential element of gas industry operations. Natural gas is stored in underground reservoirs virtually nationwide, and these operations represent the most complex combination of operations and processes in the gas industry. Produced water, which is the largest volume of waste generated from oil/gas production and from gas storage, is withdrawn from storage reservoirs along with the gas and must be managed. The chemical characteristics and volumes of produced water are highly variable, site specific, and depend on the characteristics of the storage formation. Produced waters are qualitatively similar in composition, consisting predominantly of dissolved salts (e.g., sodium chloride). They generally contain low levels of trace metais and volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Analytical results for storage produced waters are consistent in the compounds detected and variability of quantitative results with produced waters from oil and gas production as documented in GRIs APIs, and EPAs studies. Underground injection is the predominant method used to dispose produced waters from storage operations, although other methods are used.
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Document ID: CC719695

System Development Approach To Scada Planning And Design
Author(s): Edmund C. Mechler, Phillip Alexander
Abstract/Introduction:
A fact that no one will dispute is that the Gas Industry is undergoing dramatic changes. These changes include the development of a competitive environment and the marketing of gas as a commodity. The changes are placing more demand on the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems used by the industry. The SCADA industry itself also is experiencing rapid changes by apphcation of intelligence to transducers, RTUs assuming more control, and workstations replacing central computers. This raises the question: How do we, as planners and designers, increase our probability of success? The answer lies in the implementation of General Systems Theory (GST). This paper will develop this answer by examining why and where GST can be used reviewing GST history, context, and definitions reviewing GST concepts, methodology, and techniques examining the relationship of GST and SCADA and Hsting helpful hints for rescuing a GST project that begins to disintegrate.
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Document ID: 96661DA3

Status Of Remediation Techniques For Pcb Contaminated Soils And Sediments
Author(s): J. Roger Hathaway, James R. Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
A number of recent changes in regulatory programs and in the development of technologies have affected the way remedies are chosen for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. This paper presents a discussion of the effects of recent internal US. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) policies, changes to the National Contingency Plan, and Land Disposal Restrictions. The paper also reviews the status of developing technologies. The major conclusion is that site remediation parties are increasingly faced with a decision between on-site containment and highly expensive treatment options.
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Document ID: 1D1735B7

Improving Material Quality With Less Inspection
Author(s): John Baildon
Abstract/Introduction:
Statistics and statistical process control (SPC) are fast becoming among the most essential tools corporations have for increasing quality and productivity. However, most utility employees have little or no knowledge of these subjects. Knowledge of statistics takes no more than recalling high school and college mathematics classes. SPC can be used by utilities as an analytical method of determining the probability that a vendor can supply the industry with materials meeting specifications, thus permitting receiving inspection to be either reduced or eliminated completely. This paper gives a short background of how the San Diego Gas and Electric Company is using SPC to deal with reductions in manpower and shortcomings seen in receiving inspection.
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Document ID: 000B7AD2

Automated Data Collection From Multiple Vendor Measurement Hardware
Author(s): Chris L. Dart
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a translation system that was developed to enable the use of metering products from multiple vendors. The system was developed as a replacement for magnetic tape metering. Magnetic tape has been the primary data collection method in the Electric Utility business for the last 20 years. Consumers Power Company also has utilized magnetic tape metering for its largest gas customers since 1975. We have utilized the term generic to describe the translation system, since it was developed to enable the use of hardware products from many supphers. The generic translation system has been developed to address data collection needs for both the gas and electric areas within Consumers Power Company.
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Document ID: BB7894FB

Installing 6-Inch Polyethylene Pipe
Author(s): Frederick Volker, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of 6-inch polyethylene pipe for gas distribution systems has increased considerably since 1985. The favorable economics makes it a very good choice for certain distribution projects. Low construction costs and potential long-term savings in maintenance costs are the main reasons that more small- and medium-sized distribution companies are becoming interested in using 6-inch polyethylene pipe. The increased use of plastic pipe also promotes improvements in the design, production, and availability of a broad selection of tools and equipment for constructing and maintaining large-diameter plastic distribution systems.
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Document ID: 8883D352

Natural Gas Vehicle Developments-A Gas Industry And Original Equipment Manufacturer Cooperative Effort
Author(s): Steven W. Gauthier
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years, natural gas has been used as an engine fuel in stationary prime movers driving natural gas compressors, liquid pumps, and similar equipment. Natural gas has been particularly significant as a fuel for prime movers powering electric generators in the electric utility, commercial and industrial cogeneration sectors. To a lesser extent, natural gas also has been used in vehicles where there was a total operation cost advantage or other incentives. However, the physical and economic barriers restricting the broad acceptance of natural gas as an alternative fuel in the transportation market have proven to be formidable. The attributes of liquid petroleum products are so ideally suited to on-board fuel storage that vehicles other than petroleum liquid-fuel vehicles have gained only a minor market share in the United States. New opportunities for natural gas are being developed, however, stimulated by energy security concerns, trade imbalances created by petroleum imports, the abundance of natural gas in North America and the existing transmission and distribution system that can deliver it to almost anywhere in the country, and, most important, tighter restrictions on vehicle emissions. Although substantial research and development will be required for natural gas to successfully meet the demands of the alternative-fuel vehicle marketplace, the clean burning characteristics of natural gas and the extensive experience gained in stationary gas engine development will help make natural gas vehicles (NOV) a particularly attractive alternative.
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Document ID: E63FE5DB

French Experience With The Electrofusion Technique
Author(s): m. Yves Demonchy, m. Jacques Fallou
Abstract/Introduction:
Gaz de France started using the polyethylene (PE) technique in the 1970s to build its distribution networks. At that time, the joining techniques commonly used for PE pipes and fittings, such as butt welding, involved welding with heating tools. In France, however, it was decided aimosf immediately to opt for a different technique that was beginning to develop in Europe for water distribution, namely electrofusion (see Figure 1). Equipment was, of course, adapted to the specific needs of the gas industry. Gaz de France therefore has the longest experience in the use of electrofusion techniques for the construction and operation of gas supply networks. Today, 30,000 km of distribution pipelines, and 20,000 km of service pipes for customer connection have been installed by use of the electrofusion technique. The total number of electrofused joints is estimated at more than 3 million, involving the use of nearly 2.5 million couplers and 1 million tapping tees. As we will see, this technique is not only applied for network construction but also for certain aspects of PE network operation, such as pipe plugging, modification, or repair. It is also possible to connect customers without shutting off gas supply.
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Document ID: BE5C94E0


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