Measurement Library

International Symposium on Fluid Flow Measurement Publications (1990)

North American Fluid Flow Measurement Council

Turbine Meter Measurement Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Joseph A. Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter has been used for gas measurement for close to one hundred years. In the last thirty to thirty five years the turbine meter has made a significant contribution to improved gas measurement. High pressure performance of the turbine meter has improved and efforts are being made to make it better. The meter has been misused in the past and it is hoped that the standards for Gas Turbine Meters will eliminate future misuse. Increased knowledge about the meters performance over a wide range of conditions and improvements in overall performance are the objectives of many programs going on today and into the future.
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Document ID: 4CF5F385

Non-Intrusive, Real Time Measurement Of Btu Content By Ir ABSORPTION/CORRELATION
Author(s): Bernard Caputo, Dr. Chris Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Economic realities within a rapidly changing Gas Industry has placed greater emphasis on the need for new and more accurate energy metering technology and instrumentation. GRI studies have estimated that a measurement bias as small as 0.1% could result in as much as 50x109 cubic ft/year of unaccounted for gas. A true energy meter requires not only measurement of flow past a given point but also BTU content. Devices to directly measure BTU content at typical pipeline pressure and flow rates do not exist. The best hope for overall improved metering accuracy lies in the development of technologies capable of direct and continuous energy flow measurement. The Absorption/Correlation (A/C) technique utilizes infrared radiation from a non intrusive source to spectroscopically measure selected molecular bond absorptions in the gas flow which are then correlated directly to BTU content by means of a processing algorithm and IR spectra matrix library specially developed in the laboratory from high precision laboratory gas samples. The A/C technique when fully developed, greatly accelerates and simplifies BTU determination and facilitates real time, continuous on line measurement through the design of a rugged pipeline installable sensor ring.
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Document ID: 180470BF

Measurement Of Gas Flow Rate Using Heat Pulse
Author(s): Haeman Choi, Kwangbock Lee, And Kyung - Am Park
Abstract/Introduction:
Heat pulse was used to measure gas flow rate. Direct current was supplied to the manganin wire which was wound around the stainless steel tube. The stainless steel tube was connected at both ends to vinyl tubes in which thermocouples were installed. The switch, amplifier, compressor, and timer were used to generate heat pulse and to measure the transit time. The transit time was strongly dependent on generated power rate and the pick-up positon. As generated power rate was smaller, the transit time was longer. Also the pick-up position should be close to the heater to get short transit time. The effect of outside insulation of the heater was small due to small size of the heater. Linear range was up to about 1:10 with standard deviation of 0.046. It was expected that this sensor would be one of good flow measurement devices with optimization of pick - up position, power generation rate, and heater material.
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Document ID: E7795302

Fluid Flow Measurement Using Insertion Turbine Meters
Author(s): Donald E. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many different types of flow measurement devices now available to the user. One of these devices is the Insertion Turbine Flowmeter. This type meter can be installed through an isolation valve into an active pipeline without line shutdown. It measures both liquids and gases accurately with minimum cost. The Insertion Turbine meter can be used in line sizes from 38mm (1 1/2 inches to 1.219m (4 feet), and offers special advantages, such as internal RTD, for measurement of line temperature, pressure tap for measurement of line pressure and bi-directional flow measurement. All this is accomplished with only one pipeline entry.
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Document ID: F874A9DB

Advances In Microcomputers For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Kevin L. Finnan
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses how recent advances in microprocessor, communication, and software technology have been applied to gas measurement and control applications. It follows up with a description of the types of devices that are currently available as well as what we can expect in the future.
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Document ID: 0C974952

Regulatory Requirements For Electronic Gas Measuring Devices In Canada
Author(s): H.L. Fraser
Abstract/Introduction:
Authority to establish regulatory requirements for gas meters and ancillary equipment in Canada derives from the Electricity and Gas Inspection Act. The major features of the legislation will be described. Linkages between the Canadian requirements and those established by other national and international standards-writing bodies will be highlighted. Canadian requirements, including recent initiatives respecting microprocessor-based metering devices, will be outlined in some detail.
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Document ID: A8340E6C

Self-Checking Electronic Measurement: An Efficient Method To Improve Accuracy
Author(s): George R. Givens
Abstract/Introduction:
The current practice to ensure the accuracy of a traditional measurement station is a periodic measurement station test, usually one test every 30 days for a major station. The measurement station test determines if the equipment is within calibration standards. If the equipment is outside standards, it is calibrated to an acceptable accuracy. The results are recorded on the measurement station test report to provide the data for a measurement station test adjustment. The self-checking electronic measurement station, with duplicate sets of transmitters, can increase the monitoring of the custody transfer transmitters performance from once every 30 days to once every 30 seconds. Transmitters performance problems can be identified on a real-time basis with the opportunity to dispatch a measurement specialist to correct the problem within hours instead of the traditional practice of once a month. Improvements in flow computer hardware and solLwdxe, transmitters, on-line chromatographs and real-time energy measurement devices have resulted in the opportunity to design and install self-checking electronic measurement stations. This paper describes CNG Transmission Corporations experiences in testing electronic measurement stations and reviews the design concepts and operating considerations for a custody transfer self-checking electronic measurement station.
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Document ID: AC792103

Diluent Concentrations From Hv* And G* Measurements
Author(s): Kenneth R. Hall, James C. Holste,
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of a fortuitous relationship between the heating value (Hv*) and the ideal gas relative density (G*), it is possible to write equations whose simultaneous solution produces rigorously the diluent concentration of natural gas. This can have a profound effect upon custody transfer instrumentation.
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Document ID: E1156ECC

Primary Calibration Of Gas Flows With A WEIGHT/TIME Method
Author(s): R. E. Harris, J. E. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
A primary calibration facility for gas flows has been developed which incorporates the fundamental variables of weight and time for estimation of mass flow rates. The facility is a pressurized closed loop system capable of rapidly directing gas that has flown through a metering section into a receiver tank. After a specified time interval, flow diverted into the tank is redirected into the loop where normal closed loop flow operations continue. Pressure within the loop is maintained during the diversion process by supplying makeup gas. The mass of gas collected is determined by a gyroscopic weight scale capable of resolving 2.5 grams with a tare weight of 2000 Kilograms. Significant testing and tuning was conducted to minimize disturbances in upstream flow conditions over the complete mass flow rate range of the calibration facility. Data are presented to indicate the stability in upstream conditions which can be achieved in the flow loop. The equations for estimating mass rates using the weight tank system are presented and combined with estimates of the expected uncertainty. Finally, preliminary data comparing the measured flow rates obtained using the weight tank system and those from a four element nozzle bank are presented.
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Document ID: E7606D7C

New System For The Pressurized Gas Flow Standard In Japan
Author(s): Dr.Masahiro Ishibashi, Dr.Masaki Takamoto, And Noriyuki Watanabe
Abstract/Introduction:
Outline and some test results of the new pressurized gas flow standard system in Japan are described. Reynolds number of the system ranges from 8E+03 (8 and the 3rd power of 10) to 1E+06. The system consists of a constant volume tank system and a closed loop test facility. Uncertainty of the tank system was estimated at less than 0.1% at the 95% confidence level. Test lines of the facility are not opened to the atmosphere in order to carry out tests with pressurized dry air. Air in the line is circulated by a blower compressor. The master meter of the facility is a servo PD meter which is going to be calibrated by sonic venturi nozzles connected in parallel. Dual loop temperature control system can settle temperature in the line with a variation of 0.1K. Random uncertainty of the facility was estimated at less than 0.1%. A graph of the Strouhal numbers of a vortex meter measured by the facility at various pressure shows one continuous curve against Reynolds numbers.
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Document ID: 6EA5AFBD

Orifice Meter Performance Under Pulsating Flow Conditions
Author(s): W.M. Jungowski, W. Studzinski, And J.L. Szabo
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure and velocity measurements were performed at the orifice plate and along the pipe, resulting in the time-mean and oscillating velocity radial profiles as well as pressure and velocity amplitudes axial distributions. The data acquired indicate that velocity oscillation is primarily manifested in the central core of the flow and that the jet boundary oscillates in an axisymmetric mode. Effective discharge coefficient was evaluated from a reference flow rate measured by a supersonic, calibrated nozzle. Velocity and pressure oscillation effects on the coefficient are presented. Theoretical considerations and utilizing of the experimental data enabled estimation of the discharge coefficient dependence on the jet cross-sectional area oscillation. This oscillation can decrease or increase significantly a value of the discharge coefficient resulting from the square root correction only.
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Document ID: E0DA6A9A

A New Pressure Sensor
Author(s): K.KOMIYA, I.ITOH, Y.HTGASHT
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper proposes a new sensing method of small differential pressure by use of magnetic fluid. When a magnetic fluid plug is used as a leak proof seal, its characteristic is analyzed with the Bernoulli equation. The result shows the differential pressure is a function of magnetic field. The authors put a magnetic fluid plug to seal a small pressure difference. They measured the displacement of the magnetic plug caused by the pressure difference, or the current deviation of electromagnetic coil to hold the magnetic fluid plug. Their experiments show above mentioned displacement or current could be a measure of the differential pressure.
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Document ID: 3C55ECF0

Total On Site Measurement
Author(s): John R. Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
Those of us who are involved in the measurement aspect of gas distribution are also, to a degree, in the information business. We are not only concerned with improving measurement accuracy, while reducing operational and maintenance costs, but we must also provide for the increasing informational needs of our companies and customers. All gas purchased and sold today by SoCalGas is billed as energy rather than volume. This requires that timely and accurate measurement methods be employed if we are to maintain a cost competitive product and service. Recent technological advances in communications, gas chromatography, electronic flow computers, and transmitters have stimulated the interest of many companies toward improving their measurement techniques. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the SoCalGas Company is implementing such a measurement system at approximately 43 facilities, and describe the components and their operation.
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Document ID: 1A82E9C4

A Unique, Large, Gas Flow Meter Calibration Facility And Its Comparison With Other Facilities
Author(s): Dr. Winston F. Z. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
It is desirable to calibrate a gas turbine meter at conditions as close as possible to the conditions under which the meter is to operate. This paper describes a unique, large, gas flow meter calibration facility which is capable of variable calibration pressures from atmospheric to 6550 kPa gage (950 psig), and of handling meter sizes up to 300 mm (12 in.). The calibration facility consists of a 14.2 m (500 ft ) bell prover system as the primary flow standard, and calibrated self-adjusting turbine meters operating in an externally pressurized, recirculating air loop, as secondary transfer flow standards. Methods to develop these secondary transfer flow standards, including calibration principles and procedures, are described with an illustrative example. This paper also presents accuracy comparisons of turbine meter test data from this calibration facility and each of nine other well recognized gas flow meter test facilities of different calibration principles. Their very good agreement (all within 0.2%) provides verification of the high accuracy calibration of this facility.
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Document ID: DAB61ADC

Mobile Flow Proving Using A Small Volume Prover
Author(s): K.W. Lim And J.S. Paik
Abstract/Introduction:
The pulse interpolator, which is to increase the discrimination of the small volume prover, is affected by the charactersistics of flowmeter signals. In this study, a small volume prover of the double cylinder type was designed in order to study error sources such as pulse interpolation error expected to face in field operations. The basic volume of the prover determined by a water draw method was about 9.68xl03 m3. During proving operations of turbine meters it was found that pulse interpolation data attained by the repeated piston pass at a fixed flow rate may be treated effectively by applying a statistical method. The pulse interpolation error of most trubine meters could be limited within 0.02% at the 95% confidence level. However, in the case of bulk meters, it was not possible to achieve a similar repeatability level as turbine meters because of the different pulse characteristics. Instead indirect proving using turbine meters in conjunction with the small volume prover was attempted. Experimental results indicate that the basic volume of the small volume prover is independent of the piston speed within 0.05% of tolerance.
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Document ID: 734659DB

Rotary Positive Displacement Meters Theory, Development, And Future Applications
Author(s): Thomas H. Loga
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary positive displacement meters were first introduced in the early 1920s. Since their introduction they have won an ever increasing support from their users in both the distribution and transmission gas markets. This continued and growing enthusiasm can be related to the basis of all meter selections: price, size, and weight. In addition to these three important factors, the rotary positive displacement meter has an inherent and distinctive feature: permanent accuracy . It is permanent because its volumetric displacement is fixed and cannot be adjusted.
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Document ID: 0886EAD7

Flowmeter Installation Effects Due To Several Elbow Configurations
Author(s): G. E. Mattingly And T. T. Yeh
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents experimental results for the decay of pipe elbowproduced swirl in pipeflows and its effects on flowmeter measurement accuracy. Experiments include the decay of swirl produced by single and double elbow configurations for pipe diameter Reynolds numbers of 10* to 105 using water in a 2 in. diameter facility at NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. Results show that different types of swirl are produced by the different piping configurations. The swirl decay is found to be dependent on the type of swirl and the pipe Reynolds number. At high Reynolds number very long lengths of straight, constant diameter pipe are required to dissipate the single eddy type swirl that is produced by the two elbows-out-of-plane configuration. Without flow conditioning, it is concluded that the specifications of upstream pipe lengths in the current flowmetering standards may not be sufficient to achieve the desired flow metering accuracy.
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Document ID: 6C7D0801

A Model For The Speed Of Sound Of Natural Gas Mixtures
Author(s): Robert D. Mccarty
Abstract/Introduction:
A new equation of state has been developed to predict the speed of sound for natural gas mixtures to within an uncertainty of less than 0.1%. It is valid for mixtures containing methane, ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, normal pentane, isopentane, hexane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. The equation also predicts other thermodynamic properties of natural gas mixtures in a region of strong critical point influence with unprecedented accuracy.
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Document ID: F783E0CC

Dvances In Spheroid Meter Prover Design Technology
Author(s): Charles J. Mentz
Abstract/Introduction:
The Mechanical Displacement Meter Prover is a transfer standard allowing easy, on-line calibration of flow meters in liquid service. The proving device is sized for a specific volume and is calibrated using certified volumetric test measures traceable to a national standard - such as NIST in the United States. A meter is then calibrated by comparing the meter reading against the known prover volume. in essence, meter proving is a sampling technique in which the meter is calibrated by making a series of successive proof runs and comparing the results for repeatability. In custody transfer measurement, the expected level of system repeatability is at least five (5) proof runs within a tolerance of 0.05 percent.
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Document ID: 1D8DF2FD

Beta Ratio, Swirl, And Reynolds Number Dependence Of Wall Pressure In Orifice Flowmeters
Author(s): Gerald L. Morrison, Robert E. Deotte, Meril Moen, Ken R. Hall, James C. Holste
Abstract/Introduction:
Experimental work has been performed in an effort to gain a better understanding of the flow field inside orifice flowmeters and the pressure field generated on the walls of the pipe and orifice plate. As a part of a larger study, extensive wall pressure measurements have been made on the pipe wall from four pipe diameters upstream of the orifice plate to eight pipe diameters downstream as well as on both the upstream and downstream faces of the orifice plate. These measurements were performed for Reynolds numbers of 54,700 91,100 and 122,800 for beta ratios of 0.50 and 0.75 using air as the working fluid. An adjustable swirl plate was installed which was used to impart varying amounts of swirl into the flow upstream of the orifice plate. For each swirl case, Pitot and static pressure probes were used to characterize the upstream flow field while the pipe wall and orifice plate surface pressures were measured.
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Document ID: A8453846

A Saturated Steam Flow Measurement Research Facility
Author(s): Dr Robert C Mottram And Mr Andrew J Moores
Abstract/Introduction:
Very few data exist for the behaviour of flowmeters in wet steam and most of what there are refer to orifice plates and nozzles. In recent years, however, vortex meters and hybrid variable area/differential pressure meters have become commonly used but there is no information concerning the possible effects of wetness on these types. Surprisingly there is also a lack of basic data on the flow characteristics of wet steam in pipes when the wetness is in the range 0 - 20% by mass. This paper describes the design, construction, and instrumentation of a flow facility on which research into both the characteristics of wet steam flow and also the behaviour of flowmeters in wet steam can be conducted.
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Document ID: 2620E3EF

Pipeline Leaks An Examination Of The Instrument Signal
Author(s): W. H. Osborne
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline leaks are identified by a decrease in pressure or by measured volume receipts being more than measured volume deliveries. in either measurement, leak signal is direct result of spill. When the signal exceeds normal instrument variations, the leak can be detected. Leak detection systems should be evaluated by the spill before leak detection. Simulated leak studies illustrate signal and spill relationship. The simulation suggests a method for estimating spill before detection.
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Document ID: 3352093A

Pipe Roughness And Reynolds Number Limits For The Orifice Plate Discharge Coefficient Equation
Author(s): m J Reader-Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipe new Orle unce effe a f o equa ther is s data roughness orifice pi ans in Nov rtainty of ct of pipe rmula to f tion tabul e is no up hown to be base expre and Reyno Ids ate discharge ember 1988 are the equation, roughness it the dat on number coeffic derive this i the dis a obtained, ated. Because per limit equal to ssed as a on R the of the eynolds minimum function of limits to be associated with the ient equation agreed at New d. Since these depend on the s calculated first. Data on the charge coefficient are presented, and roughness limits for the physical basis of the equation number moreover the lower limit Reynolds number in the EEC/API diameter ratio.
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Document ID: 428007C7

Oil Contamination In A Herschel Venturi
Author(s): Stanley P. Schumann, Gary Bramos,Taft Snowden
Abstract/Introduction:
Performance measurements in gas compressors pose unique problems. Under normal operating conditions, refrigeration compressors circulate small amounts of lubricating oil with the refrigerant gas. We designed an experiment to attempt to quantify the impact of small amounts of oil, below 5% by weight, on a Herschel subsonic venturi. A critical flow nozzle metered air at 2.06 MPa (3 00 psia) through the test venturi at a known flow rate. An upstream metering pump injected oil into the flow stream. For an experimental run we established clean flow, recorded data for clean flow and while collecting data the oil injection began and the dirty flow recorded. At the conclusion of the test we stopped oil injection and allowed clean flow to again stabilize while collecting data. A plot of the dirty to clean flow ratio as the ordinate with mass percentage of oil as the abscissa, Appendix 1, shows the relationship we found. We tried adapting Murdocks (1) method for two-phase flow determination for orifices but found our results to be many times greater than expected. We also tried to explain the difference using an area blockage technique, but results were no better.
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Document ID: A9ADCCB1

Computation Of Flow In An Orifice Meter Installation
Author(s): m. Z. Sheikholeslami, K. Kothari, B. R. Patel
Abstract/Introduction:
Computations are carried out to determine the performance of an orifice meter in typical field installations consisting of two in-plane and out-of-plane 90 degree elbows upstream of the orifice plate. The numerical results show that if there is a sufficient length between the elbows, the exit velocity profile of two in-plane and out-of-plane elbows are similar. At the exit from the second elbow there exist two counter-rotating secondary flow vortices superimposed on the axial flow. The axial velocity profile is severely distorted. The non-uniformity in velocity profile is defined as (Umax - Umin)/Uave x 100 where u/*, #mw* and Uave are the maximum, minimum and average axial velocities, respectively. Based on this definition the axial velocity non-uniformity at the exit of the bend is about 20%. Computation of flow field through an orifice meter model, using the exit velocity profile in the in-plane bend sub-model as an inlet velocity profile, indicated that the maximum error in the discharge coefficient is less than two percent. This was due to the long straight section that was used between the bend sub-model and the orifice sub-model. This long section allows the axial velocity distortion to decay before reaching the orifice plate. The numerical results were in agreement with the available experimental data.
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Document ID: 4210A2A3

Orifice Meter Performance Downstream From Elbows Or A Tee
Author(s): Charles F. Sindt, Michael A. Lewis, And James A. Brennan
Abstract/Introduction:
Upstream pipe configurations can produce large flow disturbances that significantly affect the accuracy of orifice flowmeters. The effectiveness of a tube bundle flow conditioner to restore the measurement accuracy is shown. The location of the tube bundle relative to the orifice plate for these installations will be discussed. Recommendations for future research needs and for improving the installation specifications for flow measurement standards are suggested.
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Document ID: 6C349AF8

Feasibility Of A Microcalorimeter Sensor For The Continuous Measurement Of The Heating Value Of Natural Gas
Author(s): J.R. Stetter, M.W. Findlay, And C. Yue, Max Klein
Abstract/Introduction:
A microcalorimeter for measuring the heating value in flowing natural gas has been developed and found effective in bench-scale tests. The device, consisting of a tiny catalyst-bead sensor, a solenoid manifold for flow control and sample injection, and a dedicated microprocessor circuit for system control and data acquisition, has been used in the analysis of more than 4500 samples, at three-minute intervals, in a one month period. In tests with a number of synthetic gas compositions, as well as four authentic natural gas samples, the unit achieved precision of better than 0.02% in best cases, leading to the suggestion that an accuracy of at least 0.5% can be expected in a field instrument. A conceptual design for a practicable portable field instrument has been completed.
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Document ID: 435BE3F5

Vortex Flowmeter In Perturbed Steady Flow Conditions : An Experimental And Theoretical Approach
Author(s): Alain Strzelecki. Patrick Hebrard, Andre Giovannini. Francis Blot Onera-Cert
Abstract/Introduction:
The present paper summarizes the main results obtained within a research programm undertaken at CERT about the dynamic behaviour of vortex type flowmeters when they are used in perturbed flow conditions. A combined approach using experiments performed on water and aerodynamic facilities (velocity and pressure measurements, frequency analysis, visualization and image processing) and a flow computation by the Random Vortex Method is used to analyse the effect of steady velocity perturbations, blockage ratio and Reynolds number on the Strouhal frequency value and stability.
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Document ID: C892722A

Effect Of Meter Run Roughness On Orifice Meter Accuracy
Author(s): W. Studzinski, D. Berg, D. Bell, L. Karwacki
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter run roughness has an influence on the velocity profile and the orifice meter readings. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of surface roughness in industrial installations of orifice meters. Therefore, industrial quality pipes, flanges, and orifice fittings have been used for the testing at high pressure natural gas. Different surface finish of these elements can result in step changes of surface roughness and results indicate various responses of the velocity profile to these changes. Particularly important is a sudden increase in surface roughness upstream of the orifice plate. Even a 1.5D long piece of rougher pipe can change the orifice readings over 1% at the large orifice diameter ratio.
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Document ID: 0D43FB68

Viscosity Effects On Small Propeller Current Meters
Author(s): Fumihide Takeda, Rikiya Takeda, Saburo Okada
Abstract/Introduction:
Small propeller current meters are adversely influenced by changes in the fluid viscosity of flow being metered. The reason and its corrective action are studied by using oil flow. The dynamic viscosity of flow being metered is changed from 0.944 to 23.93 g/cms The corrective action appears to be applied down to the viscosity of water flow, which is about 0.01 g/cms. These viscosity effects on the meters response to flow are given along with the mechanical friction effects around the meter shaft held by the meter housing.
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Document ID: 34CBF222

The Ec Nozzle Transfer Package: Calibration Of A Flow Standard For High-Pressure Gas
Author(s): Dr.Ir. Jos G.M. Van Der Grinten, Dr. Pieter M.A. Van Der Kam
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to provide a method by which test installations for high pressure gas meters within the EC can be assessed and checked, the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) funded the construction of a transfer standard flow metering package. This nozzle transfer package (NTP) is a construction of six sonic nozzles. They are arranged such that the gas can flow through any one of the nozzles or through any combination of them. Calibration of the NTP was performed by four laboratories for single nozzles, nozzle pairs, nozzle triplets, and all six nozzles. The calibration results were intercompared and analysed by means of a least squares technique. The major conclusions which arise from this study, is that the NTP is well suited to serve as a transfer standard for highpressure test facilities. The coefficients of the calibration curves of the NTP differ significantly from the values based on the ISO draft international standard (1). Compared to this standard the uncertainty of the predictions has improved.
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Document ID: A55F14F6

Renovation Of The Export Stations Of Gasunie
Author(s): P.M.A. Van Der Kam, A.M. Dam, K. Van Dellen, A.J. Algra, J. Smid.
Abstract/Introduction:
A radical renovation of Gasunies gas export metering stations is planned. Considerations enabling a suitable choice to be made for the new flow metering system are given. At some points additional research was necessary. Field and lab. tests were performed on orifice plates showing that installation effects, specifically the wall roughness, result in too large an uncertainty. After careful comparison of technical and economical aspects the turbine meter is favoured to serve as the primary flow measurement device. A secondary meter is planned to check the performance of the primary flow measurement. Tests were carried out on vortex and ultrasonic meters in order to study their ability to serve as this back-up flow meter.
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Document ID: 0106C211

Development And Testing Of An Energy Meter
Author(s): William H. Vander Heyden
Abstract/Introduction:
Precision Measurement Inc., a subsidiary of Badger Meter Inc., has developed the Energy Meter for direct energy flowrate measurement in natural gas pipelines. The Energy Meter is now in test at three sites in the U.S.A. and one site in Europe, in a project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute. The objective of the field tests is to measure and verify the technical properties of the development under actual field service conditions. In each field test site, the Energy Meter is continuously compared to existing gas flow measurement devices. Each test site has different existing meter configurations allowing a broad scope of comparison and testing experience. Analysis of performance, precision, and operation is discussed. The results indicate that good operating accuracy and precision can be achieved using an Energy Meter.
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Document ID: 06FB11D8


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