Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1988)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1988 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement-
Author(s): D. A. Tefankjian
Abstract/Introduction:
In any field of endeavor for a person to completely understand the endeavor, he must have a knowledge and an understanding of the fundamentals involved. People can do well in the performance of their work without knowing the basic principles, but to excel and progress knowledge of the fundamentals is necessary. This is particularly true if ones work is technical in nature. To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that he have a knowledge of natural gas chemistry.
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Document ID: 34828543

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Mickey Ashcraft
Abstract/Introduction:
Data gathered from distribution metering and regulating stations is used to determine the income of gas distribution companies. Since these stations are the cash registers of each company, proper station design is imperative. Obviously, improper design of these stations can cause problems with customer bills, but less obvious problems are also created. One major problem is the introduction of wrong information into the decision making process. For example, statistics created by poorly designed stations may result in inaccurate lost and unaccounted for gas figures and could cau.se needless expenditures in that area. Similarly poor measurement results in inaccurate sales reporting that may affect such seemingly unrelated areas as rate making. With these potential problems, proper station design is not an option, rather it is a necessity.
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Document ID: 4FC5BA6A

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): T. F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective is to present a specific system for on-line monitoring of the water dewpoint in natural gas. The described analyzer is based on a conductivity measurement of an hygroscopic glycerol solution. This system is designed for natural gas measurement without the need for extensive sample conditioning to protect the sensor.
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Document ID: 1143132A

Iowa-Illinois Gas And Electric Company
Author(s): Scot Hoscheid
Abstract/Introduction:
Phis paper will discuss the progression of jdorization at Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric :ompany. Presented is a review of past )dorization practices, the criteria used in lesign of new systems, a review of current dorization equipment, and the solutions to challenges encountered over the years. t Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric Company dorization began with and centered around the y-pass odorizer. All of the Companys 23 )dorizers were home made by-pass type odorizers ranging in usage from 10 to 18,000 pounds (1 -/2 to 2,600 gallons) of odorant per year. Since 1981 12 by-pass odorizers have been replaced with positive injection type odorizers ind 2 have been replaced with manufactured by- ass odorizers.
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Document ID: 3F1F66D0

Odor Level Testing: Instruments And Applications
Author(s): Gordon Plunkett
Abstract/Introduction:
Odor level test instruments are widely used in the natural gas industry. Nevertheless, the amount of importance placed upon their use varies greatly from company to company. Why these instruments remain so controversial after over thirty five years of use is difficult to understand. Perhaps the succession of nebulous codes that have never actually defined their use is the primary problem.
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Document ID: A028CAF1

Gas Services, Inc.
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement by orifice meters is an old and accepted method of metering flowing hydrocarbons. The Texas Railroad Commission Rule #27 States: ...inpart, all natural gas produced from wells completed in gas reservoirs shall be accounted for by measurement before the same leaves the lease.
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Document ID: E4F1E6AF

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Testing
Author(s): J.B. Pruitt
Abstract/Introduction:
What does witness testing consist of? It is normally two or more persons meeting at a designated location on time to verify the calibration of the measurement equipment on a specific location where gas is purchased or bought. This consists of a procedure which everyone approaches in their own way, where all steps are covered and documented on a report. The testor and witness should be knowledgeable of what to check for, and see that all steps check out and are corrected if needed.
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Document ID: 3B9F65B9

Arkla Energy Resources
Author(s): Vic Crowe
Abstract/Introduction:
e meter tube is often referred to as the imary Device, since it, along with the orifice ate, is essential to proper measurement. The ndition of the tube must be correct in eting the requirements or the specifications A.G.A. Report No. 3 and if these conditions e not complied with and maintained, no matter at type of secondary device or meter that is stalled, the measurement can never be correct. e primary purpose of the meter tube is to liver the fluid flow to and through the ifice plate under a controlled condition. e tube consists of two sections of pipe cated on the upstream and the downstream the orifice holding device. This pipe must et certain specifications and criteria. ese specifications are set forth in the G.A. Report No. 3 and should be followed in e manufacture of the meter tube. All of ese specifications are for the purpose of iminating turbulence.
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Document ID: B807AB47

Orifice Meter Gauge Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicator
Author(s): Leo R. Lombardo
Abstract/Introduction:
There are several kinds of instruments avail- 11e for field calibration of recorders and ansmitters. These include manometers, dead light testers, and digital pressure indicators. s will discuss all three types of instruments it will concentrate on the evaluation and plication of the digital pressure indicators.
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Document ID: 32CAAC90

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Charles J. Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. This paper describes methods to select deadweight testers and gauges. Also included are procedures for using hydraulic deadweight testers, hydraulic deadweight gauges and floating ball pneumatic deadweight testers.
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Document ID: 5B701233

Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Michael S. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
he purpose of this paper is to discuss he technique of using a pneumatic deadeight tester to calibrate differential ressure devices encountered in gas leasurement. e will cover the physical properties hich make this device so adaptable to the ias measurement industry. We w i l l discuss .he recommended technique to use in iperating the pneumatic deadweight tester. le will discuss physical properties which :an affect the accuracy of a pneumatic leadweight tester as well as other types if calibration equipment. Lastly, the rloor w i l l be opened for discussion of any iroblems encountered in operating a ineumatic deadweight tester or to share iny tips which would improve an operators :alibration technique.
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Document ID: D4BBCB63

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): R. Arslanian
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate gas measurement depends on precise measurement of small pressures and differential pressures . Large volumes of gas are bought and sold every day. Therefore, the utmost accuracy is desired in our measurement of these volumes. For this reason the manometer is of prime importance to the gas industry . The simplicity , inherent accuracy and versatility of manometers lend them to broad application in calibration troubleshooting and meter maintenance leak testing.
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Document ID: C2ADC95B

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): Eric Todd
Abstract/Introduction:
The phenomenon of vortex shedding was first observed by Leonardo Da Vinci over 470 years ago. The experiment was conducted by dropping two small stones into a still pool of water. Leonardo observed that the motion of the waters surface resembled that of hair. The water formed eddying whirlpools, partly due to the very nature of the currents mass and motion, and partly occurring by chance from the return flow
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Document ID: D91ABF2D

Field Experience With Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Gene Herron
Abstract/Introduction:
The automatic chart changer was developed ome twenty seven years ago. This relieved the roblem of having someone manually change the hart every day. It also helped to eliminate the eed of either contract chart changers or company mployees having to change charts on weekends and olidays (except to pick up the final dropped hart in a contract period). The automatic chart changer does require roperly trained personnel to load and operate hem in order to obtain only one chart per day and ith only one days record on each chart.
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Document ID: CB9A75CB

Problems Unique In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Unique In Offshore Gas Measurement David J. Kulik
Abstract/Introduction:
Operational obstacles have been present from the time the Gulf was first probed for hydrocarbon reserves. Problems such as accelerated equipment corrosion and restricted platform access are examples of such obstacles. In the best of conditions, natural gas measurement is not a simple task. When combined with the obstacles offered by the Gulf of Mexico, this task increases in difficulty.
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Document ID: 0DE9E487

Meter Shop Equipment, Techniques And Operation
Author(s): E. R. Crowder
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to the startup of our new Measurement Service Center at Shawnee, Oklahoma, we had two meter shops-one in Tulsa and one in Oklahoma City. A number of factors were involved in our decision to change to a single centrally located shop. In the first place, transportation of the meters to and from the two shops had become an increasingly difficult problem. Also, as the load on our service operation continued to grow, it became obvious that we would have to expand our facilities and there just wasnt any space available for expansion at the Tulsa and Oklahoma City locations.
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Document ID: 39D71162

Proving And Repairing Domestic Meters
Author(s): Ted Hansen
Abstract/Introduction:
Considering the variety of manufacture and type and the length of time for its presentation, the scope of this paper will necessarily be quite general. An attempt has been made to present the subject as it relates to the local utility company and to highlight some areas that may be otherwise over1ooked.
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Document ID: 8487F971

Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): L. Datta-Barua,
Abstract/Introduction:
A meaningful training program in an appropriate learning environment is essential to any business or profession. In a highly competitive world, fully developed human resource is what gives a business the needed competitive edge. Without training an individual stops growing, the company stagnates and at times runs out of ideas. This is true with any industry and particularly so with the energy related industries. With high energy cost, changing technology and global business environment, the old process of training on-the-job by passing down the tricks of the trade from one generation to the next is no longer affordable, efficient or accurate. The Natural Gas Industry is no exception. When throughput is down and the company is hurting, we want to account for every cubic foot of gas. When the price of gas is high, we dont want to lose that big dollar because of inaccurate measurement.
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Document ID: 4A410F03

Field Experience With Charts, Pens, & Inks
Author(s): Michael D. Beall
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of charts, pens and inks is how gas companies have kept a record of gas measurement for over fifty years. Over these years, there have been many innovations in each of the items and each one has been vastly improved.
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Document ID: 0F2A0850

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): John D. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
As operators of the 2000K chart integrator, we will discuss this equipment from that view point so that we may utilize all the capabilities of this equipment. Basic Function of the Integrator To calculate the quantity of gas recorded on an orifice meter chart, it may be helpful to understand the flow equation when using the integrator.
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Document ID: 23DF889D

Electronic Chart Integrating & Related Equipment
Author(s): Bryan Billeaud
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, measurement and calculation of gas volumes have long been determined through the use of orifice meter chart records. Machines which perform calculations on these records are a common sight in most companies involved with gas measurement. Electronic Equipment especially,has brought about substantial improvement to measurement and calculations due to ever increasing speed, accuracy and mathematical abilities. There are many variables used in the calculations generated from chart records. One important consideration is the pressure extension. The pressure extension is derived directly from a chart record. It is computed from two independent curves on the chart which represent pressure, in psi, found in an orifice meter tube and differential pressure, in inches of H2O, of opposite sides of the orifice. In accordance to the Bernoulli theorum these two curves are considered as continuous records over a specified period of time.
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Document ID: 29413675

Lone Star Gas Company
Author(s): J. R . A O m Ec
Abstract/Introduction:
The era of the computer has done much to curtail the need to perform manual chart volume calculations both in the field and the measurement office. Mainframe, mini, on-site, flow, and/or personal computers now perform this task quickly and accurately. A trade publication recently contained an article which detailed some 364 programming steps necessary to cause a programmable, hand-held calculator to perform orifice calculations. Despite this level of technology, those seriously involved in the gas measurement industry should possess both an understanding of what variables are required for calculations, and how each effects the volumetric outcome. A thorough understanding can be of enormous benefit to one who must either perform a manual calculation or determine if a calculation has been made correctly, then one can possibly find what has been done in error and initiate corrective action.
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Document ID: E367D7F6

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): John D. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing, is determining that the work performed originally was correct, in the calculation, using the correct information in accordance to the gas contract, and as near as possible to notice and report any possible problems with questionable information recorded on the chart or furnished with the charts
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Document ID: 4994221A

Fixed Factor Pressure Measurement
Author(s): Bryan Quiggle
Abstract/Introduction:
the purpose of this paper is to: Review fundamentals of Fixed Factor Pressure measurement. Present methods to accomplish FFPM. Discuss operational problems and solutions. Provide readers and class participants with appropriate information to help determine what type of pressure compensation is best for their application.
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Document ID: 3D9B789A

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas - Transmission
Author(s): L. G. Tidwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Solving the lost and unaccounted for gas problem is a continuing problem directly affecting the companys balance sheet. This topic covers every aspect of measurement discussed in this school and all leak detection devices available to the Gas Industry. This is the most generalized subject one could discuss. Any measurement type instrument including the type of meter, quality of gas, gravity, temperature, or coefficient calculation affects the LUFG. The coding of volumes in and out of the pipeline and the accounting entries are all just as important as the actual leakage.
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Document ID: 4EAA7C7C

Determination Of Unaccounted-For-Gas - Distribution
Author(s): C. m. Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
All gas systems leak. Gas escapes every system in one way or another. This is true because gas is permeable to every system. For instance, with PE2306 pipe the volume of methane lost through permeation in one mile of two-inch pipe operated at 60 psi is about 0.26 cubic feet per day. So, if every system leaks, then how much do we lose? Hence we have unaccounted-for-gas. Unaccounted for gas is truly accounted for gas- but it is missing! It is the difference between the amount of gas accounted into a system and the amount of gas accounted out. Many factors cause unaccounted for gas. Each should be examined before the missing gas is all attributed to leakage, a single cause of unaccounted-for-gas. Factors I would suggest evaluating are the following:
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Document ID: 45E7285C

Gas Theft And Means Of Prevention
Author(s): Joseph A. Becia
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern Illinois Gas is a gas distribution company serving nearly 1.6 million customers in a 17,000 square mile territory in the northern third of Illinois, generally excluding Chicago. The area has a population of approximately 5,000,000 people in 544 communities. The largest city is Rockford with a population of about 140,000. Due to service territory size, the company has seven operating division headquarters which are further divided into 13 service areas.
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Document ID: 3CA04E80

Office Application Of Computers For Flow Calculation
Author(s): Dewayne Mosley
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for increased precision in hydrocarbon measurement is a growing concern for everyone in our industry. In order to achieve the quality of measurement desired, we must learn to fully utilize the many technologically advanced instruments now available on the market. Fully automated chart processing systems can greatly enhance the speed and accuracy at which volumes are calculated and accessed. One such system involves the use of a centralized mini-computer, several remote terminals for data input and verification, and on-line printers for hard copy output.
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Document ID: C305CF1D

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy is defined in Webster as freedom from mistake or error. This is contrary to the widespread use of this term since an accuracy statement is usually given as 0.5% accuracy while the real meaning is 0.5% inaccuracy. The purpose of al near as practical being measured, a between the measu it is not possibl some uncertainty, the exact error. ing the accuracy the limits within 1 measurement is to obtain, as , the true value of the quantity nd error is the difference red and true quantity. Because e to measure a quantity without it is also impossible to know All that can be stated regardof a measurement therefore, is which the true value will fall.
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Document ID: 51EE093E

Nace And Its Impact On Gas Measurement
Author(s): R. D. Livingston
Abstract/Introduction:
The correct selection of materials for use in oil and gas production, processing and transportation is important in terms of economics, efficient operation and safety. This selection process becomes critical if hydrogen sulfide (sour gas) is present. This paper will address the basic application of NACE Standard MR-01-75 Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials For Oil Field Equipment.
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Document ID: E97BBF87

Research And Development For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Carl H. Griffis
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficient transport and distribution of natural gas involves accurate measurement of large quantities of flowing fluid. As gas prices rise, increased economic importance is attached to accurate gas measurement. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is a not-for-profit membership organization of natural gas pipeline and distribution companies that plans, manages and develops financing for a research and development program designed to advance gas supply options, end-use and operations technologies and to conduct related basic research. Research into new methods of measuring natural gas volume and energy flow and improving existing measurement methods is a part of this research and development program. This paper is an update of the current projects that address both new measurement technologies and improvements of existing measurement techniques in both distribution and transmission areas.
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Document ID: ED56B44F

Some Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Flowhetering
Author(s): Walter E. Wiktorowicz
Abstract/Introduction:
concentric, square-edged orifice s to be the most widely used : for both liquid and gas flow Other types of flowmeters, such as .urbine, target, and vortex, crease in popularity, but for the large volumes of gas at high simple orifice flowmeter is )wroetering involves creating a w pattern in a circular . conduit by the introduction of an asuring various parameters of the ind applying these measured roven flow rate equations to :ities. The design of an orifice ion first consists of calculating ifice bore to effect the desired tween flow rate and differential turbulent flow conditions, the -essure is proportional to the low rate when all other fluid dn constant. This relationship is
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Document ID: E09D8BE7

Development And Implementation Of Portable Computers For Field Gaugers
Author(s): John Gadziel
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to 1980 Amoco Pipeline Companys field run tickets were mailed to the general office where they were entered into the corporate computer system by a pool of keypunch operators. This system was plagued with a number of problems associated with slow mail, keypunch errors and missing or incomplete information on the tickets. In 1981 Amoco Pipeline Company implemented its first Pipeline Input Ticket Teleprocessing System (PITTS) which utilized dumb terminals and an interactive program on General Electric Information Services Company (GEISCO). This system pretty much eliminated the problems associated with the U.S. mail and missing or incomplete ticket data and significantly reduced the keypunch errors. This system, however, was costly since as an interactive system the connect time was high (Field gaugers are not noted for their typing abilities). Some significant data transmission reliability problems were also encountered.
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Document ID: 47EFBC1C

Critical Flow Testing Of Gas Wells
Author(s): Steve Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss back-pressure testing of natural gas wells using a Bureau of Mines type critical flow prover. There are two sections in this document. Section one discusses the Bureau of Mines type critical flow prover, the definition of critical flow, and problems related to volume calculation. Section two discusses problems related to back-pressure testing of natural gas wells and calculation of open flow potential using a back-pressure curve.
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Document ID: A4D89809

Other Flow Measuring Devices Gas( & Liquids)
Author(s): Jerry Broadway
Abstract/Introduction:
or closed-piping systems. These flowmeters can e classified in many different ways. For this aper, they w i l l be classified as follows: Mass, ositive Displacement and Differential Pressure. he topic of this paper is Other Flow Measuring levices. Therefore, this paper w i l l concentrate n differential pressure type devices, such as i r i flees, Venturis, flow nozzles, flow tubes, l i t o t tubes and elbow-tap meters. These devices re estimated to make up in excess of 50% of all iquid flow measurement in todays market. The lain reason for this is the fact that lifferential pressure meters are simple, eliable, inexpensive and offer high accuracy. his technology is also well suited to self-actuated automatic flow control systems lecause of i t s direct measurement of flow rate by ising a differential pressure cell and square oot extractors.
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Document ID: D3E0961D

Other Flow Measuring Devices Gas( & Liquids)
Author(s): Michael D. Kyser
Abstract/Introduction:
been made in the development of reliable and accurate ultrasonic flowmeters. The most significant development for this product has been the microprocessor. This integral part of the meter provides electronic stability while unlocking the complexity of the technology. However, to fully appreciate these devices, a complete understanding of the principles of operation is necessary. For this paper we shall limit the discussion to two basic operating principles: (1) Doppler and (2) Transit Time. PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
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Document ID: CF0E6F67

Effects Of Abnormal C O N D I T I O N S On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Wojciech Studzinski
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy of the orifice plate meter standard can be achieved only when the installation requirements are fulfilled. Unfortunately, not all of these requirements are precisely quantified in the orifice standard and very frequently an operator responsible for flow measurment is concerned with the impact of abnormal conditions on the accuracy of orifice measurement. From a practical point of view it is important to know the magnitude of measurement error caused by a small nick which was a few weeks at the orifice edge, deposition of solid particles on the orifice plate or temporary drop out of liquid hydrocarbons. Perfect prevention of such conditions is impossible or too expensive and therefore the presented data should help to evaluate severity of encountered measurement problems in practice. The common feature of these problems is the influence of the orifice plate geometry changes on the meter reading. In the case of orifice nicks and orifice surface roughness it is possible to define and measure characteristic geometrical parameters. Much more difficult is characterization of random liquid streaks on the orifice face and the chosen parameter such as liquid concentration has to be complemented by additional information related to the two-phase flow regime.
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Document ID: 7D5EFA49

Theoretical Uncertainty Of Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Kenneth R. Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifices are among the oldest and most widely used devices for measuring flowrates of fluids. Some evidence exists that the Romans used them in their water distribution system. Current estimates reckon that over 1 million orifices are functional in the United States alone. The value of fluids being measured by orifices is easily in the range of hundreds of billions of dollars. Clearly, any errors or uncertainties associated with the flow measurement are of considerable concern.
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Document ID: 1CD589C5

Field Experience With Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Mike Lofton
Abstract/Introduction:
industry about 15 years ago. Its use at first was very limited and mostly on an experimental basis. The industry as a whole would not except the turbine neter for custody transfer. Most procedures were unfamiliar with and preferred more conventional means of neasurement over the turbine. In this period of time the gas turbine neter has made giant strides in being generally accepted in the industry. vlajor offshore pipeline systems have jeen built using 100% turbine meter neasurement. More and more measurement jngineers have come to recognize the jas turbine meter as a quality measurenent device. It has some unique qualiies that makes it the best choice for neasurement in many applications.
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Document ID: 9F6454D8

Onsite Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
Until now liquid turbine meter proving systems had several advantages over gas turbine meter proving systems. This paper describes a mobile gas turbine meter proving system that uses ideas from both its liquid prover counterpart and some new ideas that specifically pertain to gas measurement. Arkla Energy Resources is currently using it to prove 3 thru 8 gas turbine meters at the meter station site under actual operating conditions. This system has several advantages over previous methods of proving gas turbine meters.
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Document ID: D129C1FC

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people must have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including meter calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc. To understand the fundamentals one must be familiar with the definitions of the terms that are used in day to day gas measurement operations. He also must know how to convert some values from one quantity as measured to another quantity that is called for in the gas purchase or sales contracts. Below are listed some of the most commonly used terms and their definitions along with some examples of various conversions that must be made from time to time by people working in the natural gas industry
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Document ID: 3F2554EA

Runlwlcwlalo Ur Liquid Lukdint,
Author(s): Chuck Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid turbine meters have been used to measure the flow of liquids in a pipe for over a hundred years. The first designs, of course, were not as precise as the meters that are in use today. In fact, if there had not been a need by the early aerospace industry to develop meters to accurately measure exotic jet fuels and liquid rocket fuels in the 1950s, the evolution of the meter into the present configurations may not have happened. The acceptance of liquid turbine meters was officially made by the petroleum industry in 1970 when the American Petroleum Institute (API) adopted Standard 2534, Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Turbine Meter Systems. In 1976, the API dedicated Chapter 5, Section 3 of the Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards to turbine meters. These standards outline the use of the turbine meter for custody transfer of a variety of hydrocarbon liquid
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Document ID: D6867FC8

Measurement Fundamentals - Crude And Refined Products
Author(s): m. J. Joe Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
Ul liquids expand and contract with changes in emperature. Water varies almost 2% per 100F, ihile a typical crude oil varies 2% per 40F and a gas :ondensate varies 2% per 35F. Corrections for ihanges in volume with changes in temperature must e made for accurate measurement because the price f liquid hydrocarbon products, whether crude oil or efined products, is based upon the volume that exists it a standard temperature, either 60F or 15C. Thus ve have two major terms in liquid hydrocarbon neasurement, gross volume and net volume. ross volume is the volume of liquid that passes hrough the meter at line conditions of temperature tnd pressure. If the temperature is above 60F, the iquid will have expanded and will register a higher olume than the standard volume. If the liquid emperature is below 60F, the liquid will have :ontracted and the meter will register less than the olume at 60F. For these reasons, temperature :orrection factors are applied to the gross volume and he resulting figure is known as the net volume. The standards for measurement of liquid hydrocarbons ire available in the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 12. This aper will summarize some of the fundamentals that ire defined in the API measurement manual.
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Document ID: 8F8F66A6

Conventional Liquid Flow Provers
Author(s): Drew S. Weaver,
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of a liquid flow prover is to provide a precise means for calibrating flow meters. Provers are most commonly used to calibrate turbine meters or positive displacement meters, although they may also be used with other types of meters. A prover provides a known standard for comparison to the meter output, and, in application, is used to establish factors for correction to the indicated volume of the meter to which it is connected, thereby resulting in more precise measurement. The three common types of provers include:
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Document ID: 434C6FED

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Galen m. Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
The small volume prover was developed and introduced to our industry as a reliable, cost effective alternative to mobile and stationary uni-directional and bi-directional provers, master meters, and even the volumetric can. The device has proven itself in every situation ranging from high gravity crude oil applications to low gravity, high pressure, dense phase products and an astounding variety of applications in between. Even so, the small volume prover is not the all purpose prover nor the every mans portable calibration unit. After purchase alterations , safety considerations , operational logistics , and personnel requirements are no less complex than the device itself.
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Document ID: 753DA415

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Charles G. Shannon
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid flow meters are the cash registers of the industry. Whether the liquid meter is used in a plant for internal measurement for inventory control purposes, or in transactions between producers and pipelines, pipelines and refiners, refiners and marketers, valuable commodities, crude oil, refined products and liquified petroleum gases are bought and paid for based on what these meters say is going through them. The liquid meter
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Document ID: 03C1D670

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Mike Yancey
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid meter proving may be defined as the method used to establish the relationship of a meters indicated volume throughput to the actual volume delivered. This relationship is called a meter factor. Evidence of this relationship is acquired by testing the meter throughput against a known volume. A prover provides the known volume required for meter proving and subsequent meter factoring to correct for meter inaccuracies. A provers known volume is established through a procedure called a waterdraw, using National Bureau of Standards certified test measures. In other words, a meters calibration is directly traceable to a national standard. It may appear to be a ery intricate process, however, a meters calibration is essential to achieve accurate measurement.
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Document ID: 33C3F599

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
agreements between petroleum buyers, sellers and transporters along with appropriate customs and or governmental authorities. These agreements outline how the fluid is to be measured and how the results will be traceable to recognized standards. In the case of common carrier pipelines, the pipeline is entrusted with the transport of their customers fluid, thus loss control by use of an accurate liquid measurement station is essential. In addition to meeting the requirements for measurement, stations must meet numerous safety and construction codes and standards as the fluids are normally hazardous. Operation of the measurement station must be relatively simple, and a user friendly operator interface is highly desirable. The task of the station or system designer is to transform these requirements into engineering specifications, drawings, and bills of materials for procurement, manufacture, test and delivery to the end user of a cadre of components specifically selected and assembled to work together to meet the requirements of the measurement agreement and applicable codes. This paper will discuss the various topics the designer must address and the methodology he must use to produce a satisfactory system. System
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Document ID: 05E12B75

Liquid Measurement - Techniques & Problems
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the loss of experienced personnel throughout our industry, we must start over teaching the basics of liquid measurement. When the boss tells an employee to figure out the imbalance in product measurement, panic and frustration should not result. Effective training will insure an effective response. In Warren Petroleum Company, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc., we have developed a checklist review method for our metering systems, complete with enough explanation to allow the reviewer to understand why each item is important. Simultaneously, we continue with more in-depth and theoretical training in our training courses.
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Document ID: B4C448E5

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Dr. Raymond G. Teyssandier,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper considers the use of the orifice meter in flow situations where the fluid is a liquid rather than a gas. It looks at the basic equations and points out some of the pitfalls that should be avoided when measuring liquids.
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Document ID: 8D7548A2

Daniel Industries, Inc.
Author(s): Chuck Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
There are a variety of different designs o: liquid turbine meters. The designs differ, o: course, from manufacturer to manufacturer, bu can also change with meter size and with thi intended use of the meter. Some meters an designed for specific applications such as higl or low temperature, continuous flow oi batching, or for fluids with certain properties such as high viscosity, low specific gravity poor lubricity, highly corrosive or erosive fluids, or just dirty fluids. Other factor. which affect the way a meter is designed are. of course, the cost of the meter and th( accuracy that it can provide. No matter hothe meter is designed there are similarities ii most since the basic operation is the same. They, for the most part, have the same basic general parts.... housing, rotor, rotoi support, and sensor.
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Document ID: D0A80189

Fundamentals Of Measurement-Ill
Author(s): Ronald D. Trahan And Rogers G. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
Introduction Temperature also has an affect on TrTtTuTscience of gas measurement gas because it changes the kinetic energy there are several fundamentals which must of the gas molecules. When gas is heated be known in order for a person to do his the molecules speed up allowing them to job well. One of these fundamentals is increase the number of collisions with the gas laws including Royles Law, the confining walls which increases Charles Law, Avogadros Law, the Ideal Gas pressure. The reverse is true when gas Law, and the effects of is cooled. supercompressibi1ity. These laws form the basic elements in natural gas measurement. Gas laws discovered hundreds AvoiadroJs Law of years ago by different individuals are AvogadoTs law states that under the used to convert gas from flowing same pressure and temperature conditions, conditions to contract conditions.
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Document ID: 556CE985

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Wyman Hammock
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter has become very popular for the measurement of liquids of low and medium viscosities. Its compact size, high flow rate, low maintenance and superior linearity make it especially attractive for liquid hydrocarbon applications. When a turbine meter is properly applied within a correctly designed flow system, its best performance can be realized.
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Document ID: 9E653841

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Christopher B. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of turbine meters for truck loading and to discuss some of the more important factors that come into play in this application. In order to accomplish t h i s , it w i l l be necessary to develop a basic understanding of turbine meters in general and to become familiar with the peculiarities of loading rack meters.
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Document ID: 8312CBE2

Product Manager/Industrial Products
Author(s): R. Gary Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine the strengths and weaknesses as well as design principles that are fundamental to capillary seal PD meters. It will also highlight the system parameters that must be considered before accurate meter selection can be made. Comparisons will be presented utilizing the six (6) most common PD meter principles: (1) Oscillating Piston, (2) Sliding Vane, (3) Oval Gear, (4) Tri-Rotor, (5) BiRotor, (6) Nutating Disc.
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Document ID: 6946ACDF

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Chuck Strawn
Abstract/Introduction:
Significant advances in liquids measurement are becoming available from the direct mass measurement principle. Using the vibrating tube concept, not only mass but density can be directly measured. This paper reviews the theory of operation of Coriolis measurement devices and extensions on the mass measurement principle for hydrocarbon liquids. In particular, the mass based Net Oil Computer is reviewed, detailing accuracy on net oil calculation and comparison to other methods.
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Document ID: BF0CA1B4

Koch Industries, Inc.
Author(s): Albert Taber
Abstract/Introduction:
There are several types of liquid density meters. This publication does not advocate the preferential use of any particular type of density meter. This publication is intended to show the procedure, equipment, and documentation that will result in an accurate calibration of a density meter.
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Document ID: D4DAD9F1

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Robinson Ord, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This class and paper cover the use of vibrating element liquid densitometers in applications ranging from mass flow determination to interface detection for liquids ranging from light LPGs to waxy, heavy crude oils, including supercritical liquids such as ethylene and carbon dioxide.
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Document ID: FF49D06C

Ethylene Measurement
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
Shell Pipe Line Corporation, cognizant of the importance of highly accurate orifice measurement for polymer-grade ethylene, embarked on a development program to improve the overall uncertainty of orifice metering. The programs goal was to successfully apply master meter proving techniques to dense phase ethylene orifice meter facilities operated on a mass basis. This paper presents the techniques and results of mass proving concentric, square edged, flange tapped orifice meters. All data were obtained on commercially operated metering facilities which are in compliance with ANSI 2530 requirements. Results indicate an overall orifice meter uncertainty tolerance of approximately + 0.31 percent is attainable when orifice meters are mass proved in situ using master meter proving techniques.
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Document ID: 661B7EED

Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Sampling
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Driven by the price and demand for natural gas liquids, the measurement and sampling of the natural gas liquid product has had to become a precise operation. Measurement equipment is becoming more sophisticated and, with the advent of mass measurement, the probable errors in the transfer of a quantity of product from buyer to seller becomes more important. Sampling to some has been something of a haphazard operation. This paper will cover the step by step installation of an effective and accurate method of collecting a composite sample by the use of measurement interface and by maintaining the product as it is in the pipeline from the start of the operation to the final .analysis.
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Document ID: D7220D29

Koch Pipelines, Inc
Author(s): Mark Scripsick
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing demand for accurate measurement of natural gas liquids in all aspects of processing and custody transfer has placed considerable importance upon the accurate chromatographic analysis of those products. These liquids, customarily removed from natural gas, are defined as that liquid product fraction often containing hydrocarbons from methane (CI) to dodecane (C12), nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide (C02), and oxygen (02). This paper will address in some detail the proper sample handling, instrumentation, chromatographic techniques, and data reduction required for an accurate determination of the natural gas liquid compositional analysis.
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Document ID: 208FF6C7

H20 By Distillation Vs Karl Fischer Method
Author(s): Roy J. Barrios, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
he Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) measures ver 500 million barrels of crude oil a year. his volume includes receipts and deliveries. hese 500 million barrels are divided into approxmately 1400 batches per year and LOOP analyzes ach batch for water content using ASTM Method -4006 (Water by Distillation). ater by distillation is not fast, easy or cheap, ut it is extremely accurate.
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Document ID: 7F414467

School Of Chemical Engineering And Materials Science
Abstract/Introduction:
It is shown that for low gravity, low carbon )xide content natural gases A.G.A. Report NX-19 reasonably accurate in comparison to A.G.A. ort No. 8. For natural gases which have high i v i t i e s , due either to carbon dioxide or ethane as heavier hydrocarbons, A.G.A. Report No. 8 is imatically more accurate than A.G.A Report -19.
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Document ID: FC47E7BA

Laboratory Calibration Of Fluid Flowmeters
Author(s): Walter F. Seidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas and liquid flowmeters often may be calibrated under laboratory conditions when field proving is impractical or impossible. Calibration in a laboratory offers the advantage of operating in a controlled environment which can be important in flowmeter evaluation. Laboratory facilities are available to provide calibrations to 0.1 percent of reading or better.
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Document ID: 367F3994

Characterization Of Heavy Components In Ngl And Natural Gas Extended( Analysis)
Author(s): Chris m. Wilkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Advanced technology and methodology in the 1980s have made possible a very accurate and detailed chromatographic analysis of the heavy end (high boiling point) components found in natural gas and natural gas liquid products. Data from this type of analysis is used in product custody transfers, fractionation and refining processes, plant feasibility studies, etc. This paper will discuss the necessity for this heavy end characterization, the gas chromatographic techniques and instrumentation needed for such an analysis, and finally a brief explanation of some common problems experienced when attempting this type of analysis.
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Document ID: AAE59BF4

Computer Application In Liqoid Measurement
Author(s): Gary Pfrehm
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing sophistication of microcomputers in all phases of business and personal life is being paralleled by the computers used for the measurement of hydrocarbon flow. Todays specialized microcomputers are allowing the user greater flexibility while providing easier interface between man and machine and superior accuracy. Therefore, more of the measurement stations being designed and renovated today are utilizing state of the art computer equipment. Computers for liquid measurement can be grouped into three broad categories. These categories are based on the users ability to change the way the computer operates and are defined here as Standard Product, Semi-Custom, and Custom. Each type of computer can perform similar tasks but each has advantages in specific applications. Over the next few pages this paper will discuss the functions which computers can perform, hardware and software considerations, and the application of computers to different types of measurement problems.
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Document ID: 289CAC8D

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): E. Yang
Abstract/Introduction:
The proper control of surg pipelines has attracted th many workers in the indust years. With the advent of electronics technology, it be simulated and monitored.
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Document ID: 65769D26

Viscous Flow Measurement Using Quadrant-Edged Orifice Plates
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Quadrant-edged orifice plates have been recognized for over fifty years for their excellent performance when used to measure viscous fluids flowing at very low Reynolds numbers. Sharp-edged orifice plates, by comparison, are known to perform reliably when used at higher Reynolds numbers but do not perform as well at lower Reynolds numbers. This paper presents some of the more recently developed test data on quadrant-edged orifice plates and compares these results to the characteristics of sharp-edged orifice plates under similar flowing conditions. In addition, the previously predicted performance of quadrant-edged orifice plates is compared to the new data.
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Document ID: EC926812

Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measuring Systems
Author(s): Wayne T. Lake
Abstract/Introduction:
Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measuring Systems are used to accurately determine the quantity of crude transferred when loading or discharging marine vessels. The quantity determined is used for the Bill of Lading in the purchase of crude, transportation cost, royalty and tax assignments, and customs tax. An average sized crude carrier transports 500,000 barrels or 9,000,000 worth at current prices of 18 per barrel. Even small errors in a cargo of this size cause large financial gains or losses and can not be tolerated making it important to measure as well as possible.
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Document ID: 439E6CF2

Testing & Monitoring Sediment & Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Dave White
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) have written joint standards to provide accuracy and uniformity in sediment and water measurement. Specifically, the Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 10 covers various methods of sediment and water determination. The most common method used in the field is sampling and (S&W) content by field centrifuge. This paper will discuss monitoring (S&W) using a capacitance probe as the measuring device.
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Document ID: D0DDF745

CO2 Measurement Experience
Author(s): Neil Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the last decade, a great deal of interest and money has been focused by the petroleum industry on enhanced oil recovery due to the dwindling oil production from domestic secondary recovery fields. Because of carbon dioxides availability and its inherent physical properties, carbon dioxide injection into mature secondary recovery fields appears to yield the most favorable returns in oil production. Although carbon dioxide tertiary recovery projects have instilled new life into otherwise declining fields, it has concurrently presented the petroleum industry with a great many technological problems. Not the least of these problems is the accounting and measurement of carbon dioxide at high pressure. This presentation addresses the measurement equipment, test equipment, test procedures, and operating problems associated with the measurement of high pressure CO2.
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Document ID: CF683278

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): Richard m. Sheppard
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past eight years major procedural and technological advances have been made in the area of tank calibration. France has developed and has been using an Optical Triangulatlon Method which uses the measurement of angles to determine tank diameter. Japan has developed a laser type azimuth and distance measuring system which has been used in the calibration of approximately 200 storage tanks and some vessel tanks. The Optical Reference Line Method (ORLM) was originally perfected in Belgium and has had much exposure in the European community. All three procedures have been presented to the ISO Working Group on Tank Calibration and two are currently in draft status, i.e., Optical Triangulatlon and ORLM. It is our intent to briefly explain the procedures and calculations used in the three methods.
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Document ID: C8C0C426

Design, Operation And Maintenance Of L.A.C.T. Units
Author(s): Larry Pitts
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss an overview of the Jesign, operation and maintenance of L.A.C.T. inits. This paper is intended for those persons vho are new to L.A.C.T. units and hopefully will jet them started. L.A.C.T. is an acronym for .ease Automatic Custody Transfer. These units are jsed in the automatic measurement of crude oil vhen it is transferee from the producer to a purchaser or to account for product within the same company.
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Document ID: FCD5CA78

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Joseph L. Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
with the different phases of the gas industry in the U.S., plus the majority of a similar number of meters installed elsewhere in the World, use two different physical principles to measure gas volumes. These two physical principles are positive displacement, comprising the large majority, and inferential meters, used primarily for large volume flows. In positive displacement measure-rent, a barrier of some sort is inserted in the gas stream to separate the unmetered upstream gas from the metered downstream gas. Precisely known volumes of gas are transported across this barrier during each cycle of the measuring device. Adjustments are employed to calibrate the volume per cycle to desired engineering units . The product of the volume trapped per cycle times the number of cycles is displayed on any of a wide variety of readout devices as totalized volume at line conditions.
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Document ID: 27F9C063

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): Dave Tredinnick
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays competitive fuel market has challenged many oil companies to automate their truck loading terminals. The degree of automation varies from company to company. The small, independent home heating fuel plant with a throughput of only a few thousand gallons a day may not be able to justify a full-blown automation system. Conversely, a major terminal with several million gallons a day cannot operate on a simple security oriented system. The challenge is to select a Terminal Automation System that best suits your needs, today and tomorrow. The benefits of automation, ranging from plant access security to improved product accountability, are limitless. The term Automated Truck Loading Systems encompasses several areas. One can easily imagine the array of products and ideas that fall within this term. The objective of this paper is to detail the options available along with their benefits to the user. This is best accomplished by viewing the terminal operation in two parts, the load rack or riser equipment, and then the Terminal Automation System (T.A.S.). Once the two areas of operation are understood, the integration of the systems can be understood.
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Document ID: 2868E022

Installation Of Pycnometer And Pycnometer Calculations
Author(s): Calculations
Abstract/Introduction:
In our ever changing world of measurement, it should be noted to those who are involved in mass measurement that the A.P.I. Chapter 14.6 is now undergoing some very radical changes in the way we handle the density meter and all that is used to insure the validity of its results. The reduction of our work forces and the declining prices of our products has forced a new outlook on the way we install and calibrate measurement equipment. Once a company has cut manpower to a minimum and still operate, the next is to put emphasis on more accurate measurement of their raw and finished products. This will squeeze the last bit of profit out of its throughput and possibly make a marginal plant a profitable one. The purpose of this paper is to briefly explain the new methods of Installation of Pycnometers and Pycnometer Calibrations using the new A.P.I. Chapter 14.6.
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Document ID: 30BD8D80

Measurement Of Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Author(s): Patrick Mccann
Abstract/Introduction:
The topic, Measurement of Liquefied Petroleum Gas, encompasses an extremely wide variety of situations, conditions, and procedures. This broad subject includes the static measurement of any containment, and the dynamic measurement of various forms of transfer. This paper will touch on the basic concepts of these methods, while providing an awareness of possibilities to the reader. Volumes potentially range from recreational vehicle cylinders to ocean-going supertankers, or from small field well separators to 200,000 plus barrels per day fractionation facility pipelines. The term Liquefied Petroleum Gas will refer to purity or mixed hydrocarbons ethane, propane, propylene, butanes, butylenes, and/or natural gasoline.
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Document ID: 2010254B

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of electronic calculators and computers, calculations can be performed in chain sequences that allow for less handling and ease of operation. However, it is possible for different operators, using d i f f e r e nt machines, to arrive at slightly different answers from time to time. Therefore, there is a need to standardize some of the calculation procedures. The API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards addresses this problem in Chapter 12, which is currently under review. It is important to note the following declaration in Section 2 of Chapter 12, under Introduction and Purpose: Nothing in this publication precludes the use of more precise determinations of temperature, pressure, and density (gravity) or the use of more significant digits, by mutual agreement among the parties involved.
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Document ID: 0131BF92

Are Samples Important? Daily Purchase Rate 200,000
Author(s): Thomas Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Daily Purchase Rate 200,000 MCFD BTU from spot sample 1036 BTU BTU from continuous-composite sampling 1035 BTU - One BTU Variation Purchase Gas Cost 3.50 per MMBTU (1000 BTU - Base) 200,000 (1.036)(3.50) 725,200 per day 200,000 (1.035)(3.50) 724,500 per day 700 per day 700 (30 days)(12 months) 252,000 One BTU Variation 252,000 per year
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Document ID: 8416DA38

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): A. F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
itler-Hammer recording Calorimeter measures 3tal calorific value of combustible gas. It luously measures, indicates, and records BTU ibic foot. It is frequently calibrated in Dules per cubic meter or kilocalories per meter.
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Document ID: BC7EBE8E

Determination Of Calorific Values Of Natural Gas By Combustion Instruments
Author(s): Michael C. Mckinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate determination of the BTU, or heating value of natural gas is of prime importance in the gas industry today. Most custody transfer contracts written today are based on energy measurement rather than volume measurement. The BTU, or British Thermal Unit, is defined in Websters Dictionary as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at a specified temperature.
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Document ID: 356679DC

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers & Chromatography
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
Arkla Energy Resources has entered the field of electronic measurement as have the vast majority of the gas transmission companies in the United States. The gas measurement business has been headed in this direction for several years. There are numerous papers on this subject, charts versus flow computers and chromatographs versus calorimeters. This paper will describe how Arkla has approached it. Arkla is changing to electronic measurement for several reasons of which just a few are: increased accuracy and resolution, on line correction of flow variables, increased speed in data retrieval and processing, reduction of operational costs, and reduction in capital expenditures with short term return on investment. Arkla and our customers wanted access to volumes on a more timely basis. We can now retrieve our volumes, along with other pertinent data, via telemetry, on a daily basis in lieu of 6 weeks after the fact as in chart integration. A typical Arkla electronic measurement system consists of a microprocessor based flow computer with on-line pressure and temperature correction, a telemetry communication package and a gas chromatograph. Live gravity and BTU from a chromatograph are transmitted, in the form of analog current loops, to the flow computer. This has assured Arkla that current (updated every 6 minutes) gravity and BTU values are applied to the instantaneous volumetric flow computations. As with charts, this was done based on daily averages.
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Document ID: F307AAC5

A Different Approach To Total Energy Measurement
Author(s): William H. Clingman
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has partially funded an energy flowmeter development program at Precision Measurement Incorporated (PMI) and this paper presents an update of this work. The flowmeter consists of two components. There is a flow separator which splits off a small sample stream of gas in fixed proportion to the main flow stream. There is a Flow-Titrator which titrates the energy content of the sample stream and thereby determines the energy flow in the main stream. In the next section of this paper a more detailed description of the energy flowmeter is presented. The main focus now in the GRI program is the field testing of energy flowmeters at several sites. There are five field test sites involved. In all cases the flow separator is installed outdoors as a spool piece in a pipe line. The Flow-Titrator is installed in an instrument building. At each site the participating gas distribution company has installed in the main line a volumetric flowmeter in series with the spool piece. Also they have an instrument for measuring calorific value so that an independent measure of energy flow can be obtained. Flows at the different test sites range from 20,000 SCFH to 1,000,000 SCFH. Comparisons of the energy flowmeter with independent measurements are discussed in the third section of this paper.
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Document ID: 9A75C0C5

Gas Measurement Laboratory
Author(s): Cheryl Raine
Abstract/Introduction:
The daily operation of the gas measurement laboratory function has changed considerably in the last five years at the Southern California Gas Company. Our measurement gas laboratories no longer look like laboratories . Today they can be more accurately described as gas analysis centers containing electronic equipment and multipl computer terminals. The major emphasis of this paper is to describe the computerized Gas Quality Measurement System (GQMS) in operation at our measurement gas analysis centers . The daily function of a gas analysis center , from the collection of a sample cylinder to the analysis of a gas sample by a measurement technician , will also be described to illustrate the flow of information from the field to GQMS to our Measurement Office.
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Document ID: EBCEE3F2

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company founded in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers. The pattern of operation used by this New York company was quickly copied by other companies throughout the east coast, including the Baltimore company. Seeing the success in New York businessmen formed new gas companies in Albany, Boston, Philadelphia, New York, etc. and the new industry in the United States began to flourish. Since this early beginning, meters and measurement instrumentation have been an important, integral element in every phase of gas industry operations. Various types of meters are used, each serving a definite purpose and meeting a specific requirement. This discussion will deal with positive displacement diaphragm meters.
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Document ID: 7710ED64

Energy Measurement Utilizing On-Line Chromatographs
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of process gas chromatographs for on-line energy measurement has increased due to the requirements established by the gas industry. Gas was previously purchased, sold, or transferred by volume only. Today, in addition to volume, the energy content (BTU per cubic foot) is included in the calculations for total energy measurement.
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Document ID: E1C51F25

Btu Reduction In Gas Plants
Author(s): m. Dale Dowden
Abstract/Introduction:
BTU reduction in a gas plant occurs when the liquefiable hydrocarbon constituents are extracted or otherwise removed from a gas stream. BTU reduction in gas plants is simply the difference, in BTUs, in thermal content between the inlet gas stream and the outlet, or residue, gas stream as determined by measurement or calculation. BTU based allocation of gas plant production is relatively new to gas processing contracts and is particularly important today in that virtually all gas purchase contracts are based on dekatherms (MM BTUs) instead of volumetric (MCF) contracts that were common in the. past. In plant Btu reduction determination and allocation, the transporting pipeline sees no difference in physical residue gas quality, although the disbursement of gas purchase payments or transportation charges are altered to reflect differences in each processors residue dekatherms. Natural gas produced from various onshore and offshore wells is routinely transported via intrastate and/or interstate pipelines to its ultimate destination or market. Natural gas that is transported within these pipelines is typically a mixture of inerts (nitrogen and carbon dioxide), methane (the main component of natural gas), and C2 to Cg parrafin hydrocarbons (NGLs).
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Document ID: A945EBA2

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): John H. Coulter
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure reducing regulators are flow control devices which are designed to maintain a constant downstream pressure over a wide range of inlet pressures and varying flow rates. While many styles, sizes, and brands of gas pressure reducing regulators exist in transmission and distribution service today, there are only two basic categories of regulators. These are self operated and pilot operated regulators. This paper is intended to provide basic operating principles, and suggest various applications. To understand pilot operated regulators, it is first necessary to understand basic principles of self operated regulators.
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Document ID: A8FD6B35

Fundamental Principles Of Self-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Giles m Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators are mechanisms which automatically control or limit deviations of pressure from a selected set point. Most regulators are selfcontained controllers which operate from the measured stream pressure and require no auxiliary source of power. Control action is proportional in that the valve is positioned in proportion to the deviation of the outlet pressure from the set point.
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Document ID: 8A9F6E29

Selection Of Control Valves And Associated Instrumentation
Author(s): Phillip Murdock
Abstract/Introduction:
A control valve is a device placed in a fluid stream, gas or liquid, to control fluid flow based on demand. Control valves are used as a restriction to control pressure and/or volumetric flow of a fluid. A control valve used in throttling service allows fluid to be delivered at a controlled or throttled rate based on fluid demand. Pressure reduction is an application of control valves used in throttling service. In off/on service, a control valve is either fully open or fully closed. Examples of off/on service are control valves used for meter tube switching or for liquid level control. A control valve system consists of a control valve body, an actuator and a controller. Proper sizing and selection of each component is essential for a control valve system to provide desired process control, minimize initial cost, and minimize operation and maintenance expense.
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Document ID: 8B0E98BD

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Mark Toman
Abstract/Introduction:
High Pressure Farm Tap Regulators and the low pressure service regulator are the most basic and numerically the most common regulators utilized in the gas industry. They are simple, reliable, low in cost, easy to install and require practically no maintenance. Both the high pressure farm tap and the low pressure service regulators share many similar construction features spring and diaphragm, boost effect, single soft seat, mechanical advantage (lever arm) between valve and diaphragm. Despite the relative simplicity of this class of regulator, countless engineering hours have been spent on its development and refinement. Most of this work has been spent in the low pressure version-the service regulator
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Document ID: 24D7ACD3

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): William H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue oferratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled the term unstable control is applied . Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability . This paper will not: address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station , but will deal with more of the components and their affect on the system stability.
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Document ID: 2A3F1CDA

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence anywhere in a pipeline system is no asset. However, immediately downstream of pressure regulation, its effect can be especially harmful due to the high velocities that are set up within the regulator body. Design engineers and field men alike will be equally interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. Both are thinking of maximum throughput with the least amount of noise, plus the best site for analytical instruments such as calorimeters, chromatographs or dew point instruments and a steady sense point for control. In addition, we should be fully aware of the effect of harsh noise on the working efficiency of operating personnel. A person with normal hearing will have a tendency to rush his work in a noisy environment and the result of this is a lowering of the quality of the work.
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Document ID: D0C84089

Displacement Meters
Author(s): Pack Gregorczyk
Abstract/Introduction:
In North America almost all natural gas is measured by four types of meters: Diaphragm, Rotary, Turbine and Orifice. Diaphragm and Rotary meters are classified as positive displacement meters. They measure gas by alternately filling and emptying measurement chambers of a fixed and known volume. Rotary meters have been in use for over 60 years in the gas industry. The first meters were foot mounted and constructed of cast iron. In the past 20 years the majority of Rotary meters put in service have been constructed of aluminum and are line mounted. The Rotary meters long-term track record of reliability, accuracy and versatility has made it useful in nearly all aspects of gas measurement. Applications for rotary meters include: at the wellhead in gas production and processing, in compressor stations for transmission, and for commercial and industrial distribution measurement.
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Document ID: 7F9F5E0C

Overpressure Protection Methods
Author(s): Mark Toman
Abstract/Introduction:
The pressure reducing regulator in Fig. 1 is the basic device used to reduce the pressure from a high pressure source such as a transmission line to a lower pressure such as a distribution piping system. The regulator has a history of very reliable service, but because it is mechanical it can fail. A regulator can fail in two worst case conditions, wide open or fully closed. The fully closed regulator failure requires an alternate source of gas to supply the system needs. This is an under pressure protection requirement which can be dealt with by other regulator stations on the system sized to pick up this lost flow or a parallel piping run of equal capacity regulators to supply the load. This is under pressure protection.
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Document ID: 274E8FAF

Gas Service Regulators Installation, Selection And Operation
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
gas regulator is designed to reduce and control essure to within certain limits under varying ow conditions. In addition to this basic nction, a regulator has optional features to nit the downstream pressure build-up in the 2nt of a malfunction in the regulator or stream of the regulator. Knowing how to size 2 regulator and use these features is important c proper performance and safety.
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Document ID: 6F5FE411

Basic Electronics For The Field Technician
Author(s): Louis A. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been practical for sometime to use electronic systems to duplicate the control effects that can be produced pneumatics. The refinement of solid state electronics has given a decided economic advantage to the electronic systems over the pneumatic. Now the Integrated Circuit (IC) has increased the electronic advantage with a combination of lower cost and higher reliability. Additionally, the electronics has the advantage of almost instant transmission of signals to remote locations, and the data is easily adapted to a variety of microprocessor based monitoring and control systems. The instrument technician needs to have an understanding of electricity and electronics to maintain and operate the instrumentation properly. The complete theory of electronics is far beyond the scope of this paper and will not be attempted. The basic theory used in this paper is only to the depth to explain the general concepts.
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Document ID: 5F4D15E4

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Fred Debusk
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computer applications in a companys measurement system have an impact far greater than simply another kind of measurement device. The reason for this impact is the many different groups of people that use information from the metering site. This list includes: 1. Measurement Group 2. Maintenance Group 3. Operations Group 4. Accounting Group 5. Management These different groups have very different needs, all of which must be satisfied by the measurement device. Some are interested in the accuracy of the device, others will be interested with the ease of installation and maintenance, while still others will be concerned with the audit trail for data and calculations. Flow computer applications in gas measurement and control must be designed as a system. This is important to insure that the needs of all groups using the flow data are satisfied. Consideration should be given as to how the current functions can be emulated or improved with flow computers. The logical first step is to look at the measurement getting accurate volumes.
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Document ID: 8AA61633

Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): R. C. Walton
Abstract/Introduction:
Selecting the right Electronic Flow Computer EFC) device for your company or application /ill determine its success. There are now ieveral companies which manufacture EFC devices. Jhile they are similar, each offers options specific to their respective product. he capabilities of the unit selected should e determined by the application. This could e for specific locations or for general reilacement of existing gas measurement equiplent.
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Document ID: 69B54A72

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): Steve Damato
Abstract/Introduction:
have more and more information available to adequately manage any business. Certainly, this is no less true for a gas utility than it is for any other commercial business. Until recently however, it has been uneconomical for the utility to obtain all of the information it needs for efficient system operation because of the diversity of its customers. Now, because of recent advances in technology, it is becoming more and more feasible to collect the information needed. Several different communications technologies are currently maturing into economically justifiable systems. This paper concentrates on technologies that provide automatic data transmissions to a central receiver or location. The two technologies I will be discussing are radio systems and telephone systems. After discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each technology I will be talking about some specific applications natural gas companies have and how these technologies apply. These applications include Town Boarder Station and Gate Station monitoring, large industrial and commercial customers, transportation or carriage accounts and automatic residential meter reading.
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Document ID: 2872FC56

Real Time Electronic Flow Measurement
Author(s): Michael J. Ready
Abstract/Introduction:
was considered mostly as a nuisance that came with valuable crude oil rather than an asset and was flared to the atmosphere. The flow rate in the first pipelines was approximated by the line pressure. Imagine how difficult it was to sell the concept of using meters and chart recorders when gas was selling for 5 cents per MCF! During World War II, major trunklines were laid connecting customers with the gas supplies in the Southwest. The two pen circular chart recorder had become the standard readout device for the ubiquitous orifice fitting. Hundreds of thousands of these charts were collected from the field meters, checked for gross inaccuracy, and integrated to obtain standard volumes for billing purposes. The time delay from the actual gas flow until the bill was mailed took from two to eight weeks. The charts were not only used for billing but for wellhead and pipeline operation. They gave vital information concerning shut-in timing, visual indication of real-time differential and static pressures, indication of fluctuating flow, indications of under and over ranging, and also gave hints of potential icing problems in the line.
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Document ID: E7FCE2D1

Application Of Micro-Processor To Flow Recorders
Author(s): Russ Arslanian
Abstract/Introduction:
With the present trends in the cost of natural gas, it is easy to see where the measurement and accounting for gas will receive much more attention in the years ahead. When the price of natural gas was low, it was difficult to justify the use of good measuring equipment however, since new contract gas prices are sometimes more than 10 times earlier rates , there is a definite need for more accurate and convenient methods of determining gas volumes. Until recently very few innovations have transpired with the mechanical chart recorders, and people have accepted the tradition al problems of clock malfunctions , non-inking , changer errors, and the lengthy lag time between time of actual gas flow and time of reporting. Now, however, new electronic technologies are available and one such example is the digital flow totalizer which is adapted to the classical orifice meter.
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Document ID: CB65C4E9

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems & Flow Computers
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a basic paper illustrating the various types of telemetering and flow computing systems as utilized in the Gas Industry. The paper will be general in nature, as the subject matter represents an entire field of endeavor. Therefore, only basic fundamentals of the various types of flow computing and telemetering systems will be covered in this paper.
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Document ID: 0F6BF64C

Basic Devices And Techniques For Supervisory Control And Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Randle L. Overbey
Abstract/Introduction:
Telemetry and supervisory control systems refer to a very broad and complex area in the field of process control. The scope of this paper will be limited to the explanation of fundamental concepts and methods widely used in the natural gas distribution and transmission industries. A basic definiti is the process o measurements and measurements to transmitted to a station, at whic tion is converte can be interpret data transmitted on for telemetering f gathering necessary converting these a form which may be central location or h time the informad to a form which ed usefully. The is called telemetry. Supervisory control consists of any device or combination of devices which provide the necessary intelligence to increase, decrease, or change various parameters to maintain operation within certain desired limits. These parameters may include differential pressures, static pressures, instantaneous volumes, etc.
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Document ID: 0C494A20

High Pressure Measuring & Regulator Station Design
Author(s): Melanie A. Acord
Abstract/Introduction:
Station design begins with determining basic requirements of the station itself. These basics include determining class location, maximum and minimum station inlet pressures, maximum and minimum flow rates, and controlled pressure. Once these have been determined component selection can be made.
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Document ID: EFE5CA32

Measurement With Battery-Powered Field Flow Computers
Author(s): Fred Debusk
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 1980 the industry has had battery powered flow computers available for gas measurement in remote areas where commercial power was not available. It has taken time for the industry to realize that faster and more accurate data is required due to the cost of gas and the changes in regulations. In addition to the need to automate their systems and to get their data, the battery powered field flow computer must be adaptable with telemetry systems. Since the introduction of the first battery powered field flow computer by Daniel Industries in 1980, numerous changes have been made. Before we examine these changes, lets start at the beginning.
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Document ID: 2C6305E8

Measurement With Battery Powered Field Flow Computers
Author(s): D. R. Dave() Looper
Abstract/Introduction:
Discussions on electronic gas measurement must necessarily be targeted to specific types of measurement devices and the types of information to be conveyed. To address these two points, it is important to note that the type of measurement that I will discuss today, is orifice measurement. The information that I will address has regard to flow computer operation after initial installation and how this operation might influence buying decisions. To begin, there are several manufacturers now offering flow computer technology. Some manufacturers have been around for many years, while others have evolved seemingly overnight. The reason for the influx of electronic gas measurement technology has regard to several givens that should be mentioned, at least briefly.
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Document ID: 26C3A884

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a great deal of interest in applying electronic measurement and computing techniques to gas volume correction. What are the advantages of digital electronics which have caused so much anticipation? What benefits can really be expected?
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Document ID: 89E5E967

Correcting And Recording Instruments As Applied To Displacement And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
as is traditionally purchased and sold in sandardized volume units, such as the tandard Cubic Foot (SCF). The SCF volume 5 referenced to a particular pressure and imperature, called the base or contract ressure and temperature, commonly 14.73 3IA and 60 deg. F. By converting gas ?lume measured under different conditions f pressure and temperature to the equivaint Standard Volume units, the purchased lantity is measured consistently, and juitable custody transfer is achieved.
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Document ID: 7F24B330

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Bernard J. Kemperman
Abstract/Introduction:
Jatural gas, p a r t i c u l a r l y in large volumes, is seldom if ever sold at the conditions of jressure and temperature at which a standard :ubic foot (SCF) is defined. The conditions )f pressure and temperature at which gas is i e l i v e r e d to the customer are often called l i n e conditions and the volume measured i t these conditions is usually referred to is line volume. This line volume must be :onverted to standard cubic feet or base volume is the price of gas is expressed at base con- J i t i o n s . The base temperature in the United states is 60F but the base pressure can vary: cor example, in Texas the base pressure is L4.65 psia, in most other states it is 14.73 ) s i a , while in Louisiana it is 15.025 psia.
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Document ID: 5EC3B329

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Device
Author(s): J. Knazko
Abstract/Introduction:
As long as gas is flowing through a meter, the meter is measuring it continuously. It may only advance the counter ever 10 CF, but the meter is always in motion. Now we have to convert motion into an electrical signal. Possible, but not really necessary. All we need is for the meter tc tell us when 10 cubic feet passed through it and the next ten and so on. We do it with pulses. But what is a pulse and where does it come from?
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Document ID: C8D4829A

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of measured volume to base conditions at the meter site has long been the exclusive domain of mechanical correcting devices. Until recently, electronics have been slow to penetrate this area of measurement, and for good reason. Mechanical correctors must operate in a wide variety of climates, under severe temperature conditions and without an external source of power. These are stringent conditions for any product, especially for a device whose primary property is accuracy. While digital computers and advanced transducer technology have made base volume computation not only feasible but highly accurate, their use has generally been restricted to protected areas where electrical power is readily available. Recently, battery powered and solar assisted instruments have been introduced which offer a solution to the power supply problem.
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Document ID: 294119D9

Instruments For The Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): E. L. Collins
Abstract/Introduction:
The Kimray Gas Gravitometer is a precision instrument. If handled carefully it will give precision readings and a long service life.
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Document ID: 258D6140

Instruments Tor The Determination Of, Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): Chuck Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental to understanding specific gravity instruments and their use is the definition of specific gravity. Specific gravity is formally defined as the ratio of weight of a body to the weight of another body of equal volume taken as a standard unit. For gases, the standard is generally dry air. For example: Two tanks containing equal volumes of a gas and of dry air were weighed. After accounting for the weight of the containers, the dry air weighed one pound and the gas weighed 0.6 pounds. Using the definition of specific gravity:
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Document ID: C730621A

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Kenneth E. Embry
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is the most widely accepted device for the measurement of natural gas and other fluids in a pipeline. The primary element of the orifice meter consists of an orifice plate, orifice fitting or holding device and adjacent piping which is more commonly referred to as a meter tube. The properly designed meter tube should follow the guidelines for manufacture as established by the American Gas Association Report No. 3 or American National Standards/ Institute/American Petroleum Institute (ANSI/API) 2530, herein referred to as AGA #3. This paper will address the application and operation of different orifice fittings and meter tube design considerations according to AGA #3.
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Document ID: 1CEB9911

Instruments For The Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): G. D. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
C o m p u t a t i o n of n a t u r a l gas flow v o l u m e, / h e n m e a s u r e d by o r i f i c e m e t e r , is made by a s i n g t h e f o r m u la Qb C X VHwPf /here Qb is the quantity, Hw is the differential, and Pf the absolute static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, supercompressibility factor and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors the values of the quantities from which they are derived must either be assumed or measured. This paper will deal with those instruments measuring specific gravity. (For further details of the flow computation refer to A.G.A. Gas Measurement Report No. 3).
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Document ID: EDA06D06

Instruments For The Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): Marsha C. Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
The term specific gravity was replaced by the term relative density by the American Gas Association in 1985. By definition, the term is dimensionless, although it is normally referred to in specific gravity units (SGU). This paper uses the outdated term specific gravity as it is currently better recognized by gas industry personnel. The earliest definition of specific gravity was the ratio of gas density to air density when both are at the same temperature and pressure this is now called real specific gravity. Ideal specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the molecular weight of the gas to the molecular weight of air. Gas gravitometers that are calibrated with reference gases may be used to obtain either real or ideal specific gravity. The value assigned to the reference gases used in the calibration is the only determining factor.
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Document ID: C1709CD5

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): George Borst
Abstract/Introduction:
The density of a fluid is an important physical property. A knowledge of fluid density is vital to a broad spectrum of measurements in fluid mechanics. In fluid flow measurement, an existing knowledge of flowing density is primary to the precise metering of volume and mass flow. The Densitometer is one sensing component in a measurement system. The installation design and its relationship to systematic errors is explored relative to impact on accuracy. Various on-line systems for field calibration are reviewed.
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Document ID: FB31048D

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): William R. Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
Im sure most of you know more about the se units than Ill ever know however, 1 would like to present this paper with an open discussion of iiome of the symptoms and various checks of the unit . Also, I would like to discuss a sample system which has proven to prolong eel!, life in most cases. One gallon of water weighs approximately seven pound:. Try and disperse this in a room 100 f t . high , 100 f t . long and 100 f t. wide . This is a million cubic feet . This is very dry as compared with the surrounding atmosphere , usually 100% humidity . The most this analyzer will read is 1/10 of 1%. The seven pounds is what most gas contracts a rewritten around , so the moisture determination is very critical and a very good sample method must be used to get a good representative sample to the analyzer . The analyzer only reads what you deliver to the unit.
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Document ID: 9992D498

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): Lee m. Gates
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion is to present an overview of the problems most commonly encountered in the analysis of natural gas for water vapor content , and to provide details on the successful application of the thin film aluminum oxide moisture sensor to this type of measurement . WHY MEASURE MOISTURE
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Document ID: 144FD539

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Of all the devices available for measuring water vapor content in gases. Bureau of Mines Type Chilled Mirror Dew Point Testers are the most widely used. These Testers determine water content in numerous natural and industrial gases, provide an accuracy better than 0.2F (Bureau of Mines tests), enable determinations in the field under adverse lighting, need not be recalibrated, and are easily transported and set up in the field. They have been so popular because they duplicate the conditions required by the definition of dew point: When a gas-water vapor is cooled out of contact with liquid water, the humidity of the water content remains constant, but saturation increases until it reaches 100 percent. Then moisture begins to condense. The temperature at condensation is known as dew point and can be converted with standard charts to moisture content. This determination is the classical method demonstrated in high school chemistry and physics courses. However, for the Bureau of Mines Dew Point Tester, the classical procedure has been modified to make it suitable for measuring dew point at high pressures. It is accomplished by enclosing a mirror, which is chilled by refrigerant and on which moisture condenses, in a pressure chamber. A window in the pressure chamber allows viewing of moisture condensation.
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Document ID: BAD2BB2A

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
A major problem with many electrical property moisture measuring instruments in the Natural Gas Industry has been their contamination by hydrocarbons, glycol, or various inhibitors. The Automatic titrator is a reliable and accurate method of continuously monitoring moisture content which is not affected by these contaminants. It has particularly found acceptance in many locations where glycol has caused problems with other instruments.
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Document ID: 707EFB36

About Ishm 1988
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 90D793E0


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