Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1987)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

Methods, Detection And Prosecution Of Gas Theft
Author(s): Gary Hansen
Abstract/Introduction:
Service diversion or theft of r.orvice has been and will continue to be a problem that exists within the energy distribution industry. From early documented cccounts, service diversion of public gas utilities has eXisted. The example comes to mind where coin operated gas meters were used. and individuals would freeze water in the size of a coin and place the frozen slug in the meter to receive service without compensation to the utility, and without any provable evidence reMaining after the slug melted. In todays industry the various techniques used are as varied as the imaginations of those who perform the wrongful acts.
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Document ID: BB9D4984

Developmntt Of Prover For D- T A Omestic Sonic Nozzllee Meters
Author(s): A. Rea Cameron
Abstract/Introduction:
Based on the current stateof- the-at of proving with prover for industrias size meters, the decision was made to develop a sonic prover for domestic meters. Meter proving is generally accomplishdd using two flow rates referred to as openl and check. For the conventional domestic or house type meter, these flows are 175 and 50 cubic feet per hour (CFH) respectivlly.
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Document ID: F8F1F9B9

Product Quality Assurance
Author(s): A. E. Johnson. Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
What is Quality? The Jddle word of the title, Product Quality Assurance, is Quality. It stands to reason that in order to know what we are assuring we must understand what is meant by the word Quality. Odds are Qualit *- not mean what At first glance or A that Quality does you think it does. some will think it means goodness some extrinsic feature or luxury. few will think it is an intangible, immeasurable property and others may feel it is not cost effective or non-productive. There are those who feel that Quslity Problems originate with the hourly work force or are the sole responsibility of the Quality Department. None of these are true.
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Document ID: 121B90D5

Specification Of Residential Gas Regulators
Author(s): Rodney I. J. Dyck
Abstract/Introduction:
Figure I-A shows an example of a common gas regulator, installed on gas services throughout the country. The function of these regulators is the same: to reduce high pressure to a more usable household appliance pressure, while meeting safety and measurement stability requirements. Although all residential gas regulators have the same function, each major gas utility in the country specifies and buys somewhat different custom-made regulators. Standardization of many features for these regulators is often not considered during the preparation of material purchase specifications
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Document ID: 8316584A

High Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Robert J. Wurm
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is an automatic device for maintaining or adjusting the pressure and flow in a fluctuating load system. We have become very accustomed to seeing gas regulators in service in areas such as city gate stations, compressor stations, mainline regulator stations, production fields, and farm taps. The reference to an automatic device has led us to have a tendency to take them for granted.
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Document ID: 37C98418

Fundamentals Of Self-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of pressure regulators should begin with what is expected of a regulator and what it does. Regulators feed gas to appliances at some desired pressure (within limits) and supply enough flow to satisfy the demands of the appliance. The regulator serves the appliance its as simple and as difficult as that.
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Document ID: 1B48E442

Fundamental Principles Pilot Of Operated Regulators
Author(s): Doug Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
This categorizing of all regulator (plus all construction modifications) tends to be an oversln plic8tion. but exceptions are rare. Lets examine each of them closely. Self Operated Regulators An example of a self operated regulator is a spring opened valve directly opposed by a diaphragm assembly (Figure 1). Gas. at increasing downstream pressure. acts on the diaphragm assembly to overcome the force of the spring. closing the valve. When downstream pressure falls. spring force is greater than the force of the gas acting on the diaphragm. and the valve opens
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Document ID: A30902E9

Over-Pressure Protection
Author(s): Mark G. Warner
Abstract/Introduction:
Protection of pipelines and equipment from accidental overpressures has always been a primary concern for natural gas production, transmission and distribution companies. Over-pressure protection is not only prudent from a safety and common sense perspective, it is also the law
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Document ID: 0530FBBF

Low Flow Measuremett Systems
Author(s): Joseph R. Ranney
Abstract/Introduction:
Increased natural gas rates and fuel mixing or switching by large customers with alternate fuel capabilities created a need for measurement systems with a high degree of accuracy and wide rangeability. A single large meter run of the widest rangeabiliyy available will sometimes not be adequate to accurately measure the low flow rates encountered today.
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Document ID: F5DE14C5

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Gain K. Hoy
Abstract/Introduction:
How accurate is our gas metering equipment? Are we being billed correctly? Are we billing our customers accurately? In order answer these frequently asked Questions, we need to look into overall measurement accuracy of the odaTlwouiriike to discuss with you the following:
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Document ID: F64DA7B2

National And International Measurement Concerns Whats Happening And Why
Author(s): Paul A. Hoglund
Abstract/Introduction:
In the immediate future, as well as in th long range, we here in the United States are going to see international actions having an ever increasing impact on gas :easurement. Our American industry measuren.ete practices have been accused of being provincill and resistant to change. yet change ve nust. Like our nation- 81 automotive and heavy industrie,. ve are in danger of being passed by. And, like those industries, the actions of others are not always in our best interest.
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Document ID: 5DE6B1F7

Total On Site Measurement
Author(s): John R. Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
TTiose of us who are involved in the measurement aspect of gas distribution are also, to some degree, in the infonuation business. We are not only concerned with improving measuremett accuracy, while reducing operationll and maintenance costs, but we must provide for the increased information needs of our companies and customers.
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Document ID: AB77D0C9

Flow Computer Basics
Author(s): Fred Debusk
Abstract/Introduction:
Before any flow instrumentation can be properly applied to a given measurement. certain basic considerations must be taken into accoun.. The following are the main considerations, when electronic measueement equipment is being selected:
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Document ID: 6A7AFF33

Mechanical Volume Correcting Oevices
Author(s): Bob Stapleton
Abstract/Introduction:
Those of us in the natural gas industry involved with vOlume correcting devices are on the threshold of an exciting and interesting transformation from mechanical to electronic instrumentation. After being closely associated with mechanical correcting indexes for over twenty years, I must admit feeling somewhat apprehensive about facing the fact that they will be replaced almost totally by the new units. Progress is the name of the game and accepting these new items with an open mind is essential
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Document ID: F4D7CFA5

Odorization Ann Odor Monitoring
Abstract/Introduction:
This is recognized as greater than necessary to meet the requirement. However, in effect - t h s s -beoomes -tne- c r i t e r i a for adequate odorization and any odor level equivalent or greater is considered adequate. We now have the typical situation an odorization requirement set by government regUlation and a self imposed requieement in terms of a specicic odorant at a specific concentration.
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Document ID: CAF5247C

Fixed Factor Vs. Instrumentation
Author(s): K. R. Stansbury
Abstract/Introduction:
All companies must profitable to survive. Within the context of natural gas companies, the basis for income lies in the ability to measure amounts of energy transferred to and from piping systems. There is a tendency for measurement groups to key on increased metering accuracy as a means to ensure revenue.
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Document ID: 9DBA5549

Appliaations Op Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Louis J. Flaim
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas chromttogrhph has become a widely used analyiical tool throughout the naturll gas industry. It offers the user flexibility of application and high sensiiivity resuliing in increased accuracy. Total compoiition of the gas stream is determined, allowngg for the calculation of thermal conten,, specific gravity and super compressibility.
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Document ID: E82FA3DC

Electronic Pressurr And Temperature Correcting Devices
Author(s): Richarr J. Ensch
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering devices measure n a t u r al gas at l i n e c o n d i t I o n s , Gas volumes vary with changes in pressuee and t e m p e r a t u r e . Base c o n d i t i o n s provide a common reference for measuring gas, and any varianee in pressuee or temperauure r e q u i r e s a calculation to c o r r e t t the gas line volume to base volume
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Document ID: 807AD518

Composite Sampling Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling of natural gas has been discussed and studied for many years. Serious testing on the proper sampling methods has been done in a number of locations in the recent past. From these tests, it has been determined that the sampling procedures must be carefully prepared and followed. For a person to collect a representative sample of natural gas, the procedures learned in spot sampling operations must be followed
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Document ID: 3E1832A9

Fundamentals Of Displacement Metering
Author(s): Victoria L. Lockwood
Abstract/Introduction:
How do you know how much gas to charge me for? a customer asked. Sounds like a straightforward question, easily answerable by anyone in the business, right? Well, here are some potential answers...none of them is totally wrong or right it just depends on who you are talking to and whaL is their frame of reference. ...We charge you by the
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Document ID: A3275C09

Fundamentalt Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Gary L. Hanson
Abstract/Introduction:
An understanding, and proper applcation. of the basic physicll laws which govern the behavior of gases is of fundamental importanee to those engaged in the production, tranmission and distbibution of natural gas. In every phase of operation. from the wellhedd to the burner, the basic gas laws are applied several times. They must be undersoodd when designing the gatherinr system, when designing a compressor station, a regulator station and most certainly when designing and operating a gas measuring facility.
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Document ID: 3705156C

Fundamental Of Gas Tufibine Meters
Abstract/Introduction:
Rockwell introduced the gas turbine meter to the U.S. market in 1963. The original units were 6 flanged meters with a capacity of 30,000 CFH at 4 ounces inlet pressure and 125 pound working pressure cast aluminum bodies. Due to the rapid acceptance of the relatively new gas metering concept by all phases of the gas industry, development of additional sizes and working pressures of gas turbine meters has been fairly rapid. Today, turbine meters are available in 2 through ng p The basic elements of a turbine meter are as illustrated in Figure 12
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Document ID: B3EDCECA

Meter Selection
Author(s): Joseph B. Ewing
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter selection is one of the most important parts of the design process of a gas metering facility. Without a proper meter, an installation may present a variety of operationall or mainteenn ance rapid wear on parts, and need for frequent changeouts are all symptoms of poorly selected meters.
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Document ID: 4CAEF6F9

Orifice Meter Calibration
Author(s): William Bunting
Abstract/Introduction:
Precise, accurate measurement of natural gas is vital to the operation of a long-distance transmission network or a local gas distribution system. Inaccurate readings mean lost revenues, and in todays energy climate this cannot be tolerated. To do the job properly, every metering device must have the quality of repeatability. Repeatability is the correct combination of accuracy and precision. An accurate device, like the results of the marksmans shooting can read within a very small range, but the range can be entirely off the mark
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Document ID: 7438F24F

Field Proving
Author(s): J. P. Whittemore
Abstract/Introduction:
The escalangng cost of n a t u r l l gas, and greaerr emphasis on accuraee measurement by gas companies has enhanced the need for better methods of fiedd testing meters. There are presently three methods for fiedd testing meters: 1. Low Pressuee Flow Prover 2. C r i t i c a l Flow Prover 3. Transfer Prover The low pressuee flow prover and the critical flow prover involve the measurement of several variables which in turn may cause the compounding of erross before the final accuracy can be calculated
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Document ID: ABDF863A


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