Measurement Library

Measurement Science Conference Publications (1986)

The Shared Resource Concept Networking Decentralized Instrument Controllers
Author(s): Cohn D. Campbell
Abstract/Introduction:
Controlling multiple test stations scattered throughout the laboratory with a centralized minicomputer risks degredation of response time due to the single shared CPU. Using small computers at each test station optimizes reponse time at the expense of replicating peripherals at each station and of difficulties in electronically sharing information. Networking these small computers together provides an optimum hybrid configuration whereby the test station has a dedicated CPU to control the instrumentation and has access to shared peripherals and shared data files.
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Document ID: 815077F2

Shared Resource Management System Local Area Networking For Instrument Controllers
Author(s): John m. Grajera
Abstract/Introduction:
The automatic testing of electronic equipment presents many problems in the areas of computer software and hardware.
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Document ID: BA1AD1A5

Theunification Ofrandonandsystenaticuncertainties
Author(s): E. Richard Cohen
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally. uncertalntieshavebeen separatedintothe categories random and systematic, andthesetwotypes of uncertainty have usually beentreated independently. It is easy to find examples, however, where this dichotomy Is not straightforward. Furthermore, when the result of one measurement is transferred to anotherprocess, whathadbeenrandombecomes systematic. Much attention has been focussed recently on procedures and algorithms which provide a unified approachto combining uncertainties. The recommendations of the InternationalBureau of Weights and Measures (BIPN) , and the philosophy underlying their development are presented and discussed.
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Document ID: 3B08E082

Session I-C Realization, Maintenance And Dissemination Of The Unit Of Voltage
Author(s): Ernest L. Garner
Abstract/Introduction:
Mr. Garner is currently Chief of the NBS Office of Physical Measurement Services, with responsibility for coordination of these services to industry, government agencies, private sector organizations and international users. In addition, he is the NBS liaison to the Department of Defense (DOD), identifying chemical measurement and measurement standards requirements for technology under development by DOD and its contractors. For nearly twenty years, Mr. Garner conducted basic and applied research in mass spectrometry, leading to a more fundamental understanding of the sources of error in isotope ratio measurements. Following his work in mass spectrometry, Mr. Garner was a staff member, NBS Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Chief, Inorganic Analytical Research Division, Center for Analytical Chemistry. He is the recipient of the Department of Commerce Silver Medal Award.
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Document ID: A3B4A9CC

Two Theories Of Experimental Error
Author(s): A. R. Colclough
Abstract/Introduction:
Following recent international recommendations o n the combination of experimental uncertainties. two theories of error are identified and their possible justlflcations assessed. They are the orthodox theory based on the familiar distinction between random and systematic errors and the randomatlc theory which dispenses with the distl.nctlon and assigns standard deviations to ail errors. treating them as the orthodox theory treats random errors. The orthodox theory suffers from a number of important confusions about the nature of its central distlnctlon. about the combination of uncertainties and about which populations of results can correctly be said to contain random errors. These confusions are clarified and the central distinction is argued to be objective and Indispensibie. Three arguments are developed for the randomatic theory: (1) that it is implied by the generally accepted law of error propagation. (ii) that all so-called systematic errors belong to popuiatlons characterised by hitherto unnoticed frequency-based dlstributlons. and (Iii) that they belong to subjectlvist p r i o r distributions. But. upon examination. the argument in terms of the law of error propagatlon is found to beg key controversial questions. the frequency-based * distributions are found not always to be unique or of suitable form and the subjectivist distributions are found to be unreailstlc. Thus the randomatlc theory remains unjustified by objective standards. Moreover. its use could lead to the underestlmatlon of uncertalntles. New recommendations are formulated which are orthodox in general character.
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Document ID: C87A6B48

Statistical() Design Of Experiments - Without Statistics
Author(s): Michael Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Quality, productivity and value result from a thorough understanding. of the many variables in our processes. Statistical Design of Experiments is a vital tool for obtaining this understanding. The subject has been around for over half a century but has been little used in the USA. This may be due to too much emphasis on the Statistical rather than the Design. The immediate need is to get widespread use, rather than more fancy statistical footwork. A hypothetical example involving seven variables is used to illustrate the power of the method using only simple arithmetic. A case history shows that it works in real life too.
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Document ID: C18084CC

Maintenance Of The U.S. Legal Volt With Josephson Junction Devices
Author(s): Richard L. Steiner
Abstract/Introduction:
Presently the U.S. Legal Volt is maintained via a two element superconducting Josephson junction device (1). Thin film tunnel junctions are used as the Josephson elements, producing constant voltage steps V proportional to an input electromagnetic frequency (f) according to the equatyo
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Document ID: 58629837

Possible Changes In The U.S. Legal Units Of Voltage And Resistance
Author(s): Barry N. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The Consultative Committee on Electricity of the International Committee on Weights and Measures will meet in September 1986 with the view of making decisions which could eventually lead to an increase in the U.S. Legal Volt of about nine parts-per-million (ppm) and an increase in the U.S. Legal Ohm of about 1.5 ppm. It is the purpose of this paper to review the basis for these proposed and potentially significant changes.
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Document ID: 988E5EA7

Statistics At The Bwcli
Author(s): Woodward G. Eicke
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to calibrate high accuracy instruments are placing demands on the measurement community to provide calibration services that approach the accuracy of the reference standards. To meet the need economically the metrologist must take advantage of the microcomputer and sound statistics to insure these stringent accuracy requirements are met. This paper discusses the application of statistics at the bench using the microcomputer as a means improving measurement capability.
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Document ID: 7D01F1CD

Processing Quality Information
Author(s): John E. Nevilles
Abstract/Introduction:
The process of manipulating data that comes in many shapes and from many sources can be confusing to the vast majority of manufacturing and service industry personnel. They collect, tabulate, and present data for many different reasons and needs sometimes intentionally hiding a problem or situation not truly understood. But most of the time they are simply so overwhelmed by the massiveness and detail of the information that they are unable to arrive at the correct conclusions
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Document ID: 0D613F97

Space Shuttle Tile Automated Dimensioning
Author(s): James D. Tostenson
Abstract/Introduction:
The re-entry of Space Vehicles into the atmosphere after completing missions in orbit around the earth or the moon has been accomplished many times in the past two decades. Past man rated vehicles like Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo carried from one to three astronauts and were quite small and compact in size compared to the Space Shuttle Vehicle and required much less of an area to have re-entry insulation to protect the capsule and its occupants from the heat during re-entry. Insulation on past vehicles was an ablative type that actually charred and peeled away the dynamic heating of re-entry carrying the heat away from the capsule. These vehicles were used. for only one mission.
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Document ID: 99E4A768

Production Simdlation Of Test, Measurement, And Diagnostic Services
Author(s): David Alan Hayes
Abstract/Introduction:
The D.S. Army has long sought solutions ix the complex production problems it faces when servicing Test, :easxwnent, and Diagnostic Equipment (TMDE). These problems involve the optimum allocation of resoxces to support many diverse cutomars worldwide especially during times of conflict. Standard analysis techniques have not provided solutions with the desired degree of confidence. The problems are too complex. Furthermore, it is often impractical to experiment vith a real T!-lDE calibration/repair unit.
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Document ID: 7F80B6CA

An Automatic Calibration System For Ac-Dc Twansfeh Standard! And Ac Voltage Sources
Author(s): Chumin Fu, Arthur Cohee, Klaus H. Jaeger
Abstract/Introduction:
An autonlatic calibration system has been developed by the Prinlary Standards Laboratory a t Lock. h e e ad Missiles 8 Space Company for calibrating AC-DC thermal voltage transfer standards from 390 mu up to 1000 U over a frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz. This paper will focus on repeatability, precision and systematic errors. tiethod of determining the AC-DC difference, the mathematical formalism developed for data analysis an j hou the system can be used for calibrating AC voltage SOUICPS uill also be briefly d i s cuss e d
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Document ID: ED8D6845

Precision Volume Measuring System
Author(s): P. A. Klevgard
Abstract/Introduction:
An engineering study was undertaken to calibrate and certify a precision volume measurement system that uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) to ratio a known to an unknown volume. The constanttemperature, computer-controlled system was tested for thermodynamic instabilities, for precision (O.Ol), and for bias (0.01%). Ratio scaling was used to optimize the quartz crystal pressure transducer calibration.
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Document ID: 8C10D28D

Statistical() Design Of Experiments - Without Statistics
Author(s): Michael Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Quality, productivity and value result from a thorough understanding of the many variables in our processes. Statistical Design of Experiments is a vital tool for obtaining this understanding. The subject has been around for over half a century but has been little used in the USA. This may be due to too much emphasis on the Statistical rather than the Design. The immediate need is to get widespread use, rather than more fancy statistical footwork. A hypothetical example involving seven variables is used to illustrate the power of the method using only simple arithmetic. A case history shows that it works in real life too.
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Document ID: F746A44A

Progress In Vacuum Standards At Nbs
Author(s): Charles R. Tilford
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing reliance of American industry and science on vacuum technology has generated a continuing demand for improved vacuum measurement accuracy. The National Bureau of Standards has responded with a vacuum and leak standards program. This article describes the goals of the NBS program, the current state of vacuum standards and calibration services at NBS, and the operation of the U.S. voluntary standards program. Information is contained on the performance of vacuum instruments that might be used in an industrial vacuum calibration laboratory.
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Document ID: 4E7167CF

Ac-Dc Difference Calibrations At Nbs
Author(s): Joseph R. Kinard
Abstract/Introduction:
The NBS calibration service for thermal voltage and current converters relies on a group of primary multijunction thermal converters and sets of reference and working standards for extending their ranges and frequencies. The converter sets which constitute the NBS standards-- primary, reference and working-- as well as the build-up and bootstrap techniques used in their characterization over the full ranges of voltage, current, and frequency are d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y . Routine NBS uncertainties for ac-dc difference calibrations are given as well as a summary of current activities and plans
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Document ID: F67B83DB

Session I-E Millimeter Wave MEASUREMENTS/CALIBRATION Session Developer: Wendell Seal
Author(s): Brent Palover, Mike Quevas, Gerome Reeves, Charles Miller, Fred Labaar
Abstract/Introduction:
Applications for m-wave frequencies are finally moving from research and experimentation to production in large quantities. In production, common standards of performance from entity to entity become essential. In the opinion of these writers, common standards of performance are key to the growth, acceptance, and expansion of m-wave technology.
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Document ID: 8347EBA2

Recent Developments On Solid State Thermal Voltage Converters
Author(s): Leslie L. Szepes
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally, the highest accuracy method of measuring the RMS value of arbitrary waveforms has been the use of thermal voltage converters. These thermocouple devices operate by measuring equivalent heating in a low reactance resistor caused by an unknown waveform and a known DC voltage. Monolithic analogs to these devices have been developed using thin film resistor technology and the temperature dependency of the forward bias voltage of the pn junction, The advantages brought to this method by solid state integration include small size, reduced thermal mass, decreased settling time, mechanical ruggedness and a near zero DC reversal error. Output levels are raised from the millivolt range to about one volt, reducing sensitivity to noise and drift, and easing the requirements on the null detection circuitry. Recent advances in packaging technology have improved further the frequency response of the monolithic device, opening a new set of applications for this device.
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Document ID: CDB90F74

Use Of Digital Meters In I Precision Ratio Calibration
Author(s): Ross Endsley
Abstract/Introduction:
Advancements in technology during recent years have created a climate of change for those involved in precision ratio measurements. The high-sensitivity digital voltmeter, the high-resolution digital multimeter (DMM), and the lo-volt, solid-state voltage reference have all had an impact. This paper details several applications of the digital meters, referencing previous work and suggesting future applications.
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Document ID: 49F3CA71

An Aviomated System For Acceleiweter Testing
Author(s): Brent Kirkpatrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Automated calibration has now been around for a number of years. However, in the beginning it seemed quite an undertaking to even get started. to the large volume of wr work load and the difficulty in recruiting qualified people it became imparitive that saae form of autanation te looked into. It was felt that by automating we could increase the utilization of our eguipment and facilities and still maintain a high degree of quality.
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Document ID: FF58F696

Accurate Temperature Measurements Made Easier
Author(s): Philip C. Alderton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will review both the temperature measurement techniques from the past and some of the new techniques using todays technology. These new methods are now available to the Metrologists who require very accurate temperature measurements, yet wish to make them easily and in the most direct methods possible.
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Document ID: 5D2D9036

Precision Volume Measuring System
Author(s): P. A. Klevgard
Abstract/Introduction:
An engineering study was undertaken to calibrate and certify a precision volume measurement system that uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) to ratio a known to an unknown volume. The constanttemperature, computer-controlled system was tested for thermodynamic instabilities, for precision (0.01X), and for bias (0.01%). Ratio scaling was used to optimize the quartz crystal pressure transducer calibration.
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Document ID: 08121548

Progress In Vacuum Standards At Nbs
Author(s): John J. Sullivan
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing reliance of American industry and science on vacuum technology has generated a continuing demand for improved vacuum measurement accuracy. The National Bureau of Standards has responded with a vacuum and leak standards program. This article describes the goals of the NBS program, the current state of vacuum standards and calibration services at NBS, and the operation of the U.S. voluntary standards program. Information is contained on the performance of vacuum instruments that might be used in an industrial vacuum calibration laboratory.
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Document ID: 5C4EA941

Performance And Calibration Of Capacitance Diaphragm Gauges
Author(s): John J. Sullivan, Frank L. Uttar
Abstract/Introduction:
Capacitance diaphragm gauges have become widely used as transfer standards for the calibration of many other types of pressure and vacuum gauges over the pressure range of 3.3MPa (25000 mmHg) to 1.3mPa (10W5) mmHg), nine decades of total pressure measurement. It is the purpose of this paper to provide details on the performance characteristics of present state of the art capacitance diaphragm transducers and the calibration techniques for this type of pressure transducer, both primary and transfer. In addition the proper use of the gauges as transfer standards for calibration of other gauges will be addressed.
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Document ID: B097F632

Computer Vision In Dimensional Metrology At Nbs
Author(s): Theodore D. Doiron
Abstract/Introduction:
Three used of computer vision for high precision dimensional measurements are discussed with comments on the strengths and weaknesses of such systems for high accuracy calibrations.
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Document ID: 12967A97

Development Of New Standard Reference Materials For Use In Thermome
Author(s): B. W. Mangum
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years, several SRMs have been developed for use in thermometry. These cover the range from 0.015 K to 2326 K. This article will review the use and importance of thermometric fixed points in precision thermometry, and discuss new developments in SRMs related to those fixed points.
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Document ID: BFFD35BA

Graphical Analyses Related To The Linewidth Calibration Problem
Author(s): Mary Carroll Croarkin
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the intent of this paper to demonstrate that graphical analyses, when properly understood, can often supplant more formal statistical analyses, and in all cases enhance such analyses. Statistical tests, which reduce the information in the data to a one line yes or no finding, are referenced to support the graphical findings. The power of this approach is illustrated with a measurement problem that led to the development of Standard Reference Material SRM-475. Assessment of the extent of the measurement problem in the integrated circuit industry and procedures for evaluating system performance are discussed.
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Document ID: 38AF8048

Standard Reference Materials For Dimensional And Physical Property Measurements
Author(s): Lee J. Kieffer
Abstract/Introduction:
An overview of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) distributed by the National Bureau of Standards for use in standardizing physical property measurements is presented. In addition some reference materials (artifacts) to be used in standardizing dimensional metrology measurements are discussed in some detail.
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Document ID: ACA15D47

The Precise Calibration Of Industrial Pyrometers To 1,650 C
Author(s): H. L. Daneman
Abstract/Introduction:
With each new improvement in pyrometry, we note increasing demands for accuracy on the part of industry. While some of these improvements result in greater stability under adverse conditions (e.g., nicrosil - nisi1 thermocouples), at the same time we are learning about more uncertainties in the adequacy of our calibration methods to provide data representative of field conditions. Furthermore, our knowledge of sources of error (and reasons for uncertainty) appears to increase at a faster rate than our ability to guarantee accuracy improvements.
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Document ID: A1BDFE25

A National Measurement System Designed To Support Industrial Quality Assurance
Author(s): Turner
Abstract/Introduction:
It is suggested that the main task of a national measurement laboratory (NML) is to provide traceable calibrations for industry and hence to enable the implementation of Quality Assurance Programmes. In smaller, developing but technology dependant, countries every aspect of metrology from research through to calibration and the organization of a national calibration service becomes the responsibility of the NML. A national measurement system based on the above principle is described. It depends for its success on the integration of a v number of functions within the NML.
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Document ID: D045C8B0

International Cooperation In Measurement Science
Author(s): P. H. Sydenham, H. L. Daneman
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement Science and Instrument Engineering art? now emerging as universal, scholarly disciplines, their acceptance following prior structuring of many other aspects of metrology at the international level.
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Document ID: 9C050D58

Calibration Of Modular Automated Test Equipment
Author(s): Steve Montgomery
Abstract/Introduction:
All references to modular integrate ATE represent SUmmOtiOnS SigmOSeri05 implementation. Modular integrated ATE systems are rapidly replacing racks and stacks of IEEE-488 based instrumentation for production test systems. Placing several instrument functions within a single chassis reduces the system integration (see figure I). However modular integrated ATE systems can present some new problems for the metrology department.
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Document ID: D3AFC42A

Design Considerations For Calibrating Modular Test Ewifment
Author(s): Calvin Eckels
Abstract/Introduction:
Designing modularly configured test equipment presents many unique challenges and opportunities to the equipment designer. The put-p0se of this paper ir to explore jome of these challenges and at least one set of solutions to those challenges.
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Document ID: 33CC23B2

Modular Test Equipment: A Metrology Dilemma
Author(s): Benny R. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
While modular instrumentation offers significant advantages in flexibility and adaptability, there are limitations which restrict the specified performance of such systems. The customer will expect similar performance, convenience and reliability from either modular or integrated instruments. The manufacturer of modular instruments will suffer the dilemma of trying to specify system performance while testing and shipping only the pieces ( or modules) of the system. Metrology problems due to modularity will affect both customer and manufacturer.
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Document ID: 73839018

Bar Code: A Mol For Fxxiiphent Idrntipication And Tracking
Author(s): Lynette Wyrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Many paths can be taken to solve a problem. In the Primary Standards Lab environment, bar code is one such path that might be explored to solve the challenges of effective equipment recall, efficient in-lab equipment tracking, in addition to assisting in MIL-STD-45662 compliance for traceability documentation that could be maintained in electronic equipment history files.
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Document ID: F2C7D7A5

A Method For Increased Effectivity Support Of Calibration And Measurement Systems Using Advanced Concept Automation Technology - Program Acronym Ucert
Author(s): David R. Workman
Abstract/Introduction:
Maintenance of measurement integrity continues to be a significant economic and technological concern. Among the many problems which relate to this responsibility is the fact that in current status, the field relies more on personal knowledge and integrity than technology in an environment where adequate capability is in short supply. While many tout automation as the saviour of industry, efforts to date have produced limited use products which oftimes increase rather than reduce costs.
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Document ID: BAE8819C

Dcas Software Audit
Abstract/Introduction:
Defense Contractor Administrative Service(DCAS) performs audits and reviews. on Government contracts to monitor their progress. One such review is called a Quality System Review (QSR). We shall discuss the conduct of part of a Quality System Review aa it relates to a Software Quality Assurance (SQA) organization. The action taken to resolve problems found during the review and development of a Quality Action Plan to assure that all deficiencies had been corrected.
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Document ID: A18540AC

The New Science Of Software Quality Metrology
Author(s): Gerald E. Murine
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of software has here-to-for been a prohibitive subject often considered on a par with such topics as religion and politics. That is, answers rested on faith and in interpretation. There are still many who refuse to budge from this fundamental position. The newness of the subject together with its ness necessitated having faith in the assessment of a few self-proclaimed software geniuses in very much the same manner we accept the diagnosis of a neurosurgeon. Second opinions were as frequent as second public utilities.
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Document ID: EBCCFCE8

Software Quality The Furps Model
Author(s): Sally J. Oudley
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of software quality is in its infancy. The attributes to measure, the data to gather, the analyses to perform and the conclusions to draw are all evolving with the quickly changing industry. Hewlett-Packard has concentrated on five key software quality attributes: Functionality, Usability, Reliability, Performance and Supportability.
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Document ID: 10AEEC3C

Computer Networking Applications
Author(s): Betty F. Hinma
Abstract/Introduction:
After receiving the doctorate in Mathematics, Betty Hinman taught mathematics and computer science at the University of Houston for seven years. Since 1978 Betty has worked in the Measurement Standards Laboratories at Lockheed Missiles and Space Company where she is currently Group Engineer for Data Systems Development.
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Document ID: 44E629C6

Laboratory Data Collection Systems
Author(s): Mark C. Mckirahan
Abstract/Introduction:
A calibration data collection and maintenance package is being developed as part of a laboratory-wide transaction process control system that is being tested and used in Lockheed Missiles & Space Company Metrology laboratories. Instrument records include unique IDs, statuses, calibration recall schedules, repair and out-of-tolerance data, and work station configurations. Equipment status determines fitness for use and availability the history will be used for reliability analysis. The package runs on a VAX, with a backup CPU along with terminals and instrument controllers throughout the laboratories and offices. The hardware will be shared with other functions, such as instrument tracking for loan pools and engineering data analysis. The VAX-11 DBMS schema supports retrieval and update of instrument definitions and history. The user interface is presently based on VAX-11 FMS, and automatic data collection is achieved by interprocess communication, using utilities developed and written by in-house personnel.
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Document ID: D101346D


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