Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1986)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1986 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Fred N. Debusk
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics have become a working tool in the flow measurement industry. New electronic instruments, built of compact, reliable solid state components, will perform many functions that were not previously possible, and are thus changing many concepts in flow measurement techniques.
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Document ID: 7BFA3739

High Pressure Metering And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): R. . Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion will describe those design areas that are important for accurate metering and good control in a gate station.
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Document ID: 24AC69F8

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): T. Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
As natural gas companies strive to modernize their chart measurement departments, with an overall goal of improving accuracy and efficiency, the chart Integration equipment suppliers must continue to upgrade their existing equipment as well as develop new equipment and procedures. Over the past years most electronic chart scanning equipment was limited In two areas of chart processing which today have become essential in achieving the goals of improved efficiency and accuracy.
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Document ID: 4C251621

Instruments For The Determining The Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): T. Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental to understanding specific gravity instruments and their use is the definition of specific gravity.
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Document ID: 60955E66

Fundamentals Of Pneumatic Controllers
Author(s): Patrick W. Cave
Abstract/Introduction:
Controllers in one form or another have been around the process industries for a number of years. In fact, they are such a familiar sight in most industrial operations that they frequently suffer from being taken for granted. Yet, the quality of performance provided by a control system is determined by the performance of the controller and the other elements in the loop. The controller, with its various adjustments, is the one element in the control loop that allows any measure of operating flexibility. For optimum performance, it is necessary to use the controller properly. This requires a thorough understanding of some fundamental relationships.
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Document ID: 2F40B6ED

Measurement By Battery Powered Field Computers
Author(s): S. T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Although flow computers have been in use since the middle 1960s, self-charging, battery-powered field flow computer systems are a relatively new development.
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Document ID: 0793AE9A

Energy Measurement Utilizing On-Line Chromatocraphs
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of process gas chromatographs for on-line energy measurement has increased considerably due to the requirements established by the gas industry. In the past, gas was primarily sold, purchased or transferred by volume only. Today, in addition to volume, the energy content (BTU per cubic foot) is included in the calculations for total energy measurement.
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Document ID: ED6EFD15

Nace And Its Impact Gas Measurement
Author(s): D. Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the basic organization and purpose of NACE with special attention to the application of NACE MR-01-75 Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oil Field Equipment.
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Document ID: 89B30A55

Other Flow Measuring Devices Experience With A Solar-Powered Ultrasonic Flowmeter
Author(s): W I L L I Am H. Vander Heyden
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past two years. Badger Meter has developed, prototyped, tested, and has ready for sale, a solar-powered, battery-operated transit time ultrasonic flowmeter. This unit can be used in either transient measurements or in measurements in which bringing electrical power to the site is prohibitive. Typical applications will be found in water flooding, crude oil gathering systems and petroleum product pipelines. The meter maintains the sophistication of a very advanced design. It u t i l i z e s Badger Meters patented correlation detection system, measures phase shift rather than time shift using Fourier Analysis to obtain phase in spite of distorton, uses recursive f i l t e r s to minimize noise interference, and is designed to conserve battery power. The Model 4400 flowmeter has been in test for a long period, and this a r t i c l e discusses some of the experience with the meter.
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Document ID: A71F89D5

New Ideas In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Carl H. Griffis
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficient transport and distribution of natural gas involves accurate measurement of large quantities of flowing f l u i d . As gas prices rise, increased economic importance is attached to accurate gas measurement. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is a not-for-profit membership organization of natural gas pi peline and distribution companies that plans, manages and develops financing for a research and development program designed to advance gas supply options, end-use and operations technologies and to conduct related basic research. Research into new methods of measuring natural gas volume and energy f1ow and improving exi sting measurement methods is a part of this research and development program. This paper will describe some of the current projects that address both new measurement technologies and improvements of existing measurement techniques in both transmission and distribution areas.
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Document ID: A1E3026B

Development Of Orifice Meter Standards Past - Present - Future
Author(s): Harry P. Bean
Abstract/Introduction:
It is difficult to trace the first commercial uses of orifice meters. Thomas R. Weymouth describes making a thin plate orifice meter installation in 1904 using thick flanges drilled for pressure taps just like our present flange taps. This meter was used to determine the fuel gas consumption at a natural gas compressor station at Murraysville, Pa. He used a coefficient of discharge of 0.6 assumed from the hydraulic data he remembered from his 1895 college days which, it turns out, wasnt far off. Obviously, the academic community was aware of the device as a flow measurement technique well before this century.
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Document ID: 01D0285D

Other Flow Measuring Devices Flow Measurement With A Wedge Flowmeter
Author(s): Donald Ginesi
Abstract/Introduction:
The Wedge element has been used to solve many difficult flow problems since the late I950s. The device was originally designed to meter hard to handle fluids - fluids which tend to solidify when dead-ended, plug static lead lines, or quickly wear away the sharp edge of a conventional orifice plate. The Hedge element was also designed to accurately measure flow in the laminar Reynolds number range, an area where most head elements exhibit significant deviation from the square root relationship between flow rate and differential pressure. Years of testing and application has proven the Wedge element to be a cost effective answer to most flow problems in general. This paper will review the basic principles of the Wedge element, summarize its Inherent advantages, and discuss specific applications.
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Document ID: BFF92A83

Odorization - Think Or Stink
Author(s): Larry Sheffield
Abstract/Introduction:
Many people feel that gas odorization is one of those necessary evils forced upon gas utilities. However, gas companies recognize the advantages of the product they distribute and are cognizant of the objective of maximizing proper handling and safety to the public. In this paper we will cover the requirements of gas odorization. We will start with the federal law to see why odor is added, what is added, and how much is added. We will also investigate ways to make that job a little easier for all of us by taking into consideration proper planning for storage so that chances for mishandling are reduced.
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Document ID: 1800134D

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): J. Knazko
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a well known face, that with the increase in pressure and/or decrease in temperature, the density of gas will increase and conversely, with decrease in pressure and/or increase in temperature, the density of gas will decrease. Thus within a constant volume, the actual quantity of gas will vary with its pressure and temperature. Such variations can be quite substantial and instrumentation is being used to monitor these variations and correct the actual gas volume to standard conditions. Standard conditions in the imperial measuring system are specified as 60F and .25 PSI over the average atmospheric pressure.
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Document ID: 98169AA5

Other Flow Measuring Devices
Author(s): Norman A. Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
Just because a flow measurement device is complex and/or expensive does not automatically mean that it is the best or most accurate. Oftentimes the most simple device is just as good and accurate and frequently even better.
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Document ID: A72BDA74

Other Flow Measuring Devices Measurement With Insertion Turbine Meters
Author(s): Ben Wagner
Abstract/Introduction:
The insertion turbine meter is well suited for large pipeline measurement. It is presently used in many applications such as compressor efficiency and surge control, pipeline leak detection, pacing odorizers, pacing samplers and checking throughput. As a Custody Transfer measurement device, the insertion turbine Meter not only measures with high accuracy, but allows the user cost saving advantages at initial purchase, installation and during pipeline maintenance.
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Document ID: C08D6628

Theoretical Uncertainty Of Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Emrys H. Jones, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The uncertainty in a measurement is of interest to many parties associated with the measurement of fluids by orifice meters. Whether they are directly involved with the measurement or not the measujement uncertainty affects people in all capacities. For example, an energetic contract administrator may be tempted to specify that two meters agree within one half of one percent. Even though this specification may look good in a contract it is quite Impossible to get two orifice meters to always agree to within that tolerance. The design engineer must know the accuracy of the meter installed in a system so that readings from the meter may be used properly and so that a cost benefit comparison can be made. Measurement personnel are concerned with the amount of uncertainty involved in a measurement so that they will know if a meter is performing up to its maximum capability. All of these people are affected by the measurement uncertainty of the meter. They should be aware of metering uncertainty and how this uncertainty effects the flow measurement.
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Document ID: 8B776303

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Gregory C. Riddick
Abstract/Introduction:
Petroleum liquid volumes are determined by both static and dynamic measurement. In static measurement (marine vessel gaging, stock tank gaging, etc.) and dynamic measurement (positive displacement metering, turbine metering, etc.), the gross volumes obtained must be corrected for the effects of temperature and pressure on both the liquid and the measurement equipment. The focus of this paper is the calculation of correction factors used to convert gross volumes to the standard or net volumes which may be used in custody transfer. Additionally, the application of these factors in determining the meter factor for a positive displacement meter during proving will be presen
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Document ID: 1B6541E3

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid provers are those provers used to prove meters in liquid service. The basic types of provers used are volumetric tank provers and pipe provers. The purpose of the calibration of a liquid prover is to determine its certified base volume, with traceability to recognized standards and accepted practices. the prover is the gross corrected to standard 60F and 0 pslg in U.S. The base volume of operating volume conditions (such as customary units).
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Document ID: 33CDBBEA

Computer Modeling Of A Liquid Pipeline System
Author(s): Edward J. Farmer
Abstract/Introduction:
A computer model is really just a mathematical model that happens to be implemented on a computer. A mathematical model is a system of equations that is analogous to a physical system. Inputs to the system of equations in the form of the assignment of values to parameters produce outputs in the form of parameter values that behave as the physical system that is the subject of the model would.
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Document ID: 11C04203

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling of crude oil is decidely more important now that it has been in past years. The price of a product will determine the interest a company and its personnel have in the measurement and quality of its feeds (raw material) and products. Because of the price of crude oil today, the general interest in proper sampling is drastically increasing.
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Document ID: 718C1535

Fixed Factor Pressure Measurement
Author(s): Benedict J. Sherman
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to review the fundamentals of Fixed Factor Pressure Measurement (FFPM).
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Document ID: 12942F95

Development And Implementation Of A Mini Computer For Field Gaugers
Author(s): David L. West
Abstract/Introduction:
The age of computerization has been revolutionizing the way companies have been able to gather, process and report data pertinent to their operations. Computerized data management systems have enabled companies to enter data into computer systems at the source. For a number of companies, this data is initiated in the field by an employee. This is true for salesmen and is also true for oil field gaugers. Oust as a salesman will write a sales order in the field, an oil field gauger will write a crude oil ticket for the sale or purchase of crude oil. In the case of the gauger, the handwritten ticket would probably be sent to that companys district or headquarters office where the ticket data would be entered for processing in the companys computer system. Hopefully, the ticket would be legible, properly completed, and correctly entered. By now, the ticket data has been handled multiple times which poses the following problems:
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Document ID: 9B62FD78

Elements Of Natural Gas Liquid Contracts
Author(s): W. B. Acker
Abstract/Introduction:
The Agreement includes date, identifies Buyer, Seller, declares ownership of liquids, and Buyer agrees to buy, Seller agrees to sell.
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Document ID: 7FA767BA

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): John C. Skuce
Abstract/Introduction:
One hundred years ago, in 1886, the f i r s t patent f o r a Turbine Meter was issued, but the precise meter of today did not evolve r a p i d l y . That development did not culminate u n t i l the 1950s w i t h the meter being applied f o r measuring the f l ow of exotic j e t fuels and l i q u i d rocket prop e l l a n t s . The rather simple design provided exc e l l e n t accuracy and soon earned a reputation as being very r e l i a b l e . I t s a p p l i c a t i o n soon spread to many areas of i n d u s t r i a l flow measurement.
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Document ID: 2C5FCF8D

Leak Detection Gn Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): Paul Q. Turner
Abstract/Introduction:
The Dioe! ine industry has soent considerable time and effort in the detection. location. and repair oi t eaks on DloeI ine svsterns . Sma i 1 1 eaks are much harder to Detect than )arqe leaks, and in some instances, it 15 difficult to determine that a leak does ex ist
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Document ID: 96C6D55C

Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Sampling
Author(s): Paul F, Zeck
Abstract/Introduction:
Light Liquid Hydrocarbons have become a very valuable commodity. On a typical major custody transfer location, many thousands, even hundreds of thousands of dollars are transacted every month.
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Document ID: 357D7E26

Liquid Flow Provers (CONVEfTIONAL)
Author(s): Carroll Teschendorf
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid measurement devices such as turtoine and positive displacement meters have been Imown to be able to repeat outsut for given flow conditions very well. However, the linearity of these devices are subject to basic meter characteristics on any fluid, shifts in output due to changes in specific gravity, velocity profile (due to viscosity changes, wear of parts, accumulation of paraffin on internals that may change hydraulic area throu meter), terrperature cihanges (causing expansion or contraction of housing and/or internals) and various other effects. Therefore, if we can calibrate the meter at the condition it operates (flow rate and fluid condition) with a field standard, we can in essence elimnate most inaccuracies involved in measurement and resolve any doubts about the meter accuracy. This calibration is performed in most applications by conventional displacement provers placed in-line, since this prover is virtually unaffected by any of the above fluid characteristics having excellent repeatability, better than 0.02% (3 standard deviations) over a wide range of flow rates and fluid conditions.
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Document ID: A1816B31

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): Dr. Jimo A. Arasi
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of this paper is to review the design of liquid measurement systems. The emphasis will be laid on the practical aspects of piping, hardware and software selections for the meter station. The volumetric and mass measurement systems will be described. The cost estimates of the system are not part of the scope of this presentation because costing methods vary in scope and style from plant to plant. The presentation approac
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Document ID: C18DC9F5

Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measurement Systems
Author(s): P.A.M. Jelffs
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of crude oil measurement systems is concerned with achieving a balance between accuracy, flexibility and cost. Oil companies looking for reductions in crude oil transportation losses are seeking cost effective measuring systems for ship loading which will achieve an uncertainty (in volume) of 0.20% for both ligtit and heavy crude oils. This means that the designer must consider the performance and cost of a whole range of meters and provers that are now available on the market. The question of whether to adopt dynamic measurement or measurement based on already existing shore tanks must be evaluated in terms of accuracy and cost.
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Document ID: DB6A8716

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Alan m. Young
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon process industries are increasingly adopting flow rate measurements based upon mass rather than volume or flow velocity to better control the operating economy of their processes. Conventional flow measurements based upon flow velocity or volume are subject to measurement errors that occur from changes in a fluids chemical composition, temperature, pressure, viscosity or density. The accuracy of conventional flow measurements are also affected by anything that changes the upstream or downstream flow velocity distribution or velocity profile across the pipe. The presence of gas or solids, pulsating flow or coatings which reduce the effective cross-sectional area of the meter also degrades the accuracy of volumetric and flow velocity based mea s urement s.
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Document ID: B8C74389

Measurement Of Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Author(s): Raymond A. Dusatko
Abstract/Introduction:
By definition, liquefied petroleum gas is any material having a vapor pressure not exceeding that allowed for commercial propane composed predominantly of the following hydrocarbons, either by themselves or as mixtures propane, propylene, butane (normal or iso-) and butylenes. This paper will discuss the principles of LPG measurement with principal emphasis on specification grade products as opposed to purity components that exist in mixed liquids and are measured through a mass-to-volume conversion.
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Document ID: 9E993059

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. Timothy Waite
Abstract/Introduction:
HISTORY Adapted from: Fundamental Principles of by Howard W. Berghegger In 1792, the process of manufacturing gas from coal was introduced in England. It was normal that the first gas meters were developed in England after the founding of the first gas company in London in 1808.
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Document ID: C000D810

New Ideas In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Bill Caffey
Abstract/Introduction:
To write a paper dealing with all the new ideas in liquid measurement would not only be impossible, but would require a number of books the size of the proceedings which you now hold. The authors area mainly encompasses liquefied petroleum gas measurement resulting in this paper being limited to that subject.
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Document ID: 8F55EF95

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): m. J. Joe Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
While the orifice meter is the most common meter for measuring gas flows, it also has many applications in liquid flow measurement. These applications range from measurement for control purposes only, where flow rate is the important variable, to measurement of dirty or corrosive liquids that would cause excessive maintenance in positive displacement or turbine meters.
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Document ID: A30A94DD

Positivk Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): R. Gary Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine the strengths and weaknesses as well as design principles that are fundamental to capillary seal PD Meters. It will also highlight the system and the parameters that must be considered before accurate meter selection can be made.
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Document ID: 213F3566

Testing And Monitoring Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Douglas L. Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the various methods available for testing and monitoring sediment and water in crude oil and petroleum products. Each method will be described and the advantages and disadvantages of each will be given. Recommendations will also be given for those utilizing the methods for determining the best method for their application. Also, recommendations will be given to help the user avoid some of the pitfalls that may be encountered.
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Document ID: DEE9474F

Truck Unloading Metering Systems
Author(s): Larry W. Pitts
Abstract/Introduction:
Truck unloading systems consist of two basic designs. First, gravity feed systems, which may be used either for unloading crude oil or unloading products to some consumer service stations. Obviously, these systems are slow and therefore their use is limited.
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Document ID: 19F89614

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Jerry Mcintosh
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid measurement by turbine type flowmeters, as we know them today, has been around since the mid to late 1940s. The need for a better measurement system came as direct result of the aircraft and rocket industries. The pioneers in the industry took this need and developed the turbine meter to the point that was not too different than we see today.
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Document ID: F4E54D15

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Jack Harshman
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the liquid turbine meter principle dates back many decades, the axial flow turbine meters presently employed for liquid measurement are quite new. The axial flow turbine meter was first used where accuracy of measurement was not the prime factor, reliability was of greater importance, so parts were made rugged and the rotor was designed to be more non-clogging than accurate. Thru time, the turbine meter has maintained its reliability and ruggedness while attaining a high degree of accuracy.
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Document ID: F01AA931

Application Of Hicro-Processors To Flow Recorders
Author(s): Russ Arslanian
Abstract/Introduction:
With the present trends in the cost of natural gas, it is easy to see where the measurement and accounting for gas w i l l receive much more a t t e n t i o n in the years ahead. When the price of natural gas was low it was d i f f i c u l t to j u s t i f y the use of good measuring equipment however, since new contract gas prices are sometimes more than 10 times e a r l i e r rates there is a d e f i n i t e need for more accurate and convenient methods of determining gas volumes.
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Document ID: 8BE60A4B

Basic Devices I Techniques For Supervisory Control Systems
Author(s): John C. Bracken
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the last ten to fifteen years telemetry systems have evolved from the mo St basic form of remote measurement to a highly complex control network with the ability to operate entire pipeline systems. The once plentiful and co mm on Pulse Duration Modulation (PDM) systems are headed for extinction, to be replaced by Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition CSDADA) systems. SDADA sys terns usefulness is not limited to just operating the pipeline but they can also give the operator a powerful and flexible data base for about any pipeline calculations imaginable. The evolution of t elemetry is discussed be low.
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Document ID: 4F73F798

Correcting And Recording Instruments Applied To Displacement And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas is traditionally purchased and sold in standardized volume units, such as the Standard Cubic Foot (SCF). The SCF volume is referenced to a particular pressure and temperature, called the base or contract pressure and temperature, commonly 14.73 PSIA and 60 deg. F. By converting gas volume measured under different conditions of pressure and temperature to the equivalent Standard Volume units, the purchased quantity is measured consistently, and iquitable custody transfer is achieved.
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Document ID: EC08D2DB

Fundamentals Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Michael D. Beall
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice measurement is todays accepted form of gas measurement and yesterdays invention. Orifice measurement can be traced in time as far back as the llOOs when the Romans used it to measure water. This measurement was crude and only the beginning as we know it.
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Document ID: 67E49A02

Design Of Distribution Metering & Regulating Stations
Author(s): James A. Skovera
Abstract/Introduction:
The design and construction of a distribution metering and pressure regulating facility is one of the most challenging projects for a gas distribution engineer. Although many companies have developed standard installations for distribution system feeds, the same engineering principles and design criteria apply to the proper application of a standard installation as to the specialized design for a pipeline purchase metering and regulating station.
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Document ID: 899F01E1

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): Robinson Ord, Marsha C. Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
Three types of vibrating element densitometers are described. Their operating principles are discussed, and typical installation schemes are outlined. Various selection criteria are reviewed.
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Document ID: FB90413F

Measurement By Battery Powered Field Cohfuters
Author(s): S. R. Cree
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is the most widely used flow measurement device for recording gas flow and volume data. Calculation of gas flow Is mainly dependent on the accurate measurement of the pressure drop (or differential pressure) across the orifice plate and Che accurate measurement of the static pressure of the gas line. Another important variable in the calculation of flow is the flowing temperature of the gas.
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Document ID: 640BDA8F

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of measured volume to base conditions at the meter site has long been the exclusive domain of mechanical correcting devices. Until recently, electronics have been slow to penetrate this area of measurement, and for good reason. Mechanical correctors must operate in a wide variety of climates, under severe temperature conditions and without an external source of power. These are stringent conditions for any product, especially for a device whose primary property is accuracy. While digital computers and advanced transducer technology have made base volume computation not only feasible but highly accurate, their use has generally been restricted to protected areas where electrical power is readily available. Recently, battery powered and solar assisted instruments have been introduced which offer a solution to the power supply problem.
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Document ID: 06AA4697

M2CHANICALLY Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Richard J. Ensch
Abstract/Introduction:
The ROOTS electronic volume correctors totalize gas volume to standard conditions. Designed for accuracy, reliability, and ease of maintenance the ROOTS correctors fit all ROOTS instrument drive meters and instrument drive meters from other manufacturers. Requiring very low drive torque makes these electronic volume correctors ideal devices for meters requiring low torque Instruments. These electronic correctors will also accept volumetric pulse Inputs from any meter capable of providing pulses-
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Document ID: 9EC454DE

Micrometer Measurements Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Craig m, Linn
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary element in the measurement of natural gas today is the orifice meter tube. The guidelines for the manufacture and specification tolerances for meter tubes are contained in the American National Standard/American Petroleum Institute publication number 2530, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids. This paper will discuss the specifications as contained in the ANSI/API 2530 and present an inspection procedure to ensure the meter tubes meet the established guidelines.
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Document ID: DE3EEEF4

On-Line Flow Computers For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Robert m. Knox
Abstract/Introduction:
Everyone working within the oil and gas industry knows that we operate in a changing business environment. The governments emphasis on deregulation is leading to increased competition. And the wild differences between perceived energy demand and perceived energy supply has led to extraordinary rises and sharp drops in the price of energy. Competition has led management to seek ways to reduce the cost of doing business and to improve cash flow while the net increase in the value of energy has led to demands for improved accuracy in measurements.
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Document ID: 9DF6C219

Orifice Fittings And MEER Tubes
Author(s): John Lochaby
Abstract/Introduction:
The most important part of ori*:ice flow neasurement is a quality inspection program operated by knowledgeable, experienced pfople. These people made the invention and evolution of the Orifice Fitting unavoidable.
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Document ID: DB28CC52

Remote Collection And Transmission Of Measurement Data
Author(s): Gene Sweeney
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays changing world, it is necessary to have more and more information available to adequately manage any business. Certainly, this is no less true for a gas utility than it is for any other commercial business. Until recently, however, it has been uneconomical for the utility to obtain all of the information it needs for efficient system operation because of the diversity of its customers. Now, because of recent advantages in technology, it is becoming more and more feasible to collect the Information needed. Several different communication technologies are currently maturing into economically justifiable systems. Today, I will concentrate on a means of communication that has been in existence for quite awhile, but has only recently become viable for widespread application. I will be talking about using existing telephone lines for automatically reporting information about the gas consumption back to the utility from the customers meter site.
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Document ID: 3DFD5FD3

Strip Charts For Gas Flow Recorders
Author(s): W. D. Ballou
Abstract/Introduction:
Circular charts and strip marts have been used in the gas industry for many years to record the measurement of static pressure, differential pressure, and temperature. Accurate flow calculations are made from this documented data. The circular chart has been found lacking, in many cases, because of its physical design. A strip chart is now available that helps correct this problem in recorders at remote locations, as seen above.
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Document ID: 51C9F41F

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): K. C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
ROTARY METER HISTORY The rotary meter is a long-term, f i e l d proven measurement concept f i r s t introduced about 1920 by the ROOTS Connersville Company (now Dresser Measurement). For approximately the next 25 years, the rotary meter found i t s market in measuring large gas loads at relatively low pressure. The basic concept, as described later, proved the v i a b i l i t y of the rotary meter. In the mid to late late 1950s, while s t i l l using the basic configuration, significant changes were made to decrease the size, increase the allowable pressure, and improve the accuracy. These design changes were in response to the need to measure gas at higher pressures as natural gas became widely available. Just after t h i s , the trend to make smaller meters using the same lobed configuration took hold and resulted in the f i r s t line mount meters. This trend has continued until now, in the U.S., rotaries are manufactured from the 10 flange 102M125 down to the 1-1/2 8C125 meter.
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Document ID: 011FDE7F

Temperature Measurement For Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Gerald D, Adkins
Abstract/Introduction:
When we speak informally of temperature and temperature differences, we all understand what we are talking about. We also know the difference between cold compared to hot, but when it comes to defining temperature, many of us are at a loss for words.
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Document ID: 3F3E347B

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence anywhere in a pipeline system is no asset. However, immediately downstream of pressure regulation, its effect can be especially harmful due to the high velocities that are set up within the regulator body. Design engineers and field men alike will be equally interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. Both are thinking of maximum throughput with the least amount of noise, plus the best site for analytical instruments such as calorimeters, chromatographs or dew point instruments and a steady sense point for control. In addition, we should be fully aware of the effect of harsh noise on the working efficiency of operating personnel. A person with normal hearing will have a tendency to rush his work in a noisy environment and the result of this is a lowering of the quality of the work.
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Document ID: D9B24381

Conversion From Volumetric To Energy Measurement
Author(s): E.G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas has been a very useful resource for many years. Recently, it has become increasingly expensive and its conservation, intelligent use and accurate measurement have assumed a high priority. Since the energy contained in natural gas is what the end user is generally concerned with, it has become obvious that the energy content of the stream is the critical factor in todays markets, For the gas processing industry, this has not always been the case. The intent of this document is to outline the factors and events leading to the evolutionary development of energy measurement in the gas processing industry
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Document ID: 31F7051F

Determination Of Calorific Values Of Natural Gas By Ccmbusticm Instruments
Author(s): Richard L., Dick Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
The three ccmbustion type instruments for determination of calorific value of natural gas most cotitionly used in the dcmestic natural gas industry will be the topic of this paper.
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Document ID: 0AFDFA93

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): A.F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer recording Calorimeter measures the total calorific value of combustible gas. It continuously samples, indicates, and records BTU per cubic foot.
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Document ID: 494703EE

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): William H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper w i l l address the gas p r e s s u re reducing r e g u l a t o r i n s t a l l a t i o n and the Issue of e r r a t i c c o n t r o l ou the downstream p r e s s u r e, A gas p r e s s u r e reducing r e g u l a t o r s job is to manipulate flow in order to c o n t r o l p r e s s u r e. When the downstream p r e s s u r e is not p r o p e r ly c o n t r o l l e d the term u n s t a b l e c o n t r o l Is a p p l i e d . Figure I is a l i s t of other terms used for v a r i o u s forms of downstream p r e s s u re i n s t a b i l i t y . This paper w i l l not address the mathematical methods of d e s c r i b i n g the automatic c o n t r o l system of the p r e s s u re reducing s t a t i o n , but w i l l deal with more of the components and t h e i r a f f e c t on the system s t a b i l i t y .
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Document ID: C988817C

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): W. Scott Follin
Abstract/Introduction:
With few exceptions, gas pressure reducing regulators can either be classified as selfoperated or pilot operated. Our purpose is to become familiar with pilot operated regulators and the various forms they may take. However, it is important that first the basics of selfoperated regulators are covered for comparative purposes.
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Document ID: 4327F03A

Fundamental Principles Of Self-Operated Regulators
Author(s): W. Scott Follin
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is a device utilizing mechanical and pneumatic principles designed to reduce varying high pressure to a constant lower pressure throughout a range of flows. Originally, the regulators primary function was to reduce high pressure to a more usable lower pressure. Today, much more is required of a simple spring loaded regulator and several operating functions are being satisfied. They are no longer just pressure reducing devices but are an integral instrument of measurement and have the internal ability to satisfy the stringest modern safety codes of D.O.T. Regulators must be selected and sized to match measurement and safety requirements.
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Document ID: 2A77B2D5

Gas Service Regitlators - Selection, Installation, And Operation
Author(s): Don Turbivllle
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar Items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them In factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As Is frequently the case with many such familiar Items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 163F2F54

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Chris A. Canalchael
Abstract/Introduction:
A pressure regulator is an automatic device which reduces the media supply pressure while controlling the flow and maintaining a desired pressure. The purpose of this discussion is to address high pressure regulator (typically considered as a PSIG to PSIG reduction) through the two basic types of regulators, SELF-OPERATED and RELAYOPERATED.
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Document ID: 065E1C42

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I
Author(s): D. A. Tefankjian
Abstract/Introduction:
In any field of endeavor for a person to completely understand the endeavor, he must have a knowledge and an understanding of the fundamentals involved. People can do well in the performance of their work without knowing the basic principles, but to excel and progress knowledge of the fundamentals is necessary. This is particularly true if ones work is technical in nature.
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Document ID: 5EF8E023

Large Capacity Gas Regulators The( Ball Valve)
Author(s): Shantley m. Guidry
Abstract/Introduction:
Large Capacity is a very ambiguous term because of its limitless meanings. What might be defined by one person as large, might be considerably smaller to another, and vice-versa. Probably the most significant variables in defining this term are the phases of the gas industry in which one is involved that being, transmission or distribution.
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Document ID: EC4EEE79

Operation & Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Jim Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The operation and maintenance of regulators is very import ant because a gas regulator is one of the mo St important mechanisms for controlling the movement or the flow of gas. One that controls a changeable situation is often referred to as a control valve, a governor, or a pressure reducer.
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Document ID: 6A1C855C

Over Pressure Protection Methods
Author(s): William H. Kamey
Abstract/Introduction:
The pressure reducing regulator in Fig. 1 is the basic device used to reduce the pressure from a high pressure source such as a transmission line to a lower pressure such as a d i s t r i b u t i o n piping system. The regulator has a history of very rel i a b l e service, but because it is mechanical it can f a i l . A regulator can fail in two worst case condi t i o n s , wide open or fully closed. The fully closed regulator failure requires an a l t e r n a te source of gas to supply the system needs. This is an under pressure protection requirement which can be dealt with by other regulator stations on the system sized to pick up this lost flow or a parall e l piping run of equal capacity regula tors to supply the load. This is under pressure protection
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Document ID: A712BBEB

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulation Equipment
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing has been a problem faced by gas men since the birth of the Industry. This problem will continue for all time but there are ways to minimize the effects of the phenomenon.
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Document ID: 154CD0F9

Selection Of Control Valves And Associated Instrumentation
Author(s): Phillip Murdock
Abstract/Introduction:
A control valve is a device placed in a fluid stream, gas or liquid, to control fluid flow based on demand. Control valves a trol pressure an A control valve fluid to be deli rate based on fl are an applicati throttling servi re used as a restriction to cond/ or volumetric flow of a fluid. used in throttling service allows vered at a controlled or throttled uid demand. Pressure regulators on of control valves used in ce. In off/on service, a control valve is either fully open or fully closed. Examples of off/on service are a control valve used for meter tube switching or for liquid level control. A control valve system consists of a control valve body, an actuator, and a controller. Proper sizing and selection of each component is essential for a control valve system to provide desired process control, minimize initial cost, and minimize operation and maintenance expense.
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Document ID: 548E64CE

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide A Total Sulfur
Abstract/Introduction:
Synopsis Sulfur monitoring is usually undertaken for one of four reasons safety, economics, governmental regulation and contract compliance. Correct application for accomplishing these tasks requires obtaining an instrument in the correct configuration, and a working knowledge of the instruments operation. This paper will attempt to explain the importance of monitoring, principles and operations of the electrolytical sulfur titrator, and some instrument configurations for specific applications in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: BAC3DBF6

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): William R. Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
I m sure most of you know more about these u n i t s than I l l ever know however, I would l i ke t o p r e s e n t t h i s paper with an open d i s c u s s i o n of some of the symptoms and v a r i o u s checks of the u n i t . Also, I would l i k e to d i s c u s s a sample system which has proven to prolong c e l l l i f e in most c a s e
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Document ID: 54FD4A65

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): A. R, Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Of a l l t h e d e v i c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r measuring water vapor cont e n t in g a s e s . Bureau of Mines Type Dew P o i n t T e s t e r s a r e t he most w i d e l y used. These T e s t e r s d e t e r m i n e water c o n t e n t in n u m e r o u s n a t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l g a s e s , p r o v i d e an accur a c y b e t t e r t h a n 0.2F (Bureau o f Mines t e s t s ) , e n a b l e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s i n t h e f i e l d under a d v e r s e 1 i g h t i n g , need not be r e c a l i b r a t e d , and a r e e a s i ly t r a n s p o r t e d and s e t up i n t he f i e l d .
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Document ID: 88AF1B97

Devices For Moisture Heasuremtnt In Natural Gas
Author(s): Michael Scelzo
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion is to present an overview of the problems most commonly encountered in the analysis of natural gas for water vapor content, and to provide details on the successful application of the thin film aluminum oxide moisture sensor to this type of measurement.
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Document ID: 936DBAD0

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): T. Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
Detection and accurate measurement of moisture in natural gas is an important, yet an elusive, undertaking. The reasons to measure the moisture content of natural gas will be presented with this paper along with discussion regarding various methods for measurement and the history of their development. Primitive as well as state-of-the-art moisture measurement techniques will be reviewed. Information contained herein should equip the student with overall knowledge of moisture measurement devices commonly used in the natural gas industry and enable intelligent selection of the correct instrument for any particular situation.
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Document ID: 9CBE247B

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations- These same people must have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including meter calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc
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Document ID: C76BE731

Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity II Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording
Author(s): H. E. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
Suwnary This class offers a comprehensive presentation of the kinetic type gas gravitometer. Including: Simple explanation of operating principle Equipment set-up and operation In f i e ld Trouble-shooting, repair and adjustment The kinetic type gas gravitometer Is manufactured as a portable Indicating type Instrument Illustrated In Figure 1 and as a stationary recording type 1nstrunent Illustrated In Figure 2. The basic operating mechanism is identical for both types, but the case, motive power and linkage are modified to adapt them to either portable use or permanent mounting.
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Document ID: CCF62413

Preparation And Proper Use Of Liquid And Gas Calibration Standards
Author(s): J. Richard Roe
Abstract/Introduction:
The preparation and proper use of gas and liquid standards has become very sophisticated in the last decade. Advances in both manufacturing and analytical methodology have greatly increased the reliability and diversity of both gaseous and liquid standards. A whole industry has evolved from the demand for these mixtures.
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Document ID: 1BD6CE2F

Techniques Of Gas Sampling
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling of natural gas has become decidedly more important in the last few years. The variations of the components of natural gas, and the vast differences in the heating value of different streams of gas, make the proper sampling of the product an operation that can no longer be left to chance. Gas is a fragile product and without proper care, can be difficult to handle effectively. It is no longer practical to send just anyone to a location to grab a sample. It behooves us to send trained personnel to collect gas samples that are representative of the gas flowing in the pipeline.
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Document ID: C3C76965

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers Pneumatic( And Hydraulic)
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
The Deadweight Gauge is the most accurate instrument available for the measurement of pressures. Repeatable readings with accuracies of 0.1% to .02% of measured pressure are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the components have excessive wear or weights are replaced. It is easily transported and set up in the field, requires minimum maintenance , and is simple to operate. Tripod mounting is available for most instruments,
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Document ID: 7A2C796E

Field Experience With Charts, Pens And Ink
Author(s): John D. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
Lets write a check! Without paper to write on - no check is written, without a pen to write with - no check is written, without ink in the pen - no check is written. Ive often taught field personnel to think of a meter chart being placed on a meter as the beginning process in writing a check to someone. We will examine these three ingredients and see how we can Improve measurement accuracy.
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Document ID: B0083A8C

Field Experience With Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Larry D. Craddock
Abstract/Introduction:
In the last couple of years the gas industry has taken on a new look. Not so long ago we were faced with a high demand for natural gas, curtailments, shortages and steadily increasing cost for our product. Today, due to deregulation, energy conservation and the competitive marketplace, the demand for natural gas has decreased. We continue to look for new and better ways of making our product more competitively priced. Our job in gas measurement is to be certain that we do our best in measuring our product as accurately as modern day technology will alow.
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Document ID: 0779AF2B

Field Experience With Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changer
Author(s): L. G. Herron
Abstract/Introduction:
The automatic chart changer was developed some twenty seven years ago, This relieved the problem of having someone manually change the chart every day. It also helped to eliminate the need of either contract chart changers or company employees having to change charts on weekends and holidays (except to pick up the final dropped chart in a contract period).
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Document ID: 7BA20BDB

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Eugene R. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the technique of using a pneumatic deadweight tester to calibrate differential pressure devices encountered In gas measurement. We will cover the physical properties which make this device so adaptable to the gas measurement industry. We will discuss the recommended technique to use in operating the pneumatic deadweight tester. We will discuss physical properties which can effect the accuracy of a pneumatic deadweight tester as well as other types of calibration equipment. Lastly, the floor will be opened for discussion of any problems encountered in operating a pneumatic deadweight tester or to share any tips which would improve an operators calibration technique.
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Document ID: 10D0E087

Meter Shop Equipment And Techniques
Author(s): H.J. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
AGA Gas Measurement manual part #14.1 covers in great detail meter testing and repair. Part #14.5 of the same manual has a section on meter shop design which includes considerations for equipment selection.
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Document ID: B0531D62

Methods Of Field Testircj Largs DISPLACST.TEKT Meters
Author(s): Henry A. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
For years the accuracy of gas meter measurement has been recognized as being important, but in recent years the shortage of gas and higher prices have renewed interest in field testing of meters. On-location testing of large meters offers a convenient and economical method of assuring measurement accuracy. This method eliminates the extra time required to replace the meter, equipment for hauling to a repair shop and stocking replacement meters. Another factor becoming increasingly important is field testing allows for customer witnessing of the meter being tested,
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Document ID: 378F11D2

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - IV
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
Discussion of thermodynamics and equations of state relating to flow measurement is presented. A new gas properties calculation method is presented. Some of the inadequacies of present-day gas properties calculation methods are noted and improvements made in recent work are discussed. The compressibility factor of natural gases is given particular attention.
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Document ID: 646832A8

Odor Level Testing: Instruments And Applications
Author(s): Gordon R. Plunkett
Abstract/Introduction:
The long-awaited new odor level test instrument, the Heath Odorator, has arrived. The old Odortester is no longer available but the thirty year old Odorometer is still being made by Bacharach.
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Document ID: 63F58BAD

Orifice Meter Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicators
Author(s): Leo R. Lombardo
Abstract/Introduction:
There have been many papers written concerning the calibration of orifice meters and transmitters. This paper will provide a review of the most popular methods and a more in-depth analysis of the three most popular calibrators. This will include dead weight testers, manometers and electronic pressure indicators, with an emphasis on several of the currently available digital pressure indicators.
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Document ID: 367AA441

Orifice Meters - Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Joe D. Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past twenty (20) years we have experienced many changes in methods concerning measurement stations and personnel. We have seen increases in the number of tests that are witnessed and in the number of check measuring stations installed to check our accuracy. These things stress the fact that more companies have become concerned about accuracy as the price of natural gas has increased. Thus, it is in our interest to do our best to operate and maintain our measuring stations to their greatest accuracy.
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Document ID: F9465A06

Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): Hilary C. Gleitz
Abstract/Introduction:
In order for a company to grow and prosper, it must become and remain efficient in its mode of operation. The people responsible for management should stay abreast of any new innovations within the industry and implement those ideas which will most benefit their system of operations. It is however not enough that management alone be familar with these innovations. The actual use of and the most benefits from these ideas come from the field implementation and operation. Henceforth comes a good staff of field personnel along with a thorough training program for the advancement of these people,
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Document ID: FBF5AA51

Proving And Repairing Domestic Meters
Author(s): G. B. Lynn
Abstract/Introduction:
DoRsstic Heters far ouinunber any other type of gas meaBiirenent equipment. There are probably over 100 million domestic meters in Anerica and probably not over 5 million other gas meters combined. The domestic meter is typically used at a residence and has a capacity of 175 to 250 cubic feet per hour. Donestic meters are small in siie but are of great importance to our industry since one third of the gas sold to end users is measured by these donestic class device
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Document ID: B76966D8

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): T. J. Huismann
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate gas measurement depends on precise measurement of smal1 pressures and di fferent i al pressures. Large volumes of gas are bought and sold every day. Therefore, the utmost accuracy is desired in our measurement of these volumes. For thi s reason the manometer is of prime importance to the gas i ndustry. The simplicity, inherent accuracy and versatility of manometers lend them to broad application in calibration, trouble shooting and meter maintenance leak testi ng.
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Document ID: E1C7C37A

Witnessimg Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Testing
Author(s): Gary E. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary function of a witness, as related to the gas business, in to insure the accuracy and validity of measurement and physical tests which are essential for proper payment for the products delivered. This role is very important, and the witness should be one of high integrity and knowledgable of all test equipment used as well as possessing the technical skills required to conduct the test. The witness should not be presumptuous regarding the skills or technical knowledge of the technician or representative who is to conduct the tests.
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Document ID: C4265418

Auditing Gas Measurement & Accounting Systems
Author(s): W. W. Tinimerman
Abstract/Introduction:
Many phases of the naturel gas industry have in the past been justified due to increasing gas prices. Auditing has been one of those phases. However, gas prices have decreased in the last two yesrs. Does this mean that auditing may not be justifiable? Certainly not! Cuts in the work force, inexperienced employees, human error, increased work load, large amounts of paper and number handling, and potential lost revenue are only a few reasons that auditing will always be justifiable no matter what the price of gas may be. The following text will discuss basically orifice measurement verification from the wellhead to accounting payments but turbine meters and positive meters dre not excluded. The following techniques and methods are applicable to seller, purchaser, transporter, or individual involved with gas measurement.
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Document ID: B3D6C989

Determination Of Leakage Of Unaccounted-For-Gas Distribution
Author(s): Jim Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing safety concerns and the increasing cost of gas have added emphasis to the importancG of determining and reducing unaccounted-for-gas. Gas that is received but not measured as a d e l i v e r y is a revenue loss to a company and if it is not delivered at a l l , a loss of an important natural resource also. More than ever, it is necessary to determine where and why t h is loss occurs and what is required to reduce it to a p r a c t i c a l minimu
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Document ID: FA471005

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For-Gas Transmission
Author(s): Ed Ostrovich
Abstract/Introduction:
It is becoming more and more important to control and monitor the amount of gas lost throughout a transmission pipeline system. In the highly competitive gas market, companies not only have to compete with other gas companies for customers but also have to compete with other forms of energy. Unaccounted-for-gas is an expense to a gas company and should be minimized as much as possible.
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Document ID: 7EB34A6A

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Bernard J. Kemperman
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry is a gigantic undertaking, representing an investment of many bill ions of dollars. To bring natural gas to the market, mind-boggling investments have and must continue to be made in exploration, production, processing, compression, transportation and distribution. Thousands of people are engaged in the manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance of equipment and facilities for each of these activities. In the final analysis however, all of these investments and activities are undertaken with only one purpose in mind: to sell this precious coinnodity, won at such a high price in human as wel 1 as monetary terms. The gas meter is the cash register of the industry and is in fact the final means by which the industry can justify its reason for existence. As the price of natural gas went up, the need for accurate and reliable measurement devices became more apparent, in particular for the measurement of large volumes of gas at elevated pressures. The seller is not interested in giving gas away, while the buyer does not want to pay for gas he does not receive. The answer to the question: Should we use the same equipment and practices to measure gas at 2.50 per HCF that we used when gas sold for 5 cents per MCF at the wellhead?, must be an emphatic No.
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Document ID: F5A766BF

Manual Chart Calculation
Author(s): J. F. Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
The era of the computer has done much to curtail the need to perform manual chart volume calculations both in the field and the measurement office. Mainframe, mini, on-site flow, and/or personal computers now perform this task quickly and accurately. A trade publication recently contained an article which detailed some 364 programming steps necessary to cause a programmable, hand-held calculator to perform orifice calculations. Despite this level of technology, those seriously involved in the gas measurement industry should possess both an understanding of what variables are required for calculations, and how each effects the volumetric outcome. A thorough understanding can be of enormous benefit to one who must either perform a manual calculation or determine if a calculation has been made correctly. If it is suspected or determined a calculation was not made correctly, then one can possibly find what has been in error and initiate corrective action.
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Document ID: 51D41B45

Office Applicati Of Computers For Flow Calculatk
Author(s): Robert D. Starr
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement c h a r t s , along with t h e i r associated data, are processed in vast numbers d a i l y throughout the gas industry. This information is processed by d i f f e r e n t means from one company to anot h e r . However, a l l companies share a common need f o r accuracy and speed in the handling of t h e ir gas measurement data.
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Document ID: 6A6CD3A3

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): Bryan R. Bllleaud
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, measurement and calculation of gas volumes have long been accomplished through the use of orifice meter chart records. Machines which make the calculation from these records are a common sight to most companies involved in gas measurement. Electronic equipment, especially, have brought about substantial improvement to measurement and calculations due to their ever increasing speed, accuracy and mathematical abilities.
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Document ID: 95D15CF1

What The Field & Office Groups Expect From Each Other
Author(s): Dianne G. Gilbert
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry is experiencing a challenging period because of the many changes occurring in our industry and business. The companies that continue to prosper in this sensitive era will be those who can operate the most efficiently. Measurement Departments play an important part in the efficiency of any energy company. Therefore, it is very important that both the field and office sectors of a Measurement Department work together efficiently.
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Document ID: DF98C400

Conditioning Natural Gas For Measurement And Transportation
Author(s): Alvin D. La Grenade
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early lB20s, when natural gas was first discovered in this country, it was considered as an unwelcome by-product with which we had to live, so we could produce crude oil. The gas was sometimes used as fuel for equipment in the immediate surroundings of the field(s). It was not until after WWI that natural gas was valued for what it is. This realization triggered the evolution of the gas industry that we know today. However, when one mentions the term Natural Gas, most people think of a clean burning and efficient fueL Those who are more familiar with it may think of a sweet combustible with an average gross heating value of 1000 BTU per standard cubic feet. The fact is, very seldom natural gas occurs in this manner. To be more realistic, when produced, gas is usually accompanied by one or more of the following: crude oil, condensate, sand, water, inhibitors, brines, dirt from pipelines, salt crystals, dispersed corrosion particles and many more. To complicate matters, the gas may be mixed with one or more lethal contaminants such as i hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, mercaptans, etc. This is not all it may also contain nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, helium, water vapors, and other gases, which because they do not burn, contribute to drastically i-educe the gross heating value of the hydrocarbon gas, better known as natural gas.
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Document ID: B14D22DA

Effects And Control Of Pulsations In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Stephen R. English
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation has long been recognized as potentially creating significant errors in gas measurement. While the problem of pulsation Induced error is more commonly associated with the orifice meter, it is not a problem restricted solely to this type of primary measurement device. The turbine meter, vortex shedding meter, and diaphragm meter are all subject to errors induced by pulsating flow. The tremendous value now placed on the gas passing through these purchase and sales meters has made accurate measurement imperative. It is becoming increasingly more important to understand, predict, measure, and control pulsations if the measurement is to have any validity.
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Document ID: C42E5AA7

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Donald L, Parsons
Abstract/Introduction:
Welcome to the challenging world of gas contracts. Three and a half years ago our industry began to experience what at the time was thought to be a short term gas bubble. Decreasing demand for gas and excess deliverability has kept this bubble intact. Only a short time ago, certain words such as take or pay and deregulation were contract words only. Force majeure has taken on a new and broader meaning to include market conditions along with acts of God. Due to our ever changing market these terms have been given life and contracts have been interpreted and written with new meanings.
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Document ID: 9C9EBED5

Overall Gas Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): C. P. Hoeks
Abstract/Introduction:
A primary condition for proper gas measurement is the availability of meters with which the quantity of gas can be determined accurately. Accuracy itself depends not only on the capability of meters but also on the tolerances given in specifications and regulations.
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Document ID: 916A2B46

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - III Fundamental Gas Laws: Equations Of State
Author(s): Rex T. Ellington
Abstract/Introduction:
myriad of equations of state (EOS) exists. The engineer and support technician should recognize this and realize that there is no single EOS that will serve all needs. But, as discussed elsewhere, a very accurate new equation has been developed for gas measurement. Widely used forms are reviewed and the simpler relations obtained from them.
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Document ID: AC31495F

Ethylene Measurement
Author(s): C. W. Wilkerson
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate custody transfer of ethylene through pipelines has become increasingly important since it began in the mid-1960s because: 1. The volumes transported have increased dramatically to approximately 30 billion pounds per year. 2. The cost of ethylene has increased more than 10-fold from 2c per lb. to more than 20c per lb. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to measure ethylene with extreme accuracy because at the normal custody transfer operating pressures and temperatures ethylene has a high degree of compressibility. With a critical temperature of 49? and a critical pressure of 730 psi, the high compressibility varies considerably for different operating conditions normally experienced in ethylene custody transfer systems. Using the same instrumentation found in liquid pipelines, the measurement error will generally be many times greater than experienced in liquid pipelines.
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Document ID: 3B5E303D

About Ishm 1986
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: BA389984


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