Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1986)

Gas Measurement Laboratories And Btu Calculation
Author(s): Ronald F. Lindsay
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Measurement laboratories operated by gas companies are designed and equipped to meet the needs of those companies. As some companies are strictly distribution and others are only transmission companies, the needs will be different. Some of the American Gas Association Company members are also involved in Che production and processing of natural gas, while others may also manufacture synthetic natural gas (SNG). About the only facet of the business that Lone Star Gas does not get involved in is SNG. Although there may be some gas company laboratories that do nothing but analyze gas samples, I do not know of them. The laboratory staffs are usually headed by a chemist or an engineer with other chemists, engineers, technicians, and clerical staff. The labs are likely to be involved in production, processing, corrosion control, environmental matters, odorizalion, and anything else in addition to gas analysis. However, as this paper is primarily related to measurement and gas analysis, the other functions not covered do not diminish their importance.
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Document ID: A0986382

Compressor Station Data Acquisition And Diagnostics
Author(s): Paul A. Jorgensen
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a recognized and growing need throughout American industries to reduce the operating costs and improve the reliability of plants and equipment. The natural gas industry is no exception. Compounding this problem are the increasing complexity of todays electro mechanical machinery, the difficulties in obtaining skilled equipment technicians, the lack of timely, adequate operational information in the hands of action centers, and a limited number of qualified troubleshooters. This has led to a growing demand for built-in diagnostic data systems, capable of being utilized both locally and remotely.
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Document ID: 2F029C60

Applications Of Economic Analysis In Gas Distribution
Author(s): Gerald G. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
A summary of the results of a survey of current applications of economic analysis by 19 gas distribuiion companies. All areas of activity in which economic analysis is likely to be used are covered. Design engineers arc concerned that the systems they design not only perforin their intended function but do so relatively inexpensively. Thus, economic considerations arc an integral pan of the design process, and it is appropriate for ihe Distribution Design and Development (DD&D) Committee to have a task group on economic analysis.
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Document ID: 573741B1

Selection, Installation, And Maintenance Guidelines For Ignition Systems - A.G.A. Engineering Technical Note CPR-85-4-1
Author(s): William L. Busch
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the events that influenced and led to the conception, gestation, and birth of the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) Engineering Technical Note-Operating Section CPR-85-4-1 dated December 1985 titled Selection, Installation, and Maintenance Guidelines for Ignition Systems Used in Class I, Group D, Division 2 Locations on Internal-Combustion, Spark-Ignited Gas Engines and to briefly review its contents. The prime impetus in producing this document was the real threat of having Standards and Government Regulating Groups force the usage of shielded ignition systems on the gas-fired stationary engines used by our industry. The Natural Gas Pipeline Industrys interest in shielded ignition systems results mainly from the industrys historical stress on safety. Unfortunately, to date, our industrys experience in implementing shielded ignition systems for gasfired engines has been very disappointing.
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Document ID: 43C3B2D8

Gas Measurement In Canada
Author(s): Jean-Pierre Legault
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the main activities of the Canadian Gas Association Measurement Committee. It also refers to innovations and recognizable differences between Canada and the United States in gas measurement practices, techniques, and regulatory matters.
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Document ID: 66FA06F3

Utility Sponsored Indoor Air Quality Iaq() Studies Do We Really Need A Doctor In The House?
Author(s): Katherine Hartnett
Abstract/Introduction:
Utilities historically have been interested in indoor air quality (IAQ) through optimizing conditions for safe and efficient appliance use. Currently, utilities also are involved in assessing possible negative effects of reduced air infiltration resulting from energy conservation measures. Several key characteristics of IAQ, however, make it different than other environmental management issues. It will be difficult to establish possible adverse human health effects given the diverse pollutant sources encountered within the complex pattern of human activity in the wide variety of indoor environments. Future utility research and support, therefore, should target development of (1) appliance emission controls and (2) understandable technical IAQ information for the public.
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Document ID: B6FA7907

Rollover Experiments Using LNG
Author(s): Katsuma Tsujino, Yukio Iwata, Yoshihiro Yamazaki
Abstract/Introduction:
We have identified the following fundamental properties of LNG that dominate rollover phenomena through the model tank experiments using LNG: Experimental values of free surface mass flux against built superheat Heat and mass transfer coefficients across the interface between two stratified layers Behavior of the interface between top and bottom layers Rollover experiments have been so far conducted by using substitute liquids for LNG (e.g., salt solution), but there were some doubts in applying the data to LNG because of differences of properties between LNG and substitute liquids. In this study, therefore, an experimentation of rollover phenomena was made in a model tank using LNG, and the behaviors of the interface between the two layers were recorded by V.T.R. film. By analyzing these experimental results, new information was obtained, and a more reliable rollover simulation model has been developed that can be applied to an actual LNG storage tanlt.
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Document ID: 5014C2FC

Strategic Research And Development Of Gas Distribution Technology
Author(s): Mitsuji Oka, Hideo Taki
Abstract/Introduction:
The research and development strategies of Osaka Gas Company in the field of gas distribution have three major targets: greater safety with security index (HI) as a measure, cost reduction, and improved public image of gas leading to greater demand. Toward these targets, Osaka Gas specifically endeavors to establish reliable trenchless and/or hot techniques for pipeline construction, corrosion control, diagnosis, and repair. In support of its own research and development programs conducted at the Pipeline Engineering Center in close cooperation with field offices, Osaka Gas holds technical exchanges with Japanese and overseas gas companies, manufacturers, and research institutes in the form of joint development, information exchange, and contract research.
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Document ID: FD782B04

Strategic Research And Development Of Gas Distribution Technology
Author(s): Mitsuji Oka, Hideo Taki
Abstract/Introduction:
The research and development strategies of Osaka Gas Company in the field of gas distribution have three major targets: greater safely with security index (HI) as a measure, cost reduction, and improved public image of gas leading to greater demand. Toward these targets, Osaka Gas specifically endeavors to establish reliable trenchlcss and/or hot techniques for pipeline construction, corrosion control, diagnosis, and repair. In support of its own research and development programs conducted at the Pipeline Engineering Center in close cooperation with field offices, Osaka Gas holds technical exchanges with Japanese and overseas gas companies, manufacturers, and research institutes in the form of joint development, information exchange, and contract research.
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Document ID: 55179255

Its 10 A-M-, Do You Know Where Your Servicepersons Are?
Author(s): John Krouzil
Abstract/Introduction:
Its 10 a.m., do you know where your servicepersons are? As he question suggests, Brooklyn Union is striving to bridge the communications gap between service personnel in the field and supervision. While two-way voice and data communications have historically provided a link between personnel radio-equipped vehicles and a central dispatching function, a communicalions void was created once the serviceperson lefl the vehicle. At Brooklyn Union, this void will be etiminaied once the hand held terminal sysiem becomes a reality. Before discussing the hand held system, I would like lo give you some basic facts about the Company and a short history of radio data communications ai Brooklyn Union. Brooklyn Union Gas is a gas distribution company that serves approximately 1.1 million customers in Brooklyn, Staten Island, and two thirds of Queens. The customers are located in 187 square miles of territory and the Company employs approximately 3,700 people to service them.
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Document ID: 6DD3E06B

New Developments In The Determination Of Compressibility And Supercompressibility: Mixture Data Supporting Correlation Development
Author(s): G. Esper, O. m. Bailey, J. C. Holste, R. T. Eubank, K. R. Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
Development of correlations representing the volumetric behavior of mixtures (such as supercompressibility factor) has always suffered from lack of sufficiently accurate data. This has also been true for the project that led to producing A.G.A. 8. When the University of Oklahoma correlation group realized it had this problem even with the binary mixtures of natural gas components, GRI engaged our laboratory to produce benchmark data covering CO2 + CH4 and CO2 + N2. Fortunately, we were, at that time, in the process of completing measurements on pure CO2.
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Document ID: 71D5D0F4

PM-Preventive Maintenance Or Postmortem?
Author(s): T. H. Stripun
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all seen the television commercial that states, Pay me now, or pay me later. Unfortunately this concept carries over to many different facets of life, one of which involves our daily operations. We have seen that lack of preventive maintenance on any mechanical apparatus can lead to the death of that machine. We have a choice: does PM represent Preventive Maintenance or Postmortem? Do we maintain that equipment and benefit from the intended performance, or do we wait until the machine is dead and try to revive it? Our experience with fusion equipment, as well as other special purpose equipment we manufacture, has shown us that improperly maintained equipment will require overhaul maintenance from 6 to 10 times earlier than a properly maintained one. This figure can probably be used for most pieces of equipment that we use. However, this paper will use bult fusion equipment as the example.
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Document ID: 03B8CA1B

New Developments In The Determination Of Compressibility And Supercompressibility: Speed Of Sound In Methane For Development Of Improved Metering Methods Of Natural Gases
Author(s): A. Sivaraman, B.E. Gammon
Abstract/Introduction:
New experimental measurements for the speed of sound in methane are described for temperatures from 193.05 to 425.15 K and for densities from 1 to 14.5 mol/dm or to pressures as high as 275 bar. The experimental method is described, and the use of the results for the development of improved metering methods of natural gases is discussed. Merits of and problems with existing equations of state used in metering and custody transfer are discussed. The use of speed of sound data for reducing errors arising from equation of state calculations are suggested. The most severe problems arise at temperatures within 50 K of the critical temperature and at densities within a range 50 percent higher or lower than the critical density. Problems also arise for fluids at very high pressure or high densities. Over the region of interest for orifice flow metering of pipeline gases, available equations of state accurately predict values of the speed of sound.
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Document ID: 9CDA1E59

Spot Gas Sales From A Producers Point Of View
Author(s): Robert J. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
Several months ago, spot sales appeared to be one of the fair alternatives available to producers to market their excess natural gas. Over the past few months, however, spot sales have become virtually the only available market. Although some direct sales to end users are grandfathered under FERC Order 436, indications are that many will terminate July 1, 1986, unless the interstate pipeline providing the transport has been approved by the FERC to be an open access carrier. Thus, in the short run, spot sales are esseniial for producers to market their gas. First, we must review the history of natural gas marketing and sales by a producer. Historically, producers did not concern themselves with marketing gas. The interstate pipeline negotiated sales contracts with Local Distribution Companies (LDCs) and satisfied these sales contract requirements by purchasing gas from producers via long-term purchase contracts. The interstate pipeline made both a margin on their purchase/sales arrangements and a return on their transportation investment.
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Document ID: 1BA0EF2D

Enhanced Gas Recovery Via Co-Production Of Gas And Brine
Author(s): Philip Randolph, Stephen Foh, Leo Rogers
Abstract/Introduction:
A substantial and largely unrecognized gas resource exists in known locations where it was trapped by water influx during primary production. In many reservoirs, as much as 50% of original gas was abandoned in place when brine production increased operating cost to above revenue under low regulated gas prices. This paper provides details of a project that is demonstrating production of such gas with favorable economics. The Prets Unit No. 1 well in the N.E. Hitchcock field in Galveston County, Texas, was reentered and completed for high volume brine production in early 1983. Payout for the reentry and surface facilities not including lease and legal costs) was in thirteen months, and the well is now producing about 4000 Bbl/D brine, 900 MCF/D gas, and 60 Bbl/D oil. A second well, the Thompson Unit No. 1 well, was similarly re-entered and placed on production in March 1984. Payout for the re-entry and surface facilities was in seven months.
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Document ID: 502A212F

Automated Gas Serviceman Scheduling System
Author(s): Kim O. Bobbins
Abstract/Introduction:
Pacific Gas and Electric Company historically has been, and continues to be, decentralized in its approach to servicing customers needs. Various offices and service centers throughout central and northern California are arranged strategically to be large enough to gain economy of scale benefits and, yet, small enough to remain close to the customers needs. The two prime PG&E departments responsible for delivering gas service to the customer are Customer Services, which originates gas service requests, and Gas Service, which executes the field portions of that work (Figure I). Because of the decentralized nature of the PG&E system, a variety of methods had been employed by Gas Service departments to measure and control gas service workload and to communicate the status of the field work forces to Customer Services. Methods of controlling workload ranged from measuring the height of a stack of orders to elaborate and labor-intensive, unit dispatching systems where workload and manpower availability were reduced to a common measuring system (Figure 2). The emphasis of each of the varied systems in use was on executing all of the customer contact work either on the same day or the next day.
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Document ID: A136A401

How Gain Benefits The Manufacturer
Author(s): John E. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1900, W. C. Coleman, (he founder of The Coleman Company, Inc., established a set of rules and business philosophies on which the company would operate. Since inception, those rules have been and continue to be a working/ living foundation for our business on a daily basis. The first and foremost rule is: A product is not sold until it is delivering a satisfactory service to the consumer. The purpose of the Gas Appliance Improvement Network (GAIN) is remarkably compatible with and supportive of our business philosophy. GAIN was developed to increase consumer satisfaction with gas appliances by furnishing gas appliance manufacturers with prompt, accurate, documented information about actual operation, safety, service, and maintenance problems occurring in their products.
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Document ID: 690371EC

Computerized Fleet Management System
Author(s): Jerry G. Perkins, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Connecticut Natural Gas Corporation (CNG) currently operates approximately 250 company- owned pieces of equipment. We have 39 sedans, 159 vans, trucks and heavy duty construction vehicles, and 52 other pieces of equipment, such as backhoes, trailers, and tag-along compressors. Sixty-eight percent of our fleet is located at corporate headquarters in Hartford, Connecticut, with the remaining 32% at four satellite locations within the Slate of Connecticui. CNGs automotive technicians perform nearly 100% of the repairs on vehicles located at corporate headquarters. In 1980, the Company decided that some form of Management Information System would be beneficial in the area of fleet management. As a result of that decision and the search that followed, CNG contracted with an outside agency. Each month, CNG would send this agency all of the data pertaining to the operation of our fleet during the previous month. In return, the agency would summarize the data and, two weeks later, send back to CNG various reports that could assist management in their decisions concerning the transportation fleet.
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Document ID: 46DD0A58

Learning How To Count-The Lessons And Experiences Of Implementing An Automated Parts Inventory System
Author(s): Robert E. Nyman
Abstract/Introduction:
The control of automotive parts inventories is an important but difficult aspect of utility fleet management. The use of automated computer systems is the only realistic method of controlling large and diverse fleet parts inventories. Over the past several years, the Brooklyn Union Gas Company purchased an inventory control software package and has implemented the majority of the system. The system maintains inventory levels, inventory values, reorder points, part descriptions, part cross-references, etc. Inventory transactions and system updating are accomplished via CRT terminals in a real time mode. The implementation included the development of an expendable, logical itemnumbering scheme, the accumulation and loading of 7,000 items and 18,000 cross-reference records, and the physical inventory of 14 inventory areas.
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Document ID: 0EF00357

A.G.A.-3 Revision Supplement Manual
Author(s): R. G. Teyssandier
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic flow measurement document for natural gases and other hydrocarbon fluids has been revised and affirmed as an American National Standard. This paper is a brief overview of the changes made between the first and second editions of the standard.
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Document ID: B1D1327B

Active Magnetic Bearings For Compressor Applications
Author(s): J. K. Koo, S. B. Bennett, E. A. Bulanowski
Abstract/Introduction:
A test program has been executed by Transamerica Delaval Inc. to evaluate the use of active magnetic bearings in the design of highspeed turbomachinery. A laboratory version of a vintage 1965 multi-biage high-pressure air compressor rotor was used as the test vehicle. The rotor was operated at a wide range of conditions. Operation was smooth and controlled at all speeds. TDI now offers the active magnetic bearing to users for both retrofit and selected new applications and is currently involved in the retrofit of a compressor that will include both active magnetic bearings and dry seals.
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Document ID: 69BFE702

Computerized Mobile Dispatching System
Author(s): Robert L. Church
Abstract/Introduction:
At Oklahoma Natural Gas Company, we are very optimistic about the benefits to be derived from the mobile digital communications system our company has installed as a test program. MDI System is the trade name used by the manufacturer, Mobile Data International Inc. The full descriptive name is Mobile Data Inlernaiional Field Order Dispatching System. To fully convey the benefits we are receiving by utilizing the MDI System, I must digress for a few minutes and explain how our company was developed and how it operates. ONEOK Inc. is a diversified energy company, headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The billion-dollar company has its roots in the Oklahoma Natural Gas Company, the stales major natural gas utility.
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Document ID: 780F82FB

Assimilating Through Simulated Emergencies
Author(s): Roger D. Edge
Abstract/Introduction:
The goal of simulated emergencies is for company personnel to assimilate the knowledge of how to perform effectively in an actual emergency. Simulated emergencies are invaluable tools in giving operating and office personnel the needed experience to function quickly and accurately in crises. The best simulated emergencies are those that are carefully planned to train personnel in a variety of situations and under a variety of conditions. Probably the most important aspect of the exercises are the follow-up critiques. Through the critiques, positive results are emphasized along with problem areas and ways these problem areas can be improved.
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Document ID: E0B48044

Effect Of Ceh- Hydrocarbons On Dewpoints And Heating Values
Author(s): Richard F. Bukacek
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas samples in general and calibration gases in particular are subject to the possibility of condensation during storage and transit. Gaseous hydrocarbon mixtures, whether natural gases or man-made mixtures, will typically contain traces of the heavier hydrocarbons. These trace materials can raise the hydrocarbon dew point of the mixture and thereby alter the heating value of the sample if the condensation process is not fully reversible. With the high market value for natural gases, consideration of third-order effects on composition can become important, and several questions arise with regard to traces of the Cj + hydrocarbons. For example: 1. What constitutes a trace amount that need not be accounted in determing a heating value? 2. If irreversible condensation takes place in a calibration sample and trace components are present, at what temperature would a significant change in composition of the vapor phase be observed? 3, Is it important to characterize the C6 + hydrocarbon traces before estimating their effect on a calibration gas?
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Document ID: 45DBD954

Gas Meter Repair By Small Work Groups
Author(s): Craig m. Porter
Abstract/Introduction:
As John Naisbitt has stated, When people work to their full capacity, when they feel in sync with their co-workers, when everything comes together on cue, even if completely unplanned, alignment is present. When people experience alignment they know it and they yearn to repeal it. Significant gains in productivity and quality have been achieved at Pacific Gas and Electric Companys Gas Meter Repair Plant. This has been accomplished by replacing traditional assembly line meter repair with the new small work group concept. Employees contributed heavily to the planning, design, and implementation of the concept. They were given maximum input and flexibility in the design and layout of the work quads.
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Document ID: E8231C6B

Continuous Analysis Of Hydrogen Sulfide, Mercaptans, And Residual Sulfur
Author(s): Art Vincent
Abstract/Introduction:
A microprocessor-based analyzer has been developed for Ihe continuous determination of hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, and residual sulfur in natural gas. Using a multicell coulometric titration technique to monitor sulfur levels in samples preconditioned by selective gas scrubbing, the odorant level in the gas can be determined. This odorant level can be used by the microprocessor to develop a signal to control odorant injection,
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Document ID: 755A4E32

Natural Gas Related Environmental Programs At The Ferc
Author(s): Richard R. Hoffman
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Environmental Policy Act acts as the umbrella for environmental review of projects by the Commission. However, the endangered Species Act, National Historic Preservation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act also impose statutory mandates. Environmental impacts statements are not usually required. Topics discussed include: Quality of Maps, Time to Perform Environmental Analysis, Ind Use, Hydrostatic Test Water, Compressor Station Noise, and Erosion Control and Revegetation. Areas stressed in the discussion of Compressor Station Noise include the reason for using an V.g. of 55 dBA to predict impact and the need to base impact predictions on far-field noise measurements.
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Document ID: AE8612EF

Comparative Toughness Of Polyethylene Pipes
Author(s): Benny E. Nasser
Abstract/Introduction:
The relative lougtiness of seven PE-3408 pipes was measured in three tests compressed ring ESCR, MTS Impact, and Battelle slow crack growth. It was found that the ring ESCR test detected basic ESCR differences between the samples, while the Bell ESCR test was unable to differentiaie between the samples. MTS Impact demonstrated that pipe impact strength increases as temperatures decrease to -40C. This contrasts with Izod impact measurements, which showed decreasing impact with decreasing temperature. The Battelle slow crack growth test indicated that great differences existed between samples extruded from the same resin with respect to induction period while the crack growth rates were similar. Several samples showed little or no crack growth after several hundred hours on test. Considerable work remains to be done in order lo fully understand the significance and value of the Battelle slow crack growth test.
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Document ID: 1FF701AA

Programmable Controllers For Meter Provers
Author(s): Don J. Tokoly
Abstract/Introduction:
Programmable coiitrollers (PCs) have been in use for 17 years to control processes formerly operated by electromechanical components. PCs can perform relay logic, counting, liming, arithmetic, data manipulation, computer interfacing, and much more. Proven to be more cost effective, versatile, and reliable than relay control systems, PCs are used in a wide variety of applications, including gas meter proving. This paper will define and describe the componenis of a PC and how they have been incorporated into bell proving systems.
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Document ID: B72AA418

Real Time Measurement- A Canadian Gas Transmission Company Approach
Author(s): Brian J. Mcconaghy
Abstract/Introduction:
Real Time Measurement (RTM) - more specifically the use of micro-processors for the purpose of performing on-site volume and energy calculations - is gaining popularity in Canada and the United States, The incorporation of computer based, on-site metering for purposes of natural gas custody transfer measurement metering has been a relatively slow process in North America due to the established chart based systems and the age and size of the gas transmission and utility systems. Acceptance of this technology has been further hampered by the broad familiarity and acceptability of conventional chart metering and the lack of trend and audit data available from standard flow computer systems. In confronting this situation and overcoming these apparent obstacles, NOVA, AN ALBERTA CORPORATION developed a real time measurement system that provides significant benefits over chart recorder devices and off-the-shelf flow computers.
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Document ID: F6784425

Use Of Personal Computers By Member Companies Of The Distribution Design And Development Committee An( Update)
Author(s): John C. Place
Abstract/Introduction:
In the fall of 1985, the Computer Applications in Engineering & Operations Task Group of the AGA Distribution Design & Development Committee conducted a survey of member gas distribution companies to determine the status of personal computer usage within their engineering and operation areas. A similar survey was conducted in the fall of 1984, and the results were presented at the 1985 Distribution Conference by Mr. Henry J. Kuehn of Entex, Inc. This presentation compares the two surveys and indicates current trends of PC usage within the industry. A total of 24 companies from 17 slates and Canada were surveyed, five of them having less than 250,000 meters and 12 having more than 500,000 meters.
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Document ID: B3A8D679

GAIN-What Makes It Work
Author(s): J. Robert Hudson
Abstract/Introduction:
The fundamental strength of GAIN comes from the servicemen -or, more appropriately in todays work environment, from the service persons. Those highly skilled and motivated individuals are blessed with the opportunities, along with a burning desire to provide the highest level of appliance safety and performance, to play their key role in the GAIN program. They initiate the communications link through their GAIN reports. The service persons make GAIN work. The service supervisors and trainers make GAIN work. Their corporate mission to ensure the highest level of energy service to our customers provides a natural vehicle to encourage optimum participation in GAIN by ail of the service persons working today in eighty of the gas utilities across the nation. We also enjoy participation by the LP gas industry, adding their eyes and ears to the GAIN program.
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Document ID: 36B9EF25

Eps Vs. Polymeric Concrete- A Technical And Economic Comparison
Author(s): R. V. Bellafiore, T. A. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a technical and economic comparison of two candidate systems developed for the insulation of impounding areas. Two materials have emerged as favorable candidates for dike surface insulation: Insulating Polymer Concrete (IPC) and Portland Cement based insulating concretes. The IPC malerials best suiied for dike applications are polyester resin/ perlite or epoxy resin/perlite composites. The most suitable Portland Cement based insulating concrete is a composite of expanded polystyrene beads (EPS) and Portland Cement. This report compares the merits of the candidate materials in an attempt to arrive al a rea.sonable conclusion regarding their suitability as a dike insulation. To do this, a Figure of Merit, F, was defined to rate the malerials.
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Document ID: 0280F515

Managing Inbound Transportation- Controlling Transportation Costs In A Deregulated Environment
Author(s): Walter J. Skopow
Abstract/Introduction:
Deregulation of the transportation industry has created a complex environment of increased competition, relaxed economics, and innovative pricing among providers of transportation services. The decision-making process surrounding the purchase of transportation services is more difficult today, but, by recognizing the opportunities and avoiding the pitfalls, savings can be realized while actually improving overall service. This article describes a strategy that can provide control during this period of change and offers stability for the future.
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Document ID: AC2A6B44

Transducers For The Gas Measurement Industry
Author(s): Richard J. Ensch
Abstract/Introduction:
With the coming of age of electronic measurement devices and the continuing technological advancements and innovations in using existing technology, understanding the various types, operation, and accuracy of transducers and transmitters used in the gas industry today becomes very important. Although transducers and transmitters are only a small part of the entire measurement system, they are a critical part. The quality and accuracy of any measurement system is only as good as the data gathered at the front end. As technology continues to advance, so does the accuracy and reliability of available transducers and transmitters.
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Document ID: 4840795F

Total Energy Flow Meter Development
Author(s): Carl H. Griffis
Abstract/Introduction:
As the price of natural gas increases and the energy content becomes more variable due to an increasing number of supply sources, the need for accurate measurement of total energy flow becomes more apparent. Existing total energy flow measurement techniques combine the measurements of a volumetric flow measurement device and an energy content measuremeni device to measure total energy flow. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has initiated two projects 10 develop a total energy flow meter that combine both volumetric and energy content measurement into one device. One device is an adaption of the commercially available Therm-Titrator, while the second device is based on optical techniques that measure the energy flow in a nonintrusive manner. Field test results and future plans are discussed in this paper.
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Document ID: 4FF034A7

Thirty-Two Miles Of Water
Author(s): Gerard P. Lundquist
Abstract/Introduction:
On October 14, 1985, a fractured solid sleeve on a 30 water main at DeGraw Street and Clinton Street, Brooklyn, resulted in the largest gas outage in Brooklyn Union Gas history. The roadway undermined and subsequenily collapsed, breaking a low pressure cast iron gas main in the process. Water infiltrated some 32 miles of gas main in the tow pressure system, causing 2800 services and over 10,000 customers loss of gas service. Resolution of the gas outage occurred within seven days. This expedient response was highlighted by: (1) success of Brooklyn Union Gas Emergency Call Out Procedures, (2) use of a central communications area in the companys main office and a Mobile Command Center in the field to coordinate information flow, (3) formulation of an Outage Coordination Team to implement strategy, (40 improved methods to clear water stoppages in mains and services, and (5) assistance provided by Mutual Aid Utility crews.
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Document ID: 4880126E

Newly Adopted Requirements For Validating The Hydrostatic Design Basis For Pe Piping Materials
Author(s): Stanley A. Mruk
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the common practice to estimate the longterm strength of a thermoplastic pipe from the results of pipe pressure tests that have been evaluated in accordance with method ASTM D 2837, Standard Method for Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis (HDB), For Thermoplastic Pipe Materials. It is also the engineering practice in the design of polyethylene fuel gas pipe to allow one third of the long-term strengths for pipe pressure rating and to reserve the other two thirds for all other considerations, including stresses that could be generated by bending, expansion/contraction, earth, and other loadings. The inherent assumption in this practice is that because of the ductility of PE, the design can ignore the effects of localized deformations that could crack brittle-like materials.
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Document ID: 674997A7

Gravel Packing High-Deliverability Gas Storage Wells At The Mcdonald Island Gas Storage Field: A Case History
Author(s): James E. Hirsch
Abstract/Introduction:
PG&Es 20 years of experience in the completion of high deliverability gas storage wells at its McDonald Island gas storage field has resulted in an evolution of methods used to control reservoir sand production. Different gravel pack and non-gravel pack methods of sand control have been used, all with limited degrees of success. As a consequence of this experience during the past 5 years, PG&E is incorporating a gravel pack completion method, combining new and existing concepts in gravel packing, that appears to achieve effective reservoir sand control without inhibiting dehverability. This process incorporates a non-viscous gravel pack slurry, in-situ vibration of the liner for compaction of the gravel pack, and self-consolidating resin coated packing sand. Resuhs are encouraging.
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Document ID: 70C176CB

Mergers And Acquisitions In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Jay A. Copan
Abstract/Introduction:
Originally, the topic for this paper was to have been the effects on the industry of consolidations, as we know it so far. I have broadened the topic somewhat. The reason for this is that many of the consolidations that have taken place have occurred in a very recent time frame, and consequently, the impact to date is difficult to measure, especially in light of the regulatory changes occurring -FERC Order 436/436A- and the economic changes -sharply declining world oil prices. One would be hard pressed to factor out these other variables in order to examine the impact of consolidations. Also, I do not think that we can simply examine what the impact has been, without looking at how and why we got to where we are today. Thus, with these comments in mind I will give you my presentation on mergers and acquisitions in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 2CF98C88

Electronic Meter Reading And Future Technological Horizons
Author(s): Norman C. Long
Abstract/Introduction:
In the last 15 years, the utility industry has seen large advances in the use of hand-held computers for automating meter reading operations. Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO), after careful evaluation and research, implemented a system in the spring of 1984. We will attempt, within the scope of this paper, to give a general overview of the evolution of automated meter reading, to present our experiences with these devices at NIPSCO, and to highlight for you what we perceive to be the future of the industry. In addition, we will outline those factors that we feel are important in selecting a system.
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Document ID: D8229277

Disposition Of Retired And Surplus Vehicles And Equipment
Author(s): Alfred T. Ela
Abstract/Introduction:
At the Spring Planning Meeting in 1985 that was held in conjunction with the Distribution/ Transmission Conference in Boston, I was requested to conduct a survey of the disposition practices for retired and surplus fleet vehicles and mobile equipmenl and report the results. A four-page questionnaire was sent to 76 companies, and 47 replies were received for a response efficiency of 62%. In the interest of maintaining confidentiality and an objective perspective of the practices and variations that persist in our fleet vehicle disposition transactions, respondents will not be identified. I wish to ihank all who participated in the survey for their comprehensive replies. The concise, lucid, timely responses provided a big assist in handling this assignment.
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Document ID: B5DB0923

A Total System Approach To Automating Gas Distribution
Author(s): William F. Rush, Jr., James E. Huebler, Christopher J. Ziolkowski
Abstract/Introduction:
IGT is investigating the forces that guide the evolution of auiomaied gas disiribution systems. A typical approach is io automate portions of ihe system that are initially viewed as separate. As a utility seeks more integrated control over its operations, it begins to build bridges beiween the islands of automation that have evolved. Costs and inefficiencies arise because of the incompatibility of system components that were not originally intended to operate together. In addition, utilities have begun to recognize and to exploit a nutnber of efficiencies and synergies that exist between hardware components. These arguments suggest that future automated systems will evolve to be more fully integrated than those now being eonsirucied. We anticipate that, at the completion of the transition period to automated systems, they will be characterized by (1) a total integrated system design, (2) compatibility among components, (3) modular design that accommodates the diversity of individual utility requirements, (4) distributed intelligence, and (5 provision for future technological expansion.
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Document ID: 629224A6

Transportation Audits II In( God We Trust-All Others We Audit)
Author(s): Donald R. Ashton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is an update of Transportation Audits as presented at the American Gas Association/Edison Electric Institute Spring 1983 Conference in Houston, Texas, and summarized in paper 83-D-13 in the A.G.A. Operating Section Proceedings, 1983. Audits done since that lime indicate an increased emphasis on data to support goals and objectives and also note an increase in the trend toward centralization of the transportation operations in utilities. This report provides a general overview of the audits, highlighting those areas most frequently identified in several companies. Examples include organization, policies, procedures, systems, and practices. A basic reference is the American Gas Association Transportation Department Guidelines. These guidelines were developed for use by auditors in preparation for reviewing the transportation function.
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Document ID: 7A2AA381

Field Order Dispatching At Peco
Author(s): Lee A. Uhrich, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Philadelphia Electric Company, located in southeastern Pennsylvania, and its subsidiary, Conowingo Power Company, located in northeast Maryland, provide service to approximately 1.4 million Electric customers and 311,000 Gas customers. In 1979, a major undertaking was embarked upon to automate many of the manual tasks performed in providing service to our customers. A Project Team was formed, with representatives from four departments Electric T&D and Gas Operations provided the experience of field personnel and ihe Gas Operations provided the experience of field personnel and dispatchers. The knowledge of Call-taking, Accounting, and Business Services came from Commercial Operations, and Finance and Accounting supplied Ihe Programmers and Analysts. The development was based on a User design concept -have the people that use the system design the system.
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Document ID: 39DC811B

High Pressure Ash-Agglomeration Gasification Of United States Coals
Author(s): J. G. Patel, A. Goyal, A. Rehmat, D. Leppin
Abstract/Introduction:
During 1985, a coal test program in a pressurized, fluidized-bed, ash-agglomerating process development unit was conducted at the Institute of Gas Technology under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute. The overall objective of this test program was to obtain a data base on fluidized-bed ash-agglomerating gasification with United Stales coals at elevated pressures of up to 300 psig. Three U.S. coals - an Eastern bituminous, a Western subbituminous, and a lignite-were tested in this program. The test program has provided valuable information on the effects of pressure on ashagglomerating fluidized-bed gasification of U.S. coals.
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Document ID: F0C2E022

A Simple Model Of An Underground Storage Field
Author(s): Paul A. Hoglund
Abstract/Introduction:
A typical undergound storage field involves a multiplicily of engineering disciplines. The field will have reservoirs, wells, measurement, two face flows, hydrates, complex piping systems, dehydration, compression, cooling, pulsation effects, etc. if we can accept ihat there are no absolute answers in any of these areas, then its relatively easy to develop a simple model. As to ihe fields performance and capability, the model in this case relates the percentage of the field that is drawn down with the available delivery rate. The model also allows testing the effect of various modifications.
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Document ID: A2E24DDA

FERC-The 55 Dba Rule For Compressor Stations
Author(s): William H. Stevens
Abstract/Introduction:
The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) administers its control over the vast majorily of interstate natural gas transmission companies operations. Companies proposing operational changes (contractual proposals/ alterations, construction of new, upgrading of old pipeline, the expansion, modernization, or reliremeni of compression or treatment facilities) must provide information to FERC explaining how the proposed aciiviiy shall conform to FERCs standard. This information must be conclusive, to FERCs satisfaction, so that the company may obtain a certificate or other form of permission (i.e., conform to Blanket authority conditions) from FERC in order to proceed with any such proposed activity. Much of the required information is of an environmental assessment nature. This paper deals with a single concern within the comprehensive array of FERCs environmenial concerns: environmental noise.
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Document ID: A8680E09

Soil Compaction Verification
Author(s): H. A. Todres
Abstract/Introduction:
While conducting their maintenance activities, utilities must break and restore pavement. During pavement restoration it is vitally important to ensure adequate compaction of the soil. To ensure that specified standards are met, tests have evolved that are well-suited to highway construction but poorly suited to utility operations. A novel approach that attempts to address this problem is being tested. In the course of an intensive experimental effort, it was found that relatively simple, inexpensive devices could be used to verify compaction in a wide variety of soils. Further confirmatory work has been scheduled.
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Document ID: E3407BD4

P.L.C.s At Compressor Stations
Author(s): S. F. Heard
Abstract/Introduction:
TransCanada PipeLines has been gaining experience in the application of Programmable Logic Controllers (P.L.C.s) in natural gas compressor stations since 1973, P.L.C.s have proven to be sufficiently reliable for even the most critical applications, provided that the failure modes of P.L.Cs have been considered and safeguards against these have been incorporated. This paper presents some results of TransCanadas experience.
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Document ID: 1B62B2A2

New Techniques To Minimize Environmental Impact To Right-Of-Way During Pipeline Construction
Author(s): Allan J. Gaynor, Lawrence L. Altpeter, Jr., Ralph R. Carter
Abstract/Introduction:
A research program was initiated in early 1983 by the Gas Research Institute at Argonne National Laboratory to conduct selected field and laboratory research activities that will provide the natural gas fransmission industry with costeffective options to miiigate ecological impacts and minimize reclamation costs of pipeline installation. The program is based on the results of a survey of 20 gas transmission companies to define needed environmental research associated with installation and maintenance of gas transmission pipelines. The assessment sludy identified four areas in which research could benefil the industry: 1. Monitoring recovery of agricultural lands 2. Monitoring recovery of rivers and streams following pipeline installation 3. Evaluating soil erosion control techniques 4. Investigating means for improving pipeline installations in Gulf Coasi wetlands
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Document ID: 4C98FE0C

Meter-Pro-The Meter Reading Training Program
Author(s): Greg Gozdowiak
Abstract/Introduction:
I have been working in the Meter Reading Department at Wisconsin Gas Company for the last five years. As Superintendent of Meter Reading, I was very concerned with the departments ability to train meter readers and other company employees on how to read a meter accurately. Proper training in reading meters accurately is important for an employees future success in the job, and it is absolutely necessary for accurate customer billing. Also, the need for valid and on-going reports on meter reading accuracy for each employee was evident. I believe Meter-Pro has addressed all of these needs.
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Document ID: 7034DB64

Quality Assurance Testing Of Piping Components By The Supplier
Author(s): R. R. Petro
Abstract/Introduction:
The dominant material of construction for gas distribution pipelines for the last several years has been polyethylene. It has been reported that over 80% of the gas distribution piping now being installed is polyethylene. Quality Assurance of pipe and fittings has been recognized by the utilities as an important factor in the construction and operation of a safe, economical gas distribution system. There are numerous quality assurance programs utilized by the various gas utilities to obtain the quality of pipe necessary for their operation. These programs include: In-depth testing by the gas utility Third-party or outside laboratory inspection and testing In-depth testing and certification of results by the piping supplier Spot checks by the utility A combination of the above
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Document ID: C01AE819

Computerized Corrosion Control Records
Author(s): Peter A. Bernasconi
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an overview of how computers are being used for the Corrosion Control of gas pipehnes in Con Edison. Areas where the use of computers have proved invaluable include: Cathodic protection status of Distribution and Transmission Pipelines Maintenance of leak records for Active Corrosion Area studies Maintenance of calibration data on test instruments Inventory control of test equipment These systems are also the source of all computer-gcneraied reports required for management information and control. Future plans to extend the use of computers are also discussed.
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Document ID: E6531FB2

Characterization Of The Former Gloversville Gas Plant Site
Author(s): Michael W. Sherman
Abstract/Introduction:
Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation maintains an electric and gas operations headquarters in Gloversville, New York. Gloversville is sicualed in easi-central New York State and within the northeastern region of Niagara Mohawks 24,000 square mile service territory. The Gloversville operations headquarters, like several other company operations facilities, is situated on the site of a former (own gas manufacturing site. Wastes generated by the former coal gas manufacturing facility remain on the property and have been encountered by Niagara Mohawk personnel while conducting routine, onsite operations. Concerns relative lo the potential impacts of these wastes on human health and the environment provided the impelus for conducting site investigations and evaluating risks at Gloversville. Niagara Mohawks characterization of the former Gloversville gas plant site is described in this paper.
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Document ID: 6A3DA436

Saskatchewan Rural Gas Distribution
Author(s): R. G. Kane
Abstract/Introduction:
The Saskatchewan Power Corporation (Sask- Power) is a public natural gas and electric utility serving the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada (See Figure 1). The natural gas utility is vertically integrated, from gas gathering fields and processing plants, through compressor stations and high pressure gas transmission facilities, to medium pressure distribution systems in over 500 communities throughout the Province. In 1985, SaskPower provided service to 236,000 natural gas Customers with gas sales of over 3,000 million cubic metres (see Figure 2). In 1982, SaskPower initiated a program to provide natural gas service to the farms and small rural communities that were as yet unserved, Four small pilot projects involving about 100 farm services were undertaken to evaluate different approaches to the installation of a rural gas distribution system. One of the pilot projects was selected as a model, and, at the end of 1982, a program management group was established to provide overall direction to the Saskatchewan Natural Gas Distribution Program (SNGDP).
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Document ID: CABEDC6E

Gas Theft: Crime And The Solution
Author(s): Franklin S. Burroughs
Abstract/Introduction:
A brief history of gas theft in POandEs System up to 1986. A chronology of what PGandE has done to combat the problems together with ihe recoveries and cotivictions since the inception of the revenue protection program. Specific methods of gas theft outlined and Ihe most effective means by which these can be countered either through preventive methods or investigation techniques proven successfully. Discussion of criminal and civil remedies and a profile of Ihe energy thief based on statistical data. Positive means other than through investigation and prevention lo slow down gas theft.
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Document ID: 81C3397D

How Gain Benefits The Gas Utilities
Author(s): Gene W. Russell
Abstract/Introduction:
The name itself tells the story of how GAIN benefits the gas utility. In Gas Appliance Improvement Network, the key work is network. GAIN is nol just one utility contacting a manufacturer its a national organization of more than 60 utilities, 225 appliance manufacturers, and the American Gas Association Laboratories. A network-working together for a common purpose: the improvement of something vital to our existence - gas appliances. appliances. We like to call it Gaining on Appliance Perfection. In a world where many industries have forgotten the word service, the gas industry and appliance manufacturers have not. A report comes to a manufacturer that several of its gas ranges have had the oven door glass crack or shatter after several months use. The manufacturer follows up and finds the problem was a resuh of assembly line procedures that prevented proper tempering of the glass. The manufacturer makes modifications and solves the problem. A certain model gas valve is found to be hard to turn, and the plastic knob breaks. The manufacturer is notified of a trend, investigates, and changes the valve design. Some manufacturers begin using burner inserts to reduce the NOx levels on their gas ranges. Because the inserts will change the traditional blue flame to orange, servicemen are alerted to expect the difference when they make service calls on those ranges.
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Document ID: 1B5D59AE

National Perspectives On Recent Issues In Indoor Air Quality
Author(s): Irwin H. Billick
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past few years, the issue of indoor air quality has been receiving increased attention from the public in general and a wide spectrum of diverse special interest groups. The latter include not only the federal and local regulatory agencies, but legislative bodies such as the US. Congress, comsumer organizations, utility companies, trade organizations, professional associations, and the scientific and technical research community. The purpose of this paper is 10 provide an overview of some of the current national issues and activities related to indoor air quality. To provide a comprehensive review and analysis of all the major indoor air quahiy issues and what is being done to address ihcm is well beyond ihc scope of a short review such as this. Emphasis will therefore be given to the major indoor air quality issues that are of immediate interest to the natural gas industry. The two areas of primary concern are, first, the direct impact on indoor air quality resulting from combustion of natural gas and, second, the impact of residential energy conservation activities on indoor air quality as a result of pollutants from all sources. Since this second area, to a large extent, includes the first, it may be advantageous to address it first.
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Document ID: 8B4B0540

Nipsco Readies New Gas Scada System . . . And New Dispatching Facilities
Author(s): Kenneth R. Foley, Jr., William H. Gabris
Abstract/Introduction:
Noriliern Indiana Public Service Company is now installing and testing a new gas dispatch system at its new Gas Operations Center in Hammond, Indiana. Several innovative functions were integrated with the gas dispatch and SCADA functions in the new computer system, including a custody iransfer billing process Cor large industrial customers, a means of backup communications lo remote sites using the public dial telephone network, an automated system of record keeping and report generation, and a computer to computer weather data link. Among the benefits anticipated from the upgraded dispatch system and facilities are higher productivity of dispatchers greater master station reliability, availability, and growth potential and improved communications with remote sites. Essential to the dispatch system procurement process was the use of a very considered and methodical approach - the consuUani selection, requirements study, bid specification, vendor selection, work stalement, and project management phases provided a coordinated effort that minimized project cost and significantly contributed to the overall success of the project.
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Document ID: 54CE5562

Meter Purchase Allocation Program
Author(s): Ralph C. Stanford
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1985, Southern California Gas Co. revised its method of allocating gas meter purchases among suppliers. This paper explains the modified Meter Purchase Allocation Program. The improved sysiem is designed to benefit meter suppliers as well as the Gas Company. At its core is a formula that assigns relative values to performance achievements. The new program improves on the formula-based system instituted in 1983 by assuring that each performance achievement has a proportionate impact on the number of meters we buy from a supplier. The Meter Performance Allocation Programs goats are to: Assure the long-term viability of meter suppliers Encourage and reward superior performance Stimulate and promote competitive pricing It is important to remember that the new program is still basically a tool for managements use in allocating meter purchases. Gas Company management may find it necessary to deviate from the formula when exceptional conditions warrant.
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Document ID: C35B582F

Practical Solutions To Casing Problems
Author(s): William m. Rivers
Abstract/Introduction:
It would be safe to say that any corrosion engineer responsible for the cathodic protection of underground pipeline gas systems has had to contend with the shorted casing problem. It could be the casing installed thirty years ago without concern for electrical isolation or a recent installation where a construction crew left a welding rod or shovel inside the casing, negating the efforts of proper design to obtain electrical isolation. For many years shorted casing problems have been tolerated, ignored, or compensated for by turning up rectifier ground bed systems. RecenI attention and concern from the Department of Transportation has prompted most operators to take another look ai the status of casings in their system and become more aware of potential internal corrosion damage to carrier piping as a result of the shorted casing. The contents of this paper are to provide the reader with information that may be helpful in evaluating casing isolation and to review some of the options available to solve the shorted casing problem.
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Document ID: 5204BDE3

Pipeline Surveillance-Video From A Helicopter
Author(s): Anthony N. Curry
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to our video surveillance program we used high-altitude, large-format stilt photography to obtain density surveys and determine class location changes. In the fall of 1982, we determined video taping would be a better and less expensive way of doing the job while realizing more benefits for our money. We visited with a gas company already operating its own video surveillance system to get some ideas. We began by experimenting with rented consumer type video equipment, handheld while flying pipeline right of ways in a Hughes 300 helicopter. The initial results of our video taping were not spectacular, but the potential benefits and advantages were evident. The problems associated with maintaining and protecting our pipeline facility along our system right of ways have been increasing in recent years. The video surveillance system appears to be the best tool available in coping with current problems.
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Document ID: AB3D7F6C

Remote Meter Reading Pilot Program Metscan()
Author(s): Frederick H. Abrew
Abstract/Introduction:
Equitable Gas Company is a division of Equitable Resources, Inc. with its corporate headquarters located in Pittsburgh, Pa. Equitable provides natural gas service to approximately 258,000 retail customers in the southwestern Pennsylvania, northern West Virginia, and eastern Kentucy areas. The majority of these customers are located in ihe Pittsburgh area. Equitables industrial load for 1985 consisted of 10.0 billion cubic feet of natural gas. Sales had been declining for several years, primarily due to the depressed steel industry. The commercial sales load represented 15.7 billion cubic feet and residential sales 30.5 billion cubic feet. The concept of remote meter reading (RMR) has generated a great deal of interest and enthusiasm among utility companies during the past few years. The reason, simply stated, is that remote metering promises improved efficiency and long-term cost savings for the company and belter service for its customers.
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Document ID: 51043A7A

The Gas Reel
Author(s): Raymond L. Grant
Abstract/Introduction:
I am sure ihal saving time and money is a subject that concerns us all. The purpose of this paper is to share with you information about meter change devices that we beheve will help you save time and money, as they have for us. The function of these devices is to supply gas to the customer while work is being performed on our lines or equipment. For more than thirty years, the installation of by-pass fittings - tees - has been among the duties of our field service personnel.
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Document ID: A87FE659

Factors Affecting Use Of Industrial On-Site Gas Storage
Author(s): Thomas J. Joyce, Nicholas R. Biederman
Abstract/Introduction:
Retention of the industrial market is critical to the growth of the gas industry, and competitive costs and supply reliability are the keys. Many industrial gas consumers use on-site gas storage or stand-by fuel storage to assure low cost and good reliability. The technological, economic, and institutional factors that will affect the use of on-site storage are examined. The natural gas storage methods that are used now and new methods that may find use are evaluated. The industrial gas consumers requirements for onsite storage are defined, and the research needed to meet these requirements is identified. The R&D program that the Gas Research Institute is conducting is reviewed.
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Document ID: F7C40A31

U.S. Epa And Underground Storage Tanks Ust()
Author(s): Gerald W. Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
The Underground Storage Tank (UST) program is no longer a new program. The program was established under Subtitle 1 as a part of a group of amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Acl (RCRA) known as the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of November 8, 1984. UST regulates an eslimated 1.5 million tanks approximately 90 percent of these store petroleum products. A recent survey estimates that approximately 100,000 of the tanks storing petroleum products are leaking. An underground storage tank, as defined in Section 9001 of Subtitle I, is ... any one or a combination of tanks (including underground pipes connected thereto) which is used to contain an accumulation of regulated substances, and the voiume of which (including the volume of the underground pipes connected thereto) is ten per centum or more beneath the ground.
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Document ID: 9EBA70A1

Near Surface Geochemical Monitoring Of Underground Gas Storage Facilities
Author(s): Robert J. Pirkle
Abstract/Introduction:
Principles of geochemical monitoring of underground gas storage facilities are discussed with illustrative examples from natural storage reservoirs, storage caverns in rock and salt, and production wells. Parallels to petroleum exploration are presented with examples of leaking petroleum reservoirs from the Western Overthrust Belt. Surface geochemical methods are useful not only to identify leakage, but to monitor the efficiency of repairs or other remedial action. Applications of geochemical monitoring to a catastrophic leak on the Barbers Hill Salt Dome are discussed. The result of these observations of leaking wells suggests that preventive geochemical monitoring of underground storage facilities can provide and early warning of impending problems.
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Document ID: F82EEACE

Underground Tanks In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): John R. Erickson
Abstract/Introduction:
By May 8, 1986, all owners of underground tanks used to store specific petroleum products or hazardous substances must notify the government of the existence of these tanks or risk substantial fines. In addition, the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 require thai the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develop regulations specifying design, construction, maintenance, and operation standards for new underground tanks and also for existing underground tanks. Section 9003(g) of the 1984 Amendments establishes interim design and construction standards for new underground tanks, which will remain in effect until EPA promulgates other new underground tank rules under the law. Civil penalties of up to 10,000 per day per lank installed in violation of these standards can be assessed. Of major .significance to the gas industry, ihe law exempts pipeline facilities from the definition of underground tanks.
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Document ID: A874AF1D

Comparative Testing Of Polyethylene Heat Fusion Techniques
Author(s): m. G. Glasgow, R. L. Ayres
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides data on physical performance of heat fusion jointing techniques when evaluated by various destructive testing meihods. The test joints consisted of fusions of similar and dissimilar grades of polyethylene pipe manufactured in accordance with ASTM D-2513. Jointing methods used were of butt fusion, socket fusion, where appropriate, and electrofusion. The following testing methods were used: (1) Tensile Pull, (2) Quick Burst, (3) Rolary Fatigue, and (4) Elevated Temperature/ Constant Pressure.
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Document ID: 754EA9FC

Advertising In The Gas Industry
Author(s): Richard R. Kolodziej
Abstract/Introduction:
As far as I can determine no paper on advertising has been presented ai conferences in past years. This is a first. So it is perfectly reasonable for you to ask, If we got along all these years without hearing about advertising, why bring it up now? Thats a good question-and I think Ive got a good answer. It starts with some observations that Jim Thorpe, President of Washington Natural Gas, made recently. Jim pointed out that for years his Seattle-based company had been marketing gas and all kinds of appliances and equipment. They had been doing it with high-priced Canadian gas in the face of competition from very low-priced hydro electric power. Certainly not an easy task. But Washington Natural has been successful in fact, very successful. And the reason Jim gives for it is that he has more than eleven hundred marketers working for his company. According to Jim, every Washington Natural employee is a gas marketer. Every meter reader, every accountant, every telephone operator, and yes, every engineer is a marketer.
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Document ID: 8CE81794

Chrysler Corporations State-Of-The-Art Corrosion Prevention And Paint Systems
Author(s): Dominic J. Bologna
Abstract/Introduction:
Chryslers commitment to quality is what our customers expiect from the cars and trucks that are used in their daily operations. We understand that quality is not just showroom quality. These vehicles are your long-term investment. Long life is what you expect. To deliver this quality is a process -it starts with the correct material specifications and design and the commitment to provide the tooling, resources, and technology to build and paint the vehicles to last. How long is long enough? Remember, just a few short years ago corrosion warranty was three years, and, today, Chrysler offers a five year/50,000 mile warranty against outer panel perforation. Knowing how long it takes to pay off a vehicle, we are not going to let it be a rusted out pile of junk when you have to make your last payment. So we are not satisfied with the 5/500,000. Today we are evaluating materials, processes, and designs that may last substantially beyond 5 years.
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Document ID: 83F4DA08

Vehicle Operator Training In The Utility Industry
Author(s): Wallace E. Pope
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper training is a prerequisite to proper performance, The Philadelphia Electric Companys Transportation Division Instructor Group is dedicated lo providing comprehensive training not only in all aspects of vehicular operation and usage but also in vehicular maintenance and safety. The group has a foreman to coordinate the activities of four instructors. They are expected to be familiar with the operation of all of P.E.Co.s 2,671 vehicles and, on short notice, be able to train an individual or group of people on the safe operation of any vehicle or its mounted equipment. In addition to field (hands-on) training, classroom sessions are important parts of the operators (raining. An example of this is the defensive driving program. The courses offered to employees on request of their employing officers are the National Safety Councils Defensive Driving Course and the Smith System. The National Safety Councils Course consists of films and lectures where the Smith system concept deals with space for the vehicle and visibility for ihe driver. The latter system is taught through actual hands-on conditions and evaluations by the instructor. Often these courses are given to employees who have had a series of accidents. After the accidents are analyzed by the instructors, the appropriate course is selected and given to the employee.
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Document ID: BD7DF143

Bridge Rebuilding-Utility Pipeline Adjustments
Author(s): Sal A. Ardigliano
Abstract/Introduction:
June 28, 1983, is a day that will long remain in the minds of Connecticut State residents. On that day the Mianus River Bridge on 1-95 in Greenwich, Connecticut, collapsed killing three people. The resulting investigation not only attributed the blame lor this disaster on faulty bridge design but also pointed an accusing finger at the States Department of Transportation inspection procedures. It was obvious to all concerned that the State would soon initiate a bridge replacement program of mammoth proportions, affecting not only residents and visitors to our State but the local utilities with facilities located on these structures. Beginning in March of 1984, the State of Connecticut Department of Transportation instituted the Emergency Bridge Replacement Program. Hundreds of bridges throughout the State were designated for various degrees of maintenance, renovation, and/or replacement. Locations varied from bridges along six-lane highways to structures of two lanes over small creeks on isolated State roadways. The impact on Our distribution system would be severe. Although the Department of Transportation made a conscious effort to stagger their workload throughout the State, there still existed the possibility that several vital parts of our distribution system would be temporarily removed while the bridge structures were demolished and re-built. Needless to say, maintaining Gas Supply to our customers during peak demand periods was foremost in our minds.
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Document ID: BAAC3C6D

Nbs-Boulder Basic Gas Metering Project
Author(s): J. A. Brennan, B. R. Bateman, S. E. Mcmanus, C. F. Sindt, I. Vazquez
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent developments in this multi-year gas flow measurement program include new experimental orifice meter coefficient data, an archival orifice meter data base, an inter!aboratory comparison with flow facilities in the European Economic Community (EEC), and tests on five flow conditioners. The current status of these tasks is described, and some examples are presented that may be useful in future revisions of the orifice flow measurement standard.
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Document ID: 2201E406

Bolted Restraint Couplings-History And Applications
Author(s): Richard m. Halen, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of plastic pipe for gas distribution systems has dictated many new methods and materials for pipe joining. In order for such fittings to be properly applied, materials engineers should thoroughly investigate any new fitting, understand its design, and perform pertinent tests relative to intended applications and anticipated operating conditions. The purpose here is to dissect one such device - bolted restraint couplings - and investigate the mechanics and testings of such couplings on a generic level. With this information the materials engineer will be better prepared to properly apply such devices in a gas distribution system.
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Document ID: 2D70C990

Electronic Pipeline Inspection Tools In A Quality Assurance Program
Author(s): Donaldd C. Ingram, James T. Justice
Abstract/Introduction:
The pipeline owner and operator, TransCanada PipeLines, has found that on-line inspection tools can contribute significant benefits when integrated into an overall pipeline quality assurance program. The tools complement pipeline design, operation, monitoring, and remedial action. To be used successfully, the inspection devices themselves should be designed and operated under the principles of quality assurance.
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Document ID: 6303148B

Pipeline Casings-Electrical Characteristic Interpretations
Author(s): Robert A. Moody
Abstract/Introduction:
A 1979, A.G.A. Pipeline Research Committee project concluded that it is possible for a carrier pipe 10 be cathodically protected within a shorted casing if an annular electrolyte is present and if the metallic contact resistance (if any) is greater than approximately 5 ohms. The conclusion was reached because of the ability to meet or exceed presently established caihodic protection criteria by taking pipe-toelectrolyte measurements through ports built into the casing wall. Combinations of electrolyte resistivity, metallic contact resistance values, carrier coaling condition, and casing coating condition were studied. The predominant factors influencing cathodic protection were found to be the value of the metallic resistance rather than product temperature, the coating conditions of the carrier pipe or casing, end seal integrity, electrolyte resistance or physical parameters, such as casing length, diameter, etc.
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Document ID: FCAF25B4

Landfill Gas Recovery With Membrane Technology
Author(s): John Van Bladeren
Abstract/Introduction:
BioGas Technology, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Northwest Natural Gas Company, was organized in 1984. Its business is to develop landfill gas recovery projects on a nationwide basis. Essentially, the operation consists of collecting the methane being generated in a landfill through a gathering system. The methane is then compressed, cleaned up, and the CO2 is separated out through the use of membrane technology. For general information, one may assume that for every million (ons of garbage in place, one can recover approximately 0.1 to 0.15 BCF per year of pipeline quality gas, The recently developed semi-permeable membrane process technology requires less maintenance and has lower first costs than other process alternatives. The membranes are designed to efficiently remove some 95% of the CO, from the collected gas, leaving a product with 90-95% methane, the plants are designed for semi-automatic and remotely controlled operation, the compact design requires less than one acre of space, compressors are slow-speed, heavy duly models designed to operate continuously for years at minimum expense, an overall layout is shown in Figure 1.
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Document ID: 7A193C26

Gri Program On Management Of Manufactured-Gas Sites
Author(s): David G. Linz, Eugene E. Berkau
Abstract/Introduction:
The current situation with former manufactured- gas sites on a broad basis is not well defined in terms of the sites themselves, the nature and extent of residuals, vague or non-existent regulations, and legal liability for the sites. Technical approaches for characterizing sites and, if necessary, implementing remedial actions have not been established or demonstrated to any great degree for these sites. There is therefore a significant opportunity for research to improve technologies and reduce costs for the industry. GRI, with the guidance and assistance of an industry task force, has initiated a program to develop tools to help in the management of former manufactured gas sites. The program addresses three key technical areas: (1) sampling and analysis protocols for site characterization, (2) risk management decision making, and (3) mitigation trealment and cleanup technologies. Research and development activities will continue through field testing of applicable technologies at actual sites.
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Document ID: 5EEC34DF

Quality In The Vehicle Fleet
Author(s): Donald R. Ashton, Robert W. Bray
Abstract/Introduction:
Quality is that marvelous attribute of a product or service that is easy to recognize but hard to define. Yet a fleet operation, like any other competitive business, must provide a quality produci to its customers if it is to prosper-if it is, in fact, to survive. It was in this spirit-to define and set guidelines to provide quahty in the vehicle fleet - thai utility fleet managers from throughout the United States convened the 1986 Quality In the Vehicle Fleet Workshop. Representing the Edison Electric Institutes Transportation Committee and the American Gas Associations Automotive and Mobile Equipment Committee, more than fifty top level fleet managers and equipment supplier executives developed guidelines provided for you in this booklet. For the purposes of the workshop. Quality was defined as conformance to the users valid requirements. The ultimate goal was to provide guidelines for delivering quality vehicles and vehicle services to users.
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Document ID: A05CD99B

Single Stage Bioconversion Of Coal Synthesis Gas To Methane
Author(s): S. Barik, E. R. Johnson, E. C. Clausen, J. L. Gaddy
Abstract/Introduction:
The energy content of coal synthesis gas may be increased by utilizing the water shift gas and methanation reactions. These reactions can be carried out by employing anaerobic bacteria at ordinary temperatures and pressures. Laboratory data are presented for the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane in a mixed culture. Large-scale process economics are presented and compared with traditional methanation technology.
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Document ID: 07C26B33

Deming Method For Creating Quality
Author(s): William B. Morlok
Abstract/Introduction:
At a recent conference in New York City, the topic was Managing to Make Things - Profitably. Several interesting points were raised in the program announcement: First they adopted our principles of quality control management products with superior fits and finishes attracted new customers: OURS Then they adopted our robotics and tightened the productive cycles through just-in-time parts delivery their competitively- priced products attracted new customers: OURS Still, some people over here thought were losing out to lower labor costs there. Then they began building factories here and continued to produce competitivelypriced quality products with local work forces: OURS So now we all have the same great equalizers in the same operaling environment - and few excuses left.
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Document ID: C88F6FA8

LNG Tank Foundation Heating
Author(s): Gary R. Fornasiero
Abstract/Introduction:
Foundation heating systems for LNG storage tanks resting on grade are important in preventing the possibility of frost heave beneath the tank foundation. Here, the thermal behavior of such heating systems is considered by determining how critical parameters influence the design. These parameters are: heater spacing, heater cable characteristics, insulation thickness, product temperature, and thermal conductivities of the heater embedment material and foundation soil. The transient behavior of an on-off type of heating control system is also analyzed.
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Document ID: A39164EA

Project Management: Survey Results
Author(s): J. R. Cookingham
Abstract/Introduction:
At the 1984 fall meeting of the Pipeline Committee, project management was proposed as a possible task group topic. The subject was originally introduced by members of the Engineering and Operations Analysis (E&OA) Committee in 1982. Members of the committee were surveyed at that time. Before the E&OA Committee could act on the results, it was disbanded and its members transferred to other committees. Former members of the E&OA Committee now assigned to the Pipeline Committee suggested the establishment of a Project Management Task Group. The task group was organized, and they elected to survey the Pipeline Committee members.
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Document ID: 2C68DE33

Improving Maintenance Productivity And Control Through Cultural Changes And The Computer
Author(s): Tracy Ellis Mulligan
Abstract/Introduction:
With the possible exception of death and taxes, there is nothing so certain as change. This paper discusses planned change efforts to improve maintenance productivity and control of work orders for an underground gas distribution system. BACKGROUND The Washington Gas Light Companys piping system supplies the Washington, D.C, area, including the central city as well as suburban or rural areas in Maryland and Virginia within thirty miles of the city. The system includes approximately 6,600 miles of main and 550,000 services. Other characteristics of the system are: About 15% is tow pressure (6 wc) most of the remainder is operated at 20 psi. The oldest active piping was installed in the 1860s. There are approximately 800 miles of cast iron main, 4,300 miles of wrapped sleel, 800 miles of bare steel, and 700, miles of plastic.
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Document ID: AF49A37C

Modeling Seasonal Storage Operations
Author(s): W. C. Fay
Abstract/Introduction:
Union Gas Limited operates ten underground storage reservoirs of widely varying size and deliverabilily currently developed to store 93.9 BCF. Through the use of a computer model that can simulate all elements in the storage system, Union has the ability to produce injection and withdrawal schedules for an entire season that closely match the actual system requirements. This has been made possible in part through the development of a historical database, which enables the Company to predict seasonal requirements based on historical data. This paper outlines Unions approach to minimizing capital expenditures, compressor fuel, and inventory carrying costs by use of enhanced modeling techniques.
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Document ID: 8D2E1978

New Developments In The Determination Of Compressibility And Supercompressibility: Status Of Natural Gas Supercompressibility Factor And Thermodynamic Properties Correlation Research
Author(s): K. E. Starling, L. L. Savidge, R. T. Ellington, T. Reid, S. Shankar
Abstract/Introduction:
Recently completed research that has led to a highly accurate prediction method for the supercompressibility factors of pipeline gases is discussed. The status of preliminary work to extend the method to sour and wet gases with water vapor content up to saturated conditions also is presented. Initial evaluations of applications to sonic velocity and sonic nozzle calculations are discussed.
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Document ID: 8173B47E

LNG Storage: Rollover Experiences In Operating Facilities
Author(s): Ronald C. Van Meerbeke
Abstract/Introduction:
In September 1981, an international study group was set up under the auspices of Groupe International des importateurs de Gaz Natural Liquefie, commonly referred to as the GIIGNL, to collect and evaluate data on occurrences of rollover in an effort to expand the relevant data base beyond what was then available in the literature. Columbia LNG Corporation was one of the eight GIIGNL member companies participating in the study of rollover in LNG storage tanks.
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Document ID: A77FCEE2

Warranty Repairs-Inside Or Outside?
Author(s): Jerry G. Perkins
Abstract/Introduction:
This survey was designed to assess ihe overall popularily of In-House Warranty Repair Programs among A.G.A. member companies, The inient of the survey was to identify the extent of In-House Warranty Programs currently in place and the perceived advantages and disadvantages of In-House Warranty Programs among the survey respondents.
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Document ID: 4A858D5D

Warranty Repairs-Inside Or Outside?
Author(s): Jerry G. Perkins
Abstract/Introduction:
This survey was designed to assess ihe overall popularily of In-House Warranty Repair Programs among A.G.A. member companies, The inient of the survey was to identify the extent of In-House Warranty Programs currently in place and the perceived advantages and disadvantages of In-House Warranty Programs among the survey respondents.
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Document ID: 182C6F71

Preventative Maintenance
Author(s): Howard J. Berg
Abstract/Introduction:
Preventalive maintenance is important to all of us. The maintenance of vehicles and equipment does not start with just a good P.M. Program. Vehicle and equipment management incorporates three very important elements: 1. Equipment selection and purchase 2. Proper crew application and usage 3. Equipment maintenance and repair Although all three elements are equally as important, the one that is most neglected is maintenance and repair.
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Document ID: B248D9D1

P.LC.s At Compressor Stations
Author(s): S. F. Heard
Abstract/Introduction:
TransCanada PipeLines has been gaining experience in the application of Programmable Logic Controllers (P.L.C.s) in natural gas compressor stations since 1973, P.L.C.s have proven to be sufficiently reliable for even the most critical applications, provided that the failure modes of PT-.Cs have been considered and safeguards against these have been incorporated. This paper presents some results of TransCanadas experience.
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Document ID: 1E1953BF

American Gas Association Bar Coding Presentation
Author(s): Donald G. Bender
Abstract/Introduction:
About three years ago I walked into my Vice- Presidents office and said, Tom, I think we need to implement Bar Coding Technology in our storerooms. Tom, being a thirty-year veteran who has resisted all efforts to install a PC in his office and who two years earlier authorized 500,000 toward a new Materials Management System, turned to me and said, What did you say? This time I cautiously said, Tom, dont you want to improve the storekeepers productivity with bar coding? This time Tom responded by saying, I thought bar coding was only for supermarkets. Well, Toms opinion is shared by many people who believe that bar code technology is just for the retail industry. This perception is far from the truth. Since the early 1980s, many industries have documented amazing productivity improvement through bar coding. In fact, if any vendor plans to supply materials to the Big Three auto makers or Department of Defense, they must afix bar code labels to their products.
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Document ID: A643A4E1

Joint-Contract Locating At Washington Gas Light Company
Author(s): John D. Popovich
Abstract/Introduction:
Joint-contract locating at Washington Gas Light (WGL) evolved primarily due to the underground facility locating workload requirements caused by Cable Television (CATV) Major-Build construction. The timetable is shown in Figure 1. The nature of CATV Major-Build construction lends itself to contract locating for the following reasons: Contract locating supplements the existing locating work force for a short term (2-3 year) increase in workload- Contract locating offers a significant cost benefit (lOyo-WPo). The need for close and constant coordination between locate crews and CATV crews requires dedicating locate crews exclusively to CATV activities. A lack of internal organization and knowledge of one-call center operations attributed to some CATV companies requires other utilities to constantly monitor located requests, as they relate to the actual areas of construction (locating required) for the CATV build. CATV Major-Build construction typically involves locating entire subdivisions or large parts of subdivisions. A large amount of locating can be performed with very little travel time. Labor cost directly associated with the CATV build can be closely documented and monitored for follow-up billing to the CATV companies.
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Document ID: DB8B7E26

The Application Of Pipe Repair, Rehabilitation Techniques And Their Recent Developments
Author(s): Toshiaki Tanaka
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past, exchange, partial repair, or corrosion control of pipes have been performed when leakage troubles occur after years of use. In response to the changes in working conditions and the need for cost reduction, however, some new methods are needed to rehabilitate pipes by repairing their interior as required by the degree of damage or corrosion before troubles occur and to prevent leaks - Preventive Preservation- and which are, at the same time, more efficient and cost less to supply the gas safely and in good condition. Osaka Gas Co. has been developing some techniques in answer to the above needs. In this paper, the details of the Epoxy Resin Lining Process, one of such new techniques, using a double-ball pig, are introduced.
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Document ID: 7C933789

Video-Based Training Program For LNG Plant Personnel
Author(s): Richard F. Bukacek, Philip J. Anderson, J. Thomas Raines
Abstract/Introduction:
The Industrial Education Group at the Insiitute of Gas Technology (IGT) has developed videobased training programs for LNG plant personnel under the guidance of an industry advisory panel. The programs consist of 39 videotaped lessons with accompanying text for peakshaving plant personnel and 24 video-taped lessons with accompanying test for satellite plant personnel. A computer-based testing/ grading/record-keeping service is also provided as an option with either program. The training programs were developed in response to requirements of the Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Federal Safety Standards, issued by the Department of Transportation, Material Transportation Bureaus Research and Special Programs. That standard, promulgated under the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968, as amended, was issued in 1980 as a new Part 193 contained under Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Subpart H, Qualifications and Training, specifies the training requirements for operating and maintenance personnel.
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Document ID: 22A2B851

Save Money-Dont Buy Low Bid
Author(s): J. E. Peters
Abstract/Introduction:
A supplier evaluation program can result in better purchasing decisions by incorporating predetermined values for factors other than price and slated delivery in the selection process. This can also be an effective means of allocating business among suppliers where the price and delivery times are approximately equal. The methodology of a supplier evaluation program considering quality and delivery performance along with engineering and commercial service is described, including the characteristics that can be assigned to these factors. Anticipated results and potential applications are discussed.
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Document ID: 9932D633

Insulating Polymer Concrete For LNG Impounding Dikes
Author(s): Jack J. Fontana, Meyer Steinberg
Abstract/Introduction:
An insulating polymer concrete (IPC) composite has been developed under contract to the Gas Research Institute for possible use as a dike insulation material at Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) storage facilities. In the advent of an LNG spill into the impounding dike area, the boiloff rate of ihe LNG can be substantially reduced if the surfaces of the dike are insulated. This increased safety at Ihe LNG facility will tend to reduce the hazardous explosive mixture with atmosphere air in the surrounding region. The dike insulation material must have a low thermal conductivity and be unaffected by environmental conditions, The IPC composites developed consist of perlite or glass nodule aggregates bound together as a closed cell structure with a polyester resin. In addition to low thermal conductivity and porosity, these composites have correspondingly high strengths and, therefore, can carry transient loads of workmen and maintenance equipment. Prefabricated IPC panels have been installed experimentally, and at least one utility is currently considering a complete installation at its LNG facility.
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Document ID: 5A29C2B3

Gas Check Gas( Appliance Systems Check)-Ensuring Propane Installations Are As Safe As Humanly Possible
Author(s): Charles Sawyer
Abstract/Introduction:
The GAS CHECK program is the most comprehensive safety and training program in our industrys history. It is designed to reduce greatly the chances of property damage and accidental injury, while at the same time upgrade installations to the current state of art. In the process, servicemen and delivery personnel will reach new heights of job performance and pride through the intensive training they will receive as a part of this program. The GAS CHECK program was structured as a partnership between gas equipmeni manufacturers and LP-gas marketers. Manufacturers were asked to finance (he development of training and support materials necessary to the programs success. LP-gas marketers supply the labor and some of the materials necessary to complete 5.5 million GAS CHECKS in the next five years.
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Document ID: ED41F372

Washington Outlook-1986
Author(s): George H. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
There has been a dramatic change in our industry since I addressed your conference two years ago in San Francisco. The names and shapes of many of our member companies have changed or are changing. The marketplace has changed, and the clamor grows louder all the time. The competitive pace of the gas business is changing into a higher gear. But, as the saying goes, the more things change, the more they stay the same. There are fundamental bedrocks of our business. Heading that list is the quality of our product and the quality of our people. In particular, the men and women of the operating section who built and who maintain our incomparable millionmile pipeline system. It remains the envy of the world. Such efforts ensure that the customer receives efficient, reliable gas service.
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Document ID: B6492092

Large Scale Gas Network Design By Automated Means
Author(s): Thomas E. Richwine, Donald W. Schroeder, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary objective of the natural gas design engineer is to specify a set of facilities that can transport sufficient quantities of natural gas from the available sources to each customer in an economical and safe fashion. In essence, it is desirable to design systems that meet all of the stated objectives of reliability, safety, efficiency, and maintainability at the lowest possible cost. Determining precisely what such an ideal distribution system looks like or even what the best design parameters are is not intuitively obvious. This paper briefly describes one means of approaching the problem of system capacity design.
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Document ID: C2309AB8

Using Expanded Polystyrene Concrete For Controlling LNG Vapor Generation
Author(s): R. J. Pasquinelli
Abstract/Introduction:
Experience in meeting LNG vapor dispersion siting criteria through the use of insulating concrete to reduce vapor generation rates is discussed. Particulars are presented on code siting regulations, LNG vapor generation, impoundment area design, insulating concrete properties, and mixtures and installation of the concrete.
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Document ID: 6068A786

Cathodic Protection Levels Under Disbonded Coatings
Author(s): Kevin C. Garrity
Abstract/Introduction:
Cathodic protection levels under disbonded coatings and the role of cathodic protection in causing disbondment is of major concern. Experimental and field investigations carried out by others have been reported and summarized. The results seem to indicate that cathodic protection levels can be obtained under unbonded coatings with the proper application of protective current. In certain cases, excessive levels of cathodic protection may preclude successful current distribution under disbonded coatings as a result of shielding from hydrogen bubbles. The levels at which hydrogen evolution occurs and its impact on coating disbondment have not been conclusively proven.
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Document ID: D6F57CD2

Corrosion Control For Metallic Underground Storage Tanks
Author(s): John H. Fitzgerald
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry utilizes many underground tanks and associated piping for the storage of fuel and other products. These facilities need to be protected against corrosion just as pipelines do. This is necessary for economic and safety reasons and to comply with state and federal regulations. Corrosion is caused by natural reactions between metal and soil and by stray current. Methods of corrosion control include cathodic protection, fiberglass cladding, and the use of corrosion-resistant or nonmetallic materials. Information on corrosion control is also provided by professional societies and educational seminars.
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Document ID: 94839D2D

A Natural Gas Distribution Companys Response To A Tornado In Newton Falls And Niles, Ohio
Author(s): James W. Garrett
Abstract/Introduction:
On May 31, 1985, the Newton Falls and Niles areas of Northeastern Ohio were hit viciously by a tornado. Fourteen people were killed, and over 100 were seriously injured. 190 homes and 30 apartment buildings were destroyed. This paper details the emergency response of the East Ohio Gas Company to this natural disaster. Importantly, through the efforts of all involved, no gas-related explosions or fires occurred during the tornado crisis.
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Document ID: BA50549F

New Metering Options For Residential Applications
Author(s): Carl H. Griffis
Abstract/Introduction:
Providing natural gas service to multifamily dwellings has been identified as a key area of new load for the natural gas industry. One of the major obstacles in providing gas service to individual multifamily dwelling customers is metering of the load. Existing residential meters are too large and require valuable space in multifamily dwellings. This paper describes the current research at the Gas Research Institute involved in developing a smaller, compact meter that is suitable for multifamily dwelling application. The preliminary results of an extensive gas industry survey detailing the required specifications for a new meter are discussed. Three different technologies under consideration: mechanical, electronic mass flow, and fluidic are discussed. Future work will include installation of a prototype compact meter in interior piping test sites.
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Document ID: 289407C0

Technical Investigation Of A Town Gas Site
Author(s): James B. Marean
Abstract/Introduction:
A five-phased investigative approach developed by New York State Electric & Gas Corporation is presented. A number of decisions were made in the development of the program that may result in this process not being applicable lo all siies. The phased approach incorporates an ever expanding sphere of investigation with clear decision milestones. The incorporation of decision milestones allows the study to be stopped at the end of any phase. Emphasis is placed on a comprehensive evaluation of site specific conditions, where data collection objectives must be clearly focused.
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Document ID: EBB6E58B

Development Of A Sonic Nozzle Prover For Domestic Meters
Author(s): A. Rea Cameron
Abstract/Introduction:
The process of proving meters by the use of sonic (venturi) nozzles is gradually emerging. The sonic nozzle has been produced for several years and is now gaining wider acceptance in many industries due to the considerable advancement of the microprocessor The construction of a prover using sonic nozzles for proving domestic meters is presented. The current formula for mass flow through a sonic nozzle is stated, and its affect on the specific aspects of design is considered. The progressive steps of construction are followed, and the various instruments selected for pressure and temperature measurement are discussed. A description of the flow diagram and the various maintenance features of the prover are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of the bell and sonic nozzle provers are advanced as are the accuracy comparisons determined from tests using special test meters. While it is still early to draw final conclusions, there appears to be a bright future for the sonic nozzle prover.
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Document ID: 93AFE552

Electronic Measurement Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Lohit Datta-Barua, E. D. Woomer, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with electronic measurement systems installed by United Gas Pipe Line Company for custody transfer purpose. Electronic measurement in the gas industry is fast becoming an economic as well as technological necessity. At United Gas, electronic measurement systems of various configurations, sizes, and degrees of flexibility have been installed with several goals such as automated billing, improved measurement accuracy, efficient energy control, and improved accuracy of volume forecasts, etc, in mind. The systems are available in many forms such as the solar powered version, the dedicated communication link for real-time data gathering, built-in radio communication, historical data collection, and transmission using dial-up mode, etc. The authors draw from their personal experiences from installing such systems and establish a need for a systematic approach to such applications.
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Document ID: B295BFFB

The Wisconsin Gas Plastic Pipe Quality Assurance Program
Author(s): Bernard Silverberg
Abstract/Introduction:
Wisconsin Gas is the largest distributor of natural gas in the slate, serving about 421,000 customers in 386 municipalities. The general use of polyethylene pipe was begun in 1967 following several years of using other plastics. Compared with the cast iron and steel used previously, the experience with all plastic pipe has been excellent. This has been due to wise selection of materials, good installation techniques, a solid quality assurance program, and perhaps a little bit of luck. This paper will describe the quality assurance program evolved by Wisconsin Gas Company. In 1964, a program was set up to catalogue samples, records of acceptance, and suppliers certification reports of all incoming plastic pipe shipments. Under this system, six samples of every pipe shipment are catalogued and stored indoors for future lest if problems arise in the field (Figures 1 and 2).
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Document ID: D5914E72

Task Oriented Training-A Handson Approach, Combined With Trainee Responsibility That Really Works
Author(s): m. G. Hoepfner
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas utilization equipment technology has advanced over the past thirty years to the point that the traditional methods used for training service personnel are becoming cumbersome and ineffective. Just as tools and service information have been updated, so must we consider adjusting the attitudes and philosophies that shape training programs and instructional technique, In the gas utility business, instructors were usually chosen because of their prowess in solving technical problems. Many times they were thrust into a classroom environment ill prepared for the task of teaching todays varied labor force. Instructors need professional assistance in determining technique, task analysis, and writing course objectives. Existing basic progressive courses need restructuring to achieve the optimum results desired in an adult learning environment.
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Document ID: 5A315FE0

Emergency Response-Training And Experience Case Studies
Author(s): Charles J. Rees
Abstract/Introduction:
At 11:15 a.m. on October 17, 1983, while excavating for ihe installation of a large diameter sewer, a backhoe operator snagged a 3-inch gas line on the south side of State Route 214 in South Charleston, WV. The snagging of the hne caused a 3-inch cast iron valve on the north side of the highway to fracture. At 1:52 p.m., over two and half hours later, the Foodland Supermarket, located about 35 feet from the fractured valve, exploded and then burned. As might be expected, the incident generated considerable media attention and was subsequently investigated by the National Transportation Safety Board.
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Document ID: A5573A73

An Approach To Project Management
Author(s): Larry D. Tippens
Abstract/Introduction:
Frequently, project success or failure is determined before a shovel of dirt is moved. The Five Ps of project management-Proper Planning Prevents Poor Performance -are often overlooked until the project is in trouble. This paper addresses the methodology followed by Northwest Pipeline Corporations Engineering Division on each major project to identify problems early and to work toward their resolution before large sums of dollars are committed. The disciplined development of project tools such as the Scope of Work, the Project Proposal, and the Work Breakdown Structure helps ensure that responsibilities and relationships will be clarified, that forgotten tasks and problems will be identified, and that the project will be put in perspective and under control.
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Document ID: B0383B32

Gas Safety Demonstration
Author(s): Jack B. Geesey
Abstract/Introduction:
Columbia Gas Distribution Companies Gas Safety Demonstration is a portable live gas module thai is designed as an educational tool to demonstrate combustion characteristics of natural gas and propane. Demonstrations range from a gas filled soap bubble ignited in mid-air to an actual gas explosion in a confined space. Audiences learn the combustion characteristics of gases including BTU values, specific gravity, ignition temperatures, and flammability limits. The need for proper combustion air is covered, and visual evidence of flame changes are pointed out. Thermocouples and their role as safety controls in gasburning appliances are explained, and a series of slides shows where and how to turn off gas during emergencies. A natural gas fire quickly extinguished by the quarter turn of a valve teaches a valuable safety lesson.
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Document ID: FB2B8467

Security And Emergency Management
Author(s): J. L. Fascia
Abstract/Introduction:
Emergency management is a subject that is greatly discussed or virtually ignored, depending upon current circumstances. If we are attuned to an occurrence such as the recent chemical plant leak in Bhopal, India, emergency management becomes a high priority item of discussion, especially when multi-million-dollar legal suits are incurred. If, however, we are in a period of no major incidents, the subject is largely dismissed. It is interesting to note, however, that if a poll were taken by an organization relating to any business, industry, or government, the results would probably indicate that they all have an emergency management (preparedness, disaster) plan and that they are all excellent. Unfortunately, when a major incident does occur, it often reaches disastrous proportions - whether we are dealing with business, industry, or government.
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Document ID: 27478C81

Gasification Of Wood Wastes In The Renugas Process
Author(s): Robert J. Evans, Michael Onischak, Richard A. Knight, Suresh R. Babu
Abstract/Introduction:
The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is developing the RENUGAS pressurized fluidized- bed biomass gasification process. The process research unit (PRU), buih for this purpose, is 11.5 inches ID and designed for operation up to ISOOF and 515 psia. It is capable of handling biomass feed rates up to 12 tons per day. Adiabatic, pressurized, fluidized-bed steam and oxygen-blown biomass gasification tests were conducted in the process research unit (PRU) to develop process optimization information for the production of medium-Btu gas. The test program has investigated the effect on gasification performance of temperature, pressure, biomass throughput rate, steam-to-biomass ratio, type of feedstock, feedstock moisture, and fluidized-bed height. Long-duration gasification tests (up to 3 days of steady-state) were made to establish material and energy balances, to observe the possible breakthrough of low-concentration organic compounds, and to evaluate the mechanical performance of the system.
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Document ID: 1C019B08

Procedure For Replacing Pin-Off Tee With 3/4 Service Valve
Author(s): T. R. Rumsey
Abstract/Introduction:
During the 1950s, Northern Illinois Gas installed gas services to residential and small commercials with 3/4 coated and wrapped steel pipe. The services were generally installed with the riser and service regulator outside and the meter inside. The service riser shut-off was a 3/4xl valve tee (pin-off tee) (Figure 2). Nl-Gas now has a program to relocate meters from inside to outside. When a pin-off lee was replaced with a H.P. service valve during the meter relocation, a street crew was needed to shut-off gas service at the street. The new pin-off lee change-oui kit allows an individual to replace the pin-off tee with a H service valve without digging or without flowing gas.
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Document ID: DDE4E8FC

Survey Of Elevated Temperature/Sustained Pressure Test Equipment
Author(s): Merle T. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Tksk Group 84-6 of the A.G.A. Plastic Materials Committee was formed with the objective to Provide an informational source for A.G.A. member companies considering elevated temperature hydrostatic test equipment. A survey form was drafted and distributed to members of the Plastic Materials Committee for their response. The committee response was consolidated into a final report, which was submitted to the committee in September 1985, accepted by the committee, and the task group was disbanded. Results obtained by elevated temperature sustained pressure testing of polyethylene materials have been gaining wider acceptance by industry. The A.G.A. Plastic Pipe Manual For Gas Service 1985 lists this test as a user acceptance test.
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Document ID: FEC50569

An Effective Atmospheric Corrosion Control Program For Stations And Below-Grade Pits
Author(s): Ronald L. Bursek
Abstract/Introduction:
The coalings that protect piping and fillings from atmosphere corrosion in stations and bclow-grade pits arc subjected to severe environmental conditions. Failure of these coatings can lead to high maintenance costs and operating problems. Appropriate paints selected for the specific conditions found in stations and pits, applied on a properly prepared surface, can ehminate these problems. The result is longer coating life, reduced maintenance costs, better inspection quality, and improved employee working conditions.
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Document ID: EFD4200F


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