Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1985)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

Service Diversion Philosophy. Techniques, And Results
Author(s): Robert A. Nielsen
Abstract/Introduction:
Service Diversion, once an unrecognized term, has now become a highly acknowledged problem in the energy distribution industry. While it is no longer necessary to detail its existence, it is important to address its solution. Service diversion specialists from all parts of the nation with whom I have spoken underscore the need to resolve the case against theft indicating to me that their respective utilities are experiencing energy theft from 1% - 5% of their customer base.
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Document ID: B8310542

Production Measurement
Author(s): D. F. Klempel
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Production Measurement has always been a challenge because of the diverse gas quality conditions, pressure and flow ranges, climatic conditions and general access to facilities. My comments today are limited to the measurement of sweet gas from both natural gas and casinghead gas vells in the Rocky Mountain region
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Document ID: 78B3E12C

The Transformation - Pneumatics To Electrqnics
Author(s): Willard Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years infornmtion concerning pressures, flow rates, etc. needed for gas dispatching and system control has been transmitted by electro-mechanical or electronic instruments over line wire or microwave. An accuracy of + 1 percent was usually satisfacto7y. Instruments were generally installed and maintained by highly trained electronic specialist from the communications group who were interested m transmitting and receiving a signal with little concern for the final use of the information.
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Document ID: 6789EE27

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Abstract/Introduction:
Most discussion in which I have participated concerning gas measurement accuracy have concentrated on measurement equipment, measurement techniques, and basic gas laws. In todays discussion, I would like to deviate slightly from that trend touching on some of the factors that fit into the overall measurement accuracy equation, and then spend the majority of the time talking about the human factor in the equation Gas Flow Equals Cash Flow.
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Document ID: 9D6F15AA

Computerized Reoords Xotrql( Eysiems For Meters - Regulators - Instrumenss - Facilities
Author(s): Pfiult. Bruotcn
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry has long been interested in the tedinological advances nade to pressure regulation and neasurerrent devices used in the field. As eadi advance occurred. different equiprent designs were nanufactured and sold for use by the various gas industry custarters, includingthe Southern California Gas Corpany
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Document ID: 69D32E31

Regulators - Their Proper Selection
Author(s): W.-J.-VORNBROCK
Abstract/Introduction:
In a paper given many years ago at a Measurement School, it was related that the usage of natural gas dates back to early civilization of man. The Chinese supposedly had made use of natural gas in an orderly manner with bamboo pipes as their means of transportation to the point of utilization. What they used for regulators would have been interesting! It was however, not until the early 1800s did we see the modem natural gas industry being birthed with the first drillings that occurred on this continent.
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Document ID: 38E4DCE3

High Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Robert J. mm
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is an automatic device for maintaining or adjusting the pressure and flow in a fluctuatigg load system. We have become very accustomed to seeing gas regulators in service in areas such as city gate stations, compressor stations, mainline regulator stations, production fields, and farm taps. The reference to an automatic device has led us to have a tendency to take them for granted.
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Document ID: A6CB85FE

Domestic Gas Service Regulators Operation - Selection - Tiunscttaaltliaatttinown
Author(s): Stephen P. Swartz,
Abstract/Introduction:
Definition of a Service Type Gas Pressure Regulator The term, GAS SERVICE REGULATOR, commonly applies to those regulators S d f tof reduceHrserce pressure of four to eight ounces as required by domestic gas burning equipment, such as gas stoves.
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Document ID: 5BBBEC1E

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): Doug Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
For all practical purposes, regulators used by the gas industry can be placed in either of two categories: I. Self operated, or II. Pilot Operated This categorizing of all regulator (plus all construction modifications) tends to be an over-simplication, but exceptions are rare. Lets examine each of them closely.
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Document ID: 2EF21EC9

Regulators And Relief
Author(s): J. A. Atherton
Abstract/Introduction:
The outline of my paper includes a discussion of what the law requires. This is followed by a listing of design factors, discussion of what a regulator looks like inside and finally why monitors should be given serious consideration.
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Document ID: 9F79EB4F

IX Flo/Measurement Systems
Author(s): T. E. Fftevens
Abstract/Introduction:
DetermiMna Measurement RequiIements A t h o r x evaluatiegTof the customers eSiIpment and cparating requirement aiTneoessaryto Stablish the load r a : , l a S S S to maxiimim. ffie number of hours per day that a given load condition be 4nacted Sust be detemlned. A r e v i process and plant operation with the Plant Engine w i U u s u a l l y help establish a load pattern. Itis i r - tant to e s t a b l i S viiether the i S i s snap-acting (cn-off) or modulating and vAiether the load steps iro and down fram a low flow r a t e t o a 3 flow rate or modulates back and fcrth with out a s t
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Document ID: E03253AC

Modern Ways Of Meter Reading
Author(s): Ray Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter reading data collection devices are belg added by gas, electric, and water utilities at a fascinating growth rate. Perfection of and expanded capabilities of micro-processoss have made this possible. Seven years ago hand-held data collection devices were in the embryo stage for con panies with 100,000 or more meters. Two years ago only about 6% of meter reading data was electronically stored in the field. Today, approximately 35% of all utilities meter read data is captured by these devices
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Document ID: EEB7BD21

Meter Mounted Electronic Integrator
Author(s): James A. Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Both niechanical and electronic instrumentation designs have been driven by the technology available at the time of development. With the recent availability of low-powered circuitry and improvements in battery technology, a new line of instrumentation has been developed by Rockwell International - the Electrocorectors
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Document ID: 46E66C8D

New Product Introduction
Author(s): J. P. Whittemore
Abstract/Introduction:
The ROOTS Electronic Pressure Temperature Corrector is an instrument capable of totalizing gas volume to standard conditions of pressure and temperature. Typical base conditions of temperature are 60F or 15C. Typical pressure bases are 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (PSIA) or 101.3 Kilo-Pascals absolute (kPa (abs.. Other base values are available by internal scaling.
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Document ID: D53E7D3C

Highlights Of Il& Research In Metering Technology
Author(s): K. St Norman
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research tostitute (GRI) is the primary funding organization for natural gas research in the United States. In 1984, GRI obligated 126 million in R&D funds for projects dealing with alternative gas supplies, distribution research, and end-use products. llie 1-ransporc & Storage Research (I&SR) Department is responsible for planning. implementing, and evaluating projects in the general area of distribution research. In this paper, current highlights of the metering research program will be discussed
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Document ID: C16853D3

On-Site Energy Measurement
Author(s): William-. Volkmor
Abstract/Introduction:
measurement end of the gas distribution business are to a large degree, also in the information business. We have an en-going responsibility not only to pursue more cost effective and accurate methods of gas measurement, but to meet the increasing information needs created by a number of factors both internal and external to our operation
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Document ID: CDE9D2E2

Automatdd Proving Room
Author(s): Dotlald L. Aquin
Abstract/Introduction:
Southern California Gas Company has approximately four million meters in sSvice. Th Meter Shop last year repaired 185,000 and intested 313,000 meters. The meter data is presently collected manually, verified, keypunched and transferred to our Information Systems Department for input to the Meter Recds computer proqram. Although this system had proven effectvee over the years, it LB felt that a properly-designed Meter Shop computerized systan would increase accuracy and reduce operating costis
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Document ID: F27F16A8

The Importance Of Wellhead Productoon And Dehydratoon Equipment To Good Field Measurement
Author(s): Lynn K. Healey
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this presentatonn is to explain the necessary relationship between wellhead measurement equipment. wellhead production equipment nd wellhead dehydratiot equipments
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Document ID: 378EB5BA

Meter And Regulator Design Using Computer Graphics Technology
Author(s): R. W. Jibson
Abstract/Introduction:
A major objective of any utility company is the management of their respective facilities. A utility company could not exist without a thorough and organized facilities management system. This system must address not only the Federal and company data requirements but must also supply readily available, useable date for the operation areas within the company.
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Document ID: 624A1767

Transmitter Selection
Author(s): John Perko
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many areas to be concerned with when selecting a transmitter for an application. A list of them would look something like this: I. Type of measurement II. Design criteria A) Sensing techniques B) Functional specifications C) Performance specifications III. Cost IV. Maintenance V. Installation
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Document ID: 7662F382

TESTIG Of Gas Pressure Regulators
Abstract/Introduction:
years, cne gas pressure were a limited number of pressure regulators available, with niost having been on the market for a considerable tin. This is no longer the case. Many of the old standbys have been pulled off the market. The number of new regulators being introduced grows larger each year. As with most new products being introduced today, the time between concept and marketing gets shorter each year.
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Document ID: 43023D4A

Gas Well Drilling
Author(s): Dack-Kasper-
Abstract/Introduction:
Some of the basic aspects of gas well drilling are presented. This includes - H. vvt. r * j-%. j tn llt?Ci - s the exploration methods used by the industry in order to locate potential gas reserves and t1h-e- . jj T 1 i- a., rtrnTition of a successf 20gQ2rves d complet gas well, an the drilling process, the testing of the well, and the techniques used in the final completion of the gas well
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Document ID: 0D53A562

Fundamentals Of P D Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
TflrsJgas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocket-book of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company founded in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers
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Document ID: 99C89E09

Basic Gas Laws
Author(s): Gary L. Hanson
Abstract/Introduction:
An understanding, and proper a p p l i cation, of the basic physical laws which govern the behavior of gases is of fundamental importanee to those engaged in the production, tran-miasion and distribution of natural g a s . In every phase of operation, from the wellhead to the burne,, the b a s i c gas laws are applied several times. They must be undersoodd when designing the gathering system, when designing a compressor station, a regulator station and most certainly when designing and operating a gas measuring facility. The operating revenue, the income that pays your wages, is determined by the measuring station and it is here that the gas laws take on the great e s t importance.
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Document ID: 9EA6F789

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): James A. Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Rockwell introduced the gas turbine meter to the U.S. market in 1963. The original units were 6 flanged meters with a capacity of 30,000 ciu at 4 ounces inlet pressure and 125 pound working pressure cast aluminum bodies. Due to the rapid acceptance of the relatively new gas metering concept by all phases of the gas industry, development of additional sizes and working pressurss of gas turbine meters has been fairly rapid
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Document ID: 5144946F

Flow Computers Used In Conjunction With Or Without Telemetry
Author(s): Haroid V. Whitney
Abstract/Introduction:
The word telemetry implies measurements that are made from a distance. The early uses of t e l e metry were aircraft, spacecraf,, rocket and automobile testing. For the purpose of understanding the application of telemetry/ computer system technology, the general definition should iDe expanded to include any grouping o f d a t a measurements in a format that can be transmitted or stored on a siiigle medium and separated into the original measurement components for observation
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Document ID: 227CC5D6

Meter Selection Considerations
Author(s): m. G. Warner
Abstract/Introduction:
The existence of any public utility is dependent on its ability to accurately account for and measure the auantities of their product used by consumers. Regardless of whether their product is natural gas, electricity, water or any other consumer good, accurate measurement is essential since the measurement record becomes the basis for the record of sale or the transaction record. As gas prices continue to rise and consumption to dpcline, accurate measurement and gas accounting become more and more important
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Document ID: 8ACB6F68

Insertion Meters
Author(s): R. I. Blohm
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper was intended to present resulss of tesss conducted on three types of insertion meters. However timehas become a factor and as this paper is being written, the actual t e s t i ng has not yet begun. The delay in t e s t i n g was due in part to the need of s i t e preparation. As is the case of many test s i t e s t Southern Californaa Gas Coirparys is d i s t a n t - l o c a t e d in the desert approximately 150 miles from Los Angeles, two miles off the paved read. Electrical power and telephone service was unavailabee until early in December, and of course, no other amenities were there e i t h e
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Document ID: 5E1C0DAD


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