Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1984)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1984 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Selection Of Control Valves And Associated Instrumentation
Author(s): Phillip Murdock
Abstract/Introduction:
A control valve is a device placed in a fluid stream, gas or liquid, to control fluid flow based on demand. Control valves are used as a restriction to control pressure and/or volumetric flow of a fluid. A control valve used in throttling service allows fluid to be delivered at a controlled or throttled rate based on fluid demand. Pressure regulators are an application of control valves used in throttling service. In off/on service, a control valve is either fully open or fully closed. Examples of off/on service are a control valve used for meter tube switching or for 1iquid level control.
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Document ID: C8C9FAD3

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): H. E. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
This class offers a comprehensive presentation of the kinetic type gas gravltometer. Including: Simple explanation of operating principle Equipment set-up and operation In field Trouble-shooting, repair and adjustment
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Document ID: 7CA40F14

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): B. . Waller
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity regulators, relate to regulators capable of handling large volumes of gas with minimim drop in pressure. The delivery pressure of large capacity regulators is almost always classified as high pressure. In order to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between high and low pw-essure regulation, we will use the following. High pressure regulation will be considered reducing from pounds per square inch to pounds per square inch and low pressure regulation will be considered reducing from pounds per square inch to inches of water coluTin pressure.
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Document ID: F31FF05D

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): C.E. Kirkland
Abstract/Introduction:
The calibration or strapping of storage tanks is the basis of many measurements which are required in the handling of bulk liquid quantities in storage. No bulk quantities in a tank can be determined with a precision greater than that inherent in the calibration of that tank. Any error made in the calibration of storage tanks acts constantly in one direction, and during that long peroid in which the tank capacity tables remain in force, such e r r o r s can involve appreciable quantities of oil. The purpose of this paper is to introduce you to tank calibration by linear measurement and liquid calibration methods.
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Document ID: 5ED66873

Electronic Measurement Correction Devices
Author(s): Robert R. Mahns
Abstract/Introduction:
The electronics semi-conductor revolution has touched every industry and home in the nation. The gas industry is no exception. Sophisticated gas measurement instrumentation has been with us for several decades now, but only in the last 10 years or so has it really begun to boom. First marketed were the flow computers dedicated to orifice meter measurement but with steadily decreasing manufacturing costs, electronic instrumentation is now moving into the area of base volume, pressure and temperature correction previously handled almost solely by mechanical Integrating instruments.
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Document ID: C8418A32

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Joseph L Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
The 50 million gas meters currently in service with the different phases of the gas industry in the U.S., plus the majority of a similar number of meters installed elsewhere in the World, use two different physical principles to measure gas volumes.
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Document ID: F9FAC3DA

Automatic Tank Level Gauges
Author(s): Douglas E. Wishard
Abstract/Introduction:
Whenever we refer to an automatic tank level gauge, we in the hydrocarbon Indus try are norma 11y referring to a device which will give an indication of level on the ground next to the tank without walk ing to the top of the tank to drop a hand line into the product. When these types of gauges were developed, they were indeed automa tic and provided a tremendous savings in 1abor for tank gauging. However, the technology has progressed significantly since the development of these devices.
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Document ID: 51E9B99F

Liquid Measurement With Orifice Meters
Author(s): m. J. Joe Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
While the orifice meter is the most common meter for measuring gas flows, it also has many applications in liquid flow measurement. These applications range from measurement for control purposes only, where flow rate is the important variable, to measurement of dirty or corrosive liquids that would cause excessive maintenance in positive displacement or turbine meters,
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Document ID: 8918A55F

Advanced Applicaticais Of Flow Ccinputers And Telonetering Systems
Author(s): Graliam D. Bogel
Abstract/Introduction:
Practitioners of telesnetry and gas measurement have been accustaned to dealing in application oriented devices. An electronic transmitter, a telemeter transmitter, or a transceiver, a flow canputer are all familiar devices. These have been assembled into metering and telemetering systsns for a very long time. Many engineers and technicians have beccme ccmfortable with these concepts. All this is rapidly changing. Change breeds change at such a pace that there is little to beccme ccmfortable with any technology.
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Document ID: E5882478

High Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Patrick Cave
Abstract/Introduction:
High Pressure - Transmission or Distribution High pressure regulation is typically considered a psig to psig pressure reduction, versus a psig to inches water column pressure reduction. Because of this, both transnission and distribution personnel have an interest in the Intricacies of high pressure systems. Although distribution personnel are typically thought of working with low pressure regulation, they become associated with high pressure at points of custody transfer (i.e, city gate stations or town border stations), or district regulator station applications.
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Document ID: 2302C631

Overpressure Protection Methods - A Panel DOT/OPS Requirements
Author(s): Donald A Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to 1968, the safety standard for gas pipelines and mains that was accepted by most states was the ANSI Code for Pressure Piping, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems B31 . 8 . On August 12, 1968, the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act became effective which required the Secretary of Transportation to adopt interim rules within three months, and to establish minimum federal standards within twenty-four months.
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Document ID: 9F7579A6

What The Field Group Expects From The Office Group
Author(s): Jesse W. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Gas Processing Industry cooperation and teamwork is es sential from the point of origin to the final delivery point or sales station. This teamwork produces a smooth operation and enables a maximum profit to be realized. Yes, of course, there are many efforts required. After the plans are developed and the wells have been drilled and completed, then comes the pipeline construction that connects the raw stock to the destination. This sounds as if it might be the final story, but not so, only the beginning really. A series of efforts now start with the neasurement men, chart changers, and pipeline operators- These people are commonly referred to as the Field Group.
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Document ID: A896EBCD

Gas Service Regulators Installation And Operation
Author(s): Donald A Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
Tb.ere are many types of service regulators available for use by the utilities today. Each type has certain advantages and disadvantages that must be understood by their users in order to pick the correct type for the particular application in mind.
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Document ID: 17FCD4FF

Elements Of Gas Purchase Contracts
Author(s): Sherry J. Nelson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will generally provide a broad overview of the terms and conditions contained in a gas purchase contract. The emphasis will be from the perspective of an interstate purchaser. However, the basic principals will remain the same for an interstate as well as an intrastate purchaser.
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Document ID: B079C5CC

Liquid Measurement - Techniques And Problems
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid measurement problems are often caused by improper design and operation of equipment, Initial specifications of measurement equipment are often based on extremely limited information. The measurement staff must continually review facility operation to assure the equipment in the measurement station is operating within design limits.
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Document ID: BB0F8148

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Walter G. Wunsch
Abstract/Introduction:
The increase in the value of hydrocarbons over the last decade has been the prime impetus for improvements, particularly in the field of custody transfer measurement. As we have witnessed higher performance demands from metering devices, pushing them to the practical limits of their capabilities in terms of repeatability and linearity, we have also seen great breakthroughs in measurement instrumentation with the advent of the microprocessor, allowing for more accurate and comprehensive processing of data.
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Document ID: 0C32A401

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Type Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Peter L. Timpanelli
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1792, the process of manufacturing gas from coal was introduced in England. It was normal that the first gas meters were developed in England after the founding of the first gas company in London in 1808.
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Document ID: 0A80F8BD

Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): L. G. Lowery
Abstract/Introduction:
Operation and maintenance of equipment for automatic control of gas flow is one of the primary duties of field measurement personnel with United Gas Pipe Line Company. Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them In factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even at their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Even the gas man who handles regulators every day as part of his job tends to view the regulator simply as a piece of hardware which fits in the line and regulates pressure. The fact, that it will do precisely that for months without human intervention, makes it easy to maintain such a view. It is only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to think more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 585E09C5

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems & Flow Computers
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a basic paper illustrating the various types of telemetering and flow computing systems as utilized in the Gas Industry. The paper will be general in nature, as the subject matter represents an entire field of endeavor. Therefore, only basic fundamentals of the various types of flow computing and telemetering systems will be covered in this paper.
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Document ID: A1AD50DE

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment
Author(s): James R. Cookingham
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern I l l i n o i s Gas serves approximately the northern third of the State of I l l i n o i s with the exception of Chicago and the area north of Chicago. NI-Gas serves approximately 1.4 mlllion customers and over 23,000 miles of gas main. The company has seven storage fields. NI-Gas has four sources of pipeline supply. These supplies along with the storage fields allow the company to supply close to 4 BCF on peak day.
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Document ID: 12C83C8A

Liquid Measurement - Techniques & Problems
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Achieving good liquid measurement is partly philosophical, partly technical, and partly financial. There are no shortcuts and only by continuous attention to all aspects can good measurement be attained.
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Document ID: B7A2AC11

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice measurement, the dominant method used in the Gas Industry today, is traceable even to the ancient Roman empire.
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Document ID: D451A4D3

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Betsy Murphy
Abstract/Introduction:
The term moisture refers to the water content of any material-solid, liquid or gas. However, in most industries, it is customary to refer to moisture as the water content of solids or liquids, reserving the term humidity for the water content of gases. The natural gas industry refers to humidity as water vapor. This discussion of the principles of moisture analysis will cover basic concepts, definitions and units followed by a description of the commonly used instrumental methods including their strengths and weaknesses.
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Document ID: 008F01C3

Loss Surveillance In Tanker Operations
Author(s): Donald T. Bruce
Abstract/Introduction:
1 havi liein iisked lo address the siibjed of Loss Surveillance in TankfOperations- j will address this broad topic by dividing the suhjecl into five sciMions, They are: 1. InspiHilion Proredores 2. CCLAS - Crude Carrier Loss Analysis System 3. I.ejiai Forum 4. Actual Experience and 5. Further Kducalion
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Document ID: C12AB440

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary meters are one of the four common types of volumetric measuring devices used in the natural gas industry, the others being diaphragm, turbine and orifice meters. The versatility of the rotary meter has made it useful in all phases of gas measurement at the wellhead in gas fields, in gas processing plants, in transmission line compressor stations and in commercial and industrial distribution measurement. Rotary meters also find application in the measurement of industrial gases such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon and hydrogen. This wide acceptance is based on a history of reliable, accurate performance, a high capacity to size ratio and generally low maintenance.
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Document ID: 2CACD9B7

Flow Meftsurement By Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): Lee E. Grosshans
Abstract/Introduction:
Vortex flowmeters measure the flow of fluids in pipelines by monitor-ing induced vortices caused by the fluid impinging on a nonstreamlined body (element) mounted in the meter body. Vortices are rotational flow zones that are similar to natural whirlpools. They may be seen in the flow of a stream nSir to and just downstream of an intruding rock. The effects of vertices produce the fluttering of a flag in the breeze the flag pole causes vortices to form, which then move along the length of the flag creating high and low pressure areas on either side.
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Document ID: C5542A07

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): A.F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer recording Calorimeter measures the total calorific value of combustible gas. It continuously samples, indicates, and records BTU per cubic foot. Figure 1 Figure 1 above illustrates the tank unit, strip chart recorder and optional recorder floor case.
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Document ID: 0AC71762

Custody.......
Author(s): K. ft. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Iha buying, selling, and Iransporiation oF Liquefied Natural Gas (LIMG) and liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) requires t,hG use of sophisticated measurement systems for accurate determination of the total quantity and energy content for custody transfer reporting and safe cargo handling of these cryogenic products. These systems must meet strict safety standards for operation in a hazardous environment and, at the same time, provide accurate, reliable information for the storage, transfer, and data reporting required for both operational and financial accounting purposes.
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Document ID: 24984946

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement-Basic
Author(s): D. A. Tefankjian
Abstract/Introduction:
In any field of endeavor for a person to completely understand the endeavor, he must have a knowledge and an understanding of the fundamentals involved. People can do well in the performance of their work without knowing the basic principles, but to excel and progress knowledge of the fundamentals is necessary. This is particularly true if ones work is technical in nature.
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Document ID: 0551CBD0

Positive Displacement Liquid Meters
Author(s): Gary Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
Positive displacement(PD) liquid meters have long been the standard of measurement for the liquid petroleum industry. Over the years, numerous design improvements have resulted in an expanded product line that now serves industrial as well as petroleum applications. While PD meters are ideally suited for many applications, they are not recommended for others. This paper will examine their strengths and weaknesses as well as design principles that are fundamental to capillary seal PD meters. It will also highlight the system and meter parameters that must be considered before an accurate meter selection can be made.
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Document ID: 1B2869CE

Problems In Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Donald G. Bitterly
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for non-polutlng energy sources have continued the search for and development of offshore production, Advances in technology and the use of this technology have reduced certain problems associated with offshore measurement, however, the basic problem remaining is location.
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Document ID: 783AAD0E

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur
Author(s): Art Moen
Abstract/Introduction:
Electrolytic generation of bromine as a titrating reagent for measurement of sulfur compounds in the gaseous phase was introduced to industry nearly 20 years ago. With the development of transistor electronics and the discovery of a practical coulometric bromine sensing electrode system, a new, wide range electrolytic titrator was developed and designed to meet the specific requirements for continuous sul fur monitoring.
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Document ID: 6376EEE6

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas-Distribution
Author(s): Jim Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
I t was leakage from i l l f i t t i n g pipes and the resultant danger of explosions, f i r e s , and asphxiation that delayed for a long time the use of gas in private homes. The industry has solved the problem of i l l f i t t i n g pipes but safety, p r o f i t s, and the conservation of a natural resource s t i l l demands a keen concern over leakage and unaccounted- for gas.
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Document ID: B70BEE9C

Measurement Of Liquified Petroleum Gas
Author(s): Ronald E. Vehe
Abstract/Introduction:
Propane, iso-butane, and normal butane commonly referred to as Liquified Petroleum Gases or LPGs are used as heating and transportation fuels, feed-stocks for petrochemical plants, gasoline additives, and aerosol propellents.
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Document ID: 48D2042E

Conditioning Natural Gas For Measurement And Transportation
Author(s): Ector E. Barnhart
Abstract/Introduction:
To meet pipeline quality standards, all natural gas mixtures must be conditioned to remove all solids and liquids, to contain no more than seven (7) pounds - or less - of water vapor per million standard cubic feet, to contain no more than four 14) parts per million of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), to have its carbon dioxide content within limits specified by the sales contract, usually 1-3 volume percent, and to have a calorific content within the specified range (usually 950- 1050 Btu/SCF gross on a dry basis). Gas measured into a transmission system must meet these criteria, as does gas delivered to a city border station.
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Document ID: 9EFF03A6

ESTABLISHIN3 Design Criteria For L.A.C.T. Units Function And Definition Of The Separate Pieces And Of The Whole)
Author(s): Bill Martino
Abstract/Introduction:
To establish design criteria for anything it is neceaasry to understand the situation itself as an entity within a larger environment much like the frame or boarder of a puzzle), and to simultaneously understand the relationsliip of the separate pieces or functions to each other and to the viiiole (the individual puzzle pieces that collectively form the pictured scene). When designing a Lease Automatic Custody Transfer unit, this is especially true if the deisign is to reflect the working conditions and paraneters of operation for ihich the LACTl is intended, atid within which it will ordinarily Viork.
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Document ID: AC3660C0

Manual Chart Calculation
Author(s): Wm. Dale Donegan
Abstract/Introduction:
High Tech is here. Just about every black box, hand held calculator, wrist watch and ball point pen is calculating gas volumes. In addition to the electronics, several s lide rules, circular charts and flow graphs are available from various sources. They indicate gas volumes for a multitude of purposes including sizing meter tube and orifice plates, pipeline design and compressor station flows.
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Document ID: 2E3A9DB7

Moisture Titrators
Author(s): H. E. Kwlatkowski
Abstract/Introduction:
Detection and accurate measurement of moisture in natural gas is an important, yet an elusive undertaking. The reasons to measure the moisture content of natural gas will be presented with this paper along with discussion regarding various methods for measurement and the history of their development. Primitive as well as stats-of-theart moisture measurement techniques will be reviewed. Information contained herein should equip the student with overall knowledge of moisture measurement devices commonly used in the natural gas industry and enable intelligent selection of the correct Instrument for any particular situation.
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Document ID: 9A99EC55

Maintaining A Chart Processor
Author(s): E. J. Dupuia
Abstract/Introduction:
When properly maintained, calibrated and operated, the Chart Processor is capable of providing one of the most accurate means of manually integrating orifice meter charts. The intent of this paper is to supply the reader with maintenance guidelines and tips to Insure the overall accuracy of the Chart Processor and possibly reduce or prevent down time.
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Document ID: 9BFA5E87

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Intecrators
Author(s): Owida Ford
Abstract/Introduction:
An orifice meter chart serves little purpose unless we have some means of transforming the graphic data recorded on it into a measure of volume. The differential and static pressure lines on the chart could be averaged visually at regular intervals to provide values for volume calculations, but this Is a slow, tedious process subject to considerable error, especially for erratic charts.
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Document ID: 50291359

Turbulence And Its Effect IT Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence anywhere in a pipeline system is no asset. However, immediately downstream of pressure regulation, its effect can be especially harmful due to the high velocities that are set up within the regulator body. Design engineers and field men alike will be equally interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. Both are thinking of maximum throughput with the least amount of noise, plus the best site for analytical instruments such as calorimeters, chromatographs or dew point instruments and a steady sense point for control. In addition, we should be fully aware of the effect of harsh noise on the working efficiency of operating personnel. A person with normal hearing will have a tendency to rush his work in a noisy environment and the result of this is a lowering of the quality of the work.
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Document ID: 8E5047DB

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): William R. Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
Im sure most of you know more about these units than Ill ever know however, I would like to present this paper with an open discussion of some of the symptoms and various checks of the unit. Also, I would like to discuss a sample system which has proven to prolong cell life in most cases.
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Document ID: 6C453F05

Use Of Density Meters And Microprocessors For Energy Measurement And Control
Author(s): W. W, Offcring
Abstract/Introduction:
The title of this report implies a discussion of mass measurement, but this is not the case. At the present time there is very little mass measurement in use in this country in the gas measurement field. This is a report on the development of an on site gas flow computer that had its beginning in an analog computer system that used a densitometer as an input for calculation. The original computer used density to calculate the mass and then converted the mass to volume by dividing the mass by the specific gravity. This computer is still in service and has been used for custody transfer since 1975 with very good success,
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Document ID: 234B33CA

Skid-Mounted Liquid Measurement Stations
Author(s): Larry W. Pitts
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid Measurement Stations consist of many and varied components. Rather than discuss each of these items very b r i e f l y , this paper will focus on liquid c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the selection process of turbine meters versus positive displacement meters, sphere provers versus piston provers, and bidirectional provers versus unidirectional provers. It is not the intent of the author to be dogmatic, but rather to offer some possible guidelines that may be helpful in the decision process of selecting measurement equipment.
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Document ID: 73C95DA3

Liquid Measurement - Techniques & Problems
Author(s): Bill R. Caffey
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement dates back to the beginning of recorded h i s t o r y . Since i t s conception, man has endeavored to increase accuracy in his exchanges. In t h i s age of technology and microprocessors, zero-error measurement would seem to be w i t h in easy reach however, there are many p i t f a l l s along a seemingly paved path. This paper w i l l touch on a few l i q u i d measurement techniques and t h e ir associated problems.
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Document ID: E58115D4

Physical Property Tables For Liquid Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): H. J. Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
During the bulk transfer of energy products and, in particular, custody transfer of crude oils and refined petroleum products, volumes and densities at measured conditions must be related to reference temperature and pressures at standard conditions In order to define exactly the transaction net, between buyer and seller. In the U.S.A., U. S. customary units are used, the standard reference conditions being defined as 60 degrees F (sometimes known as base conditions) and units of volume stated as barrels or gallons.
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Document ID: 0EA2D851

Sediment And Water Testing And Monitori Ng
Author(s): Jimmy Paper
Abstract/Introduction:
Each time that the custody of crude oil is transferred from one party to another there are several things that must be known about the transferred crude oil before the accounting for the oil can be accomplished. First, the number of barrels or the volume of oil that is Involved 1n the transfer must be established. This volume Is a gauged or metered amount of oil that has been corrected to a temperature of sixty degrees Fahrenheit (60F). Second, the API gravity, which is the observed gravity corrected to sixty degrees Fahrenheit (60F), must be known. Third, the volume of non-hydrocarbons or the amount of sediment and water that is present in the total transferred volume must be known. Fourth, the value or the price per barrel must be known. After these facts are known, the monies that are to be exchanged may be determined as follows:
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Document ID: E85FC408

Gauging, Testing And Sunning Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): W. B . Wolf
Abstract/Introduction:
A person would never write a personal check without first determining the value of the item he is purchasing. When writing a run ticket a gauger is writing a weigh bill, bill of sale and a check combined in one document. It is written to allow a change of ownership or custody of the content of the tank. A gauger has the responsibility to see that accurate information is obtained and recorded. A gauRer must know the quality of the merchandlse he is buying. Each true datum can only be obtained by careful observation and correct use of proper tools.
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Document ID: 9EDF12BD

Wedges For Hydrocarbon Measurement - Liquids And Gas
Author(s): Robert L.Saunders
Abstract/Introduction:
In looking over the subject topic given me of the Wedge Flow Element and Gas and Hydrocarbon Measurment, I am reminded of the shortcomings of the measurement devices and the absolute superiority that the wedge presents. I see one of these superior qualities as the wedges ability to operate in a two-phase flow, due to the fact that the Reynolds number does not change with viscosity.
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Document ID: 11209FBB

Orifice Flow Measurement Uncertainty
Author(s): C. R. Samples
Abstract/Introduction:
Escalating costs of raw materials have caused petrochemical plant management to become increasingly concerned about product accountability. This concern can only be addressed if the design engineer has the capability to evaluate measurement uncertainties of new and existing flow metering systems with which he is associated. Uncertainty is usually defined as the maximum error that could be expected with a predetermined confidence level (normally 95% or 2 standard deviation).
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Document ID: 1AB0D2E8

Operational Experience With The Compact Prover
Author(s): Howard P. Hinton
Abstract/Introduction:
Because it is Important to have accurate proving of custody transfer meters, the industry is constantly looking for a faster, more accurate, and economical method in which to accomplish this procedure. The purpose of this paper is to tell about our Operational Experience with the Compact Prover, a relatively new method of proving meters.
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Document ID: 1913BA7F

Coktrolling Suhger Ij Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): H., A. Erainerd
Abstract/Introduction:
The proper control of surges in liquid pipelines has been a major concern of the pipeline industry for .tiany years. ARCO Transportation Co. and i t s predecessor company have developed surge control systems which have performed in an outstanding manner for twenty years. These control systems limit overshoots under the most severe surge conditions to approximately 10 psi based on full scale field tests.
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Document ID: 7718B859

Basic Devicks And Techniques For Supervisory Control & Telbmetery Systems
Author(s): Robert m. Knox
Abstract/Introduction:
The microprocessor is creating extraordinary changes in the basic devices used for supervisory control and telemetry systems. Devices which incorporate microprocessors are providing new capabilities to monitor, to control, and to transmit data. These new capabilities provide the opportunity to utilize new techniques in achieving more efficient operation and control of gas transmission and distribution systems.
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Document ID: 350F9873

Field Experience With Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): m. J. Andress
Abstract/Introduction:
The automatic chart changer was developed primarily to satisfy the chart changing problems of gas transmission and gas production companies that had remotely Installed flow, pressure and temperature recorders. In recent years, there has been a growing problem of finding people near measurement facilities who are willing or able to change charts at a specified time of day, 365 days a year. So, the automatic chart changer has become a common component of many measurement stations. The old people problem of chart changing was thus eliminated, but some new and different problems came with the new equipment.
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Document ID: 3D072A87

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Michael J. Keady, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally, orifice meter signals have been recorded on-site by means of mechanical circular chart recorders. These charts are collected and integrated for volume determination. This procedure has a lengthy lag time between time of actual gas flow and time of reporting. With the advent of spiraling gas prices and penalty clauses for excess rate deliveries, both customer and supplier are looking towards quicker methods of obtaining flow volume information. By use of field mounted electronic flow computers and/or remote telemetry of orifice meter signals to a central computer, flow information is made on an instantaneous basis.
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Document ID: 937E9762

Over Pressure Protection Methods-Shutoff
Author(s): L. Alan Hess
Abstract/Introduction:
Written regulations governing, a safe pressure, are open to interpretation by individuals within companies, companies, and to the industry as a whole. A safe pressure within a company can also be varied due to the geographical operating location and to the classification of the customer utilizing the flowing commodity.
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Document ID: 3632A3E3

Instruments For Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): D. J. Terbush
Abstract/Introduction:
The Arcco-Anubis Gas Gravitometer is a direct weighing type instrument and is constructed to measure the difference in the weight of a column of gas and an equal column of dry air. This is transmitted to the chart and recorded as the specific gravity of the gas passed thru the gravitometer.
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Document ID: E53E62C5

Developments On Orifice Meter Standards
Author(s): Dr. R. G. Teyssandier
Abstract/Introduction:
Standards in the United States are voluntary standards which means that they become effective only at the consent of the governed. This consent is derived from the technical content, practicality, need, and past experience with the methods or devices which are the subject of a given standard. This system of voluntary standards has worked extremely well for us and is due primarily to the fact that in many standards writing bodies the users are the driving force. Outside of the U.S., however, standards in many countries are mandatory. This has the effect that a given standard must be implemented regardless of the actual benefit or the cost to the user. This condition is brought about due to complete governmental control over their standards which fortunately has not come to pass in our country
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Document ID: 62F2E68D

Techniques Of Gas Sampling
Author(s): Michael A. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
Why is qas sampling necessary? Why not just measure the volume, correct it for the appropriate temperature and pressure base, and buy it or sell it on that basis. The reason we cant do something that simple is that most people want natural gas for i t s heating value. Furthermore, they are interested in knowing what contaminants are contained in the gas. Unfortunately, the gas that flows down any pipel ine is not the same from one cubic foot to the next, nor is it the same at the wall of the pipe as it is at the center. Therefore, qas sampling is a d i f f i c u l t and important function which must be carried out by the people associated with gas measurement. Since it is not practical to analyze the e n t i r e stream we must take a sample from the gas stream that is representative of a l l of the gas flowing in the pipe. Another problem that arises is that we must now remove that sample of gas from a high pressure pipeline and transport it to an o n - s i te instrument or to a laboratory. We must frequently reduce the pressure and change the temperature in order to analyze or transport t h i s gas sample. When t h i s occurs, there is a p o s s i b i l i t y of a phase change to l i q u i d of some of the heavier hydrocarbons in the qas. If these heavy hydrocarbon components should condense in the sample l i n e or sample container, there is a good l i k e lihood that they w i l l not be properly analyzed when they f i n a l l y reach the a n a l y t i c a l instrument. Furthermore, some of the contaminants in the gas stream are quite reactive and may undergo a chemical change when moved from the pipeline to the sampling system. How is the best way to overcome a l l of the above l i s t e d problems?
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Document ID: C1A4B07D

Correcting Instruments Applied To Displacement And Turbine Gas Meters
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Displacement and turbine gas meters provide an extremely accurate measure of the actual volume of gas consumed at the meter. If the density of the gas is also known at the meter, then the volume measured can be corrected to useful mass terms: to equivalent volume or standard volume for equitable contract billing. Correcting instruments calculate the density of the gas at the meter and directly modify the output count of the meter to provide a totalized reading in corrected contract volume. This effectively converts a volume meter into a mass meter. In order to understand how to best apply and use correcting instruments, we will discuss the details of how pressure and temperature measurements are used to provide correction of volume to mass. Dont let the details obscure the simplicity of what is being accomplished: The Corrector takes the rotation output from the Meter and factors it for changes in gas pressure and temperature to compute corrected gas volume.
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Document ID: 233B3887

Heasurehein- By Battery Powered Field Computers
Author(s): S. T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Although flow computers have been in use since the middle 1960s, self-charging, battery-powered field flow computer systems are a relatively new development.
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Document ID: 8776E56D

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Michael E. Kopp
Abstract/Introduction:
The Trans-Alaskan Pipeline (TAPS), which is operated by Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, transports approximately 1.6 million barrels per day of North Slope crude froni Prudhoe Bay, 800 miles to the Marine Terminal at Valdez. Because of the large volumes of oil handled daily, small errors in measurement and sampling techniques have large dollar impacts on the Owners and shippers using the TAPS system.
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Document ID: CDE34DB0

Aiace And Its Impact On Gas Measuremfnt Equipment
Author(s): N. E. Doyle, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
What do the letters, flIACE. stand for? National Association of Corrosion Engineers. NACE is a scientific, educational, and research association of individuals and companies concerned with the protection of materials in corrosive environments. Founded and incorporated as a nonprofit organization under the laws of Texas in 1945, NACE had its earliest beginnings in groups of pipeline operators meeting between 1936 and 1940 to discuss mutual problems of cathodic protection. In 1943, 11 engineers met and drafted the first organization and by laws.
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Document ID: 8560E81D

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Group
Author(s): J. F. Shlflet
Abstract/Introduction:
Field groups are prone to look upon the office as Pencil Pushers, Paper Chasers, or just plain pests who expect them to write all this stuff in those skinny little blocks so it can be keyed into a computer system and automated
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Document ID: A29AAA1D

Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): C. R. Jared, R. L. Chapman
Abstract/Introduction:
The procedures for training that are covered in this article will be new to many of you here. Although these procedures have been around for many years they have been viewed as new and non-traditional by many in industry.
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Document ID: 6E1BC698

Chromatography Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): J. C, Winfrey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the analysis of natural gas liquids by gas chromatography. Techniques of sample injection and columns for the separation are discussed. Calculation of properties such as specific gravity (relative density), vapor pressure, density, molecular weight, cubic feet/gal. from the gas chromatography data are discussed.
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Document ID: 03126D99

Automated Measurement On Loading Racks
Author(s): Jack R. Chester
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with the introduction and application of the microprocessor for loading rack operations. The use of positive displacement and turbine meters will be discussed to show the Improved accuracies and rangeability possible with these meters when used with the microprocessor for loading rack applications. Also to be discussed is the latest technology utilizing microprocessor for the proving of meters in loading terminal applications.
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Document ID: 17BB9E78

Gas Measurement Laboratory
Author(s): Rosemary Hake
Abstract/Introduction:
Lone Star Gas Company is involved in the gathering, transmission, and distribution of natural gas in a geographic area which has heavy oil and gas production. Consequently, the variety of gas which must be analyzed includes individual wellheads, common points, compressor stations, processing plant inlets and outlets, city gates, and sales locations. Samples from these locations range in heating value from 400 BTU to 2000 BTU and they have widely varying compositions. These samples are analyzed at a central laboratory. Results of these analyses are used for settlement purposes, monitoring gas quality, checking plant efficiency, and for evaluating potential sources.
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Document ID: 73939AE3

Odor Level Testing: Instruments & Applications
Author(s): Gordon R. Plunkett
Abstract/Introduction:
There are two generalizations that are often heard when gas men discuss odor level test instruments. It is said that they are controversial. Never the less, they are in general use throughout the natural gas industry. They are controversial because many feel that a more scientific instrument should be used. These instruments are in general use because they fill a real need. They satisfy the code requirements, are quick and easy to use, relatively inexpensive, and as much as is practical, duplicate the way that gas customers find leaks by smell. In other words, although odor level test instruments may be imperfect, they work.
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Document ID: 587B1C56

LNG Densities For Custody Trai-Isfek
Author(s): Robert D. Mccarty
Abstract/Introduction:
Work has been carried out over the past ten years at the National Bureau of Standards to provide alternate methods for the accurate determination of the density of liquefied natural gas (LNG) that would serve as a basis for equitable custody transfer.
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Document ID: 93F2DED3

Comparison Of Strip Charts To Circular Charts In Flow Recorders
Author(s): W.D. Ballou
Abstract/Introduction:
Circular charts have been used in the gas industry for many years to record the measurement of static pressure, differential pressure, and temperature. Accurate flow calculations are made from this documented data. The circular chart in todays world of high natural gas prices has been found lacking, in many cases, because of its physical design. A new device is on the market that helps correct this problem.
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Document ID: D7206941

Ethylene Measurement
Author(s): H. A. Brainerd
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate custody transfer of ethylene through pipelines has become increasingly important since it began in the mid-1960a because - 1. The volumes transported have increased dramatically to approximately 30 billion pounds per year, 2. The cost of ethylene has increased more than 10-fold from 2c per lb. to more than 20c per lb.
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Document ID: 84EF4A79

Determination Of Btu And Volume Reduction In Plants
Author(s): H. C. Talley
Abstract/Introduction:
Plant volume and BTU reduction is the reduction in gas volume and BTU between the volume of gas delivered from all sources for processing in the plant and the volume and BTU of residue gas resulting from the removal of liquid and liquefiable hydrocarbons, shrinkage, plant fuel usage, flaring, compressor fuel and other uses or losses of gas in the plant incident to or occasioned by processing gas
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Document ID: DC74C3AC

Temperature Measurement For Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): William E. James
Abstract/Introduction:
Temperature ia the measure of the degree of heat of a substance. Units are usually degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius. The relationship between these two units is straight forward. The temperature of boiling water at standard atmospheric pressure (14.696 psia) is 100C or 212F. At this same pressure, water will freeze at 0C or 32F. Thus, there are 180F for every 100C and the conversion is evident:
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Document ID: A99E2F6D

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): T. Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is a physical separation of two or more compounds based on their different distribution between two phases, one of which is stationary and the other a gas. The process of gas chromatography works in a discontinuous way, similar to batch distillation. Basically, a small sample of the gas to be analyzed is injected into a flowing stream of a carrier gas and is forced through a column which allows the lighter components to easily flow through the column for detection. The heavier components are also separated and eluded from the column to the detectors in their respective weight order
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Document ID: 0B1B6CE8

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): E. J. Butch Dupuis
Abstract/Introduction:
Density is formally defined as the mass or weight of a substance per unit volume. Many years ago, few people measured liquids based on the measured weight of Che product. Instead, only the volume was measured, and the density was assumed to be a known value, possibly derived from spot sampling. Because the weight per unit of volume (density) of a product can greatly affect its value, a shift in the density of a metered product can cause significant metering error if the density is not constantly monitored. For this reason. Densitometers have become a critical measurement tool In almost all liquid applications.
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Document ID: 448753F9

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): Tommy Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
IHTRODUCTION With the ever increasing cost of natural gas, more emphasis is being placed upon the speed and accuracy of all gas measurement systems. Our objective is to present to you an overview of the state-ofthe- art equipment and procedures currently used In gas measurement offices. We will illustrate three major points of interest which include field preparation, equipment, and operations.
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Document ID: 76AFD255

Installation & Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): Jack Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
The direct measurement of density is one of the major factors in todays flow measurement determination. The Densitometer is the primary instrument used to obtain accurate flowing density of either gas or liquid products. The Densitometer is basically an instrument that converts the weight property of a material to (1) a mechanical movement or (2) an electrical signal that can be used to document and/or control the material. There are two basic principles upon which most Densitometers are designed to operate-(1) the direct weight principle and (2) the vibration principle. This paper will discuss the buoyant force Densitometer which utilizes the direct weight principle and the UGC Vibrating Densitometer
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Document ID: 0C8756BC

Critical Flow Prover Method Of Field Testing Large Capacity Meters
Author(s): J. E. Jim Gross
Abstract/Introduction:
The critical flow prover method of field testing large capacity meters is applicable when the absolute downstream pressure Is approximately one-half of the absolute upstream pressure. Critical flow condition exists when the velocity of the gas through the orifice reaches an absolute maximum. Absolute maximum velocity exists when the absolute downstream pressure is 0.528 of the absolute upstream pressure.
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Document ID: 76B8527E

Gas Custody Transfer Measurement In Western Europe
Author(s): B.J. Kemperman
Abstract/Introduction:
I ntroduct ion Although the objective: to measure gas accurately, is the same on both sides of the Atlantic, there are basic differences between Western Europe and the United States in the ways th i s object i ve is pursued. The reasons for these differences are historic, political and economic and they have led to significant dissimilarities in the design and specification of gas measurement equipment.
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Document ID: 06ED58BD

Orifice Meters - Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Donald L. Cochran
Abstract/Introduction:
The Orifice meter has been for the past seventy-five years one of the most dependable and acceptable means of measuring natural gas. The use of this type of measurement is very desirable due to its flexibility in measurement of small or large volumes over a wide range of pressures from a vacuum to several thousands of pounds psi.
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Document ID: 89AFAF02

DESIC2J Of Distribution Metering And Reguiating Stations
Author(s): Randle L. Overbey
Abstract/Introduction:
Any company involved with natural gas will eventually be interested in reducing gas pressure. A transmission company might want to reduce the pressure fron a well facility to the iTHxiimm allorfable operating pressure on the transmission line, thus protecting the pipeline and any eauipnent downstream. A distribution cctrpany would want to reduce gas pressure from the pipeline to an intermediate or distribution pressure to siiply a city gate station or district regulator statical. The distribution corpany will also need to reduce the pressure fron the distriJifution pressure to the custcmer utilization pressure. The utilization pressure is usually in inches of water column. Regulators range from the carman service regulator for a residential consumer to two inch, three inch, or larger regiilators for industrial custcmers.
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Document ID: 5EB103E6

Elements Of Natural Gas Liquids Contracts
Author(s): Jenifer L. Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
As most people in the energy industry are aware, natural gas liquids were originally thought of as mere nuisances. They were among the elements which had to be removed from natural gas after it left the well so that the natural gas would then be marketable. Over a half cenury later, the natural gas liquids industry is big business. Natural gas liquids contracts have the same basic elements as any contract, and the processing agreements in particular have certain elements similar to those of gas purchase contracts. Yet, because the liquids industry is unique, the contracts used in that business must have some unique provisions. While a wide variety of contracts is administered by the Contracts Section of Cities Services Natural Gas Liquids Group, among the most specialized are the product exchange agreements used in conjunction with the fractionation facilities. Even among the four facilities operated by the NGL Group, contract provisions vary somewhat. However, the scope of this paper will be limited to the examination of a product exchange agreement used In connection with the Mont Belvieu I Fractionation Facility. This type of agreement is used for long-term arrangements the NGL Supply Department uses a greatly abbreviated form for short-term agreements.
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Document ID: 09617C93

Turbine Meters For Liquid Heasurehemt
Author(s): Marsha C. Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the liquid turbine meter principle dates back many decades, the axial flow turbine meters presently employed for liquid measurement are quite new. The axial flow turbine meter was first used for driving the rotor and normally where accuracy of measurement was not of prime importance. Reliability was of greater Importance, so parts were made rugged and the rotor was designed more to be non-ologging than to be accurate. However, through the evolution of technology, the turbine meter has maintained reliability and ruggedness while attaining a high degree of accuracy. Today, the meters used for water flow have accuracies of 0.25? over ranges of 10 to 1 or more while maintaining the same high degree of reliability and ruggedness as did their predecessors,
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Document ID: 58E12C85

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Bill R. Caffey
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid measurement of LPG, once thought to be straightforward, has undergone radical changes in the last ten years. Traditional ways to measure purity products, such as propane and butane, have become suspect and with the advent of ethane-rich streams, mass measurement now plays a vital role in the total measurement picture. This paper w i ll touch on some of the measurement fundamentals.
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Document ID: 65C6E82A

The Calculation Of Gas Properties-Past, Present And Future: 1984 Status
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas properties calculation methods used in the past and at the present time are discussed and a projection of future gas properties calculation methods is presented. Note is made of the fact that gas properties calculation methods prior to about 1960 generally were made using tables and/or charts, while since the early 1960s the computer has been utilized extensively. Some of the inadequacies of present-day gas properties calculation methods are noted and improvements which can be expected in the near future are discussed. The compressibility factor of natural gases is given particular attention,
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Document ID: FBD46431

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): Rex T. Ellington
Abstract/Introduction:
Determination of the volume or mass of gas existing at a given set of pressure and temperature conditions is fundamental to gas measurement. The relationships which tell the values of these quantities and how they are tied to each other are known as gas laws, or more generally equations of state. Human ingenuity has resulted in many different equations of state for representing the same behavior of the same gases. For this reason any user must make some effort to insure that the equation he/she uses is the best for the job at hand.
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Document ID: 02F048B4

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Norman B. Lansverk
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to review certain specifications, conditions and tolerances for orifice measurement established in A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3 and to examine the effect upon measurement accuracy when such specifications are not met. This will be accomplished by reviewing the tests results sponsored by the Committee and some tests conducted by Florida Gas Transmission Company and others.
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Document ID: 25D5053D

Energy Measurement Utilizing On Line Chromatograph
Author(s): Arthur F. Haas
Abstract/Introduction:
The energy content of natural gas is normally expressed in the United States as B.T.U. per cubic foot. This definition, therefore, dictates that a method of measuring volume as well as B.T.U. must be considered if Total Energy is to be measured.
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Document ID: 588F6415

Repair And Proving Of Domestic Gas Meters
Author(s): Ted Hansen
Abstract/Introduction:
Considering the variety of manufacture and type and the length of time for its presentation, the scope of this paper will necessarily be quite general. An attempt has been made to present the subject as it relates to the local utility company and to highlight some areas that may be otherwise overlooked.
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Document ID: 465ADEAD

Field Experience With Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): William H. Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter was first introduced to the United States in the early I960s. Over the last decade it has had to contend with a strong rival: orifice measurement. Orifice meters have long been an industry standard and the industry could not see any reason to leave a perfectly good metering tool and go to a yet unproven measurement device,
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Document ID: A0A79E00

On-Line Computers For Custody Transfer
Author(s): John J. Mullaney
Abstract/Introduction:
On July 1, 1982, Algonquin Gas Transmission Ccmpany commenced using on-line computers for custody transfer. The system was provided by Teledyne Geotech of Garland, Texas in January 1982, This presentation includes a general description of Algonquin, system planning and implementation, system design, and advantages/disadvantages of the system.
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Document ID: 64D9EC4C

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice fitting, orifice plate, and meter tube constitute the primary device of the measurement system. The most important item of the primary device is the orifice plate, since it is the orifice plate which creates the differential pressure within a flowing medium. The measurement of a pressure differential, along with certain other data, permits computation of the rate of flow on the basis of well established physical principles. Frequent inspection of the orifice plate is recommended, particularly in custody transfer service, to insure that accurate measurement is made. The orifice plate must be flat and clean and the inlet edge of the orifice bore must be sharp, square and free from nicks or other damage.
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Document ID: 2A9F223C

Instruments For The Determikation Of Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): m. S. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
Ccnputation of natural gas flow voliime, when neasured by o r i f i c e rteter, is made by using the formila Qb C X v*iere Qh is the quantity, Btf is the differential, and Pf is the absolute static pressure, with C being a constant. the constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, Reynolds nunfcer factor, expansion factor, pressure base factor, tenperature base factor, f Icwing tenperature factor, specific gravity factor, siiercoTpressibility factor, arK3 manometer factor. In order to determine these factors, the values of the quantities fron vriiich they are derived must either be assumed or measured. This p)er will deal with those instruments measuring specific gravity. (For further details of the flow ccirputation refer to A.G.A. Gas Measurement Report No. 3)
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Document ID: B62FD008

Calibration Of Liquid Provers Using Master Meter And Water Dsaw Methods
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid provers are those provers used to prove meters in liquid service. The basic types of provers used are volumetric tank provers and pipe provers. The purpose of the calibration of a liquid prover is to determine its certified base volume, with traceability to recognized standards and accepted practices. The base volume is the gross operating volume of the prover corrected to standard conditions (such as 60F and 0 PSIG in U. S. Customary units).
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Document ID: 8DEBA53C

Instruments For The Determining The Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): T. Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental to understanding specific gravity instruments and their use is the definition of specific gravity. Specific gravity is formally defined as the ratio of weight of a body to the weight of another body of equal volume taken as a standard unit. For gases, the standard is generally dry air.
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Document ID: 1C2D9068

Effective Use Of Deadweight And Dew Point Equipment
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
The Deadweight Gauge is the most accurate instrurrent available for the measurement of pressures. Itepeatable readings with accuracies of 0.1% of measured pressure are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the conponents have excessive wear or weights are replaced. It is easily transported and set up in the field, requires minimum maintenance, and is sinple to operate. Tripod rrounting is available for most instruments.
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Document ID: EDFE04A9

Fixed Factor Measurement A New Concept In Measurement?
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
The term Fixed Factor Measurement was first introduced to the Gas Industry during the 1966 Distribution Conference in St. Louis. This concept is directly related to the performance accuracy of a gas pressure regulator providing constant pressure to a meter. Prior to this time, when gas was measured at pounds pressure, the meter was either equipped with an integrating, correcting type instrument or a chart record of flowing pressure and indicated metered volume. The instruments were expensive and required a constant maintenance program for what was thought to be accurate measurement. Chart records required a very high degree of skill to analyze and divide the recorded volume with applicable pressure increments to calculate standard cubic feet units.
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Document ID: 6F222E0B

High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): Joe A. Dickinson
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary function of a measuring station is the accurate measurement of natural gas. The basic factors which Influence i t s design are safety, accuracy, f l e x i b i l i t y , and econooiy. The design of high pressure measurement and regulating f a c i l i t i e s and the concept of design as discussed herein w i l l include the various phases of planning, construction, and inspection. Measurement w i l l be considered to be by o r i f i ce meter but much of the material is applicable to other types of measurement.
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Document ID: A73F9613

Field Experience With Charts, Pens And Ink
Author(s): Michael D. Beall
Abstract/Introduction:
Charts? Pens? or Ink? Which are more important? This is a question which has been asked many times in the past and has become an Important issue in todays gas measurement. The performance derived from each of the above is critical to the accuracy for gas measurement. If the question were posed, Which of the three Is the most important?, what would be the answer? The answer could only be that each is equally important, and to have an extremely good inking pen and poor chart paper, would achieve overall poor results. The same is true if the paper used was of the best quality, the pen chosen was also of the same quality and the ink was inferior - old or contaminated, the end result would be failure of all three. This should show that your choice of each of the above, charts, pens and ink, should be carefully considered, and that all variables concerning location, temperature and humidity should influence your decision on which type of each is right for your specific application.
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Document ID: 441D5F0A

Evaporation Loss Measurement From Storage Tanks
Author(s): Keith A. Connors
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute (API) soon complete an extensive program of updatln evaporation loss publications. Thus tar, Buietins 25iA, 2517, and 2519 have been revi and provide emissions Information for marine vessel transfer operations, external floating-roof tanks ( E F R T s ) , and Inter na I-f I oat i ng roof tanis (IFRTs) respectively. Revision of Bulletin 2518 cove losses from fixed-roof tanks (FRTs) is prese underway and scheduled for completion In the first half of 1985. A complete listing of AP evaporation loss bulletins is Included in Tab I .
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Document ID: 160639E1

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): Michael D. Kyser, P.E
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically the pipeline industry has continuously strlved towards the development of a rapid, dependable detection system capable of isolating and locating leaks or ruptures in petroleum pipelines. Particular attention, of course, is paid towards equipment that can minimize both operator involvement and power costs without compromising the high degree of performance required. This paper presents a unique method, currently under evaluation, that can continuously track pipeline operation providing essentially Instantaneous responses to leaks or ruptures without causing a pressure drop or energy loss.
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Document ID: DC1DF10B

Measurement By Battery Powered Field Computers
Author(s): Tom Fritts
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary goal of gas measurement systems is to provide accurate, timely production information for accounting purposes. If gas prices rise In the future as fast as predicted, this goal is sure to as sume increasing importance. New standards of accuracy will likely be necessary to satisfy both buyers and s e l l e r s that transfers of ownership are fair and equitable. With the prospect of high interest rates, more attention will likely be focused on reducing the delays between f i e ld measurement and billing or invoicing.
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Document ID: ABB83324

Calibration Of Liquid Density Meters
Author(s): Randy L. Austerman
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years the standard method for measurement of hydrocarbon liquids has been volumetric measurement. The measured volume is corrected to s tandard (60F) volume through the use of volume reduction factors based on the relative density and temperature of the product. This method of measurement is valid if the physical properties of the product are knovm and can be defined.
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Document ID: A0B68F67

Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): Hichard Hutchins
Abstract/Introduction:
The specific gravity of a gas is the ratio its density to the density of air. Specific gravity is sometimes referred to as relative density. Density is defined as mass per unit volume and is symbolized by the Greek Letter Rho (p):
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Document ID: 45F46691

Measurement And Control Systems
Author(s): T. A. Nery
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address specific areas that aid a process engineer to make an educated selection of the proper type of flowmeter for his/ her application. In order to limit the scope of this paper, only flow measuring systems normally used in the oil and gas industries will be discussed specifically orifice, turbine, and vortex metering systems.
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Document ID: 00FBF8DA

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: F4CC0AED

Methods Of Overpressure Protection Panel() Safety Relief Valves
Author(s): Gary B. Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
A safety relief valve (SRV) is a pressure relieving device which automatically relieves a system of excess pressure when abnormal operating conditions cause the system pressure to exceed a set limit, and rsr.losi.a when the abnormal pressure decreases below the set limit.
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Document ID: 70E09D7E

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Wayne A. Latimer
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas liquids (NGL) are recovered from natural gas field production by plant processes such as separation, condensation, absorption and cryogenic condensation.
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Document ID: 391CEBB0

Multiport Averaging Pitot For Flow Measurement And Energy Savings
Author(s): Norman A, Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
Just because a flow measurement device is complex and/or expensive does not automatically mean that i t is the best or most accurate. Oftentimes the most simple device is just as good and accurate and frequently even b e t t e r,
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Document ID: D7F9AA22

Selection, Application, And Maintenance Of Chart Drives
Author(s): Thomas R. Coraerford, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Chart Drive is . . . . The workhorse of gas measurement recordina o Often taken for granted or forgotten - Critical to accurate measurement - o A SOURCE OF INCREASED REVENUE AND IMPROVED PRODUCTIVITY !
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Document ID: E4E779BB

Energy Measurement Billing On-Line Cromatographs()
Author(s): Wesley E. Sund
Abstract/Introduction:
It is no longer economical to consider the energy content of n a t u r a l gas streams as constant and s e l l simply on volume measurement. Instead, it is becoming more common to use some type of onl i n e measurement to d i r e c t l y measure the BTU value along with volume measurement for energy b i l l i n g .
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Document ID: 289078E7

Pneumatic Controllers And Transmitters
Author(s): Victor H. Coats
Abstract/Introduction:
With the arrival of the electronic age of integrated circuits, microprocessor chips, cnd computers, technical schools tend to specialize in electronic training. The younger generation has little knowledge of the pneumatic control systems that exist (and will continue to exist for many more years) in most of todays gas plants as well as production fields.
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Document ID: B2386171

Orifice Meter Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicator
Author(s): John D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
There have been many discussions in numerous seminars treating the subject of orifice meters and their calibration. Since the orifice meter has been a standard in gas measurement for many years, a large number of calibrators exist for checking its accuracy. This paper treats a particular type of such a calibrator which takes advantage of the latest in semiconductor developments.
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Document ID: F132082B

Methods Of Overpressure Protection Application Of Monitor Regulation
Author(s): Terry Buzbee
Abstract/Introduction:
Overpressure protection devices are of vital concern to the gas industry. Safety codes and current regulations require their installation each time a pressure reducing station is installed that supplies gas from any system to another system with a lower maximum allowable operating pressure.
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Document ID: DA1A01F2

Determination Of Calorific Values Of Natural Gas By Combustion Instruments
Author(s): Richard E. Stern
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1980 a change was made in the rules of first sales of natural gas. The Federal Energy and Regulating Committee issued Order 93, which defines the therm (100,000 BTUs) and decatherm (1,000,000 BTUs). This change has made the determination of the heating value a more definitive part of natural gas analysis because the BTU is now used along with the volume to calculate the price.
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Document ID: 2B823720

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): T. J. Hulsmann, J, R. Mortensen
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Measurement Mans Corner of Gas Magazine in April 1967 it was stated, If the gas measurement science could be represented by a corpse, upon dissect ion,the heart would turn out to be a manometer. Accurate gas measurement depends on precise measurement of small pressures and differential pressures. Large volumes of gas are bought and sold every day. Therefore, the utmost accuracy is desired in our measurement of these volumes. For this reason, the manometer Is of prime importance to the gas measurement industry. The simplicity, inherent accuracy and versatility of manometers lend them to broad application in calibration, trouble shooting, and meter maintenance leak testing.
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Document ID: CB450365

Micrometer MEASUREfENTS Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Kirby G. Mcrae
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most important devices in accurate orifice measurement of natural gas is the orifice meter tube, through which a created differential pressure, static pressure, and gas temperature are measured for the purpose of calculating gas volumes. Much research has been done concerning the accurate measurement and proper calculation of natural gas by orifice metering, the results of which are contained in the American National Standard/American Petroleum Institute publication number 2530 - Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, This specifies certain dimensions that must be closely controlled, which are:
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Document ID: 2997558E

Moisture Analysis In Natural Gas
Author(s): Lee m. Gates
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion is to present an overview of the problems most commonly encountered in the analysis of natural gas for water vapor content, and to provide details on the successful application of the thin film aluminum oxide moisture sensor to this type of measurement.
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Document ID: 6AA3254D

About Ishm 1984
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 4130A875


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