Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1982)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Reduction Of Gas Theft
Author(s): Joe Hurst
Abstract/Introduction:
When the first gas company began in Baltimore, Maryland in 1817, gas was not measured. Customers were billed on a flat rate basis for a given number of gas lights when used for a reasonable nianber of hours per day. There was no incentive for the customer to conserve gas because of the flat rate and many left their lights burning during daylight hours. When the New York Gas Company started in 1823, wet meters were used to measure gas consumption at the rate of 1.00 per one-hundred cubic feet, plus a charge for the rent of the meter.
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Document ID: 83A0BED0

Electronic Chart Processing 1982
Author(s): D. R. Fullilove
Abstract/Introduction:
Arkla is currently processing all data related to chart information thru an online computer system. Three objectives were established for Arklas new system. The first objective was to develop a procedure which would require less keying of data. Several companies have the chart processing machine readings automatically captured thru an online environment, yet have transferred the data processing key-punch function for all the remaining data to their own user department.
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Document ID: 0C3D21D6

Safety-Relief Valves - Selection, Installation & Maintenance
Author(s): Richard m. Sims
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will concern three areas necessary to the proper use and service life of Safety- Relief Valves. It should serve both as a primer to the unfamiliar and additionally enlighten those that work daily with this equipment.
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Document ID: F392CE38

Development Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): L. S. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years there have been numerous training methods and techniques used to train and develop measurement technicians. The most common method has been the on-the-job approach, with the trainee working with another more experienced employee to gain knowledge and experience. This training method is needed to some degree but does not always produce the desired results because bad work habits are passed on to the new employee along with the good habits. Another fault of the on-the-job training method is that not all experienced technicians understand the more sophisticated equipment well enough to explain its operation in terms that other employees can understand. Often the new employees knowledge and experience gained is limited due to the equipment needed for training is not available in the geographic area. Our company has recently constructed a new Training Center to provide the major part of training for our employees shown in Figure No. 1.
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Document ID: C4B5EEFB

Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jim L. Hollingsworth
Abstract/Introduction:
Drilling activity began in the Gulf of Mexico in the late 1940s, and the first gas production was initiated in 1951. From that date until the present, problems inherent in offshore operations have plagued gas measurement personnel. There are problems encountered in every job, whether it be inland or offshore, but it seems that the problems seen in an inland job are many times compounded and multiplied when the same job is to be accomplished offshore. This is certainly true of the task assigned gas measurement personnel.
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Document ID: 84AB2452

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide information for use in selecting, applying, and checking the orifice metering system, with emphasis on gas measurement. The primary reference for mechanical tolerances of the orifice meter tube, plate holder and plate is American Gas Association Report No. 3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, now published as ANSI/API Standard 2530. Much of this information is also published in a simpler, condensed format by orifice meter manufacturers. An excellent reference is Singer American Meter Division Handbook E-2. Meter tube and orifice plate information is contained in the Daniel Industries Flow Products Division Catalog, and recommended installation practices for differential pressure instruments are contained in the ITT Barton Model 202A Flow Recorder Manual.
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Document ID: F20D0133

Techniques And Handling Of Natural Gas Sampling
Author(s): Mike Mckay
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this paper is to discuss the techniques and handling of natural gas sampling with the purpose of trying to obtain a representative sample.
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Document ID: 6F44B873

Inverted Orifice Meters
Author(s): A. B. Pender
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased value of natural gas an operations costs, the importance of Setter and more efficient measurement practices has become stringently pronounced. The use of the reverse scale meter offers solution for certain measurement problems.
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Document ID: ED8864E4

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): H. E. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
This class offers a comprehensive presentation of the kinetic type gas gravltometer, including: Simple explanation of operating principle Equipment set-up and operation In field Trouble-shooting, repair and adjustment The kinetic type gas gravltometer Is manufactured as a portable Indicating type Instrument Illustrated In Figure 1 and as a stationary recording type 1nstrunent Illustrated In Figure 2. The basic operating mechanism Is Identical for both types, but the case, motive power and linkage are modified to adapt them to either portable use or permanent mounting.
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Document ID: 42F52BE2

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): N. Ledet, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic Chart Changers were developed to allow the unattended operation of circular chart recording instruments for extended periods of time while still providing for timely changing of the charts. Use of automatic chart changers reduces operating costs, and improves the uniformity and accuracy of recording periods, thus simplyfing the chart processing and gas accounting.
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Document ID: F5333961

Hydrocarbon Analysis By Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Eric Gill
Abstract/Introduction:
The first question we must ask ourselves is, Why do we need the various tests used in gas processing? We have all heard of vapor pressure, copper strip, sulfur, gravity, water content, calorific value, glycol and amine, environmental specifications and hydrocarbon analysis, but why do we have to perform these tests? Largely the answer is because we have to:
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Document ID: EB30D790

Problems In Two-Phase Pipeline Operations
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Two-phase pipelines are becoming a common means of transportation of oil and gas from offshore both in the Continental Shelf of the United States and the North Sea, and other places all over the world. As we all know, offshore gas pipeline systems are a necessity to actively meet the energy necessitltes of our Nation and the energy crisis facing us today. Today, I wish to discuss with you some of the problems encountered in offshore two-phase pipeline operations.
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Document ID: 55E9536A

Light Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
Light hydrocarbons roughly, pentanes and lighter in the hydrocarbon chain, have become a more popular feedstock for the Chemical Industries. Sufficient demand has generated International trading in these fluids. This has created a need to reexamine our measurement practices, since at the same time the value of the product and the need for accurate measurement at much wider transfer conditions has increased. A discussion of the latest practices in the measurement of these products considering these requirements, is the subject of this paper.
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Document ID: BBEA6A56

Determination Of Calorific Value Of Natural Gases
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
The escalation of natural gas pricing has contributed to increased interest in real time measuronent of heating value. Several inovative methods have been introduced to the market place with at least three additional methods in development. One of the first new approaches perhaps the first) to be marketed was the Therm-Titrator by Precision Measurement, Inc. (PKL) of Dallas, Texas. It was begun in 1969/70. A disclosure of the method was made before AGAs operating section in 1972 (Publication 72-D-13) Four operating cccupanies laboratories participated with VML in a R & D effort vAiich made the Therm-Titrator ccnmercially available in late 1978.
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Document ID: F37289EA

Frcm Pen Tip To Volume Statement
Author(s): John D. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
As gas measurement people we must realize that the fruit of our labor is the volume statanent and the seed is planted by the pen tip, we will consider the problems encountered and the effect on the volume statanent.
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Document ID: EDEDE6A9

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): George L. Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the first gas meter, technical advances improved material, economics, and energy conservations, the measurement of natural gas has seen many changes. These changes have occurred in both the theory and practices of measurement, as well as the actual physical meter itself. The first meter, a positive displacement meter, has seen only minor changes which allows the positive displacanent meter to measure more volume at higjier pressure and is still widely used in the industry today. Expanding from this fundamental meter, the Industry has cone to a point inhere natural gas cannot only be measured irore ways, but hopefully, more acctorately. The Measurement Engineer now has great opportunities and solutions at his or her fingertips. In selecting a specific meter which is to be used for measuring a customer load, the Measurement Engineer should not forget any types of meters. The basic types of meters available to the Measurement Engineer and a brief description of each will be helpful at this time:
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Document ID: 95F1370A

Electronic Instrumentation For Orifice And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Douglas Porter
Abstract/Introduction:
Today in a time of increasingly serious shortages of gas supplies and with the rising value of energy and feed stocks, more effort is being directed toward precise measurement of gas flow. In the past, if gas was lost for one reason or another, the monetary affects were not substantial. Today, this same amount of gas costs many times more than it did in the past, and gas loss cannot be recovered as cannot the value of that gas.
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Document ID: DE2E1AEC

I Fundamentals Of Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): I E. A. Loiranatsch
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to control and direct the flow of water was recognized at a very early stage in the development of civilization. In Europe and Asia can be seen the relics of hydraulic works, some of great antiquity, which display a high degree of engineering accomplishment, the best known of which are the aqueducts, which the Romans built to bring water to their cities. In the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum can be still seen lead piping, which conveyed water to houses and gardens, and which included orifice plates to act as flow limiting devices, providing a basis on which the service was charged to the consumer. These were installed almost 2,000 years ago. Some of these techniques were introduced to North America by engineers, who accompanied the Spanish missionaries and whose work can still be seen at some of the missions in California.
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Document ID: 69D057A1

Basic Devices And Techniques For Supervisory Control And Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the problems faced by gas distribution companies is to maintain low point system pressures in the gas distribution system. The distribution system itself is a complex network of piping with a given area fed by one or more district regulators. The far ends or low points of the system must maintain a minimum pressure in order to furnish an adequate service of gas to the customers in that particular area. Since the system low point is fed by one or more regulators, the regulator setting must be changed periodically to maintain the desired pressure at this system low point. Increase in the system load between the regulator and the low point will cause the low point pressure to drop, requiring that the regulator setting be increased in order to maintain adequate pressure. The pressure in the system must also be kept as low as possible and still maintain adequate service to prevent excess leakage loss in the distribution system between the regulator and the low point.
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Document ID: D072AAAF

Regulation Commission Safety Evaluations
Author(s): m. L. Fegenbush, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
By act of the Texas Legislature, the Gas Utilities Division of the Railroad Commission of Texas has authority to enforce compliance with safety standards and practices applicable to the transportation of gas and all gas pipeline facilities. Minimum safety standards were established under the federal governments Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968, However, in some areas, such as odorization, Texas has more stringent safety requirements than the federal minimum standards. Odorization requirements are more strict in Texas because of a gas explosion at a New London school in 1937 that killed 290 students and faculty members.
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Document ID: 6F5C6C00

Remote Meter Reading - Gas Meters
Author(s): Ed Dyer
Abstract/Introduction:
Today in 1982, we find ourselves standing on the threshold of a new era in the field of utility meter reading. Thanks to recent technological breakthroughs in integrated circuitry and microprocessors, the practice of meter reading is about to come of age. These developments and others from the past, present and future will be discussed in the text that follows.
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Document ID: 6000CC87

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years gas men have been giving more thought to aerodynamic turbulence within their pipeline systems and, in particular, the turbulence that is a result of pressure regulation. Considering the noise from a measurement or regulating station, it is generally conceded that measurement facilities alone will rarely be a major source of noise, since we can design the pipe to give a desired and normally tranquil velocity. On the other hand, we must expect that in a regulator station control of the gas velocity is possible only up to the inlet side of an active regulator. At the point of regulation within the regulator body, the velocity of the gas may be expected to increase greatly, perhaps up to sonic velocity. Now the question becomes, What is the best way to handle gas when it is traveling at high velocities?
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Document ID: 1944D35E

Orifice Meter Testing
Author(s): Lonnie R. Grady
Abstract/Introduction:
Anyone who has been in the gas industry for any length of time has heard the old cliche: The meter is the cash register of the business. As old as this statement may be, it still is true. The cfcijective of this pjer is to present one carpanys way of ensuring that this cash register rings up the prcper total.
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Document ID: B6212F17

Water Vapor Determination And Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination and the effect of water vapor on gas measurement is of importance to the gas pipeline industry because of the necessity for accurate gas measurement and for the maintenance of quality control. The following discussion covers typical methods which are used by the gas industry for water vapor determination. Each of the dew point instruments discussed use a specific method for water vapor measurement, and all are designed for use as either portable or fixed location Instrumentation. In addition to a discussion of the typical methods for water vapor detetinination, the effects of water vapor on gas volume and heating value measurement is reviewed.
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Document ID: 2AEADFF6

Chart Auditing And Contract Interpretation
Author(s): J. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
In order for any chart section to function effectively, the charts must be received on a timely basis. It is vital that all chart changers be instructed to send the charts into the office on a regular schedule. If there are delays in the initial calculation of the charts, there can be delays in the auditing of the charts. The ideal way to monitor daily pipeline inventory and flow conditions, is to initiate the chart calculation on all input and output charts. In most cases this is not possible, since the producer or customer will prefer doing their own chart calculations. If you are calculating the charts, you are able to see the results on a daily basis. If the customer calculates, it can be around the 15th of the following month before you can see the calculated volumes and even later before you can complete your audit.
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Document ID: DFC38A96

Instrumentation Of Positive Displacement And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Winston C. Meyer
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many different ways to measure natural gas however, the type of load, pressure, and volume will usually limit the applicable measurement means. Under normal or base conditions, the most common meter used in gas distribution activities will be a positive displacement meter with a standard index. When the index is read month after month, the volume used will be the difference of two consecutive readings. In many cases It is desirable to measure gas at higher pressures than at the base pressure or where pressure fluctuations will affect the volume of gas being measured. We know from the basic gas laws that a convenient calculation will compensate for pressure and temperature variations and adjust the volume to base conditions. For positive displacement and turbine meters the relation is as shown below:
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Document ID: 72B72FCD

Methods For Reducing Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): L. G. Tidwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Lost and unaccounted for gas is the difference between the total of all recorded volumes purchased or produced into your system, less the total of all recorded sales or known disposition of volumes off your system. As the term lost and unaccounted for gas indicates, it represents two volumes (1) physical leakage thru holes in pipe and (2) the unaccounted-for due to Cycle Billing, accounting errors, coding errors, measurement errors, line pack, etc. Leakage can not be completely separated from unaccounted for gas volumes. However, the intent of this paper is to help recognize and reduce the unaccounted for gas.
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Document ID: 995C2EFC

General Odorization Techniques
Author(s): John A. Knoll
Abstract/Introduction:
We all understand that odorant does not have the ability to stop leaks, but it can indicate, in most cases, that a leak does exist. This protection is desired by all companies that distribute natural gas. The detection of leaks by means of odorization often results in detecting a large number of leaks, some of which are potentially hazardous. It is often difficult to evaluate the good that proper odorization does, but the savings are, never the less, very real.
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Document ID: 9366BE25

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): G. G. Less
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased cost of natural gas, it is becoming more and more important to do a better job of measurement. The reduction or elimination of pulsation errors could result in saving millions of dollars in unaccounted-for gas. The problem of induced pulsation has long i been recognized by the natural gas industry. However, the cure proves to be much more difficult and expensive than the diagnosis of the problem. This paper will briefly review with you what pulsation is, the types and sources of pulsation, what types of measurement devices are affected by pulsation, new devices for detecting pulsation, and what can be done to possibly correct the problem.
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Document ID: 4E434B4D

Multiport Averaging Pitot For Flow Measurement And Energy Savings
Author(s): Nonnan A. Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
Just because a flow measurement device is complex and/or expensive does not automatically mean that it is the best or most accurate. Often times the most simple device is just as good and accurate and frequently even better. Economic pressure encourages the emergence of better all-around devices with greater reliability and accuracy. These and other factors have brought to the fluid flow measurement industry the Multiport Averaging Pitot Primary Flow Measurement Device. This refined version of the basic pitot tube, the same as the orifice and other head type primaries, is based on the same standard hydraulic equation, continuity equation and Bernoullis Theorem. Thus, an extension and improvement of proven concepts and device makes available to the industry a primary flow measurement device which offers many benefits, including a simple design, with equal or better performance for fluid flow measurement and process control applications.
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Document ID: 1451DD3E

Residential Gas Meters Set Outside, Non-Temperature Compensated
Author(s): W. B. Richardson III
Abstract/Introduction:
RESIDENTIAL GAS METERS are set in all kinds of places around a customers house:Beside the house, under the back porch, next to a busy alley, by a fence, behind the garage, and occasionally ijnder a thorn bush. The common factor to all these locations is that the meter is outdoors. It is subject to the weather and the large variations of yearround temperatures. In addition to atmospheric temperature changes, a meter exposed to the sun on the south side of a house can be quite hot to the touch in summer and noticeably warmer than ambient temperatures in winter. This is in contrast to a meter set close to the north side of a house, where it is never in direct sunlight and will have a very different temperature profile from the one in the sun. Meters in other locations that are shaded to varying degrees will present a wide range of temperature conditions.
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Document ID: E4257010

Mass Energy Measurement For Hydrocarbon Gas Fuels
Author(s): m. H. November
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass energy measurement for gaseous hydrocarbon fuels is a primary parameter related to the economic value of the product. Accordingly, accuracy in energy metering flow systems is an on-going challenge. The intrinsic mass energy of fuel gas is directly related to product mass (Ibm). This scientific fact is axiomatic from established physical-chemical laws. (See Table (7) Equation for combustion of methane). Practical mass energy systems identify the need for reliable means to measure mass flow and calorific values per unit of product mass.
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Document ID: 54624CA3

Fundamental Gas Laws And Their Application
Author(s): Patricia S. Osullivan
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement would be quite simple if all we had to do was read the value of gas measured by a meter. Unfortunately, the situation is not that simple. The volume of gas measured by a meter can be altered by two factors that a meter does not measure namely, the temperature and the pressure. The roles of temperature, pressure and volume of a gas are important in every phase of gas measurement. The ways in which temperature, pressure and volume interrelate are known as the basic gas laws. These laws are formulated assuming that gases behave according to an ideal conceptualization of gases. Naturally all gases do not behave ideally, so the gas laws can be modified appropriately to fit the specific need. Still these gas laws provide basic information.
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Document ID: 6BDDEE84

New Concepts In Recorder Marking Systems For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Graphic Controls Corporation
Abstract/Introduction:
Ink, as a fluid, is virtually worthless , .. ink as a line could be priceless . . . if its in the right place at the right time. For example, a droplet of ink, as a signature on a check, could represent a virtually limitless value . . . even millions of dollars. Well, the ink lines on your gas measurement charts are signatures showing the value of gas being measured. From the smallest amount . . . several hundred dollars . . . up to major systems transfer or sales points where the value could be millions of dollars. These transactions are measured and recorded daily and, like checks, thousands of charts are sent to the sales office for computation and transfer of funds. Both buyer and seller want to be confident of a fair transaction price and the chart is the check reflecting the volume of gas bought or sold, the line tells the tale. Its the final expression of value combining the measurement methods, instruments, system, procedures, fieldman, home office staff and chart processing all into 12 inches of ink on a piece of paper. Such reliance on these charts makes measurement a very important subject in terms of equipment, people and procedures. Gas is a natural source of energy and, in an era when rising energy costs can grow from 15 to 2.50 per thousand cubic feet . . . the value of each cubic foot is important.
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Document ID: 814032A6

Design Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station
Author(s): J. W. Copeland
Abstract/Introduction:
From the large city gate, which passes several million cubic feet per day to the farm tap, which passes but a few MCF per month, safe operation, accurate measurement and dependable regulation, are the primary goals of any design for a high pressure measuring and regulating station.
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Document ID: 0A4747C8

Calorimeters - Installation And Start-Up Procedures
Author(s): Robert Van Meter
Abstract/Introduction:
The product of the Gas Industry is energy which is in general converted into heat. Determination of the heat content involves the measurement of the total calorific value of the gas. The Cutler-Hammer Recording Calorimeter makes a direct measurement of the total calorific value by burning the gas under conditions essentially as given by the definition of the term. Indication and record of the result is directly total calorific value per cubic foot at the desired basis of measurement without the necessity of applying any correction factors. Under the specified conditions of operation the result is essentially unaffected by changes in the usual ambient conditions and the gas composition.
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Document ID: 81C5B7D5

Periodic Inspections-District Regulators Relief Valves
Author(s): Alford R. Boydston
Abstract/Introduction:
There are several factors involved in a regulator and relief valve inspection program. Accurate and dependable service of a regulating facility is directly related to a workable inspection program. One of the most important regulating facilities in the gas industry is the district regulator. It is the source of gas supply to industrial, commercial, and domestic customers from transmission and distribution pipeline systems. Therefore, dependable and safe gas supply is a must. The way Co accomplish this is with an effective inspection program with constant attention to operations and maintenance of the regulator station. Todays regulatory agencies, safety practices, and newer more sophisticated equipment make more detailed inspections necessary. The purpose of this paper is to present some guidelines, methods, procedures, and expected results of a district regulator and relief valve inspection program. However, each company must make its own interpretation of what is necessary for regulatory and contractual compliance. Now, lets look at seme of the factors involved in an inspection program and hopefully we can get some ideas that will be beneficial.
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Document ID: A2388580

Methods Of Field Testing Large Diaphragm, Rotary And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Henry A. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
For years the accuracy of gas meter measurement has been recogn ized as being important, but in recent years the shortage of gas and higher prices have renewed interest in field testing of meters. On-location testing of large meters offers a convenient and economical method of assuring measurement accuracy. This method eliminates the extra time required to replace the meter, equipment for hauling to a repair shop and stocking replacement meters. Another factor becoming increas ingly important is field testing allows for customer witnessing of the meter being tested.
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Document ID: 73F19CFE

Field Inspection And Calibrating Measurement Instruments
Author(s): Fred L. Kilgore
Abstract/Introduction:
With the growing importance of more accurate gas measurement involving metering, emphasis must be placed on the correcting instruments used in conjunction with these meters. Several manufacturers make available numerous measurement instruments which compensate and correct the measurement of gas from base to actual flowing conditions if maintained properly. These instruments must receive a certain amount of attention to insure accuracy. For instance, where pressure is concerned - for every 4 W. C. change in pressure, the indicated volume changes by one (1) percent in positive displacement metering. For ewery 5 flowing gas temperature deviation from the 60F base temperature, the indicated volume changes by one (1) percent in positive displacement metering. Therefore, everyone must realize the importance of having a good field inspection and calibrating program within their company.
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Document ID: 23E1BED1

Fundamentals Of Diaphragm Type Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Joe Barbour
Abstract/Introduction:
The Positive Displacement Meter principle is applied on both diaphragm type and rotary type meters. Although the operational principle is different, the fact remains that both types measure by means of sealing off a known quantity of gas, and subsequently releasing it. The bulk of the meters in use today are of the positive displacement type. Over 40 million gas meters are employed in measuring gas volumes by positive displacement in the U.S. Of this total, the large majority are used to measure gas volumes consumed by domestic residential customers. Other measurement principles are applied in the case of the Turbo-Meter, Orifice Meter or Swirl Meter.
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Document ID: 27BB23CE

Living With High Concentrations Of Hydrogen Sulfide
Author(s): Seth T. Roberson
Abstract/Introduction:
NGO receives a stream of 90 - 98% H S from the nearby Exxon Refinery. The H S comes from the processing of sour crude oil. Specifically, the process is known as hydro-desulfurization. As the first process at the refinery, the entire crude oil stream is passed over a heated catalyst bed and all of the sulfur compounds in the crude oil Is converted to H S and the corresponding olefins. The trapped gasses, including H S and the lighter olefins, are then contacted witn some type of an amine solution. The H S is absorbed in the amine and the lighter olefins continue through the absorbing amine solution for further processing.
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Document ID: BCEC3EFB

Fundamentals Of Gas Regulators
Author(s): Cindy Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
For all practical purposes, regulators used by the gas Industry can be placed in either of two categories: I. Self Operated, or II. Pilot Operated. This categorizing of all regulators (plus all construction modifications) tends to be an over-slraplification, but exceptions are rare. Lets examine each of them closely.
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Document ID: 1364BE7C

Operational Procedures Of Electronic Chart Processor
Author(s): E. J. Dupuis
Abstract/Introduction:
The UGC Chart Processor Is a microprocessorbased system designed to translate orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data of integrated flow (chart extension), flow time and average pressure. It will handle American (Westcott) and Foxboro charts as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Processor can be fitted with pen mounts for Taylor and/or Rockwell charts. The operator directs the pens to follow the records by moving the trace handles as the chart rotates. The rotational speed of the chart table is governed by a variable foot control. The chart is secured to the chart table so its rotation and the motion of the pens by the operator simulate the actions In the recording meter.
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Document ID: C6D8BB3F

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject title is only one of many which could be applicable, such as: DoYour Measurement Books Balance? Does Your Sales Volume Your Purchase Volume? Are You Selling All The Volume Youre Entitled to? Do You Really Have Good ment? leasure- If you honestly answer No to any of the above, then it will be beneficial to explore a few basic reasons for measurement problems. When the word measurement is mentioned, the majority of the gas industry measurement personnel automatically convert their thoughts to a meter. The meter contributes only YIXOVA toward the total science of measurement depending on the application.
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Document ID: FF4E67CC

Operation And Service For Chart Integrators
Author(s): E. S. Messer
Abstract/Introduction:
With the recent advance in the price of gas at the wellhead, gas cxmpanies during the past six years have become irore cognizant to the importance of accuracy in the determination of true gas volumes flowing from a well or to the distribution lines, hence, to the user. The term accuracy applies to all areas of mmeasurement. Ttie volume calculated, therefore, can only be as accurateas the weakest link in the chain of rrBasuring the variables that coirprise a volume measurement.
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Document ID: 30C5AE00

Operation Of The Electroscanner And Related Equipment
Author(s): Tommy Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
With the ever increasing cost of natural gas. more emphasis Is being placed upon the speed and accuracy of all gas measurement systems. My objective Is to present you with an overview of the operations of the UGC Micro Scan. 1 will illustrate two major points of Interest which include: a general definition of the equipment, and operational procedures.
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Document ID: D1C85BE4

Rotary Meters
Author(s): John H. Heath
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built around the year 1920 by the PH & FM Roots Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966 this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division, However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS Meters. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 1960s with a rotating vane design known as the ROTO-Seal Meter, and in the late 1960s Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating design known as the CVM gas meter. The operating principles for each of these three meters are depicted and explained in Exhibit #1.
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Document ID: 88A813A9

Effects On Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of floware based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3 (1), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that gradtiate-engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field.
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Document ID: 310C3790

A Brief Description Of The Various Separators And Filters Available
Author(s): James Bradley
Abstract/Introduction:
In any meaHurement system, the physical properties of the flowing medium to be measured should be considered in the selection of the measurement equipment. When the physical properties of the medium are known, conventional correction factors may be applied. Additionally, the condition of the medium should be considered relative to its liquid or solids content. When this factor is known, corrective measures may be taken toward removal of such foreign matter, thereby enhancing the likelihood of the much desired accuracy in flow measurement. To this end, the following is a description of the standard separators and filters utilized in the natural gas and petrochemical industry.
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Document ID: E20F3E76

Turbine Meters For Liquid Mersurement
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the liquid turbine meter principle dates back many decades, the axial flow turbine meters presently employed for liquid measurement are quite new. The axial flow turbine meter was first used for driving the rotor and normally where accuracy of measurement was not of prime importance. Reliability was of greater importance, so parts were made rugged and the rotor was designed more to be non-clogging than to be accurate. However, through the evolution of technology, the turbine meter has maintained reliability and ruggedness while attaining a high degree of accuracy. Today, the meters used for water flow have accuracies of 0.25% over ranges of 10 to 1 or more while maintaining the same high degree of reliability and ruggedness as did their predecessors.
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Document ID: F90AF2C0

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the measurement industry, the term primary element generally refers to the orifice plate, the orifice plate holding device, and the adjacent piping or meter tube. The single most important item of the primary device is the orifice plate, since it is the orifice plate which creates the differential pressure within a flowing medium. The measurement of a pressure differential, along with certain other data, permits one to compute the rate of flow on the basis of well established physical principles. Frequent inspection of the orifice plate is necessary in some types of service to Insure that it is in proper condition to meter accurately, i.e., it Is flat and clean and the inlet edge of the orifice bore is still sharp, square and free from nicks or other damage.
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Document ID: D1306890

The Ultrasonic Flowmeter - A New Approach To Large Volume Gas Measurement
Author(s): W. D. Munk
Abstract/Introduction:
A wide variety of meters are available for measuring fluid flows in pipelines. Most of these, however, are limited to pipes smaller than 12- inches in diameter. To measure fluid flows in larger diameter pipes, a constriction type differential pressure flowmeter (concentric orifice, venturi, etc.), or some type of probe inserted flowmeter (pilot tube, turbine, etc.) is used. High accuracy and wide range are achieved with constriction type meters by using multiple meters in parallel. For example, in the natural gas industry, the multiple orifice meter station is generally considered the standard for large volume high pressure gas measurement.
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Document ID: 5037F7ED

Troubleshooting Glycol Dehydrators
Author(s): J. L. Daughtry
Abstract/Introduction:
The production of natural gas in the United States has reached a level of approximately 20 trillion standard cubic feet per year. When natural gas is brought to the earths surface, it contains water, acid gases (hydrogen sulfide or carbon dioxide or both) and other contaminants which must be removed before the gas can be used for either industrial or domestic applications. Removal of water from natural gas is accomplished by using expansion refrigeration, dry desiccants, liquid desiccants, or calcium chloride. The purpose of this paper is to discuss problems associated with glycol dehydration and remedies for correcting these problems. Foaming, contamination and corrosion are three of the more common problem areas which result in glycol losses and gas being out of compliance with pipeline specifications. Troubleshooting a glycol dehydrator primarily involves analyzing the glycol solution and observing changes in the plant operation. The conclusions of these investigations show for the most part that foaming can be corrected by scrubbing the inlet gas, using a flash tank, filtering the glycol solution and using antifoam agents.
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Document ID: 555C5F46

Leakage Surveys And Instruments For Leak Detection A( Means Of Monitoring Unmetered Gas)
Author(s): C. T. Shelton
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present some of the basic fundamentals and phases of operation in conducting gas leakage safety surveys and the types of instruments used. A safety survey program should consist of well trained and experienced instructors and qualified personnel. Instruments should be up to date, safety approved and well maintained.
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Document ID: 3D9287B5

Chart Editing And Integration
Author(s): W. W. Horner
Abstract/Introduction:
As has been expressed many times, Gas Measurement is the cash register of any gas company. Charts must be analyzed to determine completeness and accuracy of the recordings. I am going to explain the basic factors in editing and integrating these charts. Our company processes over 51,000 charts per month. This includes orifice meter, temperature, gravity and calorimeter strip charts which belong to Transco and audit charts which belong to others. Our Chart Department consists of fifteen (15) persons which includes four (4) Senior Measurement Specialists, five (5) Measurement Specialists, four (4) Chart Processors and two (2) Clerk Trainees. One Senior Measurement Specialist and two Measurement Specialists are full-time Integrator operators. The duties of the three remaining Senior Measurement Specialists are divided so that one censors all charts, one updates our meter master files and one prepares all Btu and gravity data for input to the computer. The remaining three Measurement Specialists, four Chart Processors and two Clerk Trainees do the manual averaging and chart preparation.
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Document ID: 6EB7F1CE

Basic Principles Of Meter Testing
Author(s): Henry Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
The degree to which a gas meter is doing its job, in percent, is called Proof. Percent Proof can be found by delivering a known volume of air to the inlet of a meter at a constant flow rate. Mathematically, then, divide that volume by the volume that the meter dial indicates (and then multiply it by a hundred, to get Percent). The equation looks like this:
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Document ID: 2E84BEFE

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneuiviatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Eugene R. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of orifice meters, particularly at remote or Inaccessible locations. The object of this paper is to describe a unique solution to this problem, an automatic pneumatic deadweight test utilizing the floating ball principle.
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Document ID: B6430E8F


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