Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1980)

How The National Transportation Safety Board Affects The Gas Industry
Author(s): Charles H. Batten
Abstract/Introduction:
Many here today know of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) from its publications of gas pipeline accidents and special study reports. Others know of the NTSB because their pipeline operation was the subject of one of our accident reports. Either way, you recognize that one of the major actions resulting from our reports is the issuance of recommendations to bring about some change. These recommendations are one of the ways the NTSB acts to effect changes in other government agencies-the subject of my discussion today.
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Document ID: D3159137

The Current Technological And Economic Status Of High-Btu Gas From Coal
Author(s): C. L. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Although research and development programs, once started, possess varying degrees of momentum, their objectives, funding levels, priorities for demands upon staffing and material resources, etc., can be and are changed by many factors. The changes in direction caused by technological evolution are, of course, expected. Research and development projects are by their very nature based upon the changes dictated by the acquisition of daia, its evaluation and subsequent application to the work at hand. Changes in direction caused by factors outside the development laboratory are, in most cases, impossible to control and yet may have a greater impact on the development of technology than the results generated in any investigative program. This has been the case with ihe development of High-Btu coal gasification technology.
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Document ID: CCDD88F5

Anatomy Of A User-Orientated Materials System
Author(s): J. B. Wetterberg, D. H. Fritsch
Abstract/Introduction:
The materials management field holds tremendous potential for automated systems to improve efficiency and effectiveness. Unfortunately, this potential is not always realized - particularly when the automated system is a replica of the previous manual system. Automation provides an opportunity to study working methods, and sometimes demands changes from the old manual environment. To examine the functional aspects and operation procedures of a total system within its organizational context, direct and ongoing User participation in development, implementation, and routine maintenance phases is essential. This paper examines such a system, explains how full User involvement was achieved, and provides reasons for its demonrated success.
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Document ID: A54A1CBE

The Gas Option
Author(s): C. C. Ingram
Abstract/Introduction:
The title of my presentation, The Gas Option, clearly underscores the concept that individual choice has long been a hallmark of the people of the United States. If there is one prevailing national tendency possessed by Americans, it is our fundamental demand to exercise the options of freedom. Clearly, ihe history of federal intervention in the gas industry limited our options in the past. Today, I am pleased to slate, the options lor natural gas and for methane in general make choices for a long-term energy supply very easy.
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Document ID: 6FC7AE8D

Performance And Qualification Of Fusion Joining Methods
Author(s): m. J. Cassady
Abstract/Introduction:
The assembly of polyethylene joints in the field by fusion processes is widely practiced by the gas industry in the construction of fuel gas distribution networks. The ability to reliably and economically prepare large numbers of joints by this approach is one reason for the great success enjoyed by polyethylene in this demanding apphcation. One attractive feature of the fusion joining process is that it lends itself to almost any reasonable geometry and can be used for almost any pipe size. The operating conditions for Ihe fusion process vary considerably for the different polyethylene compounds used by the gas distribution companies because there is a wide variation in composition, molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, and degree of crystallinity among these materials. For these reasons optimum fusion parameters vary for different compounds.
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Document ID: 96FAA770

Lng-Peakshaving In Continental Europe
Author(s): Karlheinz Muller
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a variety of possibilities to approach the headline of this paper, depending on the point of view of the person or professional group concerned, as there may be: the utility company, which has to take care of securing the gas supply during peakload periods as well as it has to consider the economics of a facility to be installed, the operating personnel, which has to operate such a facility, the engineering company, deciding the plant to be offered on the basis of defined economical parameters, the plant location and public regulations. However those parameters may be subject to revision due to learning processes of the negotiating partners. This paper is supposed to indicate the highlights of the possible aspects. For that purpose it may be worthwhile to give a summary of the past and to try a judgement of the present situation.
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Document ID: 0C13B18F

Underground Storage Of Hydrogen
Author(s): Stephen E. Foh, Evelyn m. Rockar
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper briefly summarizes an extensive study of the technical and economic feasibility of storing hydrogen gas in underground reservoirs. A depleted gas field, an aquifer, a salt cavern, and an excavated rock cavern were studied. Although the designs of hydrogen storage facilities will differ somewhat from typical natural gas storage facilities, the only major technical unknown is the potential effects of hydrogen embrittlement, which will probably require materials development and testing for pressures above 1200 psi. An economic methodology, based on utility financing, was developed to predict the cost of service for underground hydrogen storage. After testing this methodology against known costs of service for natural gas storage to verify its accuracy, we used the methodology to determine which costs most influenced the overall cost of service for hydrogen.
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Document ID: 3DA0B419

Acoustic Emission Testing Of Manlift Equipment
Author(s): William E. Swain
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the first hydraulic operated manlift equipment was installed in the early 1960s, these units have had catastrophic type failures, thus creating a great need for some type of inspection program. Among the methods used are x-ray, ultrasonics, magnetic particle, dye penetrant, dielectric, and various load-deflection tests. Each of these state-of-the-art methods was not only time consuming but in many cases expensive. Until recently, there were no guidelines or strong regulations to regulate the tests. Therefore, much confusion was caused by the many different approaches to the testing of these devices.
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Document ID: EB668937

Columbia Gas System- Green Springs Sng Plant Control Systems
Author(s): Eegene Haberkamp, Allan Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the controls in Columbia Gas Systems first non-historical source of production quantities of gas, the synthetic gas plant at Green Springs, Ohio. Also included is a brief description of the plant processes and feedstock system.
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Document ID: 987CA983

LNG Safety Research Overview
Author(s): Sam I. Atallah, John Cece
Abstract/Introduction:
To ensure adequate protection of the public and the environment during the transportation, storage or processing of energy materials, it is necessary to understand the safely and potential environmental impacts of the shipments of energy materials, both in the normal transport mode and under accident conditions. With regard to liquefied natural gas (LNG) the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gas Research Institute (GRl) are essentially the same. The means to attain these objectives are very much in parallel. To avoid duplication of effort and consequently reduce the cost of the overall program, DOE and GRl agreed to cooperate in various aspects of LNG safety and environmental control research. This paper describes the joint and coordinated efforts of DOE and GRl in the LNG research area.
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Document ID: 7432E3C5

Fastener Facts
Author(s): Guy T. Avellon
Abstract/Introduction:
Its important that you realize that a bolt is not just a bolt. The proper selection of grade, diameter, length and thread pitch are extremely important because improper fastener application or installation could result in a bad accident or a loss of life. This is why it is vitally important that when a mechanic removes a bolt of a specific strength designated by the Original Equipment Manufacturer from a piece of equipment, that mechanic MUST replace that bolt with the SAME grade of bolt or BETTER.
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Document ID: 187463B5

Potential Gas Committee- Trends, Methods, Validity
Author(s): Harry C. Kent
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1960s the Potential Gas Committee (FGC) has been preparing periodic estimates of the potential resources of natural gas in the United States. It is the purpose of this presentation to describe to you the methodology by which these estimates are made, point out certain trends revealed in the data and access the consistency and validity of these estimates. The Potential Gas Committee is an independent, industry-government academic committee of about 125 members. It is organized for the purpose of preparation of periodic evaluations of the remaining undiscovered resource potential of natural gas in the United States.
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Document ID: AEA3E3B3

Changing Times
Author(s): Richard J. Trieste, Daniel J. Scanlon
Abstract/Introduction:
Brooklyn Union is one of the vital links in the methane deliverability system of the United States. Serving an area of nearly two hundred square miles, with a population of approximately four million people, Brooklyn Union is one of the largest gas distribution companies in the United States, The company provides gas service in three of New York Citys five Boroughs providing more than 40 percent of the Citys total residential energy requirements and about 80 percent of Brooklyn Unions sales. The balance of our sales are in the industrial and commercial markets. The Brooklyn Gas Light Company, the first ancestor of Brooklyn Union Gas, started its operation in 1859, supplying coal gas for street lighting through six and one half miles of main.
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Document ID: 483D35D4

One Companys Approach To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Steven R. Broadwater
Abstract/Introduction:
The commodity Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation buys and sells is energy-energy in the form of natural gas. When the energy content of natural gas is essentially constant, volume alone serves as an adequate index of the amount of energy delivered. In fact, most pipeline-quality gas from traditional historic sources has a fairly constant energy content. But now, gas from new non-historic sources can have a significantly different energy content per unit volume. To obtain an appropriate index for valuing gas from these sources, quality as well as quantity must be taken into account. Energy measurement is the term used to indicate a basis of measurement which accounts for both variables.
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Document ID: 868FA618

Proved Reserves Of The United States As Of Year-End 1979
Author(s): Robert B. Kalisch
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the highhghts of the A.G.A. Committee on Natural Gas Reserves estimates of proved reserves. It shows that while proved reserves have continued to decline-from 200.3 Tcf last year to 194.9 Tcf this year-there are signs that the increased gas well drilling activity of the past few years is beginning to have an effect.
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Document ID: AF3C50E0

Compounding The Crisis: Bureaucracy Versus The Nations Needs
Author(s): Jack G. Swenson
Abstract/Introduction:
A few weeks ago, when I responded to Roy Siskins request for the title of my remarks today, I thought I had covered what I wanted to talk about with you this morning, especially by subtithng it, Bureaucracy versus the Nations Needs. I think if I were doing it over, I would have done it with a question: How come nothing gets done anymore? Or maybe with another question: Have you ever met a bureaucrat who thinks he is one? Those are really all part of the same problem, I guess, and the answers are the answers to the over-riding issue of why we are still in an energy crisis and why we are really no further along in solving our problems than we were when the OPEC embargo took place in 1973 and 1974.
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Document ID: FED25A60

Promises And Problems, The U.S. Onshore
Author(s): T. Don Stacy
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with what I call promises and problems. What 1 will discuss are domestic hot-spots where Amoco and ihe industry are involved in the U.S. onshore and explain not only the promise, but the specific problems which need lo be overcome in each of these areas. As a beginning point, and to counter the were running out of oil syndrome, lets look at some published data regarding potential recoverable oil and gas reserves. We believe the U.S. has some 38 billion Bbis in proven reserves, with a future potential of another 104 billion Bbls. Onthe gas side, the U.S. has some 237 Tcf with another 685 Tcf yet to be found and developed. We believe that the current proved reserves are only 25-30 percent of ultimate available, and 1 must stress these are mostly the type of reserves available with known technology. Our domestic activity is based on the conviction that the resource bank in America is very substantial and thai there are extensive reserves of oil and gas yet to be found onshore and offshore right here at home. 1 guess you could say that Amoco, like the well-known stockbroker, is bullish on America.
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Document ID: E5F5271E

Substructure Damage Reporting: An Industry Experiment
Author(s): A. J. Van Horn
Abstract/Introduction:
A year ago, at this time, I presented a paper on the subject Records Concerning Third Party Damage -Before and After it Happens. From that paper I hope that some of you received an idea of the type of information that can be gleaned from adequate field reporting and office records. Pressure, from Sen. J. Glenn Beall, Jr. of Maryland and the Office of Pipeline Safety, for the gas industry to get busy and do something about Third Party Damage to Gas Lines Due to Excavation was probably the major factor in bringing about the information and full committee status of the A.G.A. System Protection Committee in June of 1974.
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Document ID: 773B5ACD

Remote Meter Reading For Gas Load Management
Author(s): J. C. Devore
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a report on the remote meter reading systems used by Southwest Gas Corporation for curtailment management and dispatching. These systems consist of some unique equipment and use the standard dialswitched telephone network for communication links. The report is divided into three sections labeled The Problem, The Solution, and Discussion. The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance and advice of his colleagues on the A.G.A. Distribution Measurement Committee in the design and development of the systems described herein. The free exchange of information and the willingness to help each other on an individual and company basis is one of the reasons for the strength and integrity of Our natural gas industry.
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Document ID: F2E19140

District Regulator Station Design
Author(s): Daniel J. Mcguire
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is the final report of a Task Group appointed by the Distribution Design and Development Committee of A.G.A. to assemble a collection of currently used design criteria and specifications for district regulator stations and select for publication those district regulator station designs which most adequately satisfy the design criteria. This report presents design criteria used by twenty four member companies and examples of station designs used by some of these companies.
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Document ID: 928CCCA5

In Lieu Of Experience-Training
Author(s): R. A. Manson
Abstract/Introduction:
Training in lieu of experience, why thats absurd! There is no substitute for experience in any field, much less in an area as complex as Gas Measurement. Experience is the best teacher! To that I might reply it ought to be, look how much it costs. In the Chart Processing area of Gas Measurement, we know only too well that monthly billing deadlines arent extended because you dont have sufficient experienced personnel for timely accurate processing. These deadlines, coupled with the turnover in the office work force, render experience the exception rather than the rule. What then is the answer?
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Document ID: F15B80B9

Backhoe-Mounted Paving Breakers
Author(s): Peter A. Cistaro
Abstract/Introduction:
Built-up urban areas have one thing in common thai presents a problem for sub surface construction very thick concrete-based roadways. The problem of extra-heavy reinforced concrete roadways is common in many areas within the service territory of Public Service Electric and Gas Company. Due to this problem, the Gas Transmission and Distribution Department is always on the lookout for new tools and equipment that will reduce the time required for pavement removal. The most familiar tool in our industry to break and remove pavement is the standard pneumatic paving breaker. This tool has served us all very well over the years and still has a place in the industry.
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Document ID: 6FD87FEE

Techniques Of Natural Gas Sampling
Author(s): Charles F. Drake
Abstract/Introduction:
Equipment and techniques are at hand to assist in the measurement of the Btu of gases containing unstable hydrocarbons. This paper is a review of results found in an eighteen month study of the sampling of an aerosol type natural gas stream that required extraordinary procedures to correctly determine the heating value.
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Document ID: C0D40D34

Daily Control Of A Transmission Line
Author(s): W. H. Frey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented as part of a panel discussion to explain the movement of natural gas from the wellhead to the consumer. It addresses that portion of the story which involves the transmission system gas control or dispatchers function. While the remarks pertain specifically to the Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line System, the general function of any transmission system dispatcher is basically the same. He must determine the amount of gas flowing into the system, the amount flowing out of the system, monitor pressure and horsepower situations along the pipeline system, determine amount of gas required to come out or go. into storage and keep any and all interested parties informed of what is happening along the system.
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Document ID: 1C0002BC

Permitting For New L-Lorsepower In The Natural Gas Transmission Industry
Author(s): John Wilkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Only ten years ago, mainline compressor engines could be installed and operated without any consideration given to the impact that exhaust emissions might have on the breathable or ambient air quality. With the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969 and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970. all hell started to break loose. The Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1970, and its amendments in 1977, called for regulations by the EPA to establish and enforce standards for ambient air quality necessary to protect public health. In 1970. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were established for six criteria pollutants. Nitrogen Dioxide (NOj) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Photochemical Oxidants (O3) Total Suspended Particulates (TPS) Carbon Monoxide (CO) and, Nonmethane Hydrocarbons (NMHC). The last standard, NMHC, is a guideline only and not enforceable. There has since been added a standard for lead.
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Document ID: 0538882B

The Cryex System For Liquefaction Of Natural Gas With Removal Of Carbon Dioxide By Freeze Separation
Author(s): Y. A. Selcukoglu, T. A. Gallagher, R. J. Dortwegt
Abstract/Introduction:
Several of the components of natural gas can be sohd forming contaminants when the mixture is cooled in the liquefaction process. The most troublesome contaminants are water, carbon dioxide, and to a lesser degree, sulfur compounds. Other contaminants include heavy hydrocarbons such as hexane, benzene and lubricating oils. Failure to remove these contaminants before cooling and liquefying natural gas can result in solid phase formations which foul heat exchange surfaces, block flow passages in heat exchangers and valves, and interfere with the operation of pumps. The CRYEX freeze separation system for removal of these contaminants offers an alternative to gas stream pre-treatment. The CRYEX system has been successfully installed and demonstrated at two commercial liquefied natural gas (LNG) peak shaving facilities.
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Document ID: B3E3BA8E

Vibration Analysis As Related To Centrifugal Gas Compressor Performance
Author(s): Donald E. Gasser
Abstract/Introduction:
Real time vibration analysis is a method of determining the operating condition of centrifugal gas compressors as a means of optimizing performance and reducing unexpected failures and downtime. Shaft misalignment, rotor imbalance, and general deterioration of seals and moving parts in a compressor are easily recognized through a regular vibration analysis program. This paper is an attempt to remove the mystery involving various technical aspects associated with the operation of high speed rotating machinery and acquaint the operator with several major operating characteristics within his control. A few basic principles of vibration as applied to rotating machinery are defined. Examples of actual hot alignment measurements and field dynamic balancing of compressors are given, explaining the effective results of each.
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Document ID: 40EDB4DC

Directionally Controlled Horizontally Drilled Pipeline River Crossings
Author(s): Hugh W. Odonnell
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the years, two basic pipeline river crossing construction methods have evolved: dredging and bridging. Each of these traditional methods have a number of serious drawbacks, including the potential for environmental damage. In recent years, these problems have begun to arouse widespread concern as we have become increasingly aware of the need to protect our natural environment. Statistics gathered over a period of many years make it clear that the pipeline river crossing is, by far, the weakest link in the pipeline chain. These data indicate pipeline failures in river crossings due to natural or undetermined causes occur approximately 30 times as frequently as failures from these same causes in cross-country pipelines.
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Document ID: 4FFE5C4E

Lightning Protection Of Computers At Compressor Stations
Author(s): Myron Remington
Abstract/Introduction:
Nearby lightning caused extensive damage to computer control equipment at gas compressor stations. Sources of voltage surges were located, and equipment was selected and installed to dissipate energy before reaching computer. Selection criteria provided most suitable equipment installation criteria provided most effective operation. Lightning damage losses have been reduced. Testing of protective circuits should be included in planning.
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Document ID: A346B832

State Damage Prevention Laws-Do They Help?
Author(s): J. W. Garrett
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the findings of the systems protection committees investigation of existing damage prevention laws. It examines the different provisions and the history of their development. A summary of the provisions used in the laws is also included. The systems protection committee has spent several years examining damage prevention laws. We have obtained copies of the laws, studied iheir different provisions, looked at the theory behind those provisions, and attempted to evaluate their effectiveness. We found a wide variety of laws reflecting local conditions and special interests which may be of interest to you.
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Document ID: 7A2308B8

Gas Mass Flow Reference System: A Progress Report
Author(s): Douglas Mann, James A. Brennan, C.H. Kneebone
Abstract/Introduction:
A new lype of gas flow reference system under development at the National Bureau of Standards results in direct, accurate and precise mass flow rale measurements. The closed loop system allows contmuous flow of nitrogen gas at line pressures of 4.1 MPa (600 psia) and at ambient temperatures. The gas flow is then cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature, and weighed at low pressures and at a density of up to 17 times the density in the gas phase.
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Document ID: C78EC92B

Help - Engineers/Operators
Author(s): Marjorie Brant
Abstract/Introduction:
Help. A, request? A plea? Perhaps if you are famihar with interactive computer programs youll recognize help as a command commonly used to obtain human aid when there are system problems, it is also the function of the A.G.A. Library and Library Services Committee-to provide human input and assistance to those members of A.G.A. who are encountering information-system problems. After all, accurate and relevant information is power. The executive or engineer who has the need to know, and who knows how to satisfy that need, has a competitive edge over those who do not. The same is true for industries, and helping the gas industry keep its competitive edge is the A.G.A. Information Network.
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Document ID: 7BCE43D2

Canopies Versus Inclement Weather
Author(s): David E. Zatitsch
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper represents an approach by a distribution gas company to reduce lost working time due to inclement weather, by using an all-weather portable canopy. The labor force of the Gas Construction & Maintenance Division of The Cincinnati Gas & Electric Company is represented by the United Steelworkers of America. The unionmanagement labor contract contains an inclement weather clause which stales, The company will not require employees to work out of doors in heavy or continuous storms or excessively cold temperatures in exposed locations, unless such work is necessary to conform to the law or applicable regulations, to protect life, property, or to guarantee service to the customers. Employees covered by this contract shall not be required to lose time due to such weather conditions, but the company may provide work indoors or under adequate shelter at their regular rate of pay.
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Document ID: 2075B342

Utilization Of Gas Reserves
Author(s): James P. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
The utilization of remote gas reserves is of renewed interest today because we have soaring prices for energy in general and natural gas in particular. Similarly, products derived from gas are also experiencing rapidly rising prices with major dislocations in feedstock markets, both from a supply and price standpoint. Remote gas discoveries were hardly considered as reserves when the market was 25 cents per Mcf. At one dollar, they became marginal. The question then hinged on the cost of the processing and transportation costs. If there was any positive net back to the resource owner, a project could be Considered. The project costs were controlling. In todays 4, 5 or 6 dollar market for incremental gas supplies, the project costs are no longer the controlling factor, but the quasi-free market forces begin to come into play. Inherently, those once marginal reserves are becoming more attractive.
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Document ID: 9D9BF82F

Metric Conversion Considerations For Gas Companies
Author(s): George Vancompernolle
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will concern itself with metric conversion considerations and a sample conversion plan for gas companies. It will provide a summary of general considerations to identify and study when approaching the task of metrication in your company. It does not promote conversion within a specific time frame. The plan is intended to provide assistance to individual companies in terms of both subject and timing when conversion is considered and subsequently implemented.
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Document ID: 3856272D

Stingray Looks At H.I.O.S.
Author(s): Malcolm R. Hermes
Abstract/Introduction:
Initially, I will give you a little history of Stingray Pipeline. Stingray is a joint venture of Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America and Trunkline Gas Company with a firm transportation agreement of 200 MMcfd with United Gas Pipeline Company. Stingray has a capacity of 1,120 MMcfd with 200 MMcfd to United and 460 MMcfd each to Natural Gas Pipeline and Trunkline. Trunkline and Natural share equally in any excess capacity available. Physically- Stingray is a 36 pipeline going 100 miles out into the Gulf of Mexico in the West Cameron area. At W.C. 509 there is a compressor station where gas from 5 legs extending out farther into the Gulf is compressed and sent towards the shoreline. There are two compressor stations in Stingray: one, which I have mentioned, W.C. 509, and the other where Stingray comes ashore at Holly Beach, LA.
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Document ID: 2485D33C

Marine Biomass Energy Project
Author(s): James R. Frank, Joseph E. Leone
Abstract/Introduction:
Using the open oceans to produce biomass as the energy source is attractive because of the large amount of available space on the sea surface, plant nutrients in the oceans depths, and environmental energy in the waves and currents. The Energy from Marine Biomass Program, jointly sponsored by the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy and managed by the General Electric Company, has, as its primary objective, the development and demonstration of optimized and integrated processes for the production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) from marine biomass that maximize gas production at minimum gas costs. California Giant Kelp, Macrocyslis pyri/era) is the species under current study as the producer of the biomass and, to this end, an open ocean test farm has been successfully deployed off the coast of southern California for the purpose of cultivating kelp on an artificial substrate. Nutrients are continually supplied to the kelp plants by means of a 1,500-foot, vertical, polyethylene pipe anchored to the test farm structure.
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Document ID: E13F58DF

Offshore Regulatory Problems
Author(s): John K. Cassell
Abstract/Introduction:
If I had the opportunity to retitle my remarks today, I would be sorely tempted to substitute the word paralysis for problems, for we are indeed dangerously close to a state of paralysis in our efforts to explore for and develop our nations offshore petroleum resources. Ironically, and bitter irony it is, most of our problems stem from well-intentioned, environmentally-oriented laws enacted by Congress during the past 15 years. In some instances, these laws contain high-sounding phrases which lead the reader to believe that essential resource development is indeed a prime objective of the legislation. A striking example of this is found in paragraphs (I) and (9) of Section 102 of the Outer Continental Shelf Land Act Amendments of 1978 (Figure 1).
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Document ID: 93924C43

The Why And How Of Gas Contract Clauses
Author(s): Danny D. Echols
Abstract/Introduction:
I have been asked to discuss several aspects of Gas Contracts from the perspective of a typical gas producer -not my company, nor any other company nor individual in particular, but what Ive really been asked to explain to you is: Why does a producer wish to force the buyer into taking gas when the producer wants to deliver it, as opposed to when the buyer wants to take it? That is a very good question which I will try lo answer -but I think the answer will make more sense if I first go into some history and some other aspects of gas contracts. Regardless of what I say, Im afraid I am placed in a no win situation. As my lawyer tells me: I cant win, I cant break even, but I cant get out of the game. But, let me try.
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Document ID: 583761CC

Common Goals-Public Policy And The Gas Option- A 1980 Progress Report
Author(s): George H. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
I stood before our industrys engineering and operating leaders at our Distribution Conference meeting last year in Miami and presented an optimistic outlook for the gas industry. The title of my remarks was THE STATE OF OUR INDUSTRY IS GOOD. At Ihis Transmission Conference. I come before this distinguished gather of engineering and operating leaders of our industry and open by saying: THE STATE OF OUR INDUSTRY IS EVEN BETTER. I suggested that there was every reason to believe that 79 would prove to be a year of challenges and achievements. Well, I think its certainly lived up to that prediction. Weve successfully met many challenges in 1979, and I have the evidence in hand here today which plainly indicates weve registered some pretty impressive achievements.
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Document ID: E80E25D7

A Gas Quality Laboratory
Author(s): James E. Lincoln
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose, operation and the equipment of a gas quality laboratory are discussed. Some important factors in obtaining representative gas samples and the types of sample containers required for certain analyses are examined. Some of the specific details of gas chromatographic equipment and reference calibration gas blends are discussed. Also discussed are other areas of quality control tests, such as materials and supplies used in company operations and laboratory functions, such as investigations and research.
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Document ID: DA985CEA

U.S. Offshore Exploration
Author(s): J. D. Langston
Abstract/Introduction:
The current status of offshore oil exploration in the United States is reviewed. Areas included are the intensely competitive Gulf of Mexico, the disappointing Atlantic, the California offshore and the various tested and untested basins off Alaska. Future sale plans and the problems industry faces are discussed for each of these areas. I will review the current status of offshore exploration throughout the United States and, al the same time, give you some idea of what the future holds for Industry in each of the offshore areas.
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Document ID: CDFF42ED

The Why And How Of Gas Contract Clauses
Author(s): John E. Watson
Abstract/Introduction:
I have been asked to discuss several aspects of Gas Contracts from the perspective of a typical gas producer - not my company, nor any other company nor individual in particular, but what Ive really been asked to explain to you is: Why does a producer wish to force the buyer into taking gas when the producer wants to deliver it, as opposed to when the buyer wants to take it? That is a very good question which I will try to answer - but I think the answer will make more sense if I first go into some history and some other aspects of gas contracts. First, a producer gas contract negotiator must make the best deal he can since he has obligations placed on him by several groups - not necessarily in this order:
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Document ID: 5088F479

Stresses Imposed On A Pipeline By Longwail Mining
Author(s): Glenwood R. Hayes, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this report is to discuss the results of a testing program being conducted by Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation to determine the effects and behavior of its LINE 20 pipeline while under the influence of ground subsidence caused by longwail mining. LINE 20 is a continuously welded 12M O.D. X 0.250 wall steel pipeline, with a Specified Minimum Yield Strength of 42,000 PSI. Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure is6l7PSIG. The total longwail mining operation consists of seven longwail panels, four of which are directly beneath Columbias LINE 20 pipeline. See Figure 1. Each panel to be longwail mined is approximately 650 feet in width and approximately 5,000 feet in length. The coal seam varies in thickness from 64 inches to 68 inches, with a horizontal slope of essentially 0 degrees. The depth of the coal varies from 800 feet to 1,000 feet from the surface.
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Document ID: 18D8B7C6

River Crossing Replacement With Plastic
Author(s): Lee A. Wagner
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1951, dual 16-inch cast iron pipelines employing Inner-Tite joints were installed under the Raritan River between PSE&Gs Central Gas Plant and a rapidly growing service area located south or the river. The pipelines were designed to operate at a maximum pressure of 60 psi. The pipe utilized for these dual crossings was extra heavy (130 lbs. per fool) except the portion under the main channel which was extra extra heavy (155 lbs. per foot) cast iron.
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Document ID: 1A873350

Methods Used To Prevent Pipeline Stresses On Existing Cast Iron Pipe: A Utilitys Viewpoint
Author(s): Edward P. Krause
Abstract/Introduction:
The title of my presentation is Methods Used to Prevent Pipeline Stresses on Existing Cast Iron Pipe -A Utilitys Viewpoint, However, I would like to start with a few brief historical statements about the gas industry, cast iron pipe and its usage in our Company. In 1792 an Englishman, William Murdock, succeeded in distilling coal in an iron retort and piping the gas given off through tinned tubes to his residence to be used for lighting purposes -the beginning of the gas industry. Bell and spigot joint pipe was invented in 1795 by another Englishman, Sir Thomas Simpson, engineer of the Chelsea Water Company, London, England, In 1812 the London and Westminster Gas Light and Coal Company was granted a charter to distribute gas. The following year the Westminster Bridge was lighted and the citizens of London were dumbfounded by the spectacle - the beginning of gas distribution.
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Document ID: 8033FF43

Working In A One-Foot-Square Excavation Cutting And Plugging Inactive Services
Author(s): Donald S. Lickuter
Abstract/Introduction:
During the calendar year 1979 Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, reduced operating costs 115,000 by utilizing a vacuum excavator which made it possible to work through a one-foot square excavation to cut and plug 2,112 inactive services. The vacuum excavator method of abandoning inactive service lines, working through a one-foot square excavation, offers a number of benefits, most of which can be expressed in dollars.
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Document ID: 6BE6EE69

Non-Metallic Couplings For Use On Plastic Pipe And Tubing
Author(s): Joel Cooper
Abstract/Introduction:
In any gas distribution system it is necessary to be able to adequately and safely connect the various system components. Couplings for use in the traditional metallic piping systems have been proven through years of use and testing. Plastic, on the other hand, requires new and specialized connections due to the physical and mechanical characteristics of the material. Since the primary advantage of plastic pipe in the gas industry is its resistance to corrosion, we will not consider the use of metallic couplings, as they would become electrically isolated within the plastic system and would each have to be coated and caihodically protected as a separate entity. There remains two basic methods for joining polyethylene plastic pipe. One method, heat fusion is a process wherein the plastic ends are heated until the material has sufficiently melted to permit bringing the ends together under pressure thereby forming one homogeneous mass of plastic.
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Document ID: 5DBF5DBB

Monitoring Reciprocating Engine Performance With On-Line Computer
Author(s): m. Neil Goodman
Abstract/Introduction:
Texas Gas is an interstate natural gas pipeline transmission company that transports gas from the South Louisiana and East Texas areas to the Midwest via the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys. The company currently has four compressor station locations with on-site computers installed for monitoring and control of compression and pipeline equipment. The four computer installations are very similar and the scope of this presentation will be limited to the 1973 installation at our Slaughters compressor station.
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Document ID: DDD64945

Safety Considerations In Design And Construction Of LNG Storage Facilities
Author(s): R. H. Swinderman
Abstract/Introduction:
Safety is defined as the method of reducing hazard, to protect against failure, breakage or accident. The existing codes in the United States, API 620, NFPA 59A, and the DOT Federal Safety Standard, Pan 193, adequately provide the minimum standards for a safe LNG storage facility. However, many areas in the planning, engineering and construction phases of an LNG facility must be specifically addressed to insure a safe installation. This presentation will discuss the areas of LNG storage tanks and accessories that demand specific attention in either Engineering Materials Application, Construction, or Quality Assurance to achieve an operating storage facility meeting the safety standard of the applicable codes and the industry requirements.
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Document ID: 2F43134B

More Dynamics Of Human Behavior
Author(s): Richard D. Hannan
Abstract/Introduction:
I guarantee hell react this way. Similar statements by me and you should raise a warning flag. It implies we understand perfectly the dynamics of human behavior. This presentation concerns the difficulty in understanding the unique traits of a person. Discussions of the French girl who could see no problem, the cognitive dissonance theory and a major cause of misunderstandings among politicians and businessmen are explored. We will view a simple rotating object. Some will perceive it as oscillating and some as changing sides. Then an attachment may be viewed as becoming detached or even mysteriously contorted. This demonstration should stimulate us to realize the dynamics of human behavior are elusive to grasp, Each of us is a tremendously complex individual- unique as our own fingerprint and signature.
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Document ID: 2A4E10E4

Look Ma, No Hands!-An Automatic Chart Changer Incorporated In A Meter-Driven Chart Recorder
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Mercury Instruments, Inc. offers a new concept in volume recorders for use with large volume rotary, turbine or diaphragm meters. It is a meter driven chart recorder that automatically changes charts every 24 hours. Meter-driven charts are not new theyve been in use for a long time in production, transmission and distribution measurement. But the incorporation of an automatic chart changer in the drive mechanism represents a unique and unusual adaptation to the volume- based circular chart recorder. Most of us readily relate to a time-based circular chart like a 24 hour, 7 day or 31 day rotation. The chart is equally divided into time increments of quarter-hours and days. But a volume-based chart has no time orientation to it instead it is divided into one hundred equal segments that relate to volume, not time.
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Document ID: 39617C4F

Stingray Looks At H.I.O.S.
Author(s): Malcolm R. Hermes
Abstract/Introduction:
Initially, I will give you a little history of Stingray Pipeline. Stingray is a joint venture of Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America and Trunkline Gas Company with a firm transportation agreement of 200 MMcfd with United Gas Pipeline Company. Stingray has a capacity of 1,120 MMcfd with 200 MMcfd to United and 460 MMcfd each to Natural Gas Pipeline and Trunkline. Trunkline and Natural share equally in any excess capacity available. Physically- Stingray is a 36 pipeline going 100 miles out into the Gulf of Mexico in the West Cameron area. At W.C. 509 there is a compressor station where gas from 5 legs extending out farther into the Gulf is compressed and sent towards the shoreline. There are two compressor stations in Stingray: one, which I have mentioned, W.C. 509, and the other where Stingray comes ashore at Holly Beach, LA. These stations are automatic and controlled from Gas Control in Houston. Liquids (condensate and saltwater) are removed by Sun Oil Company at facilities which adjoin the Holly Beach compressor station. Portions of the gas stream are processed by Shell and Mobil at nearby plants and returned to Stingray. The residue stream is compressed, measured, allocated, and delivered to Natural for redelivery.
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Document ID: AB6132F2

Radial Differential Temperature Rdt() Logging- A New Tool For Detecting And Treating Flow Behind Casing
Author(s): Claude E. Cooke Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Primary cementing of casing in wells to achieve a pressure seal between strata (zone isolation) is a critical step in well completions. It is also important to seal casing seats during the drilling process and lo achieve a seal ai liner tops. Unfortunately, sometimes a seal is inadequate, although numerous steps are taken to place cement effectively. Determining whether the annular space behind pipe is sealed by cement is difficult in some circumstances. The critical question is whether flow is occurring along the wellbore behind pipe under existing conditions in the wellbore. Flow must be detected through the steel casing, plus as much as 2 or 3 in. (5 or 8 cm) of cement. Several logging methods can delect this flow, including measuring the fluid temperatures inside casing, radiotracer injection, and noise detection.
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Document ID: D505027C

Newtons Laws Of Management
Author(s): John E. Lacey
Abstract/Introduction:
Isnt it true that trying to provide a safe workplace for our employees is a constantly challenging task, filled with seemingly endless pitfalls which prevent us from obtaining that goal? How many times have we instituted safety programs, sure that we finally had the answer to our safety problems, only to see those programs disappear under waves of increasing accident reports? It can be truly a frustrating experience. Frustrating or not, its one we have to deal with, one that will not disappear through inaction or inattention. So, whats the story? Is there anything we can do about it or must we be continually satisfied with less than the effective results we have thus far achieved?
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Document ID: E94EC47F

Design Of Storage Fields: Combining Old Concepts With New Ideas
Author(s): m. R. Tek
Abstract/Introduction:
With potentially large reserves of pipeline accessible natural gas from Mexico, North Slope and, perhaps, Overthrustbelt underground storage, once again appear in the limelight of immediate emphasis as we look toward the supply limited markets of the eighties. As artificial price ceilings are being removed from natural gas and the resultant emphasis on conservation, not only the need for more storage becomes evident but reassessment of old design procedures with new innovations for more economic operation becomes desirable. The paper treats two recent ideas related to more economic storage field design and operation. One involves control of deliverability through judicious use of proper combination of bottom hole chokes flow through casing, casing-tubing annulus and tubing. The second relates to simultaneous prediction of temperature and pressure gradients in well bores. The first would preempt or minimize surface pressure regulation. The second would permit operation with minimum amount of heaters dehydration, methanol injection.
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Document ID: 89C67BAF

Methods Of Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): C. L. Rousseau
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper relates to the conception and operation of a combined classroom and hands-on type training center for personnel responsible for the operation, accuracy, and maintenance of equipment necessary in present day gas measurement operations. Subjects taught are listed and training procedure is set out. Instructors are a very important part of the training venture and must be given consideration. Perhaps the most gratifying part of this method of training is student acceptance and feedback from them. The training center is shown in Figure 1 with part of the performance area shown in Figure 2.
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Document ID: 63E0E6E1

Atmospheric Corrosion Control Monitoring
Author(s): Wharton S. Sanders
Abstract/Introduction:
Atmospheric corrosion is responsible for more destruction to equipment and structures than any of the other causes of corrosion. The economic loss caused by atmospheric corrosion is very great. The need for protection from damage through the use of corrosion-resistant materials, galvanizing and painting has resulted in the development of huge industries devoted to corrosion control. Although atmospheric corrosion is a problem that must be controlled, more attention is given to the protection of underground facilities as our industry long ago recognized the problem and estabhshed painting practices for the protection of above ground structures.
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Document ID: 4AA54807

H.I.O.S. Operation From A Dispatchers Point Of View As( Seen From Shore)
Author(s): Robert W. Withers
Abstract/Introduction:
The comments presented in this paper are part of a panel discussion on the operation of a large multi-owner, multi-shipper offshore pipeline system-The High Island Offshore System (HIOS). It describes the complications, cooperation and communications which must occur to keep a constant flow of gas in this all important system. These comments are presented by a shipper-owner in the HIOS System, and the operator of the UTOS System as he views the operation of the HIOS System from onshore. Operation of the High Island Offshore System (HIOS) represents a classic example of what can be accomplished in the gas industry through cooperation, between the various companies involved.
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Document ID: B895F04C

Activity In The Role Of A State Metric Council
Author(s): Valerie Antoine
Abstract/Introduction:
State metric councils can help make the slates metric conversion in an economical manner, with a minimum of confusion, if the members of the council are selected according to the ideal formula for such bodies. This formula is discussed and an outline is given of the operations of the CaUfornia Metric Conversion Council, which is probably the most active slate metric group of the 15 groups now in existence. Appointment of quaUfied-member metric councils by ali states and support for a strong U.S. Metric Board is urged. Lack of careful and timely conversion planning could help increase economic chaos, just as U.S. lack of foresight in planning for strength in U.S. weaponry and armaments is now causing the nation to hurry to catch up with the USSR, at a tremendous cost.
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Document ID: 98D2E5F3

A Look At Transportation Maintenance Facilities For A Decentralized Operation
Author(s): Walter E. Caesar
Abstract/Introduction:
To clarify the scope of Union Electrics decentralized fleet operation and to establish a basis for our discussion, lets start with a few details. Union Electric Company serves 763,402 customers in 4,069 square miles of territory in three states Missouri, Illinois, and Iowa. We have 847,865 meters, 2,534 miles of transmission lines, and 13,482 miles of subtransmission and distribution lines. Union Electrics energy is generated primarily by coal fired plants in Missouri and Illinois. We also have a hydro plant at Lake of the Ozarks, a pumped storage plant at Taum Sauk and run of the river hydro plant at Keokuk. We are now entering the nuclear field with the new Callaway Plant near Fulton, Missouri, scheduled for completion in 1982.
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Document ID: 8CA7A68E

Lightweight Truck-Mounted Backhoes
Author(s): R. C. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
Each of us is looking for ways to repair a leak or install a new service connection at less cost. Mechanization is one way provided that the tooling is appropriate lo the job. Most of us have found that it doesnt take a 35,000 Back hoe-Tractor lo make the ordinary street opening. But quite commonly a crew is equipped thusly:
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Document ID: 41074D16

Pipeline Casings-Do They Really Have Value?
Author(s): Virgil Johnston
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline crossings at roads and railroads have been recognized as a potential source of problems for many years. Vehicular traffic has induced undesirable stresses into the pipeline. Corrosive attack occurred due to differences in oxygen content, soil strata, backfill material variations, and moisture accumulations caused by abrupt changes in pipeline depth at road crossings. Coalings, when used, were of questionable quality and difficult to apply, especially at road crossings. Supplementary cathodic protection (C.P.) techniques were limited in use due to a lack of understanding of their value and application. When cathodic protection was used, the materials and construction techniques available often resulted in ineffective efforts.
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Document ID: E2EA017C

Sonic Nozzle Proving Of Large Volume Meters
Author(s): Warren C. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
Sonic nozzle proving is a new concept for the gas industry to be used for either shop or field proving of the larger volume sized meters. It enables the operator to prove meters at varying pressure settings and with greater flow capacity than in the past, but still be able to obtain the high degree of accuracy of the old bell prover system. Combine this with the modern-day microprocessor, the computer on a chip, and the old proving problems of the past, such as pulsating pressures caused by the prover meters, changing temperature readings of glass thermometers, and the greatest problem of all, human errors, no longer have any effect on the meter accuracy proof curves.
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Document ID: 5B76637D

Theory And Economics Of By-Generation Of Electricity At City Gate Stations Using A Gas Expander Turbine
Author(s): Barbara J. Bockert
Abstract/Introduction:
It is possible to generate a considerable amount of electrical energy by heating high pressure inlel gas, such as at a gate station, to an elevated temperature and then isentropically expanding the gas through a turbine which powers a generator while simultaneously reducing gas pressure and temperature. When the gas exits the turbine, it is available at entry conditions for a distribution system. The electricity produced can be used to satisfy on-site requirements or in the case of dual utility, it can be fed directly into the distribution network for electrical base-loading.
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Document ID: 01296917

Why Use Corrosion Inhibitors In Offshore Pipelines Carrying Natural Gas And Hydrocarbons?
Author(s): R. L. Steelman
Abstract/Introduction:
The sources, amounts, and corrostvity of water normally contained in separated hydrocarbon condensate are reviewed. The flow characteristic of two phase natural gas transmission operation is discussed. Internal corrosion monitoring of offshore transmission system is discussed.
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Document ID: 4EA23977

Free Electricity - A New Headache For The Gas Industry!
Author(s): Ray Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Only last year, Water Power engineers discovered a new gas system hazard: unusually high voltage across a gas meters insulator in a few isolated locations. Voltages have been experienced with enough power to cause continuous sparking to a workmans wrench. One electric shock actually caused semiconsciousness to a workman. This safety hazard is recognized in OSHA regulation, par. 1926.405(K). A shock hazard is considered to exist at an accessible part in a circuit between the part and ground, or other accessible parts, if the potential is more than 42.4 volts peak and the current through a 1500 ohm load is more than 5 milliamperes.
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Document ID: 621AE58A

System Replacement By Plastic Insertion
Author(s): Gerald C. Dewandeler
Abstract/Introduction:
System replacement at Michigan Consolidated Gas Company is nothing new, as it has been an ongoing procedure for years. When it is determined that repair to a portion of main is no longer economically feasible, the portion of the facility affected is replaced. In the same manner with service lines, guidelines are established which determine whether the facility will be repaired or replaced. Generally, if the service hne involved is bare steel or not polyethylene plastic, it is replaced. If the service hne is copper or coated steel pipe it is repaired. Replacement of mains can be initiated in several ways including urban development, public improvement projects, replacement in connection with cathodic protection, miscellaneous reasons (including the economics mentioned above), or more recently the area replacement method.
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Document ID: AE7FDB4E

Pipeline Safety-Development Of Dot Damage Prevention Regulatory Approach
Author(s): Melvin A. Judah
Abstract/Introduction:
The Department of Transportation (DOT) has for 10 years now recognized the special problem of outside force damage to underground pipelines and utilities. In January 1972, DOT developed a Model Statute for protection of underground pipelines and Other utilities and encouraged state and local governments to enact appropriate laws which would establish effective procedures incorporating features of that Model Statute. A 1974 revision to the first Model Statute deleted the requirement for filing underground utility maps at one location. In its place, the Model Statute proposed thai anyone proposing to engage in excavation and other types of construction be required to notify 3 central agency of this intent. The agency would then advise the utility operators in the general area of the contractors intention in order that the utility operator could locate and mark the location of any lines which might be damaged by the excavation or blasting. Additional minor revisions were made to the Model Statute in June of 1977. As done earlier, the Secretary of Transportation sent a copy of the revised Model Statute to all state governors including Puerto Rico and the mayor of the District of Columbia, again encouraging state legislatures to enact laws which would require and support pipeline damage prevention programs. This Model Statute was published by the Council of State Governments in their 1978 publication of Suggested Stale Legislation.
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Document ID: A5DF4F9C

Mississippi River Transmission Corporation Records Monitoring System
Author(s): A. W. Rifenburgh
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of field inspections by OPSO, the importance of good recordkeeping and of timely inspections became painfully apparent. A system was needed whereby Management could be assured that required duties were promptly performed and that nothing was being overlooked. The problem was discussed with other gas transmission companies via Operation Roundtables, Industry Organizations, Computer Roundtables, etc. Considering the mass of data involved, it was judged that a computer program would be the most efficient approach, however, we were unable to find one in use which would fulfill our needs. The system described here and developed by MRTC is unique, we believe, and enables simplification of the mass of recordkeeping requirements of OPSO (DOT) and other State and Federal regulatory agencies such as EPA, FERC. FEA, FCC and OSHA together with the many Company requirements.
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Document ID: 2E607802

An Understanding Of Underground Gas Storage
Author(s): O. B. Weideman
Abstract/Introduction:
I am honored to represent the Underground Storage Committee and to participate in this discussion of Moving Gas from producing fields to our customers burners. I plan to review the part that underground storage plays in this important event.
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Document ID: 84622A43

Whats New In A Town Border Station
Author(s): William H. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a new Measuring and Regulating station which replaced a vintage town border station. The new station uses todays technology to meet environmental and regulatory conditions while maintaining continuity of service to customers. California Station, a major town border station supplying The Cincinnati Gas & Electric Co. system, had to be relocated to make way for an interstate highway bridge approach. Since this station supplies approximately 13,000 MCFH or 35 percent of the system load, it could not be taken out of service for any extensive period of lime. It was necessary to build a new station which could be placed into service as the older one was being taken out of service. The new station provided the opportunity to include the latest technological developments as well as meeting recent and anticipated code requirements.
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Document ID: AED142AD

Status Report On Gelng Gelled( LNG)
Author(s): Mark Rudnicki, Lawrence C. Hoffman, Eugene m. Vander Wall
Abstract/Introduction:
Research conducted at Aerojet over the past two years has involved the characterization of gelled LNG (GELNG) with respect to process, flow, and use properties and a preliminary examination of the degree of safety enhancement attainable by gelation. The investigations have included: (1) an experimental examination of gel properties and gel safety characteristics (2) an analytical study involving the economics and preliminary design of an industrial scale gelation system and (3) steps toward provision of a portable gelator to expedite comparative LNG vs GELNG spill testing at substantial scale, e.g., 40 m Experimental work proved the superiority of water over methanol as a getting agent for LNG on the basis of minimization of gelant required to obtain a given gel structure. Yield stresses were measured over a range of get conditions and were found to increase with increasing gelant content. Similarly, determinations of rheological characteristics were conducted, revealing effects of gelant concentration. Gels flowed easily through flow coils, exhibiting shear thinning with no evidence of get structure degradation even after repeated shearing. Get expulsion from tanks was found to be dependent on tantc surface area. Expulsion efficiencies greater than 90 percent of those exhibited by LNG were obtained. There was litlte difference found between boiloff rates of LNG and GELNG under simulated storage conditions of low and moderate heat flux.
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Document ID: FFC28671

High Island Offshore System Operation From A Partner-Shipper Gas Controllers Viewpoint
Author(s): Robert E. Chapman, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Operating of the HIOS system, a common carrier of gas from offshore Texas onshore, has been explained from several viewpoints already. However, there is still another viewpoint in this complicated transport system. The partner-shipper does not have any operating responsibility for the HIOS, UTOS or Michigan Wisconsin system to transport gas from the production platform to shore, yet there are many problems that the partnershipper must deal with each day. This does not mean that the shipper-operator does not have the same problems. It is often heard in our company and I am sure repeated through others, What are you worrying about? HIOS, UTOS and Michigan Wisconsin will take care of all your problems and deliver the gas to you onshore. A gas controller will just laugh.
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Document ID: 6C234BBE

Measurement Of Fuel Gas By Turbine Meters A Review Of A.G.A. Committee Report No. 7
Author(s): G. G. Less
Abstract/Introduction:
As a result of turbine meters becoming more and more in demand, purchase contracts and tariffs are now including turbine meter clauses permitting their use. Numerous requests have been received, from producers and transmission companies involved in gas contract negotiations, regarding the availability of a turbine meter document which would serve much the same purpose as A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3 on orifice meter measurement. There is a very apparent reluctance on the part of some non-turbinemeter users to accept turbine meter measurement until a document is published regarding recommended and accepted practices on installation and calibration of turbine meters. Until such a document is available, questions will continue to be asked on installation, calibration, durability, and accuracy compared to orifice meter measurement.
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Document ID: D22A973B

Soils And Underground Corrosion
Author(s): E. Escalante
Abstract/Introduction:
The evaluation of soil corrosivity is of concern not only to public and private utilities, but to anyone faced with the placement of metallic structures, generally steel, in the ground. The soil variables are many, including temperature, chemical composition, resistivity, texture, topography, microbial activity, etc. The effect of these variables on observed corrosion was investigated by a number of people (references 1-15). Significant contributions, particularly in the method for determining ground resistivity, were made before 1940 (references 18-22). The development of the Wenner bridge (four-pin method) in 1916 is an example (reference 21). In an effort to evaluate the various methods used for establishing the aggressiveness of soil, the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) has engaged in characterizing its seven underground test sites. The following soil parameters were measured al each site: resistivity, pH, redox potential and soluble salts. These data are compared to observed corrosion of long term burial tests at these locations, The measurement techniques used, the observations made, and the resulting data are described.
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Document ID: 083B0A2B

Understanding Gas Storage
Author(s): Glenn A. Knepper
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary purpose of this paper is to help those people involved in other phases of the gas industry lo understand the role that underground storage plays in providing a continuous supply of gas to the customer. To do this I would like to start with a brief review of the history of gas storage.
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Document ID: 186DA2CE

Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant
Author(s): Robert W. Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Fuel Gas Demonstraiion Plant concept comprises an installation engineered to generate and distribute industrial fuel gas of approximately 300 Btu/SCF. From 3,158 tons of coal per day, the plant will produce 175 million cubic feet of industrial fuel gas daily, the equivalent of 50 billion Blus or equivalent of 50 million cubic feel per day of natural gas. The Institute of Gas Technologys U-GAS Process, which utilizes a fluidized bed gasifier, will be used to gasify the coal and make a medium-Btu fuel gas
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Document ID: E2954036

Application Of Conventional Oil And Gas Drilling Techniques To The Production Of Gas From Garbage
Author(s): Anthony J. Giuliani
Abstract/Introduction:
Methane from sanitary landfills, although not a complete answer to our nations present energy problems, is one of the most economic substitute gas supplies. This paper presents the basic theory on how methane is generated from garbage. It also compares the current state-of-the-art knowledge as applied to producing landfills in California and New York City. Construction techniques of landfill gas wells and gas extraction methods are also discussed. The future of this old but untapped energy source is reviewed.
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Document ID: D7F3B15E

New Developments For 1980 At Sprague Textron
Author(s): Donald Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
We at Sprague Textron are introducing a new line of flexible-element regulators in 1980 consisting of only three parts the valve body, the elastomeric liner, and a pilot regulator with manifolding. The valve body is unique in that it is a one-piece stainless steel investment casting with integral downstream grillwork. The liner is cupshaped and, when inserted into the body, forms a pressure tight chamber defined by the inner wall of the casting and the liner itself. The liner has a molded bead that seals against the inside wall of the casting. The chamber is connected to the pilot regulator by means of an integral passageway, and it controls the gas pressure in the loading chamber.
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Document ID: 711A3A4B

Design Criteria Used To Prevent Pipeline Stresses Both Before And After Installation Of Steel Pipe- A Utilities Viewpoint
Author(s): John D. Mcnorgan
Abstract/Introduction:
Although gas utilities differ in many ways, they share a common factor. The differences may be in the number of customers, geographic location, climatic conditions or source of supply, but the common factor is the gas main. We all have pipe in the ground, running from the point of supply to our customers. Gas mains, and all our pipelines, are designed with a common objective to transport our product, gas, safely and economically. Safety suggests that the pipe be thick, while economy calls for the pipe to be thin. Pipe design balances these opposing forces on a rational basis. The primary design tool used in pipe design is the well-known Barlow formula. It establishes maximum allowable operating pressures as a function of wall thickness, grade of material, design factors (for temperature, pipe joints and class location) and pipe diameter. Barlows formula, however, does not cover the incidental or secondary stresses which can affect a gas line. These stresses can occur before, during and after construction. They should be evaluated as part of the overall design.
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Document ID: BA16BE41

Gaining In The 80s
Author(s): Alvin D. Jaeger
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of the Gas Appliance Improvement Network (GAIN) is to increase consumer satisfaction with gas appliances by furnishing gas appliance manufacuturers with prompt, accurate, documented information about service and maintenance problems occurring in their products in the fleld. The American consumer purchases a gas appliance on the basis of cost, durability, serviceability, and cost of operation. If not satisfied with the appliance, it is safe to assume that the consumer will purchase another product. The manufacturers of gas appliances and the utility companies serving gas appliances feel the effect of such customer experiences every day.
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Document ID: A88BD456

Automotive And Mobile Equipment Management Audits-PUC Directed
Author(s): W. Richard Birkey
Abstract/Introduction:
Id like to give you a brief overview of Central Illinois Public Service Company (CIPS) and the area it is privileged to serve. Presently, there are about 301,000 electric and 141,000 natural gas customers in the CIPS service area, spread across 65 of Illinois 102 counties -an area of approximately 20,000 square miles. With an employee force of about 2,600, the company furnishes electric service to 551 communities and natural gas service to 245 communities, the largest of which has a population of about 45,000. Total operating revenues of CIPS for 1979 were about 445 million. About 81 percent of the amount was derived from the sale of ectricity and about 19 percent from the sale of natural gas.
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Document ID: C8ADD0A6

How Does The Therm-Titrator Compare?
Author(s): John Light
Abstract/Introduction:
For the past two years, it has been the authors pleasure (most of the time) to conduct rather exhaustive research on a machine called the Therm-Titrator. For the uninitiated, Ihe Therm-Titrator (Figure I) is the brand name of a device whose major purpose is the measurement of heating value in gas mixtures. In other words, it is a Btu machine. Precision Instruments of Dallas, Texas, is the manufacturer. Henry Klingman, Ph.D., etc., is the inventor and Mullins Manufacturing Company (also of Dallas) is the marketeer.
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Document ID: 95415346

The Inhouse Development Of A Minicomputer Based Meter Proving System
Author(s): W. S. Evans, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
An Online Meter Proving System was designed to increase the availability and reliability of meter test data to various management information systems within the central computer and to eliminate the increasing maintenance requirements of aging prover controls. This system was developed by The Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company for upgraded prover measurement resolution and to provide a verification procedure for certain meter history items. By taking advantage of a state of the art process for prover control and data processing, data handling errors and overall maintenance will be greatly reduced. The Meter Shop generates a variety of meter test information which is accumulated by the central computer system. Presently this data is entered from meter test cards into a Total Meter System through data entry terminals at the central computer site. This new method eliminates the meter test cards by accumulating the test data and sending it by telephone line to a central computer.
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Document ID: 615240C3

New Field Employee Orientation And Familiarization Program
Author(s): J. Theo Fortson
Abstract/Introduction:
Texas Gas, like many other gas transmission companies, expanded its facilities almost yearly during the fifties and early sixties. Much of the minor construction and upgrade work was performed by company personnel. The work crews grew to provide this manpower and when the expansion programs ended we found ourselves with more employees than were actually needed to handle the routine operating and maintenance work. Management made the decision that no one would be laid off and the work force would be reduced gradually through normal attrition. This meant, of course, that we would have a zero hiring policy for some time. Well, that some time lasted for several years up to the mid-seventies, in fact, when we started a hiring program to build up the field operating crews. We were now getting more people to help get the job done, but these people were creating new problems. Our original labor force had been built with service veterans who gained know-how through service training and with good old farm boys who grew up knowing how to work. What these employees needed to know when they came to work, they learned from the supervisor and/or fellow employees. We didnt have a formal training program for them.
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Document ID: 9B668176

Stress-Corrosion Cracking In Pipelines - A Status Report
Author(s): T. J. Barlo, R. R. Fessler
Abstract/Introduction:
The present understanding of the causes of stress-corrosion cracking of buried pipelines are reviewed and the progress of research to develop solutions to the problem is described. For existing pipelines, the most promising tentative solutions to the problem appear to lie in periodic hydrostatic relesting lowering discharge temperatures, and, if shown to be effective, interrupted cathodic protection. For future pipelines, additional possible solutions may lie in better coatings, inhibitor-containing coalings, shot peening or grit blasting, or steel more resistant to stress-corrosion cracking. Research is in progress.
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Document ID: FC9E487B

The Ett-C, An Improved Corrosion Inspection Tool
Author(s): G. S. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The ETT-C (Electromagnelic Thickness Tool) is a recently developed casing inspection tool. Its predecessor, the ETT-A, has been in service for a number of years and has found great utility in evaluating large scale or average casing wall conditions. The ETTA makes a single measurement which is dependent on both casing wall thickness and magnetic permeability. The dependence upon magnetic permeabiiity has proven a major limitation. The ETT-C overcomes this limitation by measuring and compensating for magnetic permeabiiity. The design also includes a sensitive electronic caliper which is used to monitor inside-diameter variations in casing. The principle of the multiple-coil, multiple-frequency ETT-C system is summarized, and applications examples from field testing experience are discussed. The tools ability to distinguish magnetic permeability from wall thickness changes is demonstrated. The correlation and significance of correlation of the ETT-C and PAT (Pipe Analysis Tool) logs are also presented and discussed.
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Document ID: A1732839

Overview Of Plastic Pipe Research At Battelle-II
Author(s): Michael m. Epstein
Abstract/Introduction:
This report was prepared by Battelles Columbus Laboratories (BCL) as an account of work sponsored by Gas Research Institute (GRI). Neither BCL, GRL members of BCL or GRL nor any person acting on behalf of either: a. Makes any warranty or representation, express or implied, with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of the information contained in this report, or that the use of any information apparatus, method, or process disclosed in this report may not infringe privately owned rights or b. Assumes any liability with respect to the use of, or for damage resulting from the use of, any information, apparatus, method, or process disclosed in this report.
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Document ID: 30D64AB1

Opsr Looks At Compressor Stations
Author(s): Cesar Deleon
Abstract/Introduction:
I appreciate the opportunity to be here and share some views of the Office of Pipeline Safety Regulation regarding the operation and maintenance of compressor stations. While our office has not spoken to the compressor session of the A.G.A. Transmission Conference in the past, with the increased inspection and enforcement activity of the Department, it appears appropriate to discuss this aspect of the pipeline regulatory and enforcement program at this time. As you know, Part 192 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations was based on the ANSI B31.8 industry code which included various sections specifically applicable to compressor stations. So Part 192, when it was issued in 1970, included 10 sections specifically aimed at requirements for compressor stations. Several of these 10 sections relate to the operation and maintenance of compressor stations. In addition, some other sections of the Federal gas pipeline safety standards are applicable to compressor stations if they involve aspects of design, construction, and maintenance matters that affect compressor stations.
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Document ID: 4B246C94

Design Education-Technical Notes
Author(s): Gerald G. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Applications oriented educational and reference materials on industrial technology are chronically in short supply. A format for this type of publication, Technical Notes, and a procedure for producing them from Distribution Conference papers are presented.
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Document ID: 11426F1F

Update Of A.G.A. Gas Measurement Manual
Author(s): John F. Mcdevitt
Abstract/Introduction:
The headline on the front page of The Wall Street Journal on April 3, 1980, stated Dictionary Will Miss Publishing Deadline by About 21 Years. The headhne was referring to the publication of the supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary being published in four volumes. Volume I was published in the 15th year of their endeavor. Volume 11 in the 19th year. Volume 111 may be available in 1981 and Volume IV might make the press in 1985! In 1974 at the Distribution Conference, I presented a paper titled, Revised A.G.A. Gas Measurement Manual-A Preview. This effectively was an announcement of the beginning of a joint effort of the Transmission Measurement Committee and the Distribution Measurement Committee to revise and update the original Gas Measurement Manual published in 1%3.
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Document ID: 55561E43

Forecasting System Operations
Author(s): Harry I. Zimmer, III
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses a simulation technique widely used to forecast the future operation of long line transmission systems. Such Operations Forecast Models project customer sales and facility utilization given a statement of the corporations gas allocation policy and the appropriate supply, demand and facility data. The forecasts produced by such models provide much of the base line data required for numerous corporate planning decisions.
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Document ID: 955F55E6

Quality Control Of Plastic Pipe At Consumers Gas
Author(s): Edmund Reaney
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of plastic pipe at Consumers Gas has followed a pattern typical to many gas companies. We began some brief experimentation with PVC pipe in the late 60s. Then we started a strong move to polyethylene pipe in the early 70s. Our laboratory first began a routine quality control program for plastic pipe and tubing in 1972. As our use of plastic grew, our program changed and expanded. We currently use more than 1,000,000 m of plastic pipe and tubing annually. Our quality control program now includes testing of plastic fittings, and heater faces as well as pipe and tubing.
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Document ID: 68818E8A

An Overview Of Gri Research In Gas Distribution Operations
Author(s): Raymond A. Day
Abstract/Introduction:
You have heard a progress report on the status of the continuing GRI-sponsored research project on plastic gas piping systems at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories. I would hke to provide you with additional information on the status of other GRI-supported research projects dealing with plastic pipe and other areas of gas distribution operaiions. However, at the risk of being repetitious to many of you who know GRI, here is a short profile of what GRI is and what it does, for those of you who are not aware of GRI. The Gas Research Institute is a not-forprofit scientific organization that plans, finances and administers a balanced research and development (R&D) program consisting of applied and basic research studies dealing with gaseous fuels. We conduct no in-house research. All projects are contracted to research institutes, technical/scientific organizations, universities, equipment manufacturers and others engaged in gasrelated R&D activities.
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Document ID: DDD9458A

Metric Conversion In The Canadian Gas Industry- Wrap-Up 80!
Author(s): T. E. Gieruszczak
Abstract/Introduction:
With the implementation of metric conversion in the Canadian Gas Industry the author concludes his series of presentations on the subject at A.G.A, Operating Section conferences. This presentation focuses on the developments over the past year in metric conversion in Canada, by the Canadian Gas Industry, the Ontario gas utilities, and within his own company.
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Document ID: 65BF8C07

Quality Control In Plastic Distribution System Construction
Author(s): Parley Merrill
Abstract/Introduction:
Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE), with operating headquarters in San Francisco, Calif, is a diverse gas and electric utility serving a population of more than 9.1 million customers in northern and centra! California. The Gas Operations portion of PGandE serves 2.8 million gas customers in 37 counties in northern and central California with a majority of our customers in the San Francisco Bay Area. Our greatest growth of new customers is occurring in the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys, where we are annually supplying service to more than 35,000 new customers, as compared to a system total of more than 66,000 new customers. PGandE annually transports and delivers more than 830 Bcf of gas through more than 4,800 miles of transmission and 28,000 miles of distribution main.
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Document ID: 299D8562

Anmc Sector 1.03 Petroleum And Natural Gas: Chairmans Report
Author(s): N. D. Basic
Abstract/Introduction:
Before going into the activities of the American National Metric Councils Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector Committee, let me tell you something about the American National Metric Council which is known by the initials ANMC. The American National Metric Council, which is an offshoot of the American National Standards Institute, was formed to provide a coordinating body for the private sector metrication efforts. ANMC was formed in mid-1973 and now operates through a comprehensive voluntary committee structure covering all sectors of society affected by the proposed change to metric, ANMC coordinates its activities closely with those of the United States Metric Board and other metric organizations in the move to metric usage. On July 1. 1976, the ANMC became an independently incorporated organization it is self-sustaining and has over 1,400 subscribers.
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Document ID: 52B052EC

Energy Policies: An Overview Of Their Effects On Building Energy Plants
Author(s): Charles A. Campbell
Abstract/Introduction:
An overview of Clean Air acts effects on building new plants would fail to highlight equally important problems arising from other policies. Therefore, I will present my viewpoint, as a consultant to the energy industries, of how a series of government policies-of which Clean Air is only one are impacting the development of the alternate energy industries. To focus on this we need a starting point from which to discuss trends and effects. Figure 1 shows a condensed economic forecast for the next ten years. This contemplates that our economic expansion since our recession following the 1973 Arab oil embargo is ending thai we will have no real growth during 1980, and a slower rate of growth into the mid 1980s and that inflation peaks in 1980 and declines thereafter, but does not disappear. The effect of this kind of forecasting on housing starts, auto sales, and auto imports is shown to set the tone-flat or down. Even total personal consumption expenditures will grow only very slowly in real terms.
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Document ID: 1798C357

Gas Control Operations Of The High Island Offshore System
Author(s): Walter J. Woods, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the operations of the HIOS System as it pertains to the Gas Control Department. It describes the system physically, the Operational Organization and specifically the Gas Control-Gas Dispatch Operation. It describes the duties of the gas dispatchers and the Gas Supply Department and some of the problems that were experienced as the system was developing. It also recognizes the contributions and cooperation that HIOS received from the shippers that it interacts with namely, UTOS and Stingray. The comments were made as a shipperowner and as the operator of the HIOS System. While not all facets of the Gas Dispatching Operation are discussed, those which caused the most concern are addressed.
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Document ID: 34FD4E09

Sng From Eastern Oil Shale Via The Hytort Process
Author(s): Harland L Feldkirchner, Sanford A. Weil, John C. Janka, Dharamvir V. Punwani
Abstract/Introduction:
Eastern U.S. Devonian oil shales have a potential for supplying about 2200 quads (10 Btu) of synthetic natural gas (SNG). This is the same order of magnitude as estimates of the total U.S. resources of natural gas, excluding geopressured gas. In some shale-rich eastern states, the energy content of Ihese shale resources exceeds thai of currijntly known coal resources. Work done at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) under the sponsorship of the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) and the Gas Research Institute has shown that, if retorted in a hydrogen atmosphere at elevated pressures (via the HYTORT Process*), eastern Devonian shales can be a potential source of synthetic gaseous or liquid fuels. Experimental work has been done in equipment ranging in size from a small laboratory thermobalance to a large 1 ton/hr process development unit. This work has shown that hydrogen retorting of these shales can give organic carbon recoveries from 2 to 2.5 times those that can be achieved by conventional retorting. This work, supported by process and economic studies has confirmed the technical and economic feasibility of the HYTORT Process. Further HYTORT Process development work is now being done under the sponsorship of (he U.S. Department of Energy.
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Document ID: EB63A559

Planning For Metric Conversion The Canadian Experience
Author(s): Peter Moore, John A. Spence
Abstract/Introduction:
The Canadian natural gas industry began planning for conversion to the International System of Units in 1972. The objective was to identify and monitor all major activities related to implementing an orderly conversion at minimum cost. Completion of the program is expected during 1980. Sector 4.02 is concerned with the production and processing of natural gas Sector 4.04 is concerned with its transmission and distribution. The committees representing these sectors have been responsible for developing and implementing their plans within the overall time table set forth as a guideline by the government of Canada. They have not concerned themselves with the internal arrangements of individual companies but only with their interactions with their suppliers, customers and regulatory agencies.
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Document ID: 5394C854

Sour Gas Pipeline Systems
Author(s): B. Dale Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
While the handling of sour gas has been commonplace to some gas companies for years, others are just now getting acquainted because of the greater number of new gas discoveries in sour reservoirs. The design and operational considerations for sour gas pipeline systems described in this paper are based on industry standards and actual operating experience. Only those considerations special to a sour gas operation as versus a sweet gas operation are discussed. These are generally directed to internal corrosion control and monitoring programs for facility protection as well as employee and public safety.
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Document ID: F34C62E7

Compressor Station Personnel Training Presentation
Author(s): James R. Winslow
Abstract/Introduction:
At Panhandle Eastern, the Controls Technicians are primarily responsible for those controts that are associated with the engines and compressors. In general, these include engine automatic starting sequence controls, fuel-air ratio and torque controls, safety shutdowns, and those controls associated with the lube oil, jacket water, and scavenging air temperatures. In addition to engine controls, our Technicians also service the ESD Systems, gas and flame detectors, and other such items that are normally a part of compressor plants. The more experienced and qualified Technicians are also called on to train Operators in job functions that are related to engine and compressor operations, and station load control.
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Document ID: 2BE130C9

Changing Customer Needs For Service In The Eighties
Author(s): Robert H. Regester
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews trends in customer service departments field work that occurred in the seventies to establish a basis for predicting customer needs for service in the future. The CGI (cant get in) problem is addressed and appointment dispatching is discussed. Changing household sizes and changing working patterns are reviewed as they affect service work. Field force staffing methods to serve customer needs when ihey desire ihem are discussed. Who are our customers? What do they need from us? When do they need it? Where do we get the resources to fill these needs? Who are our customers? Are they the same as before or are they changing? What effects do changes have on your companys operation?
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Document ID: 5F25ECBC

Remote Energy Measurement And Profile System
Author(s): Joseph A. Wager, Delbert D. Weers
Abstract/Introduction:
Darcom D2500 Billing Demand Recording System has been developed for collection of operating, research, and billing data. The system includes a minicomputer package as the master controller with interface to the dial-up telephone network. The masters operating system is programmed to automatically collect data from demand profile type remote terminal units (RTU) located at measurement or meter sites. The master also receives, logs, and prepares alarm reports when the remotes call in. The basic system will handle 500 terminal units and can be expanded to 5000 RTUs capability. The output can be customized to meet varying host computer, operations computer, and management requirements.
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Document ID: DA409C2B

Techniques And Problems Associated With The Storage Of Natural Gas In Coal Mining Areas
Author(s): Howard D. Griffith, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Texas Gas has ten gas storage fields on its pipeline system. Six of these fields have coal mining operations above the storage reservoir. The storage of natural gas underground in coal mining areas is necessary if the inhabitants of Texas Gas service area are to enjoy continued use of natural gas in their homes. However, storage fields must be developed with due consideration of the rights and safety of the coa! industry. The only satisfactory solution is complete cooperation between the two industries. This paper will deal with the need for coordination between coal operators and storage operators, so that some order can be maintained. Some of the problems and possible solutions to them will also be discussed.
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Document ID: 4864DBF5

Qualification Of Heat Fusion Personnel
Author(s): James V. Lauricella
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1978 the Plastic Material Committee assigned a Task Group to investigate what the industry was doing in regard to qualifying heat fusion personnel. T.G. 78-3-Qualification of Heat Fusion Personnel-was formed: The objective: to study the fusion qualification practices of user companies and to consider whether a recommended practice or procedure is desirable or necessary. The scope: to survey the qualification, requalification, and certification practices of user companies involved in the heat fusion of 1/2 through 8 polyethylene piping. The Task Group surveyed the user companies on our committee as to what they were presently performing in regard to qualification requirements, inspection and testing, yearly requalifications and what type of records they were keeping.
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Document ID: AEF93252

Potential For Gas Storage In Mined Cavern Near Minneapolis-St. Paul
Author(s): E. Vincent Martinson, Robert L. Loofbourow
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern) is involved in the wholesale and retail sale of natural gas to 71 utility customers in an eight-state area in the Midwest, On a cold day, as much as one-fourth of Northerns maximum daily deliveries of about 3.0 Bcf are made in the highly weather sensitive Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota (Twin Cities) metropolitan area. Plans for meeting our high-delivery underground gas storage objective near the Twin Cities by conventional gas industry methods have been thwarted due to the limitation of geological conditions. Consequently, an unconventional aliernative, the construction of a deep excavated cavern or cavity-type facility in competent rock has been studied by Northern. A techno-economic study was conducted in 1975 to establish the feasibility of construction of such a facility.
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Document ID: F8AB6EF9

Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Boom Analysis Through Acoustic Emission Testing And Monitoring
Author(s): E. L. Dold, G. R. Harrington
Abstract/Introduction:
In common with most electric utilities, Philadelphia Electric Company has operated and maintained bucket trucks for over twentyfive years. In our case, since 1958 especially, the number has grown from a few to slightly more than 150, most of which are the articulated type in the range of 45 feet to the bottom of the bucket. Concern for safety has always been paramount and has involved dielectric testing and mechanical inspection on a periodic basis (six months). An inspection and repair routine developed from manufacturers manuals and our own experience apparently was very satisfactory in that we never had a serious injury from bucket failure or malfunction.
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Document ID: 929B98AA

Long Island Lighting Company Gas Appliance Service Policy
Author(s): Arthur C. Seale, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
LILCO takes pride in its record of providing customers with prompt, dependable service on their gas appliances. The service policy described on the following page is designed to meet all usual service needs of our customers gas burning equipment and appliances.
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Document ID: 398745AA

Crew Performance Studies
Author(s): John L. Jenkins
Abstract/Introduction:
The average American is likely to see his standard of living drastically decline in the 1980s, unless the United Stales accelerates its rale of productivity growth, was the baleful message of Ihe 1979 midyear review of the economy by Congress Joint Economic Committee. No hedging, no qualifying: the report is blunt. Dr. Robert Shriner, director of Washington operations for Chase Econometrics, is more specific when he says regional differences in productivity will be a major cause of decline in real personal income and employment in the northeast and expansion in west and southwest in 1980. As a result, we can expect the rate of growth in the more productive areas to exceed that in less productive areas, with net migration from the less productive to the more productive.
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Document ID: 8FB76FBF

Plastic Damage-Band Clamp Repair
Author(s): Bernard m. Silverberg
Abstract/Introduction:
Damage to buried plastic pipe systems usually requires repair by replacement, regardless of the amount of damage. Replacement procedures utilize mechanical fittings or heat fusion in place. Sometimes a dog leg must be added to permit these procedures. A full encirclement band clamp could be used as a permanent repair when there is only limited damage to plastic pipe. This clamp would be cheaper and easier to apply than mechanical fittings or heat fusion, In our Wisconsin Gas Company distribution area, we know from past experience that stainless steel band clamps can be used and meet corrosion resistance requirements.
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Document ID: C7AC469F

Importing Natural Gas In Si Units A Case History
Author(s): James J. Dorf
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of my presentation today is to review the effects that metrication has had on the gas accounting area of Great Lakes Gas Transmission Company (Great Lakes). I think you will find that the impact of the conversion is primarily psychological. Few accounting problems were encountered. Most problems were, and still are, in communication and presentation of metric data to company management.
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Document ID: D590C354

There Is Gold In Those Records-Sequencing The Replacement Of Cast Iron Gas Main Sections
Author(s): George R. Dugovig
Abstract/Introduction:
Cast iron mains are obsolescent in most gas systems. Because their of brittleness they are a concern to gas distribution companies and to governmental agencies. The brittleness and graphitization (corrosion of the ferrous components) of the pipe when combined with ground stresses occasionally causes a main to break. On rare occasions, a break causes an explosion. Present replacement criteria dealing with cast iron mains are usually based on the economics of repair vs. replace, factoring in only the direct cost of repair. Occasionally programs for replacement use as a criterion locations where an explosion would be catastrophic, such as next to schools, hospitals and nursing homes. Some replacement programs are based on intuitive scoring of a number of variables such as size, pressure, soil and leak history. This study deals more rigorously with the variables entering into the scoring of cast iron mains by their potential for breakage.
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Document ID: C3067C33

New Underground Gas Storage Reservoirs In Northern Michigan
Author(s): Curtis L. Lundy
Abstract/Introduction:
More than half of the new storage capacity under development in the United States is in Northern Michigan where construction is underway to convert five nearly depleted gas condensate reservoirs. The need for this additional capacity is caused by fixed yearround supply obligations and the increasing fluctuations in the demand for natural gas fuel. Compact Silurian pinnacle reef reservoirs with sound caprocks and high deliverabilities provide this new Michigan capacity. Working gas to base gas ratios for these new fields are greater than 6 to 1 and storage dollar investment per MCF ranges between 1.14 and 2.07/MCF. With the integrated pipeline system of the American Natural Resources Companies, storage of natural gas for transmission and distributing companies located well outside Michigan is an alternative solution.
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Document ID: 5CA8E3C7

Metrication In The Petroleum Industry
Author(s): J. T. Blackburn, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Metrication has been taking place in the petroleum industry for a number of years, although incentives appear to be minimal as far as domestic companies are concerned. The increasing insistance that International Standards (ISO) be in SI metric units has been an important incentive to the American Petroleum Institute (API) to convert the Institutes standards to metric. API approved a Metrication Policy in 1970 and up-dated the policy in 1978. Most companies metrication activities are in the investigation and planning stages. However, some domestic petroleum processing units are operating using SI measurement units.
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Document ID: 1E8A609F

Seismic Design Criteria For LNG Tanks
Author(s): Leonard R. Devanna, Joel Blackman
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews the various factors which were considered in revising the seismic design criteria contained in the National Fire Protection Association Standard on Liquefied Natural Gas (NFPA 59A). In addition, the paper discusses the methods currently utilized in determining and designing for the potential earthquakes which could affect a particular site. The rationale and opinions presented are those of the authors only and should not be interpreted as representing the views of the NFPA 59A Committee.
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Document ID: 554513C0

How And Why Distribution Loads Vary
Author(s): Donald P. Haber
Abstract/Introduction:
The maximum rate of use by customers with different appliance combinations will nol coincide. Time of the peak hour flow rate for a distribution system depends on the relative proportions of the load contributed by the appliances of all the different types of residential, commercial and industrial customers. The maximum load on our distribution system coincides with the maximum hourly rate of gas flow for all residential space heating purposes. The peak hour load of commercial and industrial customers are analyzed individually.
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Document ID: 53DE9F92

A.G.A. Committee Report No. 7
Author(s): Richard A. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
Field evaluation tests were initiated by the Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Engineering Department, on two Rockwell 6 size prototype axial flow gas turbine meters, referred to as an impellar meter, in October, 1958. These meters were about twice as long as todays turbine meters and to permit inspection of the metering mechanism, it was necessary to unbolt the body flanges and swing the meter out to assume a horizontal position. After a period of evaluation, the meters were returned to the manufacturer in May, 1959, for inspection and further study.
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Document ID: E626BD9A

Development Of The Auto-Adjust Turbo-Meter
Author(s): D. J. Gestler
Abstract/Introduction:
Rockwell Internationals technological contributions to gas meter advancement trace back 100 years. During that period of many and rapid changes, the company engineered, manufactured, and marketed diaphragm, rotary, orifice and, more recently, turbine meters, along with accessory instrumentation. Today, an estimated 20 million Rockwell gas meters are in service on all types of gas measurement applications, ranging from high pressure offshore producing platforms to individual homes. Each development, each improvement, each introduction of metering devices has paralleled the growth and needs of the gas industry. Following World War II, for example, Rockwell recognized the industrys changing needs stemming from high pressure, interstate natural gas pipelines and the dramatic increase in large volume measurement applications. Those needs were answered in 1963 with the introduction of Rockwells Gas Turbo- Meter.
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Document ID: 2725879A

Regulatory Issues Facing The Gas Industry
Author(s): George R. Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas regulation must be viewed as a component of a broader national energy policy. Unless we have this prospective, natural gas will not be able to achieve its full potential role in our future energy economy. The United States energy situation is grim. We currently consume about 79 quads -that is, 79 quadrillion Btus -of energy each year. A quadrillion Btus of energy is about equal to a trillion cubic feet of natural gas, so the importance of the 20 Tcf of natural gas consumed each year is apparent. The bad news is that in 1979 37 quads of U.S. energy came from oil. This is equivalent to about 18.5 million barrets of oil per day. About 8 million barrels a day of this oil were imported. Almost 5.6 million barrels of oil a day came from OPEC countries.
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Document ID: 54B12623

Recent Research Results In The Analysis Of Pipeline Response To Buried Explosive Detonations
Author(s): Janice K. Means
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews the work pierformed by Southwest Research Institute on Projects PR-15-76 and PR-15-109 for the Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association under the guidance of the Blasting Research Supervisory Committee. The review includes a synopsis of the theoretical approach, the experimental methods and actual experiments performed by Southwest Research Institute. A method of analyzing blasting effects from buried explosive detonations on buried pipelines is explained via text and through the use of a chart. The chart can be used as a tool to make the methods easy to apply. A procedure for handling blasting encroachments from notification through postblast activities is also included.
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Document ID: F4C225F0

Third Party Inspection Of Polyethylene Pipe
Author(s): H. Bolsinger
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a pleasure to speak on the subject of quality control. Quality control or, lack of it. has become very much a part of our lives. The fact that quality control is exercised or not exercised when a product is fabricated will become known sooner or later during the service life of that product. Often poor quality is realized after excessive repairs or outright failure points it out. 1 have often thought how nice it would be to retain a qualified inspector to act in my interest at the assembly plant where my next car would be produced. The poor quality of automobiles that I have experienced during the past 10 years would very easily justify the cost of a source inspection on just one of those 10 cars.
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Document ID: B0BA4F6D

The Real Inside Approach To Cast Iron Joint Sealing
Author(s): Eric L. Osterberg
Abstract/Introduction:
Brooklyn Union has approximately 2400 miles of both low pressure and high pressure (15 psi) cast iron (CI) mains that have been in service for an average of 55 years. We have experienced almosi no graphitizalion or other CI deterioration problems. Our continuous pipe coupon monitoring program has verified thai our cast iron system has an almost unlimiled future life. Historically, bell and spigot joint leakage is caused by the drying out of the jute in the joints through contact with the relatively dry natural gas reaching the juie as a result of pipe movement, vibration, or settlement. Joints are a continuous maintenance problem lor a utility such as ours. Starting in the early 1950s, we resorted to traditional external joint clamping techniques to eliminate this problem and are presently in.stalling approximately 15,000 join! seals a year.
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Document ID: 5FE592D5

Computer System Processes Cathodic Protection Annual Survey Data
Author(s): m. C. Whitener
Abstract/Introduction:
Texas Eastern Gas Pipeline Company was organized in 1947 to purchase and operate as a gas pipeline the War Emergency Pipeline System commonly known as the Big Inch and Little Inch Pipelines. Beginning with the initial operation of the 2,800 miles of pipeline, efforts were made to protect the buried structures from corrosion. Texas Easterns corrosion program has expanded continuously and today covers approximately 13,000 miles of pipe. Facilities have been added along with more test sites, more tests and more paper work to maintain and monitor the integrity of the pipe. Cathodic protection is ihe approach taken to extend the life expectancy of our buried structures, and annual corrosion surveys have become a way of life. Data is collected and processed, reports arc prepared, the information studied, recommendations are made and remedial action taken to correct any deficiency.
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Document ID: 795A0E43

State, Local And Federal Regulations
Author(s): E. J. Seniura
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with the hislory of the development of LNG regulations in the United States. It concentrates on the overall regulatory environment and suggests methods for improvement in the future. While the paper discusses the situation in Ihe stales of Washington, Massachusetis and New York, it goes into much more detail regarding California where Western LNG has been attempting to obtain approval for the construction of a receiving terminal since 1971. While the international LNG industry continues to expand, the regulatory situation in the United Slales remains a major stumbling block for new LNG import projects, expansion of existing import facilities and has even affected the operations of peak shaving and satellite facilities.
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Document ID: E608FADC

Cost Control By Component Analysis
Author(s): J. R. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Northwest Natural Gas Company is a public utility doing business in 99 communities in the state of Oregon and Washington with its corporate headquarters located in Portland, Oregon. The companys history is steeped in the traditions of the Pacific Northwest, having been franchised by the then governor, George L. Curry, of the Territory of Oregon. In 1859 Portland occupied an area of ,8 square miles and had a population of 2,874. It was nicknamed Stump Town because it consisted primarily of mud shanties surrounded by stumps. Oregon was still a territory when the company franchise was granted and its people were traveling west along the Oregon Trail in covered wagons.
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Document ID: 8E484CA1

Residential Gas Meters Set Outside, Non-Temperature Compensated
Author(s): W. B. Richardson III
Abstract/Introduction:
Residential gas meters are set in all kinds of places around a customers house: beside the house, under the back porch, next to a busy alley, by a fence, behind the garage, and occasionally under a thorn bush. The common factor to all these locations is that the meter is outdoors. It is subject to the weather and the large variations of year round temperatures. In addition to atmospheric temperature changes, a meter exposed to the sun on the south side of a house can be quite hot to the touch in summer and noticeably warmer than ambient temperatures in winter. This is in contrast to a meter set close to the north side of a house, where it is never in direct sunlight and will have a very different temperature profile from the one in the sun. Meters in other locations that are shaded to varying degrees will present a wide range of temperature conditions.
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Document ID: 3BBA86B7

Transcanada PipeLines-Transition To Metric Of A Gas Transmission Company
Author(s): D. G. Donaghey
Abstract/Introduction:
Steps taken by the company to plan, schedule and implement a two-year programme with comments on outstanding areas still to be converted, Metric conversion is a phrase that can have different ideas for different people. All of you have heard of soft conversion and hard conversion and possibly you have wondered just what your companys position will be when you have committed to the change. This presentation will describe what Trans- Canada PipeLines has done over the past three years, and I hope that you will find something which will be of help to you in your conversion process when it arrives.
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Document ID: 8BD62B75

Monitoring Cathodic Protection Of Well Casings
Author(s): John Dabkowski
Abstract/Introduction:
Downhole logging of gas storage field wells to determine cathodic protection (c.p.) levels is expensive and requires removal of the well from service. A technique allowing the prediction of downhole c.p. levels from wellhead measuremenis would provide the gas industry with a cost effective means of monitoring casing protection. A research program has been sponsored by the Pipeline Research Committee (A.G.A.) with the following objectives: (I) to develop a method for the prediction of downhole casing-to-soil potentials from wellhead measurements in the presence of interference and, (2) to develop a model for the mutual interference effects occurring between wells and cathodic protection (c.p.) systems.
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Document ID: A1C0C13D

Monitoring Gas Turbine Performance From Field Tests
Author(s): W. R. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
TransCanada PipeLines, Canadas largest gas transmission company, realized in the mid nineteen-seventies, that compressor fuel was accounting for the majority of its operating costs. One of the steps the company took to reduce fuel consumption was to form an Operations Analysis (OPAN) group to monitor compressor performance through the use of field tests and to recommend ways in which fuel could be saved. At the beginning of the nineteen-eighties, the Operations Analysis group has developed its experience and procedures to a degree where it is estimated that the system has significantly reduced fuel usage through close performance monitoring. This translates into a saving of millions of dollars per year for TransCanada.
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Document ID: 953E5879

Coal Industry Efforts Necessary To Support Synthetic Natural Gas Production
Author(s): H. Dean Jacot
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to analyze coal industry efforts necessary to support synthetic natural gas production, we must first look at the present condition of the United States coal industry, Domestic coal consumption for 1979 was an estimated 673 million tons, representing an annual increase of 4.1% over the last two years. Electric utilities presently consume about 80 percent of the coal produclion. Utilities consumed about 530 million tons of coal in 1979, up from 476 million tons in 1977. The United States coal industry has excess production capacity of approximately 100 million tons per year, primarily available through mines in the eastern part of the country. In spite of our capabilities to produce this coal, over 20,000 miners are unemployed because of a decreased demand for coal.
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Document ID: F9B10B87

Emergency Planning And The Governmental Interface
Author(s): George B. Auchy
Abstract/Introduction:
Whether it is based upon logic or emotion, pragmatism or hysteria, there is growing public perception that the presence of an LNG facility in a community brings with it the potential for accident scenarios with disastrous or catastrophic ramifications. Resultant public, political, and media pressures have manifest themselves in the form of increased regulatory activity mandating such things as the development of emergency response plans, or the conduct of training with community emergency response teams, or the conduct of emergency drills, and so on. To the LNG facility operator with little or no expertise in these areas, it may well appear to be another bureaucratic exercise involving considerable personnel assets or expensive consultants. It need not be, however, and it is hoped that some of the experiences Distrigas went through in this area may prove beneficial to others.
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Document ID: B0CC6E06

Compressor Personnel Training Presentation
Author(s): Francis A. Kimberly
Abstract/Introduction:
During the 1960s, Northern began an extensive automation program involving starling panels, shutdown devices, automatic valving and remote panel readouts to effectively reduce manpower requirements in the compression of transmission line natural gas. As a result, staffing was substantially reduced resulting in a hiring moratorium over a 10-year period. This allowed staffing to be reduced through attrition rather than layoff.
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Document ID: 749A59FD

Retrograde Vaporization Of Residual Condensation In Storage Field Development
Author(s): R. A. Herzog
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper addresses a concept based on phase equilibria, coupled with fluid flow in porous rock formations. Conceptually, native gas reservoirs when depleted will produce some condensate along with natural gas. From phase equilibria, condensate will form in the porous rock as well as in surface separators. From rock mechanics and fluid properties, some of the condensate formed in the rock must be retained where formed. It is this immobile condensate which can revaporize with repressuring on conversion to storage to significantly enrich the storage gas injected.
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Document ID: 77C6FE62

Fire Protection Systems Overview
Author(s): J. Reed Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Two kinds of fire protection can be provided in LNG plants: preplanned passive systems, and systems requiring automatic or manual action. Passive protection methods consist of impounding spills in diked areas, restricting ignition sources, insulating structural members, and locating equipment so as to prevent propagating failures. The active systems may include systems to apply fire fighting agents such as dry chemicals, high expansion foam, vaporizing liquids, and water sprays. The basic standard for fire protection for LNG facilities is NFPA 59A. The Department (Jf Transportation Materials Transportation Bureau has recently proposed regulations for fire protection under 49 CFR 193. Neither provides detailed design criteria for fire fighting systems, but both provide safety guidelines as well as the basic standards for construction and operation of the plant.
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Document ID: 3F36F907


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