Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1976)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Basic Gas Laws
Author(s): William E. Bailie
Abstract/Introduction:
Matter is the name given to anything that makes up a physical object. Matter can be recognized in three phases as a solid, liquid, or gas. Natural gas is a gas which when it is inserted into a closed container, such as a cylinder or a pipeline, the gas will evenly distribute itself throughout and fill the container. A definite relation exists between three variables: the temperature of the gas, the pressure that it exerts, and the volume that it occupies. If two of these variables are known, the value of the third can be determined or if one of them is kept constant, the relation between teh other two can be established. These relationships have been developed and are known as Boyles and Charles Laws or Basic Gas Laws. Boyles Law relates volume and temperature of a gas when pressure is kept constant. Also, when a gas is confined in a closed container, pressure is kept constant.
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Document ID: 884F9E85

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Charles E. Felker
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic reference manual for Orifice Metering of Natural Gas is the AGA Gas Measurement Committee Report No. 3. This document is a result of many years work in development and testing to provide the basis for practically all large volume gas measurements today. This paper will not attemp to develop AGA No. 3 since everyone measuring gas to this specification should have a reference copy available for study. It will be covered to the extent necessary to introduce you to orifice metering. Figure 1 is a schematic of a basic orifice element and a pressure profile at various points. The differential pressure visualized from this pressure profile is important for several reasons.
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Document ID: 76F3C3AB

Fundamentals Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): James A. Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Rockwell introduced the gas turbine meter to the U.S. market in 1963. The original units were 6 flanged meters with a capacity of 30,000 CFH at 4 ounces inlet pressure and 125# working pressure cast aluminum bodies. Due to the rapid acceptance of this relatively new gas metering concept by all phases of the gas industry, development of additional sizes and working pressures of gas turbine meters has been fairly rapid. Today, Rockwell Turbo-Meters are available in the following sizes and working pressures:
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Document ID: 70BF9943

Fundamentals Of Instruments
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
The instruments used in gas measurement and regulation are classified in two basic catergories: (1) indicators and (2) recorders. As the name implies, an indicator shows the value of what is being sensed at the time you look at it. For instance, your wrist watch indicates the time of day. A meter index indicates the total amount of gas which has gone through a meter. A pressure gauge indicates the pressure indicates the pressure in a gas line it could be a manometer of a dial gauge. Temperature gauges indicate the temperature of the gas and could be the glass stem thermometer or the dial gauge thermometer. Volume indicators may be something as simple as a meter index or a more complex volume correcting instrument such as a BVI, Emcorrector or Mercor III.
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Document ID: B26E6071

Fundamentals Of Regulators
Author(s): Ralph Kubitz
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is a device for reducing pressure in a certain value. Figure 1 is a dicagrammatic of a typical regulator installation with the main external elements labeled. Figure 1 could represent anything from a tiny 1/8 pipe size gaslight regulator to one for a transmission line in 30 or even larger pipe size. It could be a service regulator, an industrial regulator, a district or system regulator, a city gate or town border station regulator, etc. In all cases it takes gas from the supply and reduces the pressure to the value required for the load.
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Document ID: 492604D4

Flow Measurement By Insertion Turbine Meters
Author(s): Don A. Pfautsch
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurements of both liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons have been accomplished throughout industry using various techniques. For many years the use of Orifice meters, pitot tubes, or positive displacement meters was accepted as the standards of industry. Then, after several years of controversial applications, the turbine meter began to be accepted as a very accurate primary means of measurement. The turbine meter is now being used in both liquid and gas measurement systems, and for custody transfer of liquids when used in conjunction with a prover system.
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Document ID: 8D7A5234

The Need For Density Meters And For AGA 3 And AGA 5
Author(s): Joe Agar
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a popular misconception to say that an orifice Plate is a Volumetric Flow device, and density is required only for Mass Flow or for conversion of Actual volumetric flow to Standard Cubic feet. This paper shows the dependence of the Orifice Plate on the Density Meter, and explains the physical meaning of the various tables given in AGA 3 and AGA 5.
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Document ID: 5F6A6CBC

Density Measurement Methods And Equipment
Author(s): David A. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
Density or specific weight is a critical variable in gas measurement. A host of methods, both direct and inferential, are available for the measurement of density. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various methods available and installation techniques involved.
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Document ID: 8359EEAC

Installation And Operation Of A Densitometer
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
The direct measurement of gas density has many important advantages in flow measurement. The most basic form of flow measurement using density is mass flow determination. This measurement requires only the differential pressure measured across the orifice plate and the gas density. Only in the past few years has mass flow measurement of natural gas become practical. Prior to this time no accurate and inexpensive densitometer was available. At the present time several manufacturers have developed density measuring devices or Densitometers. This paper will relate exclusively to the UGC Industries Densitometer.
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Document ID: A75AB814

Inspection, Testing, And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): C. E. Stewart, Paul Lemaster
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter has been with us for many years. In fact the Romans used a crude orifice to calculate and regulate the flow of water into homes and public buildings. Today, it is the most widely used method for measuring the flow of gas. In our company, we are primarily concerned with the wellhead measurement of gas. We consider the orifice meter to be our standard. Currently we are using both the mercury and the dry type of orifice meter however, when purchasing new meters, we are buying only the dry type. We prefer the mercury meter, but due to safety problems in handling mercury we have changed to dry type meters.
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Document ID: CC3B1EFE

Problems Affecting Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Kenneth A. Hoch
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement of natural gas with orifice meters requires the meterperson and chart censor to recognize the problems and solutions needed to insure the accurate recording of the variables in the orifice meter equation. Dirt, liquids and vibration cause a variety of operating problems which can be found from chart records and by inspection of the orifice meter gauge, orifice plate and meter tube.
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Document ID: 281C97C5

What The Orifice Meter Chart Tells You
Author(s): James P. Avioli
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the prime objectives of a corporation is to make a profit for its stockholders. In the natural gas business, the meter chart recording is the measure of the cost of goods bought, exchanged, or sold. We need not be accountants to correlate cost of goods to profit. I make this comparison to emphasize the meter chart recording as the end result of all out measurement expertise and as the cash register tape for our business. As our product becomes more and more precious, we must realize our responsibility to our company, our suppliers, and our customers. Since on of our primary responsibilites as measurement people is the accurate measure of the amount of product bought, sold, or exchanged, meter charts, reports, and all information from field personnel are vitally important to accurate measurement and resultant money transfer.
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Document ID: E04928E1

Sonic Nozzles For Gas Meter Calibration
Author(s): Charles L. Britton
Abstract/Introduction:
Sonic nozzles have been used in the laboratory for gas meter calibrations for several years however, it has been only recently that sonic nozzles have been used to calibrate gas meters in the field. In addition to the operating characteristics of sonic nozzles, this paper gives actual test results of field calibrations.
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Document ID: 0E6675CA

Field Experience With Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): James T. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
It has long been evident that a calibration standard has been needed for determining the accuracy of high pressure, large volume metering devices. With the growing acceptance of the turbine meter as a custody transfer metering device, this need has become increasingly greater. Since Natural Gas Pipeline Company, like most other transmission companies, has always been tied to orifice meter measurement, it was decided that all company turbine meters should be standardized against orifice meter measurement. For this reason, and in order to keep abreast of the changing technology and to gain operating experience and confidence in new equipment, it was decided to build a test facility. One of the requirements for the test site would be the installation of equipment to enable testing of orifice meters versus turbine meters ranging in size from 4 to 12.
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Document ID: 9BE8BAAB

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last decade the gas turbine meter has become established as a very useful instrument for the measurement and control of gas flow. This paper will present a summary of the principles of operation, the basic construction and the performance characteristics of the gas turbine meter.
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Document ID: 53C634A8

Selection Of Instrumentation For Turbine And Rotary Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
When metering large volumes of gas at elevated pressures using rotary, or turbine meters, it is customary to supplement the meter with an instrument which will correct the metered volume to base conditions. This paper will refer to the installation and maintenance procedures of the Continuous Integrating, Base Pressure and Base Volume Indexes. A Base Pressure Continuous Integrator is a mechanical instrument which by means of a pressure sensing element, a rotating disc, ring and shaft assembly, continuously applies the pressure factor to the metered volume as the gas is flowing.
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Document ID: 12DF6610

Shop Testing Turbine And Rotary Meters
Author(s): Wilbur W. Lints
Abstract/Introduction:
The present inadequate supply coupled with the rapidly increasing cost of natural gas emphasizes the need to establish a good maintenance and testing program for all types of gas meters. A precise method of determining the accuracy of large capacity turbine and rotary meters is of primary importance as indicated by the number of utility companies which have installed high capacity test facilities in recent years.
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Document ID: CE417AFA

Which Meter Do I Select
Author(s): Robert E. Sanoske
Abstract/Introduction:
There are various meters that may be used to measure gas volumes, such as inferential or orifice meters, rotary meters, velocity or turbine meters, and diaphragm meters. If properly selected and installed, they would all measure accurately. Thus the question - which meter do I select? The selection of the meter or meters for any application is too often based on total connected load and pressure requirements of the consumer. This method has, in the past, caused many of the meters selected to be oversized. Depending upon the type of meter or meters selected, the error in measurement, at extended low flow periods, could be substantial, as well as the additional dollars spent for the meter and installation.
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Document ID: 44A372AD

Keeping The Meter Shop Current With Osha
Author(s): James J. Loesch
Abstract/Introduction:
It may be of interest to those of you who are responsible for and maintain meter shops to have presented to you a view of your shop from the standpoint of the safety inspector. To carry this premise a step further and say from the viewpoint of compliance with federal safety standards will start us on the path to a fuller understanding of how we can keep our meter shops current with the Occupational Safety and Health Act. An OSHA compliance officer may not preceive your meter shop as a meter shop! It is a building or department falling within the guidelines set forth in the General Industry Standards. Therefore, we will confine our discussion to the General Industry Standards and Interpretations, Part 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards. Part 1910 contains the rules and regulations with which the meter shop must comply.
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Document ID: 31D02805

Field Test And Repair Of Large Volume Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Harry W. Aivalotis
Abstract/Introduction:
The entire concept of meter maintenance is rooted in economics. Both the gas company and the customer look upon the gas meter as a cash register--an arbiter of dollars--because each is concerned that the true value be resolved for money spent. Regulatory agencies have part of their roots bedded deeply in the economics that stem from the publics desire that some basis of law guarantee fair treatment in the market place. Nore and more our product has become a premium energy source the cost of gas now and in the years gone by, mandates that measurement be as accurate as possible. The forces of both law and economics make mandatory a meter maintenance program for any gas company.
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Document ID: EEBF4824

Meter Proof Specification Relative To Prover Accuracy & Sample Testing Programs
Author(s): Henry E. Kwiatkowski
Abstract/Introduction:
Incoming Test Specifications for any product can vary from the ridiculous to the sublime. It is generally the type of product that dictates the test specification, however, there are many common terms and procedures regarding incoming testing regardless of the product. Test specifications can vary from thowe that are virtually impossible to meet to those that can be met in practically every case. The middle ground between these extremities generally becomes the point at which specifications should apply. Once the specification has been written, the manner and equipment upon which the product is tested for conformance becomes of prime importance. The intent of this paper is to discuss factors that affect accuracy, test specifications as they relate to domestic diaphragm meters and then, evaluate some of the methods used to inspect meters for accuracy.
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Document ID: 2FDD8C3C

Fixed Factor Measurement
Author(s): F. R. Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
Commercial measurement of fuel gases by diaphragm, rotary and turbine meters has evolved several practical methods, each offering certain advantages and demanding fulfillment of special requirements, and ranking among the others in accuracy, aptness, economy, and efficiency. In this paper we shall examine four common methods, with particular attention to fixed factor measurement.
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Document ID: A5AE4A34

Proper Sizing Of Large Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): George W. Reich
Abstract/Introduction:
The proper sizing of large diaphragm meters appears on the surface to be a dull subject however, considerable economic savings can be made if attention is paid to teh details that almost everyone understands but frequently ignores. It is the purpose of this report to review some of these practical details, thereby refreshing ones memory to plan and anticipate in selecting a meter. This report will not consider the alternate type of meters available. It is expected that the astute student of metering would consider the use of rotary and turbine type meters as other alternatives.
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Document ID: 27C284AB

Fundamental Principles Of Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1972 the process of manufacturing gas from coal was introduced in England. It was normal that the first gas meters were developed in England after the founding of the first gas company in London in 1808. In 1817 the first gas company was chartered in the city of Baltimore and gas was introduced commercially to the United States. In these so called good ole days, meters were unknown and gas was sold more or less on an hourly basis by contract. Gas company inspectors would tour the city at night and rap on the walk or curbs outside of the homes to indicate to gas light customers that their contract time had expired and the lights were to be extinguished. If the customer ignored the warning the inspector would turn the service off. This practice was then changed and the gas light customers were charged for the quantity of gas used based oon the number, and possibly the size of light burners in the homes. Thus, the first gas meters developed were rated as Five Light, Ten Light, etc. A gas light burner was based on a consumption of 6 cubic feet per hour.
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Document ID: 427AEF83

Design Of Distribution Regulator Stations
Author(s): Robert T. Burrows
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to point out some of the more important design factors that must be considered when designing distribution regulator settings. In discussing the many factors considered by the Columbia Gas Distribution Companies, a general overview will be given of distribution reulation design standards currently being used. These design examples and specifications are only intended as a guide. These specifications can be compared to your own distribution regulator designs, which out of necessity, must reflect the type of distribution system you have and your own individual company policies.
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Document ID: 97A147D8

Noise Prediction, Measurement, And Attenuation
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
Noisy pressure reducing stations are a headache. But noise is a problem only when someone hears it if there are no people within ten miles of a noisy regulator, there is no problem. The solution is easy! Locate regulators in remote areas where there are no people and there is no problem. Unfortunately, this doesnt work either unless you buy 100 acres, someone will build a house nearby and then complain about the noise. Also, there is the problem of employees working in a noisy environment and teh resultant ear damage. From a practical standpoint, there are three methods of noise control. The first is to install a control valve which does not generate unacceptable noise. The second solution is to fabricate a barrier between people and the noise. This barrier may be pipe insulation, an insulated building, buried pipe and equipment, floored pits, distant property boundaries, extra heavy pipe, or any other method you may think of for your particular circumstance. The barrier method chosen will depend on the sound level and whether the problem is due to neighbor complaints or due to OSHA requirements. A third method is to install ciloacero which will absorb a portion of the sound and reduce it to an acceptable level.
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Document ID: 9CEA7746

Control Valve Sizing Using The New Standards
Author(s): Les Driskell
Abstract/Introduction:
The new standards for control valve sizing represent a significant advancement over formulas contained in past standards. Besides establishing rules for uniform testing methods to measure the sizing coefficients, improved methods are provided for handling flashing liquids and the flow of viscous and compressible fluids. These improvements represent only another step along the way in our quest for understanding the flow of fluids through throttling devices having complex shapes. There are still common flow prolems which cannot be adequately solved by the methods of the standards. Some fluids do not behave according to our wishes. And some valve styles are unruly and behave in a most obstinate manner. It remains for the future to improve upon out methods of predicting the flow through a valve so that these areas of uncertainty can be removed. The limitations of the standards, as well as their qualities, will be described in this paper.
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Document ID: 0354697F

Gas Shortage Effects On Meters, Regulators And Instruments: Panel()
Author(s): Dick Tuttle, W. H. Cantees, Giles Crabtree, Walter Gerhold
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this class on teh Effects of the Gas Shortage is to encourage discussion of problems encountered today in metering and regulating a curtailed volume of natural gas to the customer. The Panel will include a representative from the United States Steel Corporation with ideas on in-plant metering and regulating requirements of the natural gas customer. Discussion on problems concerning large volume measurement and regulation, as well as instrumentation, may be directed to any panel representative.
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Document ID: 6B7F53CA

Turbine Vs. Pipe In Instrumentation
Author(s): William D. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Tubing has replaced pipe in many instrumentation installations. Many systems still use pipe, often for the wrong reasons. Paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of tubing vs. pipe systems. Reliability of present day tube systems permits installation at reduced costs.
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Document ID: 5563C499

Automatic Analysis Of Sulfur Compounds And Hydrogen Cyanide In Coke Oven And Natural Gases
Author(s): D. P. Manka
Abstract/Introduction:
The EPA guidelines state that the steel industry must reduce the sulfur content of its coke oven gas to 50 grains per 100 cubic feet so that emission of SO2 from conbustion of the gas will be minimal. A dual purpose automatic gas chromatograph with a flame photometric detector and a thermal conductivity detector has been designed and installed to monitor gas composition on an around-the-clock basis at J&Ls Pittsburgh coke plant. The high concentrations of hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen sulfide are analyzed by thermal conductivity, and the low concentrations of the otehr sulfur compounds are determined by flame photometric detection.
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Document ID: 57F5A656

Telemetered Computerized Data For Custody Transfer
Author(s): m. C. Whitener, W. W, Timmerman
Abstract/Introduction:
The potential of electronic flow computers measuring natural gas has been realized by the natural gas industry in the past few years. Such factors as a high degree of accuracy and a precise control signal has made the use of electronic flow conputers very desirable. Furthermore, there has always been a critical need for a close comparison of actual custody exchange volumes and dispatching volumes. Economic benefits may also be accomplished due to the indreasing shortage of supply and the rising value of natural gas.
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Document ID: 01DEB0C4

A Discussion Of The Interrelationship Of Volume, Mass And Energy Measurements
Author(s): Paul T. Eads
Abstract/Introduction:
If we ask ourselves what is the most plentiful and most readily available source of energy we can purchase, the answer would have to be manpower. We can hire an individual and pay him a daily wage commensurate with his value to us. We judge his worth by the accomplishment for a given amount of energy over a given period of time. The guidelines used to judge his worth are essentially the same established by basic physics. In order to make logical decisions regarding work performed, man has created a multitude of measurements such as 1) food-pounds per second, 2) horsepower, 3) kilowatt hours and kilogram-calories per minute, to name a few.
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Document ID: 48ED5896

Process Measurement - A General Overview
Author(s): E. J. Olfier
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will cover some of the process measurement experiences at the Marysville Gas Reforming Plant. The Marysville Plant is part of the gas distribution and storage system of Consumers Power Company which is a combined gas and electric utility. The service area is most of the lower portion of Michigan. Approximately 1,000,000 electric and 900,000 gas customers are within the service area. The annual gas output is approximately 318 billion standard cubic feet. Marysville, as a supplier, contributes 20% of the system requirement and in 1975 we manufactured in excess of 66 billion cubic feet with an average daily rate of 182 million cubic feet.
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Document ID: 36C66913

Factors In Selecting And Implementing A Computer-Based Gas Dispatch System
Author(s): Richard F. Handy
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation deals with the factors to be considered in selecting and implementing a Gas Dispatch System. However, to best illustrate the relative importance of each of these factors, a hypothetical gas distribution company is used, and the presentation leads the reader through typical steps which could be followed by any utility confronted with the problem of planning, selecting and implementing a computer-based Dispatch System. Key factors in each of the major steps are discussed, together with potential pitfalls and problems. No attempt is being made to create experts, rather to provide insight to, and appreciation of, the general concepts and scope of a total effort.
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Document ID: A9207879

Noise In The Regulating Station
Author(s): George S. Daves
Abstract/Introduction:
Sound is what we hear. Sound is produced by the transfer of mechanical vibration or disturbance to air. When an object moves or vibrates, it disturbs the air particles near the object producing a variation in normal atmospheric pressure. As this pressure variation reaches our eardrums, they too are set to vibrating and this is translated by our hearing mechanism into the sensation called sound. Sound is a passing transitent disturbance of particles, either in a gas, liquid, or solid. Noise is disagreeable or undesired sound as compared to speech or music which are usually desired sounds. In addition to being annoying or irritating, long exposure to excessive noise will cause permanent loss of hearing.
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Document ID: 4E2F9A86

Gas Conditioning Before Measurement
Author(s): John R. Rumbaugh
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to give a brief and general description of devices that can be used in removing impurities from the gas stream. It is not intended that the devices listed and described are the best devices available, or that a complete listing of devices available will be covered. The devices described are ones that we have used or are being used in our operational area. Impurities found in the gas stream consist of water, crude oil, pipe scaling, salt, sulpher, drilling mud, geological formation materials, etc. Water, in either the liquid or vapor form, is the most prevalent of the impurities found and in controlling and removing it from the gas stream, most of the otehr impurities will also be removed. With any of these impurities present, inaccurate, erratic measurement and usually slopped meters will result.
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Document ID: 0D2BD1C5

Gas Well Measurement In The Appalachian Area
Author(s): L. A. Pearson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the design and construction of gas measurement facilities at wellheads in the Appalachian area, it should be understood that standard engineering design requirements will be adhered to. These are found in the Department of Transportation Rules and Regulations. For stations using orifice meters, the A. G. A. Gas Measurement Committee Report No. 3 is used for all conditions. Equally important are various parameters included in the design of these facilities. Some of these are rock pressure, open flow, various types of gas analyses, meter sizing, site selection, piping configuration, environmental requirements, provisions for simplifying necessary periodic tests, freezing and fluid conditions.
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Document ID: CED3398F

Fundamentals Of Wellhead Automatic Controls
Author(s): Don W. Crowley
Abstract/Introduction:
The selection of automatic control devices for the wellhead service has several complicating factors: 1) The pressures, flow rates, and liquid accumulations may be quite varied between wells even in the same reservoir. 2) High pressures very dramatically affect the equipment selection. The system design for 12,500 psig at the wellhead is obviously quite different from a 500 psig shut-in pressure. 3) The presence of H2S and CO2 with the natural gas demands significant considerations. It is the purpose of this paper to recognize these engineering considerations, but only to discuss fundamental concepts of equipment.
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Document ID: 2EA432CA

Gas Analysis - A Tool For Quality Control And Problem Solving
Author(s): Fred Gollob
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many different analytical procedures that are used in the gas industry and I want to briefly mention some of the more common methods that are used and what their major applications are. Then, I shall concentrate on the two most versatile, Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry. Density, or specific gravity, is characteristic of the average composition of a gas. It is merely the weighted sum of the densities of the individual components and tells us nothing about the individual components. Thus, a mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen can have the same density as methane. Density is useful, however, once you know the approximate composition that you are dealing with. Then, with natural gas, for example, the density is a measure of the amount of minor constituents that are present in the methane. Density is measured continuously by in-line instruments, or can be calculated once the composition of a gas mixture is known.
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Document ID: 449FB74F

Rotary Meters
Author(s): David m. Tunney
Abstract/Introduction:
Since this is quite a general topic, it seems wise to take time here at the beginning to outline several specific areas that will be dealt with in this particular paper. The first area of discussion will be the general aspects of rotary meters and the two basic types used in America. Second, we will examine the operation and construction of the two basic types. Third, will be a brief rundown of application information and installation requirements. Fourth, will be routine maintenance and proving. Fifth, some general comments and a short summary.
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Document ID: F90BF66D

Why Control Production?
Author(s): George R. Grover, Gary R. Bachelor, James E. Dick
Abstract/Introduction:
The answer to that question is simple - its to improve profits and production. In this day and age when the material supply problems, conservation and pollution programs, and operating expenses are increasing at fantastic rates, our industry is concerned with costs of maintenance and falling production. We have found that many wells could produce more gas and petroleum products at less maintenance cost if controlled production techniques were applied.
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Document ID: 4A13F70C

Design Of Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Al Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
Perhaps the first use of electronic supervisory was to sense and control a condition at a remote location from a central point. Stringing some wires between the two locations and connecting them provided the necessary communications link, and a new field of specialty was born. Following that first conncetion, it became apparent that additional points would need to be controlled and measured. This required additional wire pairs to be strun, and in a short period of time, it was beginning to take on monsterous form. There were wires everywhere, and wires got longer, and consequently, more expensive. Maintenance was also a problem the more wire, the greater the probability of faults. Lightening was a serious problem, therefore, adequate protection was required for both ends of each pair. As systems grew larger and larger, there was a need for greater precision and higher security.
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Document ID: 2D300390

Use Of Computer Printout In Troubleshooting Field Equipment
Author(s): O. Ray Bankes, III
Abstract/Introduction:
UGI Corporation, in 1965, was one of the first companies to install a mini-computer to acquire data, compute and totalize gas flows, generate a data base for gas supply decisions, and assist the gas controller. The installation, completed in late 1966, has been eminently successful in five areas: 1. Penalties for excess daily, seasonal, and annual takes have been avoided. 2. Improved (precise) utilization of available gas supplies has resulted. A reduction in the safety margin from more than three percent (3%) in 1963-64 to less than one percent (1%), translates into a cost savings of 100,000 per year. 3. Expansion of the system, indluding remote control, has been accomplished inexpensively. 4. consolidation of functions, equipment, and personnel has resulted in savings of approximately 100,000 per year. 5. The historic repeatability of system accuracy (vs. invoiced volumes) has formed the basis for numerous audits of supplier charts resulting in further net savings.
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Document ID: F116ED1D


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