Measurement Library

Measurement Science Conference Publications (1976)

Measurement Of Samples In A Total Testing Environment
Author(s): Richard J. Schlesinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Testing laboratories, whether in a manufacturing facility or an independent testing laboratory, are largely isolated from the population from which a sample is taken. Laboratorians should be very interested in the sample. But, in many cases, this is not true. They just test what is submitted. Inferences from the results are greatly dependent upon the sampling procedure.
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Document ID: 6442EDDF

The Non-Computerized Calibration Laboratory: A Low Profit, High Labor Cost Anomaly In The Modern Automated Plant
Author(s): Loeb Julie,
Abstract/Introduction:
The standards and calibration laboratories are the data gathering and data analyzing Cinderella5 of the 20th century company. Whereas her stepsisters - inspection, production, and administration - have the advantage of the latest and most expensive cost-saving and labor-saving automated systems available, poor Cinderella is expected to do all her work the oldfashioned, hard and costly way - by hand. This paper presents the shocking truths about the extraordinarily high yearly cost to the Prince (Management) of Cinderellas current mistreatment. If, as a result of our presentation, the Prince and Cinderella become united and live happily ever after, the author lays claim to the title of honorary Fairy Godfather.
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Document ID: A0FEDE91

Laboratory Planning In Developing Countries
Author(s): H. L. Daneman
Abstract/Introduction:
Until recently, the background of industrial activity in developing countries has not fostered standards laboratories. At this moment, there is an urgency toward exportation , an awareness of the role of quality in a competitive marketplace and a demand for standards, specifications and test methods to define acceptability of goods.
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Document ID: 45092E53

Laboratory Planning In Developing Countries
Author(s): H. L. Daneman
Abstract/Introduction:
Until recently, the background of industrial activity in developing countries has not fostered standards laboratories. At this moment, there is an urgency toward exportation, an awareness of the role of quality in a competitive marketplace and a demand for standards, specifications and test methods to define acceptability of goods.
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Document ID: 809E7346

Sixth Annual Measurement Science Conference At California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo December 3-4, 1976
Author(s): Robert L. Galley
Abstract/Introduction:
A modest U.N. budget was established in 1970 to provide the Peoples Republic of Bulgaria with imported laboratory equipment and tools, and to introduce Western technical expertise in the countrys instrument manufacturing industry. As Project Manager, the speaker spent 18 months getting the program started. Bulgarian engineers were sent to an English language training course in London, to a Danish instrument factory and to a Honeywell factory in Great Britain.
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Document ID: C21F2866

Optimizatton Of Instrument Recall Intervals To Satisfy A Fixed, Arbitrary Performance Criterion
Author(s): H. Castrup
Abstract/Introduction:
The problem of optimization of instrment recall intervals to satisfy a fixed, arbitrary instrument perfomance criterion is discussed. A statment of the problem and a proposed analytical solution are presented. Included are discussions of the data required for solution, the relevant independent variables, the rationale for the proposed solution, and the assumptions essential to the analysis. Also considered are the problems of data validity, assessment of instrument perfomance at the manufacturer-model level, and identification of bad perfomers. In addition, a semi-automated analytical interval optimization system employing linear and nonlinear regression techniques with a predetemined selection of theoretical models is outlined, and a sample of its results is di.scussed.
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Document ID: 8C229C86

Systematic Errors W Measurements And Calibrations
Author(s): Rolf B., F. Schumacher
Abstract/Introduction:
Nature, origin, and treatment of systematic errors in measurements and calibrations are discussed. It is shown how systematic errors can vary, how random error6 under one set of conditions will become systematic error8 under another set of conditions and vice versa. Recommendations are made concerning the assignment of values to limits of systematic errors to measurements and standards.
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Document ID: ABFBFF78

Some Aspects Of Meteorological Measurements
Author(s): m. T. Gannon
Abstract/Introduction:
Techniques and unique probtems in making measurements of meteorological parameters such as wind, temperature, visibility and atmospheric moisture are discussed. Specific emphasis is placed on exposure and application of conventional sensors. also on measurements to the study of air quality.
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Document ID: BF8FBD53

Extractive Type Source Monitoring Systems
Author(s): R. L. Chapan
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1971, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency identified six major air pollutants and established maximum allowable smbien levels for each, based on their effects on human health and welfare. 1 By law, all of the states are required to develop and implement plans to assure that the levels of these pollutants will not rise above the prescribed limits. Such plans must include continuous monitoring of the ambient air quality. They must also include identification of the sources of such pollutants, control of the rate of emissions from these sources and, in some cases, continuous monitoring of individual emissions by the source owners or operators.
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Document ID: 565C7E8A

Quantitation Of Cell Populations And Air Quality Standards
Author(s): Russell P. Sherwin
Abstract/Introduction:
The principle of conservation of the general ecology has been broadly applied over the past several years to the quantitation of animal and plant life in an effort to protect endangered species. However, only the barest beginning has been made in the protection and preservation of endangered species of I ife at the cellular level. More specifically, the concern with endangered animal and plant life has not been extended to the endangered special cell populations within the human body. It has been the primary purpose of our film presentat ions, including the distributed film The Embattled Cell (I), to emphasize the urgent need for an intensive exploration and quantitation of the great variety of cells that constitute the microecologic society of the human body.
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Document ID: A4E9C4F7

Administration Of A Standards Laboratory
Author(s): Tadao Mukaihata
Abstract/Introduction:
The administrative functions relevant to the operation of a standards laboratory include budgeting, staffing, procuring capital-equipment, structuring policies, and directing activities toward specific productive goals which are tasks common to any organization. In addition, there are unique functions due to special services provided by virtue of involvement in various technical disciplines of metrology. An overview of some of the principal operational functions of the Hughes Aircraft Co. (HAC) Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) is shown in Fig. 1. These functions and related services are divided essentially into administrative and technical categories with an additional complementary category to include overlapping functions of technical and administrative nature. Also, depicted in Fig. 1 is the interfacing relationship of PSL with respect to end users of PSL services e.g., the group of Secondary Calibration Laboratories (with their respective locations indicated), engineering, manufacturing, research laboratories, remotely located HAC on-site special test facilities, and field-service depots.
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Document ID: 0C4FC1E5

An Innovative Method For Measuring Frequency Stability Without Deadtime
Author(s): E. m. Hicks
Abstract/Introduction:
A primary concern of frequency standards is the stability of the output signal frequency. Numerous methods for determining their stability have been devised. This paper briefly discusses frequency stability and its measurement and describes a simple innovative test system or method which eliminates an undesirable factor known as deadtime in frequency stability analysis.
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Document ID: 685AD26A

A Laboratory Test To Measure Theodolite Operator Bias
Author(s): K. . Lund
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the methods and results of a study which was conducted to determine if significant individual biases exist in the angular measurements of theodolite operators performing astronomic azimuth determinations. A laboratory test was set up using two different types of theodolites to measure the angle between a simulated star and a mirror. Five different operators made several series of measurements with each of the instruments. A limited statistical analysis of the test results yielded several important conclusions about instrument and operator related phenomena. The study also contains observations related to operator vision and experience and included a written examination to determine individual techniques and preferences in observing methods.
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Document ID: 7ACF134A

Measurement Science Conference At Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo
Author(s): Brown, G. H.
Abstract/Introduction:
lIQlJID CRYSTALS FOR THERMOMETRY Paper discusses design and engineering advantages and disadvantages of liquid crystals for thermometry. Parameters such as repeatability, time of response, accuracy, drift, ease of reading, cost and stability are reviewed as well as the use of these materials in thermal mapping. Paper also discusses design of a pocket pyrometer designed to extend the useful range of liquid crystal materials into the 900 range.
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Document ID: 7B1E9E20

Non-Contact Temperature Measurement
Author(s): Dieter Rall, David R. Hornbaker
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the years there has been an ongoing need for temperature measurement and control of such processes as rotating polished cylinders, moving plastic, fabric and paper webs, moving synthetic fibers, and moving wire, to name a few. Infrared and proximity non-contact and sliding contact sensors have solved some of these problems, but many more have gone unsolved. A non-contact sensor was needed which could be used to measure and control the temperature of moving surfaces independent of the material emissivity, environment and frictional contact heating, to allow better process understanding and control.
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Document ID: FDF4C6D0

Temperature Measurement: Sensors, Stand Alone Processing, Display And Logging
Author(s): William E. Kehret, David m. Mackenzie
Abstract/Introduction:
Temperature sensor characteristics are discussed as well as instrumentation considerations for low level signal recovery in noisy environments. Multiplexing, digitization and linearization techniques are reviewed. Special attention is given to the processing and display of multipoint time dynamic temperature data.
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Document ID: BFB73725

Some Fundamentals Of Data Management
Author(s): Donald J. Greb
Abstract/Introduction:
Depending on the point of view, calibration and test processes are either very good or very bad in the sense that they can generate almost endless quantities of data. In these days of computer analysis (and sometimes computer generation) of data, we are strongly tempted to succumb to the idea that, if some data is useful, more data must be proportionately more useful, and it is easy to rationalize that the extra data and analysis really dont cost much anyway. Once having adopted that kind of data management policy, there is almost no limit to the amount of calibration data which can be taken and analyzed.
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Document ID: 98A4D52A

Effects Of Test Equipment On System Readiness And Reliability
Author(s): Jerry Glassman, Mary Jolene Roselauf
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of calibration is to maintain the integrity of test equipment. It is necessary to periodically calibrate the test equipment to assure that all required operating functions are within acceptable limits. These calibrated test equipment are used to make measurements and adjustments on primary equipment or systems. Specified design constraints, such as weight, volume, cost, power rating, signal-to-noise ratio, target missdistance, and maintainability, are basic prime system requirements. Since the advent of sophisticated weapons systems, space systems, and communication systems there has been a major emphasis on the development of reliability as a design parameter. In light of this emphasis on system reliability, it has often been asked: Does test equipment affect system performance? Intuitively, the answer to this question is yes. Otherwise, why perform system test and checkout? Clearly, an in-specification test item is more supportive of acceptable system performance than an out-of-specification test item. Can this test equipment/prime system reliability relationship be modeled and estimated?
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Document ID: 4A8FA561


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