Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1976)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1976 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Cutler-Hammer
Author(s): A.F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
The BTU is an energy unit defined as the heat required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit from 58.5 to 59.5 degree F. The intrinsic value of gas increases and its dollar value increases as its BTU content increases.
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Document ID: 39B0070B

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Howard Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject t i t l e is only one of many which could be a p p l i c a b l e , such a s: Do Your M e a s u r e m e n t Books Balance? Does Your Sales Volume Your P u r c h a se Volume? A r e You Selling All The Volume Y o u re E n t i t l e d to? Do You R e a l l y Have Good M e a s u r e m e n t ? If you h o n e s t l y answer No to any of t he above, then it will be beneficial to explore a few b a s i c r e a s o n s for m e a s u r e m e n t p r o b l e m s . When the word m e a s u r e m e n t is mentioned, the m a j o r i t y of the gas i n d u s t r y m e a s u r e m e n t p e r s o n n e l a u t o m a t i c a l l y convert t h e i r thoughts to a m e t e r . The m e t e r c o n t r i b u t e s only 1/2 to 1/4 toward the t o t a l s c i e n c e of m e a s u r e m e n t depending on the a p p l i c a t i o n.
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Document ID: BABFE258

What The Field Group Expects From The Office Group
Author(s): H. A. Steves
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry, from the field to the final delivery point, teamwork is essential if maximum profit is to be realized. The chain of coordinatinated efforts start with the field measurement men and chart changers. They provide information used by the Measurement and Gas Control Offices. The Measurement Technicians usually install, operate and maintain the equipment that produces accurate measurements. The Chart Changer produces legible records from which gas volumes, conditions of regulating equipment and various other facts essential to gas measurement are determined. Realizing the importance of the field measurement mans job, it must also be realized that information must be made available to the field groups in order for them to be efficient. A good portion of this information must come from our office groups. The field group must know the exact scope of their jobs, responsibilities and standards, (which are ever increasing), they are expected to meet. They need such things as recognition, patience and understanding, instruction and training, supervision and good leadership, and an expression of appreciation for jobs well done.
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Document ID: 8A72EAD7

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Arthur R. Laughlin
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to make determinations of either water vapor or hydrocarbon dew point it is helpful to know the following: A. That the sample being tested is the same as that at the sample source. (If it originates from a pipeline or vessel, has any of the molecules dropped out as liquid into the sample line system?) B. That the sample rate flowing through the sample line is sufficient to be the same gas as the pipeline or vessel and is flowing at the proper rate for the instrument that is used as the testing device. C. That the sample line being used is of a material that does not adsorb or absorb any of the molecules in the sample. (Stainless steel and glass are two of the better materials for sampling.) D. That the temperature conditions of the sample line and test apparatus are such that condensation of the molecules does not take place.
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Document ID: 9E28D688

Selection, Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): John L. Strickland, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The flow of natural gas can be calculated from the differential pressure measured across an orifice plate and the density or static pressure of the gas measured at flowing conditions. These basic measurements can then be made more precise by compensating for the specific variables listed in the AGA Report No. 3. The electronic gas flow computer will take these variables or factors into consideration and display the corrected flow rate. This flow rate, constantly being updated every few seconds, can be integrated to obtain the total volume for a given period of time. If needed, a printer may be installed to produce a permanent record, and then this data can be transmitted to a central location. Therefore, the computer improves measurement techniques and allows the office to receive information from the field much faster and in a more readily useable form.
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Document ID: 808E5D49

Station Design
Author(s): Fred Rodman
Abstract/Introduction:
A high pressure measuring and regulating station can provide years of accurate, dependable service with a minimum of operating problems if it is designed properly. The purpose of this paper is to look at the factors involved in designing such a station.
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Document ID: 714BE9D8

New Ideas In Gas Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Joseph A. Wager,
Abstract/Introduction:
(A.S.T.M. A-234 Grade B) form the basis of the elbow type d i f f e r e n t i a l producer. Pressure taps consist of 1/4 schedule 80 nipples welded to the inner and outer curvatures and 1/4 bronze gate valves 150 l b . f i t t e d with Hansen quick connect plugs. Anodized 1/16 aluminum specification tags are attached to each elbow, stating size, serial number, calibration constant, d i f f e r e n t i a l signal in W.C. and designation code if requested. Each elbow receives one coat of red oxide primer, as a base coat, with flow direction arrows clearly marked. Straightening/anti-swirl vanes are attached to each elbow. Long form type contain an integral vane welded i n to the upstream section. Short form type vanes are shipped wired to elbow, to be welded i n to the existing pipe system immediately upstream, by the customer.
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Document ID: D312DE5E

Test Instruments For Pressure, Water Vapor And Supercompressibility
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and supercompressibility. Also, it is desirable to measure and limit the water content of natural gases. Water, in free or vapor form, will cause operational difficulties at meter stations and regulators. Free water is easily disposed of, but it is necessary to measure water vapor content in order to maintain a value low enough to prevent difficulty.
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Document ID: FA3AD508

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): Philip C. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the inception of the Orifice Meter we have been seeking better ways to interpret the recordings made on meter charts. First we simply used the Sight Reading Method. This was accomplished by visually averaging the static and differential separately and multiplying the results together. We then advanced to the Planimeter Method basically it was an improved sight reading machine. We rotated the chart manually under a pen arm and the product of static and differential pressures were obtained separately. Sight reading and Planimeter methods were acceptable where the flow pattern was constant however they provided the square root of the average and not the average square root, which is the desired result.
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Document ID: DFAF2D67

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): F. B. Leslie
Abstract/Introduction:
This class offers a comprehensive presentation of the kinetic type gas gravitometer, including: Simple explanation of operating principle Equipment set-up and operation in field Trouble shooting, repair and adjustment The kinetic type gas gravitometer is manufactured as a portable indicating type instrument illustrated in Figure 1 and as a stationary recording type instrument illustrated in Figure 2. The basic operating mechanism is identical for both types but the case, motive power and linkage are modified to adapt them to either portable use or permanent mounting.
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Document ID: C1984AAA

Maintaining An Electroscanner And An Analyzer
Author(s): Thomas Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
A short time after integrated circuits were available to the industrial market, we at UGCI redesigned our proven Electroscanner. Incorporating integrated circuits into our computer, in addition to other changes, has made possible a much more accurate and reliable Electroscanner system. This change in computing circuitry also eliminated much of the maintenance necessary to keep the Electroscanner functioning properly.
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Document ID: D743295E

Flow Measurement By Insertion Turbine Meters
Author(s): Don A. Pfautsch
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurements of both liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons have been accomplished throughout industry using various techniques. For many years the use of Orifice meters, pitot tubes, or positive displacement meters was accepted as the standards of industry. Then, after several years of controversial applications, the turbine meter began to be accepted as a very accurate primary means of measurement. The turbine meter is now being used in both liquid and gas measurement systems, and for custody transfer of liquids when used in conjunction with a prover system. The insertion turbine meter (Figure 1) is a new concept in flow measurement. This device allows measurement of the flow of liquid or gas in large lines at substantial cost savings.
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Document ID: 2F27B474

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): Nick Gestrich
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Measurement Mans Corner of Gas Magazine in April, 1967, it was stated, If the gas measurement science could be represented by a corpse, upon dissection the heart would turn out to be a manometer. Accurate gas measurement depends on precise measurement of small pressures and differential pressures. Large volumes of gas are bought and sold every day. Therefore, the utmost accuracy is desired in our measurement of these volumes. For this reason, the manometer is of prime importance to the gas measurement industry. The simplicity, inherent accuracy and versatility of manometers lend them to broad application in calibration, trouble shooting, and meter maintenance leak testi ng.
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Document ID: 50ED8A2D

Recording Calorimeters Installation And Testing
Author(s): George C. Gabel
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most important instruments in gas measurement is the recording calorimeter. The calorimeter assists every department in the gas companies from management, gas control, gas sales, gas purchases to the Chart Department for billing purposes. The calorimeter is also used in energy control into distribution systems where the heat content is specified by contract. The calorimeter is used to measure energy reduction across gasoline plants and participating parties are paid en this basis, in some instances. The major use is in gas sales to large industrial concerns to measure energy rather than volume. Because of the increase in the number of contracts requiring energy measurement, the calorimeter is becoming more important from day to day. For instance, a contract with a small user is being made on the energy rather than on the volumetric basis. These small contracts would not warrant the installation of a recording calorimeter but by a representative test from an accumulated weekly sample the energy content can be determined by the recording calorimeter in the lab.
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Document ID: F7072396

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): George F. White, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In the beginning, there was the Gulf of Mexico and it seemed to be void. For centuries there were only fishermen seeking to harvest the many various fishes from the waters and Gulf bottoms. Then, in 1947, the Gulf was discovered to have other products - oil and natural gas. Once this energy was found, many companies immediately formulated plans to engage in the search for and production of these products. Today there are over forty pipeline companies involved in the transportation of natural gas, condensates, and crude oil. Just as in other industries - farming, mining, or whatever - products have to be measured. This is not new, since measuring the products of the oil and gas industries has been done since their first use.
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Document ID: 457BE000

Odorization
Author(s): A. R. Laughlin
Abstract/Introduction:
Of the natural fuels that nature has provided for us to use, natural gas is the one best suited for domestic use. This fuel can be easily distributed long distances through underground mains to the most remote districts. Natural gas, since it has no odor, is usually odorized in order to be readily detected. This provides a safeguard in the event of accidental turn-on or leakage because of faulty equipment. The great demand to use natural gas has made it necessary to deliver gas through large-diameter pipelines and has made it necessary to odorize large quantities of natural gas on a 24-hour basis. As a result of this, special facilities for odorization have been required.
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Document ID: 65C920A1

Odorization
Author(s): Maurice E. Calaway
Abstract/Introduction:
On March 18, 1937 a gas explosion demolished the New London, Texas school building causing the death of 294 persons - 280 pupils and 14 teachers. The natural gas delivered to the building came from a free unodorized gas connection. Within a few months after the explosion the State of Texas had an odorization law. Gradually other states passed odorization regulations. The state odorization laws generally required that when gas is present in an enclosed room, it can be smelled when the concentrated gas is 1% to air, or is 1/5 of the lower explosive limit.
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Document ID: 53A03C86

Reynolds Equipment
Author(s): L. E. Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
Distribution Systems have been odorizing gas for a number of years to protect lives, property and to locate leaks. Now the minimum Federal Safety Standards requires that all gas be odorized according to paragraph 192.625.
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Document ID: A8E87C51

Heath Consultants Incorporated
Author(s): Andre J. Massicott
Abstract/Introduction:
Key factors involved in selecting the proper instrument for the detection of combustible gases involves several decisions. These include definition of problem areas, economic limitations, a review of principles to be used and the choice of the best instrumentation available. We must engineer, supervise and check out the instrument installation. Supervision of the use of the equipment must include the training of all personnel in their respective areas. Equally important is the establishment of routine maintenance and calibration schedules including the maintenance of a written log on these schedules. Attention to establishing the guidelines noted above will prepare us to better meet our industry safety objectives and at the same time help us to comply with state and federal codes.
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Document ID: 25C2C797

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Group
Author(s): J. B. Po
Abstract/Introduction:
When I was first informed that I was to present this paper, I felt that it would be no problem at all since I was identifying with one group at that time. The more I considered the title of What the Office Group Expects from the Field Group the more I realized that the very title was actually vague and possibly misleading, depending upon who is considering your position.
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Document ID: 34F9D264

Technical Session, Specific Gravity Instruments Installation And Operation
Author(s): James C. Bozeman
Abstract/Introduction:
Definition - The specific weight of a gas is the number of units of weight in a unit volume. Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a definite volume of gas, at some convenient temperature and pressure, to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure. Specific weight is a measurement of the relative weights of gases and varies according to the conditions under which it is determined, whereas specific gravity compares all gases to dry air as the standard. From a comparison of the above definitions, it is seen that specific gravity is the ratio of the specific weight of a gas to the specific weight of dry air, both being at the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: D1C9E509

Thermal Energy Measurements
Author(s): Bruce J. Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
There are few absolutes to be found in the channels of commerce. Seemingly, the attainment of perfection is a subject more fitting philosophic discussion. Commerce can only contend with that which is achievable, economic and practical, within keeping of the value of a commodity in trade. This thought is amply demonstrated in drafting rooms and machine shops, where dimensions are coupled with attainable tolerances. Few would attempt to duplicate exactly that length of platinum which is buried in a French vault, an exercise that would prove to be impractical if not impossible. The meter serves its purpose as a point of reference from which tolerances are allowed to arise.
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Document ID: CB90779D

Gas Turbine Meter And Continuous Volume Integrator
Author(s): Woodford Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
The continued increase in the application of turbine meters to production, transmission, distribution and industrial measurement has established gas turbine metering as an accepted, effective metering method. The turbine meters high capacity, wide rangeability and sustained accuracy combined with light weight, compact size and ease of maintenance provide an accurate, economical method of measuring large volume gas loads when used in a well designed metering stat ion.
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Document ID: 23B5ADAA

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): William R. Mcclain
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper design of metering and regulating stations is essential to attain accurate measurement at minimum cost, to allow for future expansion, and to meet all standards of safety which may apply. To accomplish this, the engineer or designer must have available to him full information as to the requirements of the facility, the system from which it is served, and the various types of meters, regulators, safety devices, and associated equipment available for use.
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Document ID: 9E17525A

Measuring Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): J. C. Simpson
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate and dependable service of a metering and regulating facility is directly related to a workable inspection program. Inspection programs for these installations have always been a must. Today, however, regulatory agencies, safety practices, and sophisticated equipment make necessary more detailed inspections, The purpose of this paper is to present guide lines, methods, inspection procedures, reasons for and results expected from a metering and regulating station inspection program. However, each company must make its own interpretation of what is necessary for contractual and regulatory (e.g., DOT/OPS) compliance requirements. As previously noted, the information here is offered as guide line material only.
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Document ID: 1F9BF7C4

Effects And Control Of Pulsations In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Walter W. Von Nimitz,
Abstract/Introduction:
Review of the detrimental effects of pulsations on gas flow measurement with the orifice, turbine and vortex flow meters indicates the need for effective pulsation control. The techniques for prediction and control of pulsations discussed and illustrated in this paper make it possible to design gas flow measurement facilities with the assurance of minimum uncertainty in flow measurement due to pulsation effects.
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Document ID: 0C252790

To Prover Accuracy And Sample Testing
Author(s): Norwin Bruening
Abstract/Introduction:
The proof is a very important characteristic for the acceptance of a new domestic gas meter shipment. Its obvious why the meter proof receives primary attention in a meter shop as this represents the cash register to the gas company. Meters manufactured today have superior proof retention as compared to 10 years ago and the proving equipment has progressed from visually reading the scale to automatic provers with readouts in 0.1% increments. Both the manufacturer and the utility are placing more emphasis on quality and the importance of a quality control program. Using this knowledge, many utilities have implemented sample-testing programs which determine meter acceptance or rejection on a random pre-determined sample size based on the number of meters received in the shipment.
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Document ID: 6BE6AD4F

Moisture Titrators
Author(s): Ivy Nicewarner
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the fundamental methods of measuring the water content of gaseous fluids is to observe the evaporation of water into the gas. The rate of evaporation being measured by the temperature depression is caused by the absorption of water. The application of natural laws governing such phenomena produces a measure of water vapor pressure that is relative to the vapor pressure when saturated. Hence, the term relative humidity and the measured quantity is always in percent of total saturation. This method is utilized in atmospheric studies and other low pressure, high relative humidity conditions. The instruments using this method are primarily spot samplers, and continuous recorders are not frequently used. They are called hygrometers or psychometers.
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Document ID: 17027A6E

Measured Steps For Training The Measurement Man
Author(s): Charles F. Drake
Abstract/Introduction:
WANTED: Technician for gas measurement work. Must be under 25 years of age, have a minimum of 10 years experience with at least two years of college in the physical sciences. Should be aggressive and able to work well alone. Must be able to make decisions and communicate well with others. Should be a settled family man with interest in his community and willing to relocate. Must have incentive to get ahead and accept a starting salary of 700 per month. Should know about computers, telemeters, calorimeters, regulators, controllers, and all types of meters. Must be good paper shuffler and be responsible for a district covering onshore and offshore Louisiana with little overtime. Must be totally loyal to company.
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Document ID: 9F4EBC3C

Use Of Video Tape Vtr() In A Measurement Department
Author(s): R. L. Vance
Abstract/Introduction:
Transwestern Pipeline Company is a subsidiary of Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation and coordinates its training through the Training and Development section. The video tape concept is not only used as a training medium, but is also used as a maintenance and trouble-shooting tool. Most of our films are made by experts in their field, especially those on instrumentation. Manufacturers representatives have been especially helpful in making this type film.
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Document ID: B1FCC1EC

On-Line Computers For Custody Transfer
Author(s): W. W. Moring
Abstract/Introduction:
On October 1, 1975, United Gas Pipe Line Company and Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation began what they believe is a first for the gas industry. On this date the first gas custody transfer between two completely unrelated major gas companies, based on a flow computer printout, began. Gas flow computers have been of interest in the industry for several years, and both United Gas and Texas Eastern have used computers in their operations, but until this time, for dispatching and control only. This discussion will present the needs, historical background, development and results of this system.
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Document ID: 04AD62E6

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): J. P. Whittemore
Abstract/Introduction:
The first rotary positive displacement gas meters were built about 1920 by the PH & FM ROOTS Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersv i l l e , Indiana. The two companies later joined to form ROOTS-Connersville Blower, and in 1966 the gas meter operation was re-named Dresser Measurement Division. The rotary gas meters manufactured by Dresser Measurement Division are known as ROOTS&Meters. During the early 1960s, Rockwell International entered the market w i th a rotating vane design known as the ROTO-SEAL Meter and in the late 1960s, Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating vane design known as a CVM gas meter.
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Document ID: 3A3857CC

Metric Activities Of The Institute And The Impact On The Consumer
Author(s): P. JONES,,W. N. Seward,
Abstract/Introduction:
The petroleum sectors of the British and U.S. economies both face the challenge of metrication. Both are committed to metrication and while facilities are similar, there are a number of dissimilar problems and circumstances which result in different approaches to metrication by each countrys petroleum industry.
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Document ID: 9B0F28EF

Servo Driven Oval Gear Meters
Author(s): A. Takada,
Abstract/Introduction:
The Oval High Pressure Gas Flowmeter, Model SFG, allows for the precision measurement of gas flow by volumetric method. It is characterized by predictable performance regardless of pressure, density, or viscosity of gas being handled negligible pressure loss (approx. 1mm water column,) linear calibration over wide flow range and analog or digital transmission signals.
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Document ID: 198F3C44

Operations And Measurement In Base Load LNG Terminals
Author(s): Wayne Christian
Abstract/Introduction:
In November, 1956 the Hassi RMel field was discovered approximately 315 miles southeast of Arzew, Algeria in the Sahara Desert. The field first produced in April, 1961 and had an estimated recoverable reserve of 61.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. On October 9, 1969 El Paso Natural Gas Company signed a contract with Sonatrach of Algeria for the purchase of the LNG equivalent of 1000 MMSCFD of natural gas to be delivered to the United States over a 25 year period. On March 30. 1971 Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern Energy Company) signed a contract with El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso Algeria Corporation) to purchase 350 MMSCFD of gas to be delivered at Savannah. Georgia. The remaining 650 MMSCFD will be purchased by Columbia-Consolidated LNG Corporation for delivery at Cove Point. Maryland.
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Document ID: 9CC0D741

Meter Shop Design, Equipment And Techniques
Author(s): Jim Juckes
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas meter repair shop has graduated - it is no longer a back yard nuisance created to satisfy state requirements. If awareness pervades the executive s u i t e , reliable measurement probably ranks second only to rates, conservation and supply. A glance at your own gas b i l l should supply the evidence.
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Document ID: 8C283BFA

Keeping Osha In Perspective
Author(s): Jimmy D. Harp
Abstract/Introduction:
The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 was signed into law by President Nixon on December 29, 1970, and went into effect on April 28, 1971. With this act, a set of rules and regulations was initiated which affected three out of four workers in the United States. Congress cited the statistics on industrial accidents and health hazards as the basis for the need for this far reaching legislation. The statistics indicated that 14,200 workers died and 2.2 million were disabled in the work place each year. If non-disabling serious accidents (accounting for less than a days work) were included, the total number of injured workers would be 2 5 million annually. Congress cited the overall annual costs of these accidents as being 9.5 billion annually (includes loss in wages and gross national product.)
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Document ID: B5AE0E26

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): James F. Babb
Abstract/Introduction:
Few areas of the natural gas industry have experienced such far-reaching changes as have occurred in natural gas contracts in the past three years. The increasing importance of natural gas in supplying energy for our nation and the resulting decreasing supply are reflected in the evolution of the gas purchase contract. From the day in which natural gas was a by-product of oil and was sold at a price of 2 or 3 cents per MCF or less to the day of directional drilling and highly technical searches for natural gas and the resulting increase in price from an area of 15 to 16 cents in the early 1960s to the price approaching 2 in todays market. We have seen the change from the day in which producers had difficulty in selling gas intrastate to the day of shortage in the intrastate market and from the day when a gas purchase contract was primarily concerned with the day to day sale of an unwanted product to today when a gas purchase contract is an important tool in acquiring long term supply. While the subject of our discussion today focuses on a brief review of basic elements of gas contracts more particularly wellhead purchase contracts, it might be worthwhile to spend a few moments taking a short retrospective glance at some of the circumstances surrounding recent changes in the gas supply picture and the resulting shift in emphasis in gas contracting practices.
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Document ID: 13B75693

Methods Of Field Testing Large Displacement Meters
Author(s): R. L. Grimes,W. m. Groves,V. E. Epps
Abstract/Introduction:
The methods presently being used for field testing large displacement meters are low pressure flow proving, critical flow proving, differential testing, and transfer proving. This paper will cover the transfer proving method.
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Document ID: AA025022

Low Pressure Flow Prover
Author(s): W. m. Groves
Abstract/Introduction:
The low pressure flow prover is a convenient way to proof test large capacity displacement meters in the field. This is possible because it is small, accurate and desirable for several reasons one is that a meter can be tested and proved in place in operating conditions. The low pressure prover can be used with gas or air as the testing medium. Gas is the most commonly used as most meters are in service measuring gas. When testing with gas, the only other equipment needed is a gravity balance, ranarex or other means of determining the specific gravity of the gas. The low pressure prover consists of two pieces of pipe, a set of straightening vanes in the upstream section of pipe, special flanges, six orifices for six different rates, a differential gauge, a stop watch and thermometer.
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Document ID: 74AFFDE4

Field Testing With The Critical Flow Prover
Author(s): V. E. Epps
Abstract/Introduction:
The critical flow prover can be used to st a displacement meter when the flowing presre is 15 psig, or above. The equipment needed to critical flow test large capacity displacement meter is described follows: When it is necessary to estimate the volume of gas bypassed during the test, the rate of flow through the meter should be determined before and after the test. The average of the two rates should be used as the amount of gas bypassed. The volume of gas used testing should also be accounted for. Prover - Essentially a portable orifice :ter tube. It is usually a short piece of 2 .ameter extra heavy seamless steel tubing, ireaded on each end. The tubing may have a .anged or a union joint orifice-plate holder mnected to the outlet end. It includes a pro- .sion for a thermometer well to be installed lto the center of the flow of gas upstream of le critical flow orifice-plate holder. Orifices - An assortment of calibrated ritical-flow orifice plates are required. Each Late is stamped with standard air time on the ltlet side. (The standard air time is the time 1 seconds required for the passage of one cubic )ot of air at 60 F. through the orifice. It not practical to calculate this time and it 3 always determined by test.)
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Document ID: E0F5A0EC

Large Capacity Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): Woodford Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Positive displacement meters are by far the most popular type of gas meter in use today. They have wide spread applications in production, transmission, distribution and industrial gas measurement. Large capacity meters are classified as those capable of measuring more than 500 cubic feet per hour and are frequently referred to as commercial or industrial meters. As the name implies, positive displacement meters are devices that measure volume at line conditions of temperature and pressure. Inferential meters, such as orifice and turbine meters, infer the volume from the differential developed across an orifice plate or the velocity of the gas passing through the meter. The discussion below will deal with two distinct types of positive displacement meters: the diaphragm and the rotary. Both measure volume, but each is based on a different operating pr inciple
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Document ID: 6350F4A8

Correcting Instruments For Displacement And Turbine Gas Meters
Author(s): D. R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
In gas measurement the meter is considered the basic element of measurement. It provides the measure of volume of the gas at line conditions. When using displacement type meters such as rotary or diaphragm type, and in many applications of the turbine gas meter, volume through the meter is indicated by a continuously driven index. If line conditions are at low pressure (close to atmospheric), the meter index indicates the volume through the meter in cubic feet and no additional correction is required. When metering takes place under conditions of variable line pressure and/or temperature it is necessary to provide a meter mounted instrument which will account for these variations. The instrument could be either a recording type, utilizing a circular chart, or an indicating type giving direct readout in corrected cubic feet.
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Document ID: 0741CF76

Diaphragm Meter Capacity Ratings At Elevated Pressures
Author(s): Howard Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
Through the y e a r s , the gas i n d u s t r y has been s t e a d i l y improving, e s p e c i a l l y f r om a t e c h n o l o g ical and product i m p r o v e m e n t s viewpoint. Today, the as i n d u s t r y has s t a n d a r d i z e d on most a p p l i c a t i o n s , methods and definitions as compared t o the knowledge possessed just twenty short y e a r s ago. Within the m e a s u r e m e n t field, two i m p o r t a n t a r e a s a r e still open for d i s c u s s i on and at t h e d i s c r e t i o n of t h e individual p e r s o n s or companies o p e r a t i n g within t h e s e a r e a s . One is the lack of an i n d u s t r y s t a n d a r d definition for a s t a n d a r d cubic foot of n a t u r a l g a s and second i s the lack of an i n d u s t r y s t a n d a r d for d i a p h r a gm m e t e r capacity r a t i n g s at elevated p r e s s u r e s . T h e r e a r e p r e s e n t l y in u s e a m i n i m um of t en different base p r e s s u r e s , each of which defines a s t a n d a r d cubic foot of n a t u r a l g a s . There a re many different methods of gas m e a s u r e m e n t in use today - the t h r e e most common a r e d i a p h r a gm d i s p l a c e m e n t m e t e r s , r o t a r y d i s p l a c e m e n t m e t e r s, and i n f e r e n t i a l m e t e r s.
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Document ID: 84079850

Mergas Meters
Author(s): Stanley F. Humbert
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of turbine meters for measurement of gas flow has been gaining increasing acceptance by the natural gas industry in the United States since the early 1970s. Gas turbine meters were developed in Europe during the late 1950s and introduced into use in the United States in the early 1960s. Although widely used in Europe since their development the majority of meters in use in the United States have been installed since 1970.
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Document ID: 66E4E73B

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): F. Mark Townsend
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement is the determination of the volume of a gas at a particular temperature and pressure. The measurement should be as accurate as possible, making use of the best data and techniques available. The gas quantity is usually expressed in cubic feet at some specific temperature and pressure. The best data available are the pressure, specific volume, and temperature values given in thermodynamic tables of pure substances. Tables are available for steam, air, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, methane, ethane, propane and several other substances. The tables should always be used when working with pure substances. These tables can also be used with mixtures of gases if the chemical analysis of the gas is known. However, in many cases this analysis is not available, so other methods must be used. One of the most convenient and satisfactory methods is to make use of the Gas Laws.
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Document ID: 492BCC7F

Charts, Pens, And Imcs
Author(s): Bruce J. Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
While all measurement personnel may possibly claim familiarity with charts, pens, and inks, not all are familiar with their relationship each to the other. Any comparison of an indicating instrument with a recording instrument will find the difference may be attributed to the addition of a chart drive motor, a chart and marking means to the indicator to create the recorder. Yet the contribution of the chart drive mechanism to the difference is somewhat outside any close examination of the relationships that exist between the chart and the marking device.
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Document ID: 456875CB

CM-A-12--A Critical Look At Dot Inspection Requirements
Author(s): L. D. Williams, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Part 192, Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipelines: Minimum Federal Safety Standards is a very complex piping code. One can work with this code for an entire career and never become an expert in all phases. The code covers materials, design, location, construction, operation and maintenance. No other code covers such a diversification of technical subjects coupled with an essential need for experience.
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Document ID: E2476351

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Richard J. Colfer
Abstract/Introduction:
Having entered the threshold of manned-space exploration, it is almost incredible that a method of measurement used before the time of Christ is the predominant method of measurement for one of our prime energy resources. Orifice meansurement can be traced back over 4000 years, when the Chaldeans calculated the length of synodic and periodic months by comparing the amount of water passed through an orifice between time intervals of the rising of the sun. Even more incredible is these calculations have been found to be accurate to within a few seconds!
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Document ID: EB81B260

Installation And Operation Of A Densitometer
Author(s): Carl Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
The direct measurement of gas density has many important advantages in flow measurement. The most basic form of flow measurement using density is mass flow determination. This measurement requires only the differential pressure measured across the orifice plate and the gas density. Only in the past few years has mass flow measurement of natural gas become practical. Prior to this time no accurate and inexpensive densitometer was available.
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Document ID: E2B90B3D

Itt Snyder
Author(s): William D. Ballou
Abstract/Introduction:
A bellows type orifice meter is a device to measure differential pressure generated by fluid flow through a restricting orifice in a pipeline. By using this information, with other measured and engineered data, accurate flow rate and volume can be determined for gas, vapor, or liquid. Although there are many types of devices on the market today, bellows type orifice measurement is accepted and utilized extensively by industry. Some of the reasons for this is apparent. The bellows type orifice meter can be easily calibrated in the field, on stream, and without interrupting flow. It can be used on practically any line size, to handle any volume, without changing the physical size of the meter. In addition, it cannot be damaged by overrange of flow which is one of its most important attributes.
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Document ID: 7BF78ED3

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
The most common method of gas metering involves the measurement of a pressure difference from which, together with certain other data, the rate of flow is computed on the basis of well established physical principles. The differential pressure that is measured is produced by a restriction placed within the flowing medium. This restriction is in the form of an orifice plate which has an accurately machined sharpedged circular hole in its center. Frequent inspection of the orifice plate is necessary in some types of service to insure that it is in the proper condition to meter accurately, i.e., the plate is flat and clean and the inlet edge of the orifice bore is still sharp, square, and free from nicks or other damage.
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Document ID: D530E291

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Don W. Darais
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the almost daily increasing cost of hydrocarbon products, both liquid and gas, there is a growing concern for accurate measurement. In many applications this begins with a signal from the primary element, consi-ting of the Orifice Fitting. Orifice Plate and Meter Tube. In order to more clearly discuss each of the components which make up the primary element in orifice measurement, each will be set out and discussed separately as follows: Orifice Fittings (consisting of Senior Fitting, Junior Fitting, and Simplex Fitting), Orifice Plate, Sealing Units, and Meter Tubes.
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Document ID: 5AA4AF23

Orifice Meters - Operations And Maintenance
Author(s): Donald R. Hurd
Abstract/Introduction:
The principle of the orifice meter is many years old. Measurement by orifice meter has been developed to be the simplest and most accurate device for measurement of large volumes of gas. There are several different types of orifice meters used in the industry but we will be discussing a typical installation of our company, such as a 2-pen, 0-100 differential and 0-1000# pressure range, orifice meter with a five-valve manifold. (See Figure 1.) The different styles of orifice meters are the bellows type, sometimes referred to as a dri-flow, and the mercury type which has two mercury chambers connected with a Ubend. Each orifice meter has its own characteristics and each one has its advantages and disadvantages.
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Document ID: C3BF4B5F

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): Henry A. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
The bellows-type orifice meter gauge has found widespread application and increasing popularity in orifice metering. Its operation does not require mercury nor critical leveling for operation. The rapid response and high output torque make the bellows meter particularly adaptable to integrating and controlling devices. The meter is generally not affected by condensed liquid in the measuring system. The self-draining feature along with proper installation makes it very adaptable to wet gas systems.
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Document ID: AD1E2133

S & Techniques Trol & Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Goering
Abstract/Introduction:
The dispatcher supervises and controls pipeline operations by interpreting information displayed at the dispatch center which has been sensed at the remote stations and transmitted over the communication lines. The continuous a v a i l a b i l i t y of communication circuits is a key to any successful system however, recent developments in remote station equipment have reduced what use to be almost total dependence on the communication link.
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Document ID: 1077A194

Flow Measurement Systems
Abstract/Introduction:
Sonic nozzles have been used in the labortory for gas meter calibrations for several years. However, it has been only recently that sonic nozzles have been used to calibrate gas meters in the field. This paper gives information on sizing, installation, and proper usage of sonic nozzles for field calibrations of gas meters.
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Document ID: 86F538CC

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulphide & Total Sulphur By Titration Methods
Author(s): R. R. Austin,J. R. Robison
Abstract/Introduction:
Electrolytic generation of bromine as a titrating reagent for measurement of sulfur compounds in the gaseous phase was introduced to industry nearly twenty years ago. With the development of transistor electronics and the discovery of a practical coulometric bromine sensing electrode system, a new, wide range electrolytic titrator was developed and designed to meet the specific requirements for continuous sulfur monitoring.
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Document ID: C595E9D2

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): James A. Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
The term Large Capacity Displacement Meters, as used by the gas distribution industry, refers to those diaphragm type meters with a capacity of 500 to 10 or 11,000 cfh of 0.64 specific gravity natural gas at a maximum of 4 ounces inlet pressure with no more than two inches water column differential pressure between the meter inlet and outlet at capacity flow. As time permits, the evolution, sizing and installation practices for these large meters will be discussed.
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Document ID: E728347F

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Tejas Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Bruce J. Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Tejas offers two basic chart changers, namely, pneumatic and electric powered. In the instance of the pneumatically powered chart changer (Model P250) any available, although reasonably clean, air or gas supply of 50 psi may be used as an actuating medium. On the other hand the basic electric chart changer (Model B-2) draws power from a 12 volt battery. Considering these batteries are rechargeable, batteries may be exchanged as necessary to allow offsite recharging. Where AC power is available, the basic battery changer is available with an added trickle charger (Model B-2-E) to float the battery to overcome the periodic necessity of recycling batteries. The addition of the trickle charger to the package differentiates between the battery changer and the AC-powered changer of the electric types.
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Document ID: C1723BDC

Mjndamental Principles Op Regulators
Author(s): Henry J. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
F o r many y e a r s now the b a s i c gas r e g u l a t o r h as been t a k e n for g r a n t e d . It h a s become such a f a m i l i a r sight we dont stop to r e a l i z e the i m p o r t a n c e of t h i s piece of equipment. With the high p r e s s u r e pipe line s y s t e m s of today e v e r y cubic foot of gas p a s s e s through many r e g u l a t o r s b e f o r e it is consumed in some c u s t o m e r s appliance or p r o c e s s . With d e e p e r insight c o n s i d e r the r e s i d e n t i a l g a s s e r v i c e r e g u l a t o r that may have been i n s t a l l e d 10 y e a r s ago at an a v e r a g e m i d west home. It h a s probably c o n t r o l l e d an a v e r a g e 22, 000 s t a n d a r d cubic feet of n a t u r al gas per month at an a v e r a g e value of 1 . 00 per 1, 000 std. cu. ft. This l i t t l e r e g u l a t o r which sold for a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5. 00 to 6. 00 ten y e a rs ago has in the last t e n y e a r s c o n t r o l l e d 2, 640,000 std. cu. ft. of n a t u r a l gas at an a p p r o x i m a te value of 2, 640. 00.
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Document ID: A1F5F706

Industrial And District Regulators And Applications
Author(s): Frederick R. Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
insulators emp e5 in domestic service are -enerally used in standardized installations and under somewhat similar operating conditions. In contrast to these, industrial regulators cover -a Tread spectrum of specialised applications with respect to pressure, flow capacity,, accuracy, ranyoabilit an I other requirements. The multiplicity of available types provides an awesome choice to the uninitiated, but usually a few special requirements quickly narrow the selection for a given situation.
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Document ID: 47F63B48

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators A Demonstration
Author(s): Ralph Kubitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulator selection begins with an analysis of an application. In many instances requirements are the same as before and selection involves little more than reference to a company standard or a manufacturers capacity table. Unfortunately, this isnt always the case, and where requirements are unusual, where they differ from the previous, detailed analysis becomes a necessity.
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Document ID: 26F352D5

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): Weyland Sligh
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no single design of a regulator which can be classed as large capacity. Of the many types of regulators that can be called large capacity, the double ported balanced valve is the most common. There are a large number of other designs such as single valve units - balanced and unbalanced, plug valves, ball valves, and others. Practically every valve design has at one time or another been made into a regulator by providing a power device to position the valve and a measuring device to sense deviation in the controlled parameter.
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Document ID: 45EE91A5

Pressure Keguliatlun With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): R. R. Nalley
Abstract/Introduction:
The expansible tube type regulator is a unique design in which the only moving part is the expansible tube. This tube accomplishes the same function as a conventional control valve with a diaphragm, spring, stem, plug, packing box, and seat ring, without the requirement of a pressure, temperature, or level controller. Only a small pilot is necessary to accomplish any control requirement.
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Document ID: A3E40F75

High Pressure Farm Taps And Service Regulators
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
High Pressure Farm Tap Regulators and the low pressure service regulator are the most basic and numerically the most common regulators utilized in the gas industry. They are simple, reliable, low in cost, easy to install and require practically no maintenance. Both the high pressure farm tap and the low pressure service regulators share many similar construction features spring and diaphragm, boost effect, single soft seat, mechanical advantage (lever arm) between valve and diaphragm. Despite the relative simplicity of this class of regulator, countless engineering hours have been spent on its development and refinement. Most of this work has been spent in the low pressure version-the service regulator.
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Document ID: C83D37C4

Applications Of Telemetering Systems & Flow Computers
Author(s): R. W. Lowell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a basic paper illustrating the various types of telemetering and flow computing systems as utilized in the Gas Industry. The paper will be general in nature, as the entire subject matter represents an entire field of endeavor. Therefore, only basic fundamentals of the various types of flow computing and telemetering systems /fill be covered in this paper.
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Document ID: 421EEB7F

Specific Gravity Instruments - Care And Operation
Author(s): L. W. Dunn
Abstract/Introduction:
This gravitometer is a direct weighing type instrument and is constructed to measure the difference in the weight of a column of gas and an equal column of dry air. This difference is transmitted to a chart on which is recorded the specific gravity of the gas passing thru the instrument. This instrument consists of an air bell and gas bell, both identical and suspended at equal distances from the fulcrum of the balance beam. The purpose of the air bell is to compensate for the weight of the gas bell and the surface tension of the sealing liquid in which the two bells are suspended. The interior space of the air bell is open to the atmosphere thru an air inlet and outlet which contain a drying agent. The interior space of the gas bell is open to the atmosphere thru its outlet and the gas supply is admitted thru its inlet. Two vertical tubes of adequate height to obtain the required working force on the bells are connected at their bases to the inside space of the bells. The movement of the bells is transmitted thru the balance beam of the recording mechanism.
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Document ID: 778357DC

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): Al Burr,L. G. Tidwell,M. L. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
industry in 1960. Its speed and potential accuracy surpassed any existing equipment. The first model, with a digital computer, was very expensive and most companies felt it was not economically feasible to use. Later the computer was changed to an analog version, reducing the cost and making it more attractive to the industry. In 1970, the scanner was again redesigned. Integrated circuits were used to produce a scanner comparable in price to the analog version and having many improvements. Although more improvements have been made since then, the basic design is unchanged. Because the chart geometry is different on American, Foxboro, and Emco charts, a different scan station is required for each. A selector switch connects the desired station to the computer section.
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Document ID: 6619F89C

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula Qb C X VH w Pf where Qb is the quantity, Hw is the differential, and Pf the absolute static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C* is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, supercompressibility factor and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors the values of the quantities from which they are derived must either be assumed or measured. This paper will deal with those instruments measuring specific gravity. (For further details of the flow computation refer to A.G.A. Gas Measurement Report No. 3).
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Document ID: A1A9BB90

Txt Division, Vapor Corporation
Author(s): Mack Jacobs
Abstract/Introduction:
urgent need existed for a control valve that jld meet certain criteria not available in exisig valve designs, and in 1958, the JET STREAM ber plug type control valve was introduced. ause of this, some readers will find this to be eview of things already known, while others may icover a new valve. Its interesting to note it since 1958 there have been a number of spell ty valves developed in an attempt to meet the icting demands of precise and careful control, : none of them have been able to match the rubber jg and the way it can be worked to provide all : same benefits.
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Document ID: 47F74E0F

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Thomas J. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
As the United States celebrates its bicentennial anniversary, it is appropriate to recognize that the industrial growth of our nation has been achieved through the diversified usage of our energy-producing resources and the innovative yenius of our fore-fathers. For 160 years of our 200 year heritage, the commercial use of gas has been a prevalent factor contributing to our growth. In its infancy, gas was used primarily to illuminate streets, stores, and the homes of the well-to-do.
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Document ID: 76F68735

Elements Of Sound And Sound Measurement
Author(s): Roger B. Harper
Abstract/Introduction:
In a natural gas pressure regulating station, as the higher pressure gas is released through a regulator into the downstream piping system, sound is produced. This sound is caused by turbulence which is introduced into the gas stream as it leaves the restriction in the regulator and then expands into the lower pressure of the downstream system.
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Document ID: C0D4C8CD

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Michael J. Keady
Abstract/Introduction:
electronic instrumentation are i/iding better and more accurate control devices. Easy methods programming and operating these each application are being defeat variety of measurement and tions call for many different these instruments to achieve table and accurate flow response ital investment.
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Document ID: A4AFAE91

Application And Operation Of Ball Valve Regulators
Author(s): Roy J. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
Over twenty years ago a plug valve was equipped with a pneumatic cylinder and a positioner and used as a monitor regulator. The concept was a new method of gas regulation and was the beginning of a new era . A midwestern utility used these plug valve regulators above grade with relatively good success. They believed, however, that a buried valve regulator would be more desirable than an above ground unit and would greatly reduce the cost of a station. Regulators of this nature were successful and proved to be the key to todays modern high capacity control stat ions. Many valve configurations can be used to make a regulator, including plug, sliding disc, butterfly and ball valves. Naturally some units will outperform others, prime factors being tight shut-off and 1ow torque. Everyone is looking for the ideal unit-one that will give perfect control, be maintenance free, have good appearance, be noise free and function without problems at all times including cold weather. Some of these requirements are difficult to accomplish, however, they should be the ultimate goal of all manufacturers of valve regulators. COMPONENTS The ideal unit can be approached with proper selection of components. A valve regulator is made of three major items - a valve, a power unit, and a positioner.
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Document ID: A395B1DC

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Control
Author(s): Frederick R. Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators are automatic proportional controllers, ordinarily used to reduce a gas pressure from a higher to a lower value and to maintain this value by controlling flow through an adjustable valve. Regulators may be classified as selfoperated or pilot (relay) operated: each type has advantages for certain applications. In this paper we shall consider several types of pilot-operated regulators.
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Document ID: 2E64F7C0

Expansible Element Valves For Pressure Reguution And Relief
Author(s): Henry A. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
Expansible element valves are not new to the industry but with new designs a more perfect valve has been developed. Fast response, infinite rangeability, small size, low noise levels and minimum number of parts make the Axial Flow Valve an excellent choice for pressure regulation or pressure relief. Refer to Figure 1.
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Document ID: 8E864A85

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a reason for a regulator station being a potential source of noise. It is because potential energy is changed into kinetic energy in the regulators, resulting in high velocities on the downstream side of the regulators. Velocity, however, is only one source of noise, another being mechanical vibration in the regulator body if it is designed so that this can take place.
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Document ID: 7AD5D35B

Meter Station Noise Forecasting
Author(s): James R. Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas, as an energy source has a reputation for being efficient, clean, low cost, and pollution free. The general public is aware of the usefulness of gas and demand for this product is running at an all time high. As residential areas expand and laws governing expansion of existing gas distribution networks are relaxed, higher flow rates will be experienced in existing regulating stations. Increased usage means higher flow rates, which in turn imply rising noise level. These higher noise levels result in public objection, which we want to avoid.
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Document ID: D7EA1026

Relief Valves
Author(s): Don Broaddus
Abstract/Introduction:
This is going to be a short paper on relief valves. The purpose of the paper is to discuss four types of upsets - the distress that can result from them - and the proposed correction to assure that it doesnt happen again. Lets roll these upsets out and see if we agree that they represent real problems to the operator:
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Document ID: D655D2A2

Principles, Appliation, And Sizing Of Monitor Regulators
Author(s): George Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
Public Law 90-*f8l, The Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act, became effective August 12, 1968. This act gave the Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety, the authority to prescribe and enforce safety standards. The effect of federal safety standards upon gas companies varied as to the degree of previous compliance with the USAS Code B-31.8. The coverage of both codes most certainly included overpressure protection installations. However, the federal standards, in addition to being mandatory, are subject to interpretation by others. The interpretation of unsafe overpressuring of the customers appliances, for example. What pressure is unsafe? 10 in. w.c, 20 in. w.c, 1 psig, 2 psig or 60 psig? The B-31.8 code stated in low pressure distribution systems, 2 psig was maximum unsafe overpressure. The federal standards deleted the 2 psig and substituted the performancetype language, a pressure that will not exceed the safe operating pressure for any connected and properly adjusted gas utilization equipment. Both the B-31.8 and the federal code state, If the maximum actual operating pressure of the distribution system is under 60 psig or less and a service regulator having the following characteristics is used, no other pressure limiting device is required. The characteristics listed for the service regulator define a non-relief, non-shut off, non-monitor type 2 in. pipe size and smaller service regulator. If this regulator were to fail, pressures up to 60 psig could be applied to the customers appliances. Interpretation of the codes by the author, it is all right to blow-up a few, but not many, or if the posted speed limit is 70 M.P.H. and you have an accident going 50 M.P.H. you were going too fast.
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Document ID: AA223949

Continental Oil Company
Author(s): Doyle E. Coffelt
Abstract/Introduction:
DIVERT VALVE - This valve is installed to automatically divert the oil from the sales meter to a treater or bad oil tank when the crude contains excess water as detected by the water cut monitor. Routine inspection to determine if the stem packing is leaking is normally all the required maintenance of a divert valve. Routine periodic inspection and test of the divert control circuit and valve system is a necessary part of LACT maintenance. Since the valve may not be required to operate for long periods of time, corrosion damage to the circuitry or actuator can go undetected unless the complete system is periodically inspected and exercised.
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Document ID: EEBE1416

Domestic Meters
Author(s): J. L. Esola
Abstract/Introduction:
?or over 100 years, gas has been measured by means f a positive displacement meter. There have been /arious types and sizes but the basic principle is still the same. In addition to this, the basic iifficulties are also the same that were encountered in 1850. Let us dig deeper and see how the present day domestic gas meter overcomes these iifficulties.
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Document ID: 5815F95A

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the liquid turbine meter principle dates back many decades, the axial flow turbine meters presently employed for liquid measurement are quite new. The axial flow turbine meter was first used for water flow measurement where there was plenty of energy available for driving the rotor and normally where accuracy of measurement was not of prime importance. Reliability was of greater importance, so parts were made rugged and the rotor was designed more to be non-clogging than to be accurate.
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Document ID: 7CE5D5B4

Measurement Of Ethane Rich Streams
Author(s): S. F. Isaacs
Abstract/Introduction:
The content of ethane in a liquid flowing hydrocarbon stream greatly effects the weight to volume ratio, not only from a direct physical standpoint, but from a molecular standpoint of shrinkage. GPA experiments have shown shrinkage as high as 6%. For this reason pipelines have tended toward mass measurement versus the pure volume method of measurement.
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Document ID: C27673FB

Automated Measurement On Loading Racks
Author(s): C. D. Goggin, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
the need for more extensive, more definitive, I more timely information becomes essential, order to extract a profit in todays ipetitive market place, all companies are irching for a more functional and sophisticated formation system. Yet, many current trade lications caution that information systems j a myth and those who chase such a rainbow ! on a fools errand,
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Document ID: C227C9F3

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): W. J. Templeton
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass measurement eliminates the need to compensate for the effects of compressibility and non-ideal mixing of stream mixtures containing ethane. Correction factors developed from physical properties are not required to convert the measurement to standard conditions, thus improving the measurement accuracy by 4 to 9%.
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Document ID: 5BA8168C

Operations And Measurement
Author(s): Kenneth C. Campbell
Abstract/Introduction:
The Phillips-Marathon Alaska to Japan LNG project commenced production in June, 1969. The first LNG shipment on the LNG tanker Polar Alaska was made from Kenai, Alaska, in October, 1969. This shipment was followed by four more on the Polar Alaska, when she was joined by her sister ship, the Arctic Tokyo, which sailed with her first cargo in March, 1970. Since then the two ships have been delivering LNG to Japan to meet the average daily requirement of about 140 MMSCFD.
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Document ID: BF4B190F

Royalty Verification Of Oil And Gas Accounting
Author(s): Mary Jo Armer
Abstract/Introduction:
The title suggests that this subject would not be relevant to anyone employed by production companies. However, that is not the case. Let us imagine that you are employed by a large royalty owner group to do Its accounting and the verification of its royalty income. A royalty owners verification is generally a manual check of royalty payments received from your companies.
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Document ID: 09D513FB

Itt Barton
Author(s): Milton H. November
Abstract/Introduction:
The density of a fluid is an important physical property. A knowledge of fluid density is vital to a broad spectrum of measurements in fluid mechanics. In fluid flow measurement, an exacting knowledge of flowing density is primary to the precise metering of volume and mass flow. The mass of a combustible fluid bears a close correlation to its intrinsic calorific content, ie. heat of combustion. Accordingly, mass measurement is significant in current trends to therms metering.
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Document ID: 4AE6A817

The Roles Of Epa And Industry In Protecting Our Environment
Author(s): Wayne C. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The EPA and industry each have significant roles in protecting our environment. The EPA has the major roles of developing and enforcing standards and the major industry roles are to develop and utilize technology to eliminate pollution and to aid the EPA in the development of air and water pollution standards.
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Document ID: 63D13C28

Oil Loss Control In Tanker Operations
Author(s): Gregory R. Zakrzewski
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of the Free Worlds forty-five million barrels a day of petroleum requirements are moved by tanker from the production fields to consuming locations. The United States has been for many years the noteworthy exception among the highly industrialized countries that had insufficient indigenous crude oil supplies to meet their needs. That situation is now past tense. Our own domestic producing capability is decreasing and demands are on the rise we have joined the rest of the Free World in becoming dependent on tankers to deliver a major share of our petroleum needs.
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Document ID: 72D49E05

LNG Densities For Custody Transfer
Author(s): m. A. Albright
Abstract/Introduction:
In custody transfer of LNG, there are many possible configurations of measurement devices. They include measurements from simple tank level to volumetric flow to mass flow. Typical ways are illustrated in Figure 1. In every case, the density of the LNG is required. The density may be for instrument calibration or for direct use in delivery calculations.
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Document ID: B77AF104

American Meter
Author(s): Wilbur W. Lints
Abstract/Introduction:
rpes of rotating vane meters were introduced i gas industry during the 1960*8. The first itroduced in the early 1960*s and was designed two vanes on the rotor assembly. The second itroduced in 1969 and was designed with four on the rotor assembly. This paper pertains i four-vane meter, designated CVM.
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Document ID: 7047114D

Liquid Prover Calibration
Author(s): Carl Green, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Fluid measurement is normally done under flowing conditions using a meter. Since a meters output can change (from debris, mechanical wear, etc.) reverification of its readout should be checked periodically against an accepted standard, The standard for verifying meter throughput is to check it against a known-volume. This knownvolume check of a meter is called proving and over the years many different devices have been used as provers (master meters, weigh tanks, tank gauging, etc.). A relative newcomer to the field of proving which offers a faster, less troublesome, less expensive, and more accurate means of flow measurement is the Mechanical Displacement Prover.
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Document ID: DAEE1E35

Gas Chromatography
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the gas chromatographic analysis of natural gas as currently performed at the Pennzoil Company Research Laboratory and the adjacent United Gas Pipe Line Company facility. Instrumentation, techniques, and treatment of data are described.
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Document ID: BA01CC80

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Mullins Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
Mullins Manufacturing Company, I n c . , is unique that all three manufacturers of automatic chart changers, it is the only Company formed expressly to manufacture an automatic chart changer. The company was formed in 1957, purchased the patent while it was still pending, defended all claims and placed it in production in 1958. The first commercial installation being made in January 1959. This model became known as the Dial- O-Graph.
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Document ID: 0491B2F9

Mobil Oil Corporation
Author(s): Howard A. Young
Abstract/Introduction:
Surveillance has always been assigned a top priority in pipeline operations. Good surveillance is routinely afforded pipelines transferring noncompressible liquids. This is usually accomplished by visual observation of pressure measurements transmitted to a centrally located graphic display. Controllers with intimate knowledge of pipeline parameters and elevations maintain excellent surveillance.
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Document ID: 1FDC2CDD

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): C. m. Owen
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion will be confined to field measurement of Upright, Above Ground Cone and Floating roof Steel Storage Tanks. The aim is the development of a procedure Check List to assist personnel engaged in calibration or witnessing calibration of a storage tank.
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Document ID: 6B6B76DB

High Capacity Liquid Measurement Systems
Author(s): Richard E. Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the late 1960s there has been a trend by many oil companies and contract engineering companies toward purchasing complete pre-tested metering and control systems as opposed to purchasing individual measurement equipment. This trend has come about because of their desire to work with a single supplier who has expertise in flow measurement and control and can provide a complete, pre-tested system, rather than working directly with 50 to 100 individual component vendors.
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Document ID: 2AE875DF

Determination Of Leaks & Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): Andre J. Massicott
Abstract/Introduction:
There are basically two kinds of tests for underground gas leakage: 1. Surface tests 2. Subsurface tests Some surface tests are made by instruments that amplify the indications of the traditional hot wire indicators. Another surface sampling method that has developed into widespread use during the last few years is the Flame-Ionization method.
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Document ID: 1B66B325

Mississippi Valley Gas
Author(s): Joe J. Powell, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion is primarily concerned with unaccounted for gas in distribution systems and the analysis of the factors contributing to the total unaccounted-for quantity. Leakage is the factor which is of most concern because it represents a real loss of gas (and money) and indicates a possible hazard to life and property. Measurement error can also represent a oss of money and must usually be identified in o* T to evaluate leakage.
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Document ID: 5E3DBCC5

Trouble Shooting In Metameter Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Win. T. A. Caraway-
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is concerned with troubleshooting Pulse duration telemetering equipment. Initially a definition of telemetering is in order. Simple definitions simply state Telemetering is remote measurement or telemetering is measurement at a distance.
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Document ID: 3BF5A8AA

Advanced Applications Of Telemetering Systems And Flow Computers
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a discussion of digital telemetry techniques, utilizing both unidirectional and bidirectional systems. The application of gas flow computers to the systems will also be discussed. First of all, a review of analog telemetry techniques is in order before we proceed into digital telemetry. There are three basic types of analog telemetry used today. The first type is utilized over short distances, and usuallv limited to private circuits not exceeding 5000 feet.
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Document ID: 83657D9D

About Ishm 1976
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: F222E4AB


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