Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1973)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Industry Measurement Organizations And Standards
Author(s): W. N. Seward
Abstract/Introduction:
The oil and gas industries, throughout their more than 100 years of historical development, have been able to capitalize on the reduction of sophisticated equipment and technology through industry- wide standardization efforts. The essential elements of any voluntary standardization effort are threefold. First, to decrease immediate capital costs and long term maintenance expenses through the interchangeability of parts and the establishment of uniform operating and training procedures. Second, to ascertain and develop optimum levels of performance, safety and reliability without causing a lag in technological development . Third, to promote economic viability and incentive among supply and service organizations associated with the resource indus tries
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Document ID: EB694222

By Positive Displacement And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Charles J. Mentz
Abstract/Introduction:
Positive displacement meters have been in use for a number of years. T serve many i n d u s t r i e s very well in a vast number of fluid measurement a p p l i c a t i o n s . In the petroleum industry t h i s device is used in such va applications as pipeline measurement for custody t r a n s f e r of products r Lng from LPGs to crude o i l s , on tanker and barge loading and unloading systems, in refinery control and blending operations, on tank truck loa racks, on a i r c r a f t refueling u n i t s , and on fuel o i l delivery trucks to some of the more common and successful uses for t h i s type meter
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Document ID: E578F984

Lease Oil Accounting
Author(s): P. R. Martindale
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation will relate to accounting by both purchasers and producers of cru.de oil. All purchasers are not producers and conversely all producers are not purchasers. However, most integrated oil companies have both operations, both perform many of the same accounting functions. Each has its own individual requirements and the accounting system must provide proper controls
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Document ID: 4C689560

Liquid Measurement Volume Calculation Procedures
Author(s): William C. Thompson, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
The exchange of hydrocarbon products between companies is normally measured on a volume basis. The gross volume measured is then adjusted back to some condition of temperature and pressure. The standard temperature for these products is 60F with the pressure being at 0 psig for heavy products or at equilibrium pressure for products in the LPG range. This paper will discuss the procedures for converting the volume of product from the measured condition to these bases
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Document ID: F2FB7DB7

Measurement Correction Coefficients
Abstract/Introduction:
To calibrate a meter, the liquid in the meter and prover must be corrected to the same temperature and pressure. It would be acceptable to correct meter conditions to prover conditions or vice versa, but it is more practical to correct both of them to Standard conditions, since temperature and pressure tables are already available. It is not required that correction for physical changes to the meter, due to temperature and pressure, be included in the calculations
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Document ID: B68BA0BC

Calibration Of Shore Tanks, Tankers, Barges, & Other Carriers
Author(s): Jack E. Painton
Abstract/Introduction:
The origin of the process of tank strapping, the term for measuring the dimensions of tanks required to prepare gauge tables, pre-dates the petroleum and chemical industry by many years. The first tank strappers, as we call them now, were actually Coopers in the Cask making industry. These casks were made of wood staves bound together with metal straps, and were of varying sizes. The product stored was usually liquor, wine, or whale oil.
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Document ID: E1640B0B

Loss Prevention
Author(s): L. J. Black
Abstract/Introduction:
Loss Prevention as the name implies is the effort employed in the prevention of the losses of hydrocarbons in transportation storage and distribution systems. The standards of the American Petroleum Institute, the American Society For Testing and Materials, the National Bureau of Standards and Company policies should be recognized in the effort. Ideally Loss Prevention should be a prime consideration in the original design and operating plan for such systems. This paper will be limited to systems handling bulk liquid hydrocarbons.
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Document ID: C989E3A4

Loss Prevention Management
Abstract/Introduction:
If the recorded measurement variations on individual transactions or daily operations fall within these tolerances, than the system would appear to he operating within its capabilities and no Loss Prevention action would be necessary. However, if the tolerances are exceeded or the cumulative experience of recorded measurement variations indicates a bias developing, then a search for possible losses from the system should be initiated. Such work would include the following
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Document ID: 5749AA7C

Mechanical Displacement Meter Provers For Liquids
Author(s): Charles R. Groves,Carl C. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, with the increasing need for energy, the decreasing supply, and the higher costs involved, the need for accurate measurement is of vital importance to all of us. WHY A METER PROVER? Two major types of liquid meters, as you have learned earlier, can be turbine or positive displacement. When new, they are manufactured to an accuracy of h of 1 percent by volume throughout a given range. However, meters have a tendency to wear - causing a drag on the moving parts, or permitting slippage of liquid through the measuring unit. Liquid meters are constantly being checked in the field, preferably in their own environment by a prover to determine this degree of inaccuracy.
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Document ID: E16AFD80

Measurement In Liquid Pipeline Operation
Author(s): R. H. Meyer
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for reliability, repeatability, precision, and accuracy in volume measurement in common carrier pipelines is emphasized by the fact that the carrier has custody of the fluids handled but not ownership. Any mismeasurement leads directly to a problem of selling an excess amount of liquid handled or making up a shortage by purchases from outside sources with a need to explain such differences to shippers, consignees, stockholders, and regulatory agencies when required. To minimize errors in measurement the entire metering installations and the individual pieces of equipment are continually scrutinized. To further complicate the problem the quantities to be measured and the rate of measurement have been greatly increased
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Document ID: 58858D31

LNG Custody Transfer Instrumentation
Abstract/Introduction:
The quantity to be measured is the distance from the bottom of the tank to the liquid surface. This is measured directly by a long tubular sensor column installed in the tank and extending the full depth over which level is to be measured. The sensor is assembled from a number of segments all the same length plus one special segment to fit the particular tank height. These segments are made to accurate dimensions and are used much as a machinist uses Johansson blocks.
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Document ID: D2A010FA

Custody Transfer Loading Of Super Tankers By Turbine Meter Systems
Author(s): Jack R. Babbitt
Abstract/Introduction:
To reduce the cost of transportation of crude oil from the Middle East and African fields and to bring this crude to European and United States Ports of Entry, huge Super Tankers have been constructed. The proper name for such vessels is Very Large Crude Carriers, shortened to VLCC. Transportation savings of fifty to seventy-five cents per barrel can be realized by the use of such VLCCs. Quoting from an article in the February 1973 edition of the CHEMICAL ENGINEERING magazine, At the beginning of 1972, a total of 463 active tankers and bulk carriers of over 100,000 dead weight tons were too big to enter any U.S. port fully loaded. With a 477,000 dead weight ton tanker due for delivery from a Japanese ship builder the first quarter of this year, and two on order for Shell Oil Company of 525,000 dead weight tons, it is said that the era of onehalf million ton ships has arrived and that the 700,000 to 800,000 ton size is just over the horizon.
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Document ID: A001026D

Tank Gauging
Author(s): J. E. Toliver
Abstract/Introduction:
petroleum and petroleum products have a definite value for the developer and purchaser or receiver when quantity and quality are established. A pipeline company employee, known to the industry as a gauger, measures, samples, and tests the crude oil to determine quantity and quality. His operations as a crude oil inspector are known to the industry as gauging. The gauger applies rules which have their basis in longstanding experience and experimentation. These rules have been Jointly approved by the American Society for Testing and Materials and the American Petroleum Institute, and are published by the American Petroleum Institute as API Standards 2542 through 2548. However, most individual pipe
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Document ID: CCE2D643


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