Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1969)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Diaphragm Meter Capacity Ratings At Elevated Pressures
Author(s): H. W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Through the years, the gas industry has been steadily improving, especially from a technological and product improvements viewpoint. Today, the gas industry has standardized on most applications, methods and definitions as compared to the knowledge possessed just twenty short years ago, Within the measurement field, two important areas are still open for discussion and at the discretion of the individual persons or companies operating within these areas. One is the lack of an industry standard definition for a standard cubic foot of natural gas and second is the lack of an industry standard for diaphragm meter capacity ratings at elevated pressures. There are presently in use a minimum often different base pressures, each of which defines a standard cubic foot of natural g a s. There are many different methods of gas measurement in use today - the three most common are diaphragm displacement meters, rotary displacement meters and inferential or orifice meters.
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Document ID: 3E745560

Principles Of Automatic Control
Author(s): Willard Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator is any device that influences the operation, flow or reaction of another piece of equipment or product. This term, regulator, could even apply to a wife in her efforts to control her husband. However, the control isnt complete since he occasionally gets out of her sight and may vary slightly from her instructions. This would be classified as an open loop operation since the wife has no feedback on her husbands action consequently she can not take corrective actions to keep hira on the straight and narrow. If, however, she has enough spies out, she will know his every move. This is complete control or a closed loop operation. Probably most of us fall into this catagory. The controllers used in conjunction with other equipment to regulate gas flows provide the spying and corrective action required to keep these flows at the desired levels.
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Document ID: A0527DC1

Manual Procedure For The Calculation Of Gas Measurement Charts
Author(s): J . E. Graman
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy is the prime goal of any Measurement Department. To maintain an efficient and accurate department, chart calculation has an important role. In obtaining gas volumes, the various stages of chart processing will bediscussed.
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Document ID: F2056B39

Methods Of Deterkining Specific Gravity
Author(s): E. J. Schumacher
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of specific gravity is an important function in the work of Gas Measurement. In measuring gas by orifice meters, the specific gravity of the gas being measured is certainly one of the major variable factors in determining actual volumes measured, if not the greatest. Unless the coefficient is corrected to an accurately determined specific gravity of the gas being measured, the measurement will not be correct. Before going any farther into discussion, we should define Specific Gravity. One can find many definitions for specific gravity. In fact one can pick almost any gas handbook or gas journal and find a different definition in each one. But technically speaking in the gas business, specific gravity can best be defined as the ratio of the molecular weight of a gas to that of the molecular weight of air, where the molecular weight of air is assumed to be 28.9644.
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Document ID: 5F60CD2F

Flow Computers For Measurement And Control
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
The first point to clarify is the type of flow computer to be discussed- The term computer is one which is drastically overworked in our language and implies some mysterious and marvelous device to solve all of our problems. The Chinese had computers centuries ago, and their term was abacus. All of us utilized computers in our college engineering courses, but our term at that time was slide rule. Many of us, after college, advanced to a more elaborate computer known as a calculator, and today, even the calculators are more marvelous and silent since electrons are doing the counting.
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Document ID: A5B60621

Operation And Maintenance Of Densitometers
Author(s): John R. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
The CJGC Industries Densitometer is an instrument which measures absolute density in terms of weight per unit volume. Knowing only the density of the gas flowing within a pipeline and the differential pressure across the orifice plate, mass flow can be calculated. This paper will be limited to the operation and maintenance of the UGCI pneumatic and electric Densitometers.
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Document ID: 6E5EB837

Flow Computers For Measurement And Control
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
The first point to clarify is the type of flow computer to be discussed- The term computer is one which is drastically overworked in our language and implies some mysterious and marvelous device to solve all of our problems. The Chinese had computers centuries ago, and their term was abacus. All of us utilized computers in our college engineering courses, but our term at that time was slide rule. Many of us, after college, advanced to a more elaborate computer known as a calculator, and today, even the calculators are more marvelous and silent since electrons are doing the counting. There are two basic types of computers, analog and digital, and examples in the previous description would include the analog computer known as the slide rule, and the digital computer known as a calculator. In simplest terms, analog techniques are based on how much, while digital techniques are based on how many.
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Document ID: 3862838F

Turbine Meter And Continuous Integrator
Author(s): Frederick R. Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Turbine Meter is a compactj ruggedly built device suitable for measuring large volumes of gas for production, transmission, distribution and industrial accounts. It is designed to maintain 1% accuracy throughout its recommended flow range.
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Document ID: DD5D3DCC

Communicating Ideas
Author(s): R. R. Van Kerrebrook
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a class in coirammications. The first thing we wish to say is that we will not discuss hardware. Therefore if you have a mind to discuss diodes and oscillating circuits you will have to look elsewhere. i At the Houston school, most people in attendance are connected with the measurement of gases. This means that you are smart people because gas measurement people are more intelligent than other people. I Now, being more intelligent than other people means that we have some advantages. For instance we have steady jobs at fairly good pay. We are able to help the less fortunate people. We can look at a bunch of equipment and analyze what is happening or should happen. We can think up new ideas that are beyond the grasp of ordinary people.
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Document ID: 481D443D

Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): John L. Esola
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Pressure Regulation is one of the most Important factors in the transmission and distribution of gas from the well to the consumer. In order to provide safe, economical, and efficient utilization of gas, it is essential that the pressure be controlled at the proper levels. A pressure regulator is defined as a device which automatically maintains gas pressure at a predetermined value regardless of variation in flow rate or changes in inlet pressure. In addition, in many cases, it must act as a shut-off valve when the flow rate is reduced to zero. Although there are many variations in regulator design, the basic fundamentals of operation are similar for all types.
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Document ID: BF0F0D03

Operating Characteristics Of Rubber Plug Type Regulators
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
A rubber plug as the inner valve of a regulator was first Introduced in 1958 to provide unique features that were unobtainable with the regulators of that day. This is a regulator designed specifically for the Natural Gas Industry, which provides a straight and streamlined flow path for the gas in every position of the inner valve. By being able to handle the flow of gas, after the point of regulation, in a straight line and with no sharp abutments after the point of regulation, it is possible to offer a quieter regulator operation in addition to maximum capacity for a given opening and less possibility of cutting. Notice that these features are just a result of the streamlined flow path and that there are even more important considerations in the regulators operation as a result of the rubber plug. One of these would be the type of positive shut-off that is possible with a large and resilient rubber plug another is that, due to the rubber plugs being able to assume an infinite number of shapes, it gives the regulator the ability tocontrol throughout its entire capacity range in every size. Other aspects of this regulators operation were incorporated in the design in order to eliminate still more problems that had plagued the gas industry for a good many years.
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Document ID: D5DB7942

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
The Dieplacement Gas Meter is frequently referred to as a Positive Displacement Meter, not because measurement with this device is any more definite or accurate than the measurement which might be obtained with another type meter, but because the measurement that it affords is a positive volumetric quantity in cubic feet at flowing conditions-regardless of the temperature, gravity or pressure of the flowing gas. There are three basic types of gas meters which are generally considered es falling into this category: 1-wet (rotating drum) meters 2-rotary (impeller type) meters and, 3-slide-valve dry type meters. All of the above types of displacement meters have three basic elements in common. They have a measuring element or container of known volume they have a valve arrangement to channel the gas into and out of the measuring element and they have a counter or index to tally the number of times the measuring element has been filled and emptied.
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Document ID: 69FD77A0

Design And Operation Of Primary Elements
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
The principal forms of primary devices, or differential producers, are the thin plate concentric orifice, the flow nozzle, and the venturi tube. The use of the venturi tube can be justified when low head loss is essential and sometimes when the measured fluid is carrying solids which would collect in front of an orifice plate or flow nozzle. The flow nozzle has a high coefficient, about equal to that of a venturi tube. It is useful on high velocity flows such as frequently encountered in steam lines. It will accommodate a greater flow than an orifice plate for a given differential and throat diameter.
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Document ID: 9B956B28

Measurement Provisions Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Louis A. Fritz
Abstract/Introduction:
Contracts for the sale or purchase, which ever the case might be, of natural gas is customarily a highly complicated instrument varying in length from several to fifty pages or even longer, the average contract length being from thirty to forty pages. Even in a relatively insignificant transaction, the sale or purchase of millions of dollars worth of gas will be controlled by terras of the contract, This article will deal with the Measurement Provisions of Gas Contracts only. Detailed provisions concerning the measurement of gas are generally part of each contract. Such provisions as Unit of Measurement, Standards for Measurement, Method of Measurement, Testing, Calibration of Equipment and Adjustments for Inaccuracies will normally appear in every gas contract.
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Document ID: CEAE75CE

Liquid Gravitometers For Recording, Transmitting And Controlling
Author(s): W. R. Gay
Abstract/Introduction:
The Arcco-Anubis Liquid Gravitometers record the specific gravity of a continuously flowing sample of liquid to a very high degree of accuracy. These instruments are generally supplied with a temperature compensation element so that the specific gravity as recorded on the chart is the specific gravity of the liquid at 60 deg. F., even though the temperature of the liquid passing through the instrument may vary widely from 60*F. In general these instruments may be considered to be a spring balance recording the dead weight of a fixed volume of the liquid in terms of specific gravity. The volume which is being weighed Continuously is very close to 1,000 cc. The system through which the liquid passes while being weighed is completely closed. There are no stuffing boxes, packed glands or other sources of friction or leakage in this system. Friction may exist only in the linkage and pen mechanism and this has been designed so as to reduce friction to the lowest practical limits.
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Document ID: 03DEF704

Testing Flow Recorders Under Operating Conditions
Author(s): Bruce J. Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
My approach to this topic entails some criticism of conventional gas measurement practice, I shall attempt to show that many measurement errors stem from poor instrument calibration techniques, and then attempt to offer substitute methods which I feel will add to accuracy in the field of gas measurements. It is timely that we should first differentiate between testing flow meters under flow conditions and under operating conditions. In the first instance it is quite unlikely that satisfactory test results could be obtained under flowing conditions. It follows that static pressures are something less than static in operating practice and differential pressures are seldom characterized by lack of movement. Therefore, any attempt to precisely measure and compare readings against a reference standard must be undertaken under conducive circumstances. If meaningful resolutions are to be expected, pressures must be gaged under truly static conditions.
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Document ID: 584B732D

Gas Odorization Techniques
Author(s): Louis E. Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
Why do we odorize natural gas? To give it a distinctive odor so that all inhabitants who have even a moderate sense of smell can identify it, not as odorant, but as natural gas. The benefits derived from odorizing natural gas are many. (1) Customers feel more secure knowing that they can detect a gas leak if one should be present. This contributes to better customer relations. (2) Significant gas leaks have been detected through odorization. Repairing these leaks have reduced the unaccounted-for-gas and provided additional revenue by making this gas available for sale. (3) Public Utilities Commissions in many states require some level of odorization of natural gas.
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Document ID: E3AD093A

Sizing Regulating Equipment
Author(s): Dan Stauffer
Abstract/Introduction:
The proper selection of pressure reducing valves is not particularly complicated, but does require a rather thorough knowledge of the variables affecting service life and capacity. Improperly specified equipment of this nature can result in erratic measurement pressures, but, more importantly, can jeopardize the effectiveness of over-pressure protection devices. This article will deal with the technique of pressure regulator sizing and more specifically with the innovations of this technique required by recent design developments. The developments alluded to are the introduction of the throttling ball valve and various other streamlined flow configurations. These designs are the manufacturers answer to the industry trend toward higher pressures and ever increasing flow demands.
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Document ID: CCED3F4F

Measurement At An LNG Plant
Author(s): John. H. Engel
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody transfer of natural gas to and from LNG plants needs to be based on gas flow measured at superheated vapor conditions. Special problems in measurement of liquified natural gas plants occur in liquid phase metering. Low temperature, metallurgy, unknown density, vaporization in meter runs, and hydrate formation are unique problems of measurement in an LNG plant. Vibration can also be a problem.
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Document ID: 0769887E

Theory And Operation Of Pilot Controls
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
It is important for gas men who work with pneumatic controllers on a day to day basis to understand them. Not to understand the controller under these circumstances can be a continual burden to the operator in addition to presenting circumstances for an operation of lower quality than generally desired. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to try to help develop an understanding and attitude towards a device that is absolutely essential to gas control.
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Document ID: 26DA2FA8

The Effect And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): D. E. Lindgren
Abstract/Introduction:
The problem of pulsation induced orifice meter error has long been recognized in the Industry. Even after measurement of peak-to-peak pulsation across the orifice taps, the error cannot always be reliably predicted. The existance of pulsation at the orifice is however good reason to suspect that errors do exist and field pulsation measurements can often make a solution considerably easier. The surest way, and often the only way, of eliminating pulsation error in measurement is the elimination of the pulsation.
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Document ID: FF8DC5F2

Operating Characteristics Of Rubber Plug Type Regulators
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
A rubber plug as the inner valve of a regulator was first Introduced in 1958 to provide unique features that were unobtainable with the regulators of that day. This is a regulator designed specifically for the Natural Gas Industry, which provides a straight and streamlined flow path for the gas in every position of the inner valve. By being able to handle the flow of gas, after the point of regulation, in a straight line and with no sharp abutments after the point of regulation, it is possible to offer a quieter regulator operation in addition to maximum capacity for a given opening and less possibility of cutting. Notice that these features are just a result of the streamlined flow path and that there are even more important considerations in the regulators operation as a result of the rubber plug. One of these would be the type of positive shut-off that is possible with a large and resilient rubber plug another is that, due to the rubber plugs being able to assume an infinite number of shapes, it gives the regulator the ability tocontrol throughout its entire capacity range in every size. Other aspects of this regulators operation were incorporated in the design in order to eliminate still more problems that had plagued the gas industry for a good many years.
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Document ID: 834ABAA6

Principles Of Automatic Control
Author(s): Willard Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator is any device that influences the operation, flow or reaction of another piece of equipment or product. This term, regulator, could even apply to a wife in her efforts to control her husband. However, the control isnt complete since he occasionally gets out of her sight and may vary slightly from her instructions. This would be classified as an open loop operation since the wife has no feedback on her husbands action consequently she can not take corrective actions to keep hira on the straight and narrow. If, however, she has enough spies out, she will know his every move. This is complete control or a closed loop operation. Probably most of us fall into this catagory. The controllers used in conjunction with other equipment to regulate gas flows provide the spying and corrective action required to keep these flows at the desired levels.
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Document ID: 87E760E1

New Trends In Gas Control
Author(s): Toney Terreo
Abstract/Introduction:
Every gas transmission system of significant size requires some type of coordination of its various phases of operations. All of the larger gas transmission systems have organized Gas Control departments to provide this needed system coordination, and the Gas Control function for these systems has been developed over tne years as each system grew physically and became more complex. The basic objective of the Gas Control department has, however, remained the same since the first gas transmission line was built. That abjective ia to assure tne uninterrupted delivery of gas to the systems market - in the iiiost economical way possible -- in the required quantities, and at the required pressure and quality at all times, regardless of conditions,
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Document ID: E9D9262E

Testing And Calibration Of Integrating Guages
Author(s): J H. Waterfield
Abstract/Introduction:
When we contract to purchase or sell gas at a pressure greater than the contract pressure base, there must be a mutual agreement that the quantity of gas bought or sold be calculated at a specified pressure base. The pressure base specified in our company contracts is four ounces. We know that a 1,000 cubic feet of gas at ten P.S.I. occupies 3 smaller volume than the same 1,000 cubic feet of gas at the specified contract base pressure. One means of making this correction is through the use of integrating guages. Since the volume of gas as measured by the integrating guage is the basis for billing a customer for the purchase or sale of gas, we are vitally concerned with maintaining the accuracy of these instruments. Proper testing and calibrating of these integrating guages by our measurement technicians becomes all important.
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Document ID: 65C68246

Dead Weight And Dew Point Testers
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact Tcnowledge of pressure. Also, it is desirable to measure and limit the water content of natural gases. Water, in free or vapor form, will cause operational difficulties at meter stations and regulators. Free water is easily disposed of, but it is necessary to measure water vapor content in order to maintain a value low enough to prevent difficulty.
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Document ID: CEE43234

Measurement Provisions Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Louis A. Fritz
Abstract/Introduction:
Contracts for the sale or purchase, which ever the case might be, of natural gas is customarily a highly complicated instrument varying in length from several to fifty pages or even longer, the average contract length being from thirty to forty pages. Even in a relatively insignificant transaction, the sale or purchase of millions of dollars worth of gas will be controlled by terras of the contract, This article will deal with the Measurement Provisions of Gas Contracts only. Detailed provisions concerning the measurement of gas are generally part of each contract. Such provisions as Unit of Measurement, Standards for Measurement, Method of Measurement, Testing, Calibration of Equipment and Adjustments for Inaccuracies will normally appear in every gas contract.
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Document ID: 73EA0DC9

Operation And Maintenance Of Densitometers
Author(s): John R. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
The CJGC Industries Densitometer is an instrument which measures absolute density in terms of weight per unit volume. Knowing only the density of the gas flowing within a pipeline and the differential pressure across the orifice plate, mass flow can be calculated. This paper will be limited to the operation and maintenance of the UGCI pneumatic and electric Densitometers.
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Document ID: 729009C5

Liquid Gravitometers For Recording, Transmuting And Controlling
Author(s): W. R. Gay
Abstract/Introduction:
The Arcco-Anubis Liquid Gravitometers record the specific gravity of a continuously flowing sample of liquid to a very high degree of accuracy. These instruments are generally supplied with a temperature compensation element so that the specific gravity as recorded on the chart is the specific gravity of the liquid at 60 deg. F., even though the temperature of the liquid passing through the instrument may vary widely from 60*F. In general these instruments may be considered to be a spring balance recording the dead weight of a fixed volume of the liquid in terms of specific gravity. The volume which is being weighed Continuously is very close to 1,000 cc. The system through which the liquid passes while being weighed is completely closed. There are no stuffing boxes, packed glands or other sources of friction or leakage in this system. Friction may exist only in the linkage and pen mechanism and this has been designed so as to reduce friction to the lowest practical limits.
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Document ID: A39FCC5E

The Effect Amd Cohtrol Of Pulsation Ik Gas Measueemekt
Author(s): D. E. Lindgren
Abstract/Introduction:
The problem of pulsation induced orifice meter error has long been recognized in the Industry. Even after measurement of peak-to-peak pulsation across the orificetaps , the error cannot always be reliably predicted. The existance of pulsation at the orifice is however good reason t o suspect that errors do exist and field pulsation measurements can often make a solution considerably easier. The surest way, and often t h e only way, of eliminating pulsation error in measurement is the elimination of the pulsation.
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Document ID: A8305D8E

Methods Of Deterkining Specific Gravity
Author(s): E. J. Schumacher
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of specific gravity is an important function in the work of Gas Measurement. In measuring gas by orifice meters, the specific gravity of the gas being measured is certainly one of the major variable factors in determining actual volumes measured, if not the greatest. Unless the coefficient is corrected to an accurately determined specific gravity of the gas being measured, the measurement will not be correct. Before going any farther into discussion, we should define Specific Gravity. One can find many definitions for specific gravity. In fact one can pick almost any gas handbook or gas journal and find a different definition in each one. But technically speaking in the gas business, specific gravity can best be defined as the ratio of the molecular weight of a gas to that of the molecular weight of air, where the molecular weight of air is assumed to be 28.9644. 1 Since molecular weight measurements are not easy to obtain, especially in the field and to be practical, instrumentation is used to obtain specific gravity by determining the relative density of a gaseous substance to that of dry air, assuming air as unity. Relative density being the ratio of the weight of a volume of gas to that of an equal volume of dry air, where the weight of both gas and air are taken under equal pressure and temperature conditions. To accurately obtain specific gravity, it is of necessity to adjust relative density readings for pressure, temperature and deviation from Boyles Law, found between air and gas, except where instruments are calibrated to a gas of known specific gravity.
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Document ID: F7E41E3C

Portable Measuring & Regulating Stations
Author(s): James C. Bozeman Vickery-Simms,
Abstract/Introduction:
The concept of Packaged, Portable stations was originally conceived for the purpose of installing equipment in remote or hard to reach locations. Packaged compressor units as well as small gasolene plants, dehydrators, etc., originated the package concept in equipment procurement. This same necessity holds true today, but other factors have contributed to their wider use. The Oil and Gas industry has recognized the advantages of portable stations from an economical as well as a logistical standpoint. For these two reasons many new varieties of equipment and accessories are now being packaged by a single fabricator for use in almost any geographical area, whether remote or not. Portable measurement and regulating stations will be primary types of equipment discussed in this paper but other types will be reviewed if for no other reason than to point out the flexibility of the packaged concept as well as new trends in the industrys thinking.
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Document ID: AF77B497

Communicating Ideas
Author(s): R. R. Van Kerrebrook
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a class in coirammications. The first thing we wish to say is that we will not discuss hardware. Therefore if you have a mind to discuss diodes and oscillating circuits you will have to look elsewhere. i At the Houston school, most people in attendance are connected with the measurement of gases. This means that you are smart people because gas measurement people are more intelligent than other people. Now, being more intelligent than other people means that we have some advantages. For instance we have steady jobs at fairly good pay. We are able to help the less fortunate people. We can look at a bunch of equipment and analyze what is happening or should happen. We can think up new ideas that are beyond the grasp of ordinary people. Unfortunately, new ideas are totally useless unless we can communicate the idea to others. Often these others are somewhat stupid. What makes it even worse is that some of these stupid ones are higher ranking people in the organization than you are. If you dont believe this, think about your boss for a minute. Is he smarter than you? Thats doubtful isnt it? But he has one thing going for him. He can communicate better than you. He has at least communicated the idea that he can handle his job better than you could do it. He has used some method of communications that persuaded the right people to believe that he was the best man for the job.
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Document ID: A81547FD

Application & Operation Of Ball Valve Regulators
Author(s): Walter Edrington
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of a full bore valve to control pressure or flow is certainly not new. There has been some type of high capacity control valve used in gas service for many years and the ball valve has been used for control since at least 1961 or 1962. However, the requirements for higher capacities and lower pressure drops have increased the interest in ball valve control devices. As interest increased, more information concerning properly applying the regulator to the application was necessary. The ball valve is not a solve all device and, like any other regulator, must be carefully matched to the application in order to obtain maximum results. There are applications where the ball valve should not be used at all and other applications where no other regulator will do the job so effectively. To better predict the successful application of a ball valve to a regulation requirement, a study of the flow characteristic is necessary.
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Document ID: 8D7CDF34

Developments In Gas Regulators
Author(s): Milton H. Craven, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Grove expansible tube type regulator has long been known as a unique regulator. Webster defines unique as being without like or equal and conventional as connonplace. This regulator Is till considered unique. However, to an ever increasing number of gas companies, it has be- come known as a conventional regulator.
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Document ID: B45BA657

Pilot Operated Relief Valves
Author(s): G. Frank Bright
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years the operational requirements for most mechanical equipment for the natural gas industry have become more and more demanding. Safety relief valves -- as a small but necessary part of this equipment - have not been immune from these demands. Operating pressures have been pushed steadily upward toward the maximum allowable, causing a need for valves that will operate with a minimum gap between operating pressure and set point. AAany stations are now unattended - or only partially attended - requiring valves that can go for long periods of time with a minimum of maintenance. These valves may also be required, not only to operate as safety valves, but are often tied into a remote control system-- and thus must be so designed that they can be opened by a signal from miles away. A single main line safety valve may be protecting 50 to TOO miles of large diameter pipe which is thin wall and highly stressed. A valve in this service is required to go fully open at its set point- -since permitting overpressure could cause a rash of leaks - ond then reseat extremely close to set point before thousands of dollars worth of gas is vented from the line. Valves on compressor discharge systems must withstand continual pressure pulsation and mechanical vibration, yet be trouble-free and open when called upon to relieve. Conditions such OS these have placed increased importance on sound engineering selection of safety valves and have generated much interest both on the port of users and manufacturers In the development of new products which will do these jobs better.
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Document ID: 05B6A383

Principles And Applications Of Bellows Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): H. S. Biles
Abstract/Introduction:
The eyes of the gas industry today are directed toward the contributions of science and technology in the field of data gathering and processing. We read of direct line transmission, interface components, radio telemetry, and computers which supervise and control large areas in the production, transmission and distribution of gas . Dazzled by the prospects of the efficiency to be gained by these techniques, we are inclined to overlook that their success is dependent upon the accuracy and reliability of the devices from which the basic i n formation is derived - the differential pressure, pressure, temperature and other sensors, In particular, the bellows type differential pressure meter is really a very remarkable instrument. At i t s maximum pressure rating and with a range of 0-100 inches water column. It will detect the difference between 6003.51 psi and 6000 psi with an error no greater than eighteen thousandths of a pound per square inch. This is at full scale of the range it will detect pressure differences as low as thirty-six thousandths of a psi . Or we might choose a range of 0-10 inches water column. At full scale , the pressure difference detected will be that between 6000.361 and 6000,000 psi, with a maximum error of eighteen ten-thousandths of a psi.
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Document ID: 62F17A2F

Field Testing And Maintenance Of Large Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. G. Wood
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the years the accuracy of Measurement has become increasingly important. The rising cost of our product, further distances to market, and higher cost of operation and equipment have forced us to strive for greater accuracy. The efficiency of a companys Measurement Section can mean the difference between profit and loss for the entire company operation. Since the revenue of our industry.for the most part is determined by the registration from meter indices, then without exception or question, a testing and maintenance program of the highest degree should be adopted that will result in accurate measiarement at the lowest operational cost.
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Document ID: 7343AF7A

Turbine Meters As A Liquid Measurement Device
Author(s): Jack R. Babbitt
Abstract/Introduction:
In a paper presented at a national meeting of some note, attention was directed towards the petroleum and chemical industries with the charge being made that there was too limited usage of turbine flowmeters in these industries as compared to the aerospace industry. Of course, it was pointed out that the use of turbine meters, like everything else , originated in the aerospace industry, and no doubt the Russian aerospace scientists invented it first. However, we should not be too critical of those outside the petroleum industry, but rather take pride in the advancements that have been made within the petroleum and petrochemical industries.
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Document ID: 13EBD608

Gas Odorization Techniques
Author(s): Louis E. Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
Why do we odorize natural gas? To give it a distinctive odor so that all inhabitants who have even a moderate sense of smell can identify it, not as odorant, but as natural gas. The benefits derived from odorizing natural gas are many. (1) Customers feel more secure knowing that they can detect a gas leak if one should be present. This contributes to better customer relations. (2) Significant gas leaks have been detected through odorization. Repairing these leaks have reduced the unaccounted-for-gas and provided additional revenue by making this gas available for sale. (3) Public Utilities Commissions in many states require some level of odorization of natural gas.
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Document ID: B1758D31

New Trends In Gas Control
Author(s): Toney Terreo
Abstract/Introduction:
Every gas transmission system of significant size requires some type of coordination of its various phases of operations. All of the larger gas transmission systems have organized Gas Control departments to provide this needed system coordination, and the Gas Control function for these systems has been developed over tne years as each system grew physically and became more complex. The basic objective of the Gas Control department has, however, remained the same since the first gas transmission line was built. That objective is to assure tne uninterrupted delivery of gas to the systems market - in the most economical way possible -- in the required quantities, and at the required pressure and quality at all times, regardless of conditions, The stipulation at all times, regardless of conditions requires that first priority be given to assuring continuity of service to the market. If analysis shows that tnere is more than one alternative,in providing continuity of service, the next priority is given to choosing tne most economical alternative. This, of course, requires further analysis.
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Document ID: 607C3C00


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