Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1967)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): George F. White, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Measurement always presents many problems whether onshore or offshore. Yet those found with offshore productioi and operations seem to become larger and to multiply at the same time. It would be impossible to cover all problems found offshore, however, there are some problems that will be found in all phases of gas measurement and operations whether in swampy marsh waters on in the depths of gulf or oceanic waters.
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Document ID: F0BA6430

Kinetic Type Gas Gravitometers
Author(s): F. B. Leslie
Abstract/Introduction:
In September 1966 the manufacturer of the kinetic type gravi-tometers announced development of an improved portable gravitometer, illustrated in Figure 1. Since then a large number of these in struments have been delivered into the area served by the Gulf Coast Gas Measurement Short Course. During the past year the improvement program has been continued to develop a smaller, lighter gravitometer for offshore use. The manufacturer now announces availability of the kinetic gravitometer illustrated in Figure 2. This instrument is about 25% lower in height and about 25% lighter in weight. Field tests in typical offshore service have been so successful that this design has been adopted as the standard for all types of service.
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Document ID: 56C7C694

Densitometer Vs. Orifice Metering
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the desirability of mass flow measurement of natural gas. It is intended to be thought-provoking and, to many proponents of the standard cubic foot, it may seem down right argumentative. The author certainly does not have any quarrel with anyone who defends the conventional volume measurement, and he is the first to admit that the merits of our present techniques are resonpsible for the high plateau on which the state of the art now rests but at the same time it is advocated that we should not be satisfied with a status quo condition. The industry should encourage the develooment of new measurement techniques and should be willing to underwrite some of the development cost by making token purchases of any new equipment which offers a genuine promise of improvement gas measurement.
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Document ID: CC3A3B67

Butterfly Valve Design Gas Regulators
Author(s): Donald B. Passage
Abstract/Introduction:
It is my belief that the foremost user of butterfly valves in this country is the chemical industry. However, it is certainly true that the gas industry in the last few years has begun to sit up and take notice of the butterfly valves capabilities and are also beginning to make use of them. The Manager of Operations of one gas company has recently stated that because of rising costs, it is going to be necessary in the future, to mere fully automate more plants. This means that control valves now in use may be doubled in the next five to eight years. It also means the computers have come of age and will eventually begin replacing operating personnel. At this point pressure drops will become very critical and it appears that because of the lower costs and the smaller installation space and size required for large regulators, the butterfly valve will definitely have a future in the gas industry. In fact, a recent survey shows that butterfly valves are being used widely for control in almost every phase of the gas industry from the well head to the user. However, this paper will concentrate on the use of butterfly valves as working regulators and monitoring regulators and the use of the butterfly valves in other applications in the regulatca: station.
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Document ID: 07DF7319

Application Of Densitometer In Existing Gas Measurement Systems
Author(s): John H. Day
Abstract/Introduction:
For those who have not had an opportunity to familiarize themselves with the introduction of density measurement into the gas measurement field, a discussion of those factors that have created the interest would seem to be appropriate. Measurement of gas quantities by the use of a densitometer is a form of mass metering. All mass metering makes it unnecessary to determine and apply supercompressibility characteristic of the gas being metered. None require measuring the temperature or the specific gravity of the flowing gas and application of adjusting factors. The effects of these variables are accounted for instant a neously coincident with the gas flow as opposed to the somewhat less accurate orifice metering method application of adjustments based on some average condition over various lengths of time. All mass meters lend themselves to automation more readily than orifice meters. They require considerably less quantity calculation time speeding up gas accounting processes. Then why does the industry appear to be more interested in the density system of mass measurement than other available equipment?
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Document ID: 0A53386A

Gas Well Testing And Reporting
Author(s): L. E . Dittmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas well owners and operators are constantly on the lookout for means of improving their position in the matter of marketing the total production of each well to the best advantage. Normal fleJfl operation employing some form of separation facility at each lease limits the recovery of products to the usual sales gas and stock tank condensate without regard for the valuable constituents of the gas or the loss incurred in the flash of the condensate from separator conditions to the atmospheric stock tank. Since low pressure apor recovery equipment is usually not practical on individual wells, varying amounts of rich vapors are lost through the stock tank vent.
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Document ID: A8794C2E

Gas Measurement Under High Pressure Conditions
Author(s): Chester B. Keagy
Abstract/Introduction:
Oil and gas are being produced from deeper and hignnr pressure reservoirs. Some producing gas wells have shut-in pressures around 15,000 pounds per square inch. The production from these deeper zones renuiros that gas be measured at increasing high pressures. In some cases, the economic studies prove thnt gas should be measured as the full well stream at high pressure before final separatioii. Most companies measure the gas from individual producing wells and commingle these streams to a central separation facility. This type of gas mrasurement is not as accurate as dry and lower prossure measurement. Therefore, this measurement is used for allocation and is nearly always adjusted to some lower pressure master meter or meters. Another type of high pressure gas measurement is required due to the injection of gas into the deep oil zones in order to maintain the reservoir pressures at efficient production levels. This injection gas measurement has been found to have many inaccuracies and is also used for allocation and adjusted to lower pressure master meters.
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Document ID: 52865ADD

Transfer Testing Of Gas Meters
Author(s): R. B. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
Progress is often characterized by a change which does things better, faster and at lower costs. Transfer testing combines new equipment with an established concept to achieve progress in testing gas meters in the field and in the meter shop. The need for transfer testing has come out of the progress of the gas industry itself . Growth has brought interest in better methods of field testing meters, and improvements have been sought in shop testing of larger meters too. Transfer testing simply compares a field meter with the known accuracy of a reference or master meter, this paper describes the Roots rotary meter portable system and its use. Both shop and field test results are examined to illustrate the economic and performance values derived from transfer testing.
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Document ID: 6EF6B1ED

Design And Operation Of Primary Elements
Author(s): James C. Bozeman
Abstract/Introduction:
When evaluating or selecting the components of an A.G.A. Qualifying Meter Tube, individual attention is, of course, focused on the three basic components. That is, the orifice plate itself, the approach and discharge tubing and the plate holding device. The selection of the proper orifice plate is relatively simple as well as being easily procured. This is also true of the upstream and downstream piping, which can easily be selected to meet A.G.A. minimum requirements. The A.G.A, Committee Report number 3 readily spells out the minimum upstream and downstream lengths, as well as internal diameter tolerance.
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Document ID: 15EBCE0F

Instantaneous And Continuous Pneumatic Computations Of Flow Through A Differential Pressure Device
Author(s): J. E. Hewson
Abstract/Introduction:
The positive displacement meter - a device which counts repetitive quantities under known conditions -- was the first suitable method of measuring gas volumes. The quantities are totalized and produce a dial readout which is corrected to standard conditions for billing purposes. Because a positive displacement meter is inherently a totalizer, determining flow rate is more difficult than with inferential type measuring systems. As natural gas found more markets, gas line pressures increased to move the larger quantities, a less cumbersome means of measuring large volumes of gas was necessary and the orifice plate followed the pitot tube as a means of producing a measurable signal which is related to flow rate. The resultant technique of recording differential and static pressure required a device to integrate the quantity of gas from a rate measurement.
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Document ID: CEA4E494

Volumetric Behavior Of The Gaseous State
Author(s): Harold L. Overton
Abstract/Introduction:
At a standard ATM. , 60 F. and 14.65 psia, gases have been found to have a density which varies directly with the molecular weight.
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Document ID: 1025194A

The Search For The Ultimate Bellows Meter The First 100 Years
Author(s): H. S. Biles
Abstract/Introduction:
For well over 100 years, instrument engineers have worked with the metallic bellows searching for the ideal mechanism for measurement of differential pressure. It appears to offer a simple answer to this complex problem: actually, it is disarmingly simple. In practice, it presents challenges, troubles and booby traps of truly formidable dimensions. Generally, a bellows appears to be something like a leak-proof, friction-free piston with a fixed spring rate. With care in fabrication, it has been possible, probably since the first bellows was made, to meet the leak-free assumption. For the other 2 factors, however, it has taken generations of advancement in metallurgy and mechanical design to come anywhere near meeting the concept of friction-free and the spring rate is still not truly constant.
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Document ID: DFFBB5F9

New Developments In Gas Regulation
Author(s): Milton H. Craven
Abstract/Introduction:
The Flexflo valve is not new, having been developed in the mid-1940s. It is a valve that merits some attention as a pressure reducing valve, a relief valve, a throttling back pressure valve, or a flow control valve. The operating member is an expandable tube. This tube Is stretched over a cylindrical metal core having a series of longitudinal slots at each end, with a separating barrier between. Action of the expansible tube is determined by controlling the differential pressure across the tube. It can be compared with a globe valve that is spring loaded to close and uses a diaphragm to control the action of the valve. The synthetic rubber tube acts as both the diaphragm and the inner valve. The tube is made from a Grove formulated synthetic elastomer especially compounded to as sure a high degree of tear and abrasion resistance, flexibility, and strength.
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Document ID: DA392B36

Positive Displacement Fluid Meters Uses & Proving Methods
Abstract/Introduction:
History perhaps does not record the first liquid meter. Ancient Chinese Art Illustrates our first recorded instance of the design which lead to positive displacement meters. More than 6,000 years ago, the Chinese used the water wheel Fig. 1. This was simply a device with crude buckets attached to the circumference of a wheel, with the bottom of the wheel immersed in water, and the top segment aligned with a bamboo pipe. The water wheel of course, was used primarily for moving water to the fields for irrigation. History does not tell us whether the war lords exacted a tribute for the volume of water used. But that may very well have been possible.
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Document ID: 6B70C581

Principles And Application Of Automatic Control
Author(s): Roy L. Sharp
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas industry processes and gas gathering systems have progressed to a point where they are complex and, at times, unstable. To obtain the desired results in years past, an operator was required to adjust hand valves continuously and to watch gauges or recorders. Automatic controllers and control systems were devised to obtain better products at lower costs and to free operators to perform several duties. Today, a controller sees a process measurement, compares it to a desired value or set point, and finally, adjusts a valve or other final operator to reduce any difference between measurement and set point to zero.
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Document ID: C958A8E1

Dead Weight And Dew Point Testers
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and super-compressibility. Also, it is desirable to measure and limit the water content of natural gases. Water, in free or vapor form, will cause operational difficulties at meter stations and regulators. Free water is easily disposed of, but it is necessary to measure water vapor content in order to maintain a value low enough to prevent difficulty.
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Document ID: 64385240

Operation Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of automatic chart changers has become so widespread since the first units were installed in 1959 that they are now accepted as a standard for measurement stations. Because of the shortage of time and in consideration of the large number of chart changer users, this paper will discuss various problems encountered in the use of automatic chart changers and solutions thereof In the hope that chart changer users will be able to better their performance record. Problems can be classified in two (2) catagories mechanical and human. The first category mechanical, will be discussed first.
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Document ID: 9A399292

Application & Operation Of Ball Valve Regulators
Author(s): H. Vernon Reaves
Abstract/Introduction:
Valve regulators in the Gas Industry have been in use for many years. Most of them consist of a lubricated plug valve, valve actuator, positioner and pressure controller. The output from the pressure controller is fed to the positioner which controls the actuator or driving muscle for the valve. The sensing signal for the pressure controller is tapped Into the downstream system of the valve regulator. The first valve regulators came into existence when someone got the Idea of installing an actuator and positioner on an existing block valve. This furnished some amount of regulation and control. Due to the rectangular porting of the valve these valve regulators had poor low flow characteristics. Also in the throttling position the lubricant grooves were exposed to the gas stream which resulted In the lubricant being washed out and winding up downstream on the orifice plate.
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Document ID: D05091EA

Complete Measurement With Analog Flow Computers
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
Much has been published and discussed in the last several years about analog flow computer systems. These systems are an outgrowth of a need by the Gas Industry for a direct and Immediate readout of flow rate and total flow through a station coupled with the rapid growth of solid state electronics and the concurrent advancement of analog computer techniques. The needs for analog flow computer systems vary in different segments of t h e Gas Industry, but basically evolve into two main categcries: the need for instant information and the need for reduced data handling. These needs have existed for many years, but have become more pronounced with the increased value of natural gas, while the reliability and low power requirements of solid state electronics have made possible a device to answer this need.
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Document ID: 9329C267

Design Of Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): E. J. Burgin
Abstract/Introduction:
In the design of a meter and regulator station, the first consideration should be that of obtaining consistently accurate measurement and dependable pressure regulation. Whether or not this function is achieved is dependent primarily upon the people who develop the design. Of course, once the equipment has been installed, it must be properly maintained for our purpose, we assume this is done. The achievement of accurate measurement and dependable pressure regulation is obtained by proper consideration of the specific requirements as they are known and developed, the existing conditions, and the future requirements.
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Document ID: 2D06C97D

Determination Of Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): R. L. Vance
Abstract/Introduction:
To prevent condensation of water from natural gas in pipelines, it is necessary to limit the concentration of water vapor in the gas to accord with prevailing pressure and temperature, If water condenses, internal corrosion may occur or hydrates may form to block pipelines, valves and regulators. Therefore, it is customary to dehydrate the gas stream as near to the production source as possible. The water vapor content should be reduced to a level that water condensation will not occur at these conditions of pressure and temperature encountered prior to reaching the ultimate consumer. Most gas contracts are written to limit the water content to some figure under ten pounds of water per million cubic feet. Therefore, in order to determine if the gas meets contract specifications and to control the operations of dehydration facilities, precision methods of measuring water content is needed in a well operated company: preciseness of measurement is mandatory once we consider tolerable amounts of water vapor is but a small fraction of the full stream.
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Document ID: 02B03892

Field Testing And Maintenance Of Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): J. V. Bryan
Abstract/Introduction:
It is intended that this discussion will cover the field testing procedures and maintenance pract ices of large capacity positive displacement meters on location. There are several advantages in testing large capacity meters on location instead of removing them and transportating them to a central meter shop for testing. It can be done in less time with fewer miles, eliminating the need for extra meters, extra warehousing facilities, and heavier vechicles also, the meter is more likely to maintain its accuracy after testing, or adjustment, if it is not handled or moved.
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Document ID: EB96F62F

Maintenance And Operation Of The Recording Calorimeter
Author(s): George C. Gabel
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most important instruments in gas measurement is the recording calorimeter. The calorimeter assists every department in the gas companies from management, gas control, gas sales, gas purchases to the chart department for billing purposes. The calorimeter is also used in energy control into distribution systems where the heat content is specified by contract. The calorimeter is used to measure energy reduction across gasoline plants and participating parties are paid on this basis, in some instances. The major use is in gas sales to large industrial concerns to measure energy rather than volume. Because of the increase in the number of contracts requiring energy measurement, the calorimeter is becoming more important from day to day. For instance, a contract with a small user is being irade on the energy rather than on the volumetric basis. These small contractswould not warrant the installation of a recording calorimeter but by a representative test from an accumulated weekly sample the energy content can be determined by the recording calorimeter in the lab. A volume of approximately 20 million cubic feet or more daily may financially justify the installation of a recording calorimeter depending upon the contract. In the United States, the energy is measured in British Thermal Units.
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Document ID: E663EF75

Chart Integration And Calculations
Author(s): m. D. Mcnair
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart integration and gas volume calculation is a procedure for converting gas measurement data to standard volume units. The Chart Integration Office is the focal point of all field and plant measurment effort in every producing transmission, processing and distribution company. All too often this focal point is accused of being an information bottle neck, for gas volumes information must be dispatched to all departments and operating levels of the company as soon as possible after the close of the month. Operations must have gas volume information for production control and efficiency d e terminations. Engineering uses gas volumes in forecasting, scheduling, and equipment design. Accounting, of course, converts MCF to dollars, which is the main reason for the whole operation. The Chart Integration Office is a high volume shop where each employee is a specialist in meeting deadlines.
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Document ID: 918A975D

Design Of Positive Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Harry B.. Lindblom
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will concern itself with some ideas which should be useful in the designing of the meter sets to serve the bulk of Commercial and Industrial customers. The factors which influence this design and some methods of dealing with them will be discussed.
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Document ID: 446182B3

Theory And Operation Of Glycol Dehydration
Author(s): Don Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
A GLYCOL PLANT, when properly designed, operated and maintained, will function with little difficulty and attendance, The process principles and physical limitations of the equipment should be clearly recognized and understood You can solve most plant problems with this knowledge plus these operating and maintenance suggestions.
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Document ID: CD040E81

Application Of Flow Computers For Measurement And Control
Author(s): R. V. Mcafee
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic computation of flow through a meter run has been accomplished three ways to date: 1. With a digital computer scanning transducer values at one or more points. 2. With an analog computer computing the flow from multiple points using the time share principle. 3. With an analog computer at each measurement point giving real time measurement.
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Document ID: 81F65C5F

Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
Positive displacement meters are generally classified by capacity and working pressure (or case material). For instance, tinned steelcase meters have working pressures of 5 psig, cast aluminum 100 psig working pressure, gray cast iron 100 psig, and ductile iron up to 1000 psig. Positive displacement meters under 500 CFH capacity are called Domestic Meters, and above this capacity they are referred to as either Commercial or Industrial meters. Domestic meters are normally rated at a capacity sufficient to generate l/2inch water column drop through the meter when measuring 0.64 gravity gas at 60 F and 30 inches mercury barometer. Larger meters are rated at a capacity to cause 2 inches drop at conditions same as above. The basic design for these meters was conceived by Glover in England in the early 1800s, and modern day positive displacement meters are essentially of this design, with liberal use of modem materials and production techniques. Most positive meters are of a type described as having 2 diaphragms, four compartments, and using D slide valves.
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Document ID: D2041467

Theory And Operation Of Turbine Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): m. J. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
The Rockwell Series G Turbo Meter was designed with three things in mind. The first was to have an accurate and reliable meter for measuring the volume of natural gas. The second being to have this gas measurement device housed in as anaE a package as possible for ease of handling and installation, and third to have this device provable by the standard methods now used in the gas industry. This paper will point out some of the features of a Turbo Meter and show how they conform to the original design criteria.
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Document ID: 63E3CCB0

Gas Odorization Techniques
Author(s): Eschol A. Bryant
Abstract/Introduction:
The various kinds of odorizers in use at Houston Natural Gas Corporation, and the experience gained in the operation of them, will form the basis for this presentation. Naturally, this approach will not cover the entire field of odorization, but the ideas and techniques that have evolved over the years may be of some benefit to those concerned with odorization. Only the distribution gas is odorized consequently, all odorizers are located at city gate stations - there is no odorization in the transmission line.
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Document ID: BB02BF35

On-Line Sampling And New Applications Of Chromatography
Author(s): Glen Payne
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatography began to emerge from the labratory to the process plant in the mid-fifties. Most of the begining efforts were to move the lab model to the plant and flow some sample to it. Even with the mis-fit analyzers and the never give it a thought sampling systems, chromatography along with a lot of manpower effort was doing analysis like hadnt been done before. Much of the progress in the petroleum, chemical, medical, and space industry within the last ten years was made possible by chromatographic analysis. But it wasnt long before the chromatographer realized that along with the analyzer, getting a good sample to the analyzer was important too. Since that time, much has been written on the subject of sampling. Its interesting to read some of the first papers and see the progression of sampling ideas and methods. At this time, you are not particular interested in the history of sampling problems, except for reminising, but you are interested in what you can do now to solve all your sampling problems. Its easy to tell you WHAT to do, its the HOW part that takes a little doing.
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Document ID: EFE47E3D

Fundamentals Of Fluid Mechanics
Author(s): John R . Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
A fluid is a substance which is incapable of resisting shearing forces. By this definition, both liquids and gases may be classified as fluids. An important difference between these is that gases are compressible whereas fluids are virtually noncompressible.
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Document ID: 9094C2E7

Theory, Design And Operation Of Gas Separation Equipment
Author(s): George S. Leachman
Abstract/Introduction:
In a well-known late night television show, one of the routines used by the Emcee is to supply questions to answers that have been provided by the audience. To no small degree, separator manufacturers are very often playing this same game with their equipment. We are going to try to talk, then, about the types of different separation equipment available to industry today, what these various types will do, and where they are best suited to be applied. To start with, lets talk about the various things that produce separation problems. It will surprise you to know that practically every industry in American encounters separation problems at one time or another. Such staple items as tomato catsup, oyster stew, and thick paint have been the subject of some intensive separation research in the past.
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Document ID: ADAF3FBE

Operation And Maintenance Of Solid Rubber Plug Type Regulator
Author(s): R. H.. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of rubber in regulators will not predate positive displacement meters, but an odd assortment of them were around to welcome the first Mercedes Benz automobile. Think of that, although we are Inclined to look at current regulators that use rubber valve trim as if the idea had never been tried before. One of the earliest regulators to use rubber for the main working part was patented in 1903 by Metzger and it is interesting to note that his reasons for designing it are much the same as those that Inspire men to use resilient trim today. The Metzger patent had a whopping 16 claims which probably looked great to his lawyers but to the gas man will all sound the same. At any rate, what he was after was a straight flow pattern and a positive shut off. This regulator, which is somewhat like the pinch valve that are currently used to control slurries, had both of these features plus the ability to control fairly well on the low pressures of the day. There was one great stumbling block that f faced this type of regulator in the early 1900s and that was the state of rubber art, there was no rubber available that would stand up effectively in hydrocarbon service.
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Document ID: 1AA47FCD

Theory And Operation Of Roto-Seal Type Meters
Author(s): m . J . Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
The Roto-Seal Meter is a rotary type positive displacement meter designed to accurately measure and record the volume of gas flowing through i t. The volume of gas measured by the meter is the volume at flowing conditions of pressure and temperature, and accuracy is unaffected by gas specific gravity. The metered volume can be converted to volume at standard or base conditions of pressure and temperature by application of the common Gas Laws. This can be accomplished by use of Multiplier Tables or by use of Instruments driven by the meter which will give the corrected volumes directly.
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Document ID: 7C1A8F53

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
It should be noted that, in the theoretical equation, the differential head Is always in feet of the flowing fluid . If the fluid is water, the head would be in feet of water if it is oil, the head would have to be in feet of oil. Similarly, if air is flowing through an orifice, the head inducing flow must basically be introduced into the flow equation in feet of air.. Differential heads in feet of air, or gas, are a little difficult to visualize but they are quite possible - however, that is the reason we employ water in our example - so that the process may be grasped more readily. Fluid friction, the contraction of the stream emerging from the crifice, and similar Imperfections from the ideal conception, require that an experimentally determined coefficient of discharge, K, be introduced. For an orifice meter K varies from about 0.60 to 0.65 for flange taps, depending primarily upon the diameter ratio.
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Document ID: 22C079C1

Pilot Operated Relief Valves In Natural Gas Service
Author(s): R. P. Wistner
Abstract/Introduction:
A piloted operated valve cannot be discussed thoroughly without first discussing the direct acting spring loaded relief. The direct acting spring loaded valve is used as a relief pilot on all piloted operated relief valves. The relief pilot as a rule does not have all of the features as shown in Figure 1. The items of interest to be pointed out in the spring loaded relief valve in Figure 1 are: Item 5, feather or seal disc Item 2 , seat bushing or seat Item 3, adjusting ring and Item 4, ring pin. The seat disc and seat bushing, cr seat, form the valve shut-off system. It is the force created by the fluid pressure acting on the area of the seat disc that opens the valve. This force has to exceed the force created by the spring (Item 13) in order to open the valve.
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Document ID: 81E7D76D

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the natural gas industry one of the most often used words you will hear is Accuracy. The common goal of all persons connected with gas measurement within the industry is that of achieving complete accuracy in all phases of gas accounting. In measuring a gas flow volume the one single item having the greatest effect on the much desired accuracy is the orifice plate. The orifice plate, orifice fittings, and meter tube together make what is commonly referred to as the primary elements. A complete orifice meter set-up consists of the primary elements with a secondary recording instrument.
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Document ID: 04A923ED

Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Virgil C. Carlile
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of nautral gas liquids, LPG, or Liquid Petroleum Gas, we are interested in accuracy and reproductive measurement. There are two methods of acquiring this measurement. 1. Head metering or orifice measurement. 2. Positive displacement metering. There are two factors involved in this measurement. 1. The rate of flow, which is the amount of fluid that flows past a given point at any given instant. 2. Total flow, which is the amount of fluid that flows past a given point in a definite period of time.
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Document ID: 05BA970D

Total Energy Yardsticks In The New Houston Natural Gas Building
Author(s): W. E. Long
Abstract/Introduction:
Houston Natural Gas Corporation is an integrated gas utility company, serving 319,795 meters along the Gulf Coast of Texas. Its headquarters and 196,580 of its customers are located in metropolitan Houston. Two years after its birth in 1925, Houston Natural located its general offices in the then new Petroleum Building. Forty years later, on September 2 and 3, 1967, it moved to the magnificent new Houston Natural Gas Building at 1200 Travis Street in the heart of Houston. The Houston Natural Gas Building gets all its electric power and air conditioning from a gas-fired Total Energy Plant in its basement. The plant is owned and operated by Houston Natural (though built by Thermal Systems, Inc. , a wholly-owned subsidiary) which sell sits energy to the building owner. This energy must be measured for billing purposes and my associate , Mr. Willard Amann, is going to explain how that is done. But first, I want to discuss our central plant business.
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Document ID: E6A1D8DC

Whats New In Mass Measurement
Author(s): L. E. Holder
Abstract/Introduction:
Nothing is new In mass measurement. A pound is still a pound. And the simplicity of this statement is why most serious men in the measurement field realize the value of measuring in mass units. Natural gas companies are not selling cubic feet of gas. They are selling energy. That is why the definition of a cubic foot of pure natural gas must state the specific gravity because the heating value will vary almost directly with the specific gravity. Heat energy is proportional to mass rather than volume. Therefore it is logical to measure directly in mass than volumetric units.
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Document ID: D624DEE0

Theory And Operation Of H2S Detection Instruments
Author(s): B. R. Morgan
Abstract/Introduction:
The operation of a natural gas transmission system involves controlling the quality of the gas introduced into that system. Transmissicncompany gas supply contracts designate BTU content as well as maximum levels for water content, total sulfur, hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants. Hydrogen sulfide is present in many gas supply sources. The concentration varies from a trace in some cases to several hundred grains per cubic feet in others. A high concentration of hydrogen sulfide in a gas stream makes it undesirable for commercial pipeline transmission and distribution. As the gas industry expanded, transmission companies obtained gas from many different sources. This created a need for portable means for determining the hydrogen sulfide concentration in a gas stream. Several methods were devised.
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Document ID: F0C3D6E0

Proving Liquid And Gas Flow Measuring Devices
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
In the title, a term is used that is not as familiar to gas measurement people as it is to liquid measurement people. This term is proving. The basic concept of getting a measurement of fluid accepted differs with the two arts. In the case of liquid meters, the standard is to actually check the throughput of a meter against an accepted standardt his is called proving. In gas metering, positive meters are sometimes proved this way with critical or low pressure flow provers whereas, in orifice meter gas measurement, the mechanics of the primary and secondary devices are checked to make sure they meet the limits set out in various standards. The flow is then assumed to be within the tolerances as established by previous throughout tests upon which the standards are based - this is called testing.
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Document ID: 136AE220

Application And Design Of Various Types Of Primary Devices
Author(s): Frank E. Robertson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will cover the design and applications of Venturis, flow nozzles, orifice plates, differential metering ells, and other primary elements. The venturi was one of the first used for the commercial measurement of fluids, this work was begun in 1887 by Clemens Herschel. The specification of the standard form venturi must be a d hered to to insure reliable coefficients. The critical dimensions are the inlet cone, throat, exit cone, and location of the pressure taps. The inlet cone included angle is 21. The throat diameter should be manufactured within .0005 per inch of throat diameter. The length of the throat is equal to its diameter. Variation in the outlet cone has no effect on the discharge co-efficient, but seriously affects the pressure recovery. In some sizes the outlet cone may be truncated with out affecting the pressure recovery. Exit angles greater than 15 causes fluctuations in the pressure recovery. Eccentric round or rectangular venturi can be used, but they require Individual calibration. The high pressure connection is located one half diameter (inside pipe diameter) upstream of the beginning of the inlet cone. The low pressure connection is located in the center of the throat. The inside surfaces of a venturi are generally machined. In very large sizes only the throat is machined.
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Document ID: 2DCF127A

Measurement Of Lpg By Turbine Meter
Author(s): John G. Kopp
Abstract/Introduction:
The title of the paper is NOT Can Turbine Flowmeters be Used for Measuring LPG?. Measurement of LPG by turbine flowmeters is an established fact. j LPG Is a mixture of propane and butane, The combined experience with turbine meters in LPG and its constituents propane and butane, rspresents hundreds of successful Installations. This Includes the metering of LPG or propane as feed stock to petrochemical plants and Installations using butane as a constituent for blending gasoline. Installation of these services date back to the late 1950s and sizes have run from small 50 GPM meters all the way through relatively large size meters capable of measuring 2500 GPM.
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Document ID: BB7D2782

Discussion Of High Efficiency Gas Regulators
Author(s): John H. Liechty
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the basic laws of the market place is that a new product must offer more per dollar to the user than the unit which it was designed to replace. This is true whether it be automobiles or control valves . The maiket place for the gas industry continues to expand at a rapid pace, and from all the evidence available today, there is no immediate let-up in sight. With this expansion has come the need for a new breed of pressure regulating devices. In recent years, we have seen the introduction of three radically different valve bodies specifically designed for high pressure and capacity applications. These three are:
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Document ID: 470550C0

Dry Desiccant Dehydration
Author(s): D. K. Wonder
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for water removal from natural gas is obvious. Over the years a number of processes have been developed to accomplish this function. One of the more widely used processes applies the principle of physical adsorption of water vapor on a solid desiccant. The desiccants used all have in common the fact that fantastic surface areas are presented in a relatively small volume. As an example, one manufacturer has calculated that one half of a cub. inch of material presents a surface area equal to the size of a football field. A number of desiccant types are commercial available and include activated alumina, alumina gel, molecular sieves and silica gel. In some respects, calcium chloride can be considered a dry desiccant and will be touched on briefly.
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Document ID: 8B6A1E04


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