Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1966)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Fundamental Principles Of Gas Meter Instrumentation
Author(s): Charles C. Bermtt
Abstract/Introduction:
The methods of measurement used with positive displacement and rotary type meters vary considerably, depending on the individual as well as the company policy and often are based on long established procedures. Frequently the contract to buy or sell gas will determine the type of instrumentation as well as the methods used in measurement. Others may use procedures that originated many years ago. This is a class on the fundamentals of measurement with instrumentation for positive displacement and rotary type meter so let us begin with the most fundamental instrument-the pressure recorder. While this is not a basic instrument such as a manometer or dead weight gauge, it is fundamental to the measurement of natural gas through a large positive displacement meter.
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Document ID: D95E7F09

Design Requirements Of The High Pressure Regulator
Author(s): J. m. Hamilton, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
First, let me define the high pressure pan of this title. High pressure has varied meanings in the gas industry. In the production area, a pressure of several thousand pounds is considered high but not unusual. To a distribution gas operator the term high pressure might mean fifty pounds, hut to a gas man working for a large transmission pipeline, the term high pressure wonld refer to the discharge pressure leaving a main line compressor station or any main line pressure. So, for the sake of clarity, this paper will stay with the pressure ranges handled by the transmission main pipelmes, where 1,000 psig is considered high pressure and a pressure of 800 psig is normal.
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Document ID: 34D522AD

Introduction To The Dresser Measurement System Of Transfer Testing
Author(s): R. B. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
Field testing of gas meters is receiving increasing attention because of the potentially attractive savings in time and expense over procedures requiring meter removal and shop testing. With many larger meters now in service, new and better field testing methods have been sought. Attention has turned to Ihe use of a field calibration method which compares the field meter with the known accuracy of a reference or master meter. Such a method, called transfer proving, has been finding increasing use in Ihe last few years. In 1963 Mr. L. J. Kemp presented a discussion and demonstration of the transfer prover developed by Southern California Gas Company. Their system which uses a rotary meter as Ihe master meter, has progressed to the stage where a number of transfer provers are in daily use. and their efforts have provided valuable experience in establishing the transfer prover as a useful field test method.
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Document ID: 320FB406

Proceedings Of The Twenty-Sixth Annual Gas Measurement Short Course - Part IV
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
To a man that likes his regulators, the main Hne stations offer a challenge that is unique in the Gas Industry. He knows that it will be necessary to deal with high pressure situations that are not going to occur again once he has reduced the pressure for distribution. Not only must the control valve itself be highly versatile, but the controller or pilot system must be equally versatile. Consider some of the problems facing the control valve and its ancillary equipment. We would expect this equipment to handle high pressure drops during minimum load conditions, handle low pressure drops (5 PSl and less) during maximum load conditions, deal with transient particles and cutting conditions, offer satisfactory noise characteristics, a positive shut-off. be reasonably easy to inspect and offer high quality regulation under any set of operating conditions. Perhaps you think this is asking too much of the control equipment? Not at all and in fact, with our modern measurement requirements due to the cost of gas, the list does not have all of the requirements yet. The essence of the matter is that we have got to be demanding. A main line regulator station improperly built is going to require considerable maintenance, plus it is likely to cauye poor measurement records. The company whose job it is to regulate at the main line station also wants to be sure that his equipment never restricts the flow of gas during peak load conditions and if it is possible, it should not allow the pressure to droop noticeably during normal load fluctuations.
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Document ID: 7FC58519

Application Of The Gas Laws
Author(s): D. R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas laws which will be discussed are a basic fundamental to the gas industry. In every phase of operation within the industry, from the point where the gas is produced-the well head, to the tip of the burner, where the energy of the gas is converted to useful heat, the gas laws have been applied in one form or another many times. In sizing a pipe, or laying out a gathering system, in designing a compressor station or building a pipeline, in adding to a distribution system or designing a regulator station, and most important, in measuring the gas at the many locations belween the well head and burner tip, the gas laws provide the means to achieve the proper system design and the basis for measurement of the product- natural gas.
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Document ID: E77CCA56

High Pressure Gas Regulation-A Guide To Avoid Some Troubles And A Guide To Safety Measures
Author(s): W. S. Hull
Abstract/Introduction:
As pulsation or chattering is one of the most apparent troubles of regulation, you will find it occurs mostly: A. In two or three stage reduction where the load varies widely and oversize valves are a necessary evil. Suggested remedy: 1. If inlet is over 150 psig, use a CBVA 700 or 800 Motor Valve and 61 Controller in first stage. 2. Snub breather of second stage. 3. Keep pipe size up and velocities under 100 miles per hour (50 miles per hour is best). 4. Use straightening vanes ahead of static line if velocities are above 100 miles per hour.
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Document ID: 438DF2C7

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Harold S. Wright
Abstract/Introduction:
A great many how-to books have been written. These inckide books on how-to wire your house, how-to repair your car and many others. A great many of the papers prcsenled at this school will be how-to papers, how-to repair meters, how-to integrate charts, how-to maintain accuracy of orifice meters. It is my feehng that a paper explaining the why of orifice measurement was needed. During my research I discovered a paper which had been given back in 1951 by Mr. A. B. Lauderbaiigh, Assistant Vice President in charge of Research and Development for The Manufacturers Light and Heat Company in Pittsburgh entitled A Primer on Orifice Measurement. Mr. Lauderbaugh has graciously consented to allow me to use some of the original material and illustrations from his paper.
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Document ID: D38E3C89

Design Of Skid Mounted Meter Stations
Author(s): Frank E. Robertson
Abstract/Introduction:
The design criteria of a Portable Measuring Station is the same as for a permanent one, but with a few more added. The primary function of such a station is to measure quantity of gas, The flow rale, static pressure, and flow temperature are the controlling properties that determine what primary device should be used. It should be remembered that no one primary device is good for all flow rates. The flow rate should be scrutinized carefully to make sure that all changes in flow rates can be measured, An orifice plate has a usable range of 5:1 and still maintains a reasonable accuracy. The average positive displacement meter has a usable range from practically zero flow up to their maximum capacity. The average turbine meter has a range of about 12:1. The flow rate might be of such a nature that more than one device will have to he used to measure it accurately. Each of the above measurement devices has its advantages and disadvantages over the others. These differences will not be discussed here. The accuracy of a device is not always Ihe deciding factor in choosing it. To field personnel the most important thing is to have a device that requires little or no maintenance. Since Ihesc people are the ones that have to live with it and it is their responsibility to see that it works it behooves us to listen to their suggestions.
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Document ID: 6B0CCC21

Gas Measurement By Mass AND/OR Energy
Author(s): Louis W. Mendonsa
Abstract/Introduction:
As specialists in gas measnrenient you may take some satisfaction in the knowledge that your specialty has a strong growth potential. The long term trend in natural gas sales and pricing practices is toward ever more precise gas quality standards, including the aspecis of heat and chemical content. More accurate and sophisticated gas measurements must accompany this trend. There are sound reasons for the trend toward pricing more of the sales of natural gas in heat units rather than volume units. The principal reasons are: 1. The strong probability of discriminalion between customers when gas of varying heat content within a single pipeline system or distribution system is sold to customers under volumetric rates. 2. For effective competition with other fuels gas must be priced in meaningful value terms and heat is the dominant value characteristic of natural gas for more than 99 percent of its customers. Oil and electricity are sold in volume or power units which for the most part can be directly and simply translated into heal units. Most coal for heating and power uses is sold under contract specifications which include Btu content provisions. 3. Public confidence in any product is improved when the customer has precise information on the quality or grade of the product and the unit price expressed in meaningful value terms. One of the reasons American beef enjoys a wide market at home and abroad is because the U. S. Department of Agriculture enforces rigid quality grading standards. 4. Gas statistics and accouniing will become more precise and understandable as the day approaches when all gas quantities are expressed in heat units under a standardized uniform temperature and pressure base.
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Document ID: AEA0D1B3

Sales Meter And Regulator Station Designs Including Standardization, Primary Elements, And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Rex W. Landry
Abstract/Introduction:
In sales measLiremenl and pressure regulating stations, the primary measurement element is of basic concern in design. For volumes of gas normally encountered the sharp edged orifice plate is the most commonly used. Of course, for smaller flows positive displacement and rotary type meters arc often used. For the purpose of this discussion I shall limit the coverage to the sharp edged orifice plate. The AGA Committee Report #3 is the guide line used by most companies in gas measurement for design lengths, diameter tolerances, etc. Most companies with many and varied types of installations Iry and standardize their meter tuhe lengths, taking into account the maximum Beta Ratio to be expected, and the maximum potential flow disturbance upstream such as regulators, partially opened valves, and 90 degree bends. A typical conservative specification would be based on a .75 Beta Ratio and an AGA Figure 6 installation for meter tube design tolerances. The lengths computed on (his basis are the minimiun recommended lengths, and many companies prefer to add extra lengths where space and physical location will permit them to do so. The use of straightening vanes greatly reduces the required upstream approach length. Good versatile design for stations with increased load possibility may indicate that the use of a meter tube of such length so that the next larger size meter tube or tubes could be installed without a major revision of the station.
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Document ID: 018C10B7

Natural Gas Density Technology And Determination For Application To Flow Measurement
Author(s): George J. Greene, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
How can the direct measurement of gas density benefit the gas industry? This question is always foremost in the minds of measurement people when they are confronted with the suggestion of altering conventional measurement techniques to include density. Many persons think of the determination of gas densily as an added measurement to be concerned with or as a brand new, unorthodox approach to flow measurement. Quite to the contrary, density is the primary property of a gas which relates the differential pressure across an orifice plate to the velocity of a gas flowing through the orifice.
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Document ID: 99DC8F93

Design And Application Of Analog Flow Computer Systems
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
Much has been published and discussed in the last several years about analog flow computer systems. These sysiem are an outgrowth of a need by the Gas Industry for a direct and immediate readout of flow rate and total flow through a station coupled with the rapid growth of solid state electronics and the concurrent advancement of analog computer techniques. The needs for analog flow computer systems vary in different segments of the Gas Industry, but basically evolve into two main categories: the need for instant information and the need for reduced data handling. These needs have existed for many years, but have become more pronounced with the increased value of natural gas, while the reliability and low power requirements of solid state electronics have made possible a device to answer this need.
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Document ID: EC95B39D

House Service Regulators: Design, Manufacture And Service
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
The term Gas Service Regulator, commonly applies to those regulators used for reducing gas pressure in pounds to a reduced or service pressure of four to eight ounces as required by domestic gas burning equipment such as gas stoves, floor furnaces, hot water heaters, central heating plants and other similar gas heating equipment. Such gas service regulators are used whenever gas pressure is distributed as a pressure in pounds and must be reduced to ounces pressure for these appliances. The regulator is installed ahead of the domestic meter because the meter is designed to measure gas consumed on the premises at ounces pressure and not in pounds pressure. See Figure 1.
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Document ID: 48A4AD64

A Logarithmic Method For Use With Low Pressure Flow Provers
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
One of Ihe major objections to the low piessuic flow prover has been that its use requires too many look-ups and field calculations--which are often made out at the fork of the creeks, where machine calculators and conventional laboratory facilities are not available. It is coinmon knowledge however, that some variables have only a slight--almost straight line-effect (such as barometric pressure and flowing temperature), while others-such as differential pressure and test time, have a major effect. If one were to confine the operation to vacuum flow proving-to achieve temperature uniformity, and use pipe tap differentials-so that no correction need be made for downstream pressure recovery, the operation would be simplified considerably. If we were then to go back to Ihe use of logarithms-which many of us studied in grade school and promptly discarded, the operation could be made even more simple-without any loss of accuracy.
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Document ID: A49FF166

Trends In Gas Measurement Design And Techniques
Author(s): Ken Kridner
Abstract/Introduction:
That involves much mare than the mere determination of the volume of gas that passes a certain point. Indeed, measurement of gas has become an important project, involving some of the most exotic and advanced techniques and equipment used by the American industry. Where is the inslrumenlation need for gas measurement in the gas industry? We know that the numbers of measuring components in use throughout the country reaches into the hundreds of thousands. An indication is given by the results we published in our April issue of this year. A look at this survey can be enlightening. Referring to Figure I, we get an idea of the numbers of various type instruments being used in the transmission industry. Lets stop a moment to review what we mean by the various types of stations shown. Sales stations are master delivery points where custody transfer is granted from the trimsmission company to a customer utility or industrial company. Field stations are much smaller in size and cost, and are used at the mouth of producing wells or at the tailgates of processing plants for metering the gas into the transmission pipe lines. Check stations are located on the pipe line and are used primarily for control purposes.
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Document ID: 78B90C97

Application And Maintenance Of District Type Regulators
Author(s): Donald A. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
My talk will deal with the Application and Maintenance of Low Pressure and High Pressure Regulators as applied to my company, Iroquois Gas Corporation. As background Iroquois might be called a medium-large company, supplying over 400,000 customers, having a peak demand of about 800 MMCF/day, and having over 1,000 regulator stations of all sizes and categories. About 400 of these are large low pressure stations, about 100 are Uirge high pressure stations and the remainder are small settings using either a service regulator for low pressure delivery or a farm tap regulator for high pressure supply. Our major low pressure stations have evolved over the years into one basic design. Figs. 1 and 2) These stations are above ground, housed in a brick or metal building, and consist of an oil cleaner, orifice fitting, low pressure regulator and oil seal type relief valve. Practically all our low pressure regulators are supplied by one manufacturer, and are dead weight operated with linkage connected double valves. This type equipment is simple, rugged, relatively trouble-free, and will not generally fail closed.
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Document ID: CC806CE2

Introduction To Statistics
Author(s): Malcolm Sherwood
Abstract/Introduction:
This class has been designed to introduce briefly the subject of statistics for average practical application by gas measurement men. Because the class will be followed by a quality control seminar, it will not include the subject of sampling. The subjects to be discussed are simple techniques that can be used on a variety of problems. Because of the limitation of time, there will be no discussion of statistical theory. It is felt that in such a short class period this would only complicate the practical understanding of these very valuable tools. The discussion will involve the following: (t) Frequency Distribution, (2) Averages (Arithmetic Means), (3) Standard Deviation. (4) Normal Curves, (5) Probability, and (6) Correlation. The use of the word statistics generally has two connotations. Statistics can mean a body of data, facts, and information. Statistics also can mean a body of methods, based on mathematical theory, that are used to study and evaluate data. It is the latter definition that will be stressed in this class. Al this point it should be mentioned that statistical methods are used solely for the purpose of simplifying data. Slatistics .should nol be used al any time to make numbers, figures, and data more confusing. The discussion here will be made in this context.
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Document ID: 99830015

Large Capacity Regulators
Author(s): . A. Pommersheim
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many types of Regulators that can be classified as large capacity. Also, the classification can be further defined as high or low pressure. A definite distinction as to type is sometimes hard to make however, in the transmission or main line application. Regulator equipment can in most cases be classified as large capacity, high pressure. It is these Regulators and Iheir application which will be the basis of this discussion. The main line Regulator can and does assume many modes. The various designs incorporate a valve or throttling means along with a suitable control mechanism. Each of the pressure control means where properly applied, will provide adequate service. The type chosen is dependent on the application and the accuracy of control desired. In most cases, simplicity is foremost in Regulator selection. Many times elaborate equipment has only served to upset the system, rather than provide necessary accuracy. Yet, on the other hand, where equipment can be properly applied and results warrant its selection, sophistication can be justified. Regulator design for the main line application is not restricted, although the most common design is the double ported balanced valve. The Balanced Valve Regulator has been quite successful, and probably will continue to be the favorite for many years. New approaches to Regulator design, particularly for the high pressure applications, include many variations. Outstanding among these are the single port piston balanced valve, the expansible throttling valve, and the plug valve Regulator. Each design has operating characteristics which will provide adequate performance for the chosen application
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Document ID: 81DD5273

A New Concept Of Flow Totalizing
Author(s): Claude B. Nolte
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a discussion of a black box which, when attached to an existing orifice flow recorder, converts it into an integrating flow meter. It is produced in the form of a kit designed to be attached by the user to the various orifice meters commonly used in the field and in the plants. (Figs. I, 2, & 3). This device opens up a whole new area in orifice flow measurement because it increases the accuracy of interpretation of orifice meter data by a factor of 10. The flow signal is converted into direct digital readout without the requirement of chart processing or planimeiering. The device is battery powered so it may he installed in remote areas where power is not available. It will operate up to a year from a battery of two D-size flashlight cells.
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Document ID: B992FB97

Digital Versus Analog Telemetering
Author(s): R. H. Cadmus
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the years, the Gas Industry has seen a tremendous expansion in the use of Telemetering and Data-Handling Equipment. This has been brought on primarily by the expansion of the natural gas system itself and the need for centralized dispatch of these expanded systems. Initially, some of our most complex systems started off with one or two measurements, which were telemetered back to a local dispatch point. Based on the success of these earlier systems, increased telemetering and remote control equipment were utilized and subsequently the need to centralize these local dispatch points became apparent. In the earlier days, due to the technical limitations, most of the equipment involved was of the electro-mechanical, analog type but as new techniques were developed in the use of electronic equipment the trend has been towards electronic designs of the digital type which utilize pulse techniques. However, this does not mean that the analog techniques have been abandoned in favor of digital techniques, but instead the change seems to have been one from electro-mechanical to electronic that is, there arc many electronic analog techniques which are currently available which have many features which would recommend them for use in the Gas Industry. Briefly, the advantages of both the analog and digital systems which may he ascribed to them are as follows.
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Document ID: 1BA06395

Large Capacity Displacement Meter Inspection And Testing Program Columbia( Gas System, Pittsburgh Group)
Author(s): Harry W. Aivalotis
Abstract/Introduction:
The area covered by the Columbia Gas System, Pittsburgh Group encompasses the State of Pennsylvania northern West Virginia northern Maryland: a part of eastern Ohio and extends across southern New York from the vicinity of Lake Erie in the west to New York City in the east. Due to this geographical location many diverse operating problems are involved, Also operations are subject to the rules of Regulatory Bodies of several different states. Types of measurement encountered are Distribution Sales, Wholesale, Production and Storage. Over 4,000 large volume meters are maintained plus all auxiliary control and regulating equipment. Measurement is accomplished by use of positive displacement, rotary and orifice meters.
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Document ID: 695C8CE1

Basic Electronics
Author(s): N. S. Smith, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Since their advent in 1948, semiconductor devices have been continually claiming a larger share of the territory which previously had been the exclusive domain of the vacuum tube. Initially, the application of semiconductor devices was limited to the use of diodes in low-voltage applications and transistors in lowvoltage and audio-frequency applications. As the theory and fabrication techniques were developed to overcome the voltage and frequency problems, the inherent advantages of small size, no heating power or warm-up time, and ruggedness, despite disadvantages sucii as sensitivity to radiation and temperature, led circuit designers to incorporate semiconductor diodes, transistors, and other semiconductor devices into electronic measuring equipment. It is evident that those involved in the application, maintenance, or servicing of such equipment should possess a knowledge of the principles of operation of such semiconductor devices as well as the more familiar vacuum-tube. The treatment of semiconductor diodes and transistors as analogs of their vacuum-tube equivalents will be the subject of the following discussion.
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Document ID: 05C21E20

Positive Meter Instrumentation
Author(s): Wilbur W. Lints
Abstract/Introduction:
A diaphragm type or a rotary type positive displacement meter measures gas volumetrically at line conditions. When measuring gas al elevated pressures and varying temperatures using positive displacement meiers. it is necessary to use some means of changing the measured volume, as indicated by the meter, to some predetermined standard base condition. If gas is being measured at a constant pressiLre and temperature, the measured volume can be changed to base conditions by applying Boyles Law and Charless Law, in the following manner.
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Document ID: DF9A086F

Pneumatrc Or Electronic Instruments?
Author(s): R. R. Roseberry
Abstract/Introduction:
Instrumentation in the gas industry for many years was limiled to direct readine mechanical instruments, such as differential pressure recorders, static pressure recorders and temperature recorders. These instruments were usually located very close to the point of measurement. (n the 1940s. pneumatic transmission of these measurements was introduced. This allowed the recording inslrumenls to be mounted in a central location such as on a central control panel. The same measurements were still being made. The industry saw a major change in techniques of automation in the late 1950s. This was due largely to the introduction of electronic instruments. Electronics filled many gaps in measurement and control, giving the instrument engineer another medium in which to work. Some of the present problems which had not been solved by direct connected mechanical or pneumatic instruments could be approached with the new techniques offered by electronic instruments. Electronics, however, should not be considered as a cure all which can be used for all applications. The best system will be determined by the specific application and other related factors. At times it may be advantageous to combine pneumatics and electronics in the same system.
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Document ID: 3BDC2AC6

Basic Theory And Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Robert C. Lisk
Abstract/Introduction:
To the problem of providing sufficient strength in regulator components to withstand the static pressures which may be imposed, there must be added the problems of mass and velocity. These factors introduce difficulties which arc ofttimes surprising and just as often puzzling. Natural gas. with its specific gravity of less than tmily. does not ordinarily impress us with its weight. A cubic foot at standard conditions weighs only 5/100 of a pound. This we might be templed to ignore. When we consider also the quantities, as well as the weights of the gas in a specific situation, we begin to realize that it would be a gross error to overlook the mass involved. Even a relatively small pressure reducing valve, such as a i house service regulator, can pass 1,000 cubic feet per hour and thus must be designed to handle a weight totaling 50 pounds each hour, This weight handling requirement becomes more apparent when we take a look at something on the order of a 6 regulator cutting from a pipeline pressure of perhaps 750 psi down to 250 psi. The hourly capacity under these critical pressure drop conditions is 10.000,000 cubic feet per hour. The total weight in this situation is half a million pounds!
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Document ID: 89C42E8F

System Gas Balance
Author(s): Ralph S. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
To give the proper connotation to the text of this paper, it is first necessary to establish the definition of the word balance as related to gas accountability. Therefore, we shall assume balance to mean an equality between the totals of two sides of an account. In the instance of a system gas balance report, we can say equality is the result of accounting for the volume difference between the total gas purchased and the total gas deUvered to the consumer.
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Document ID: 1230FD89

Quality Control And The Meter Shop
Author(s): C. W. Lecure
Abstract/Introduction:
One of industries most concerning problems in this day and age is the everrising cost of operations. Perhaps you have asked yourself what can be done to reduce these ever-increasing costs. What techniques are available to help me solve these problems? One such approach is Quality Control, maybe not from a Total Quality Control program but perhaps some of the techniques or tools are applicable to your siluafion. Such techniques or tools are what I would like to discuss with you and how they may apply to your operation in the meter shop. Have you ever purchased a bushel of apples and looked at a few of the apples on top. Perhaps you looked at a half dozen or more baskets before you selected a parlicular one. If so, you were using to a degree one of the tools of Q. C. Sampling. But perhaps after you got the basket home you found that the apples in the bottom of the basket were not at all like the apples which were on top. Perhaps this was the intent of the supplier or we did not carry our inspection far enough. Yet in purchasing a large number of units we can not afford the time or effort required to look at each individual unit. Lets look at the same problem but only a different product. Products which you are processing in your meter shop. Perhaps your present policy is to 100% test each product which your company purchases.
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Document ID: CFEBB2CA

Design Of Pulsation Dampening Installations At Meter Stations
Author(s): D. E. Lindgren
Abstract/Introduction:
Puisalion is still a major problem in measurement of flow and therefore methods of coping with it are worthy of review at this time. It is not my purpose to tell you of any revolutionary technique or to expose any new theory, but rather to lay out what I think is a reasonable approach in eliminating pulsation error in measurement by use of pulsation dampeners. The term pulsation in this paper is meant to be the variation in pressure. Pulsation usually occurs at a uniform rate or so many cycles per second. The amount of pulsation is usually referred to as amplitude or peak-to-peak amplitude (Figure 1). In practice, a pulsating wave is usually composed of several different frequencies. These different frequency components have been summed together to form a more complicated wave as in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 3 is an actual recording of a pulsating wave measured in a pipeline. The frequency analysis is listed below it.
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Document ID: 15DA3A4B

Compressor Station Operations By Microwave
Author(s): Bryson L. Lowman
Abstract/Introduction:
The entire natural gas system of South Carolina Electric & Gas Company, Figure I, is supphed by Southern Natural Gas Company at Aiken, S. C. A major transmission line from Aiken forms a Y at Salley with one branch to Columbia and the other to Charleston. In 1963 a microwave system was planned from Colimibia to an electric generating plant at Beech Island. South Carolina (near Augusta. Georgia). Considering the possibility of future compressors for the gas system, microwave repeaters were located so that the Aiken and Salley stations could be controlled from our central dispatching office in Columbia. The microwave system operates in the 6.000 mc band using FIVI multiplex. The RF has 100 milliwatt output and repeaters are spaced at 15 and 25 mile intervals. The multiplex has a capacity of 48 voice channels with each channel having a frequency response of 300 to 3000 cps at --1 and -3 db. The system was designed so that under normal operating conditions the signal to noise ratio on the voice channels between Columbia and Beech Island is 60 db. With a fade of 30 db in any one hop, the S/N ratio on Ihc same channels is 25 db. The microwave stations are operated on 115 volt 60 cps commercial power with 5 KW emergency gas generators. Hot standby RF is provided at all stations with bilateral switching.
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Document ID: FEC7D441

Transfer Proving
Author(s): F. J. Mehall
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of any quantity, we are concerned with accuracy and ease of measurement. Quite often one is sacrificed to obtain the other but as long as the measured quantity is within accepted limits, ease of measurement is predominant. Examples of accuracy and ease of measurement, somewhat out of proportion to each other, aie found in OLM automobile. The oil level is measured with a dip stick, a method which gives good accuracy but involves several time consuming operations. The gasoline gage is less accmate than the dip stick method, but is much more convenient. The least accurate of all, but by far the easiest method of measiucment, is the generator indicator light. Either the generator is developing sufficient energy or it is not. No indication is given of the amount of energy developed only a go or no go condition is present. In measuring the accuracy or proof of gas meters, stress has. by necessity, been placed on the accinucy of obtaining the proof. We are required to measure an error so small and affected so greatly by changing parameters that our method of measurement is quite involved. We have sacrificed ease of measurement to obtain accuracy. A design goal that becomes immediately apparent then is to have a device to measure the proof of a gas meter with a high degree of accuracy and to do it with ease.
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Document ID: 8DA48259

In-Service Performance Of Temperature Compensated Diaphragm Gas Meters
Author(s): I. Pallas
Abstract/Introduction:
It can he safely said that temperature compensation of diaphragm gas meters was born out of a sincere desire on the part of measurement engineers to provide a simple device which would insure accurate measurement of gas under almost any combination of temperature variations. Prior to the advent and availability of large quantities of natural gas. the positive displacement diaphragm gas meter was expected to measure any manufactured gas mixture that was put through it and to do this with an acceptable degree of accuracy. It is a historical fact that within the framework of some obvious limitations this meter did (and does today) a thoroughly good measurement job, and, at least in the early part of the century, could hold its own with almost any other mass measurement device then in use.
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Document ID: 62DE6009

What Measurement Chart Processing Expects From Chart Changers And Instrument Mechanics
Author(s): Vincent F. Francis
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a class and discussion highlighting the need fur good communication. cooperation and coordination between the field and office personnel. In the corporate organization of most all gas and pipeline companies there is a separation between office and field operations-from short distances to hundreds of miles. This separation tends at times to create problems in the field of communication. Good cooperation and coordination will in most cases alleviate or eliminate these problems. In recent years, the advent of new electronic machines and improvement and changes in data processing equipment has made this field of good, accurate communication even more necessary.
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Document ID: 9784334B

Is Management Deveiopment For Real?
Author(s): Richard B. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Elsewhere in this Course you have been concerned with technical aspects of the business. Goals have been identified. Trends have been noted which will contribute to the achievement of these goals. None of these goals, however, will be achieved except through the efforts of people: people who understand these goals, accept their validity, and have the knowledge, skill and experience they need to make their individual contribution to the total effort. The people of whom I speak are all those in an organization: everyone employed by a company. Among other classifications they fall inio two groups: those who are managed, and those who manage. This afternoon we are concerned wilh ihe latter, ie Managers. Managers are leaders. As such they must plan, organize, delegate, train, operate, control, evaluate and document. They help to make, implement and administer policy and program. They must recognize and analyze problems, select a best solution from alternatives, make decisions. They operate in a fasl-moving milieu-- in an environment constantly changing.
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Document ID: 20CB001D

Installation And Operation Of Large Displacement Meters
Author(s): Carl B. Goodman
Abstract/Introduction:
Correct meter performance and economical meter maintenance are essential problems of yotir management. You have heard tlic expression many times, no doubt, the Gas Meier is the Cash Register of the Companies, Since we know this is true, a Gas Meter Merits Special Consideration. Because of the large volume of gas measured through large capiicity meters and the strain they are subjected to, it is of utmost importance that extra precautions are taken in the repairing and testing of them. Accuracy is the major assci of a meter. Accurate equipment imposes a correct charge on the customer and yields a corresponding revenue to the company. In the event of a dispute, a correct meter is the most effective agcnl for public relations. The effect of incorrect meters is directly the opposite. Since all of you have, unquestionably, repaired and tested many large capacity meters and know the operations necessary, step by slep. it wilt not be my aim to tell you how it should be done. My paper will deal more on mentioning ihc highlights and important points that should be considered when repairing and testing meters of this type, and in that way questions can be asked that will benefit us all by the discussion that follows.
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Document ID: 8B2AE0F8

Turbo Type Meter Measurement
Author(s): J. R. Stevenson
Abstract/Introduction:
Features of a Rockwell Turbo Meter are desirable for measurement in the gas industry. If you analyze the various measurement requirements and specifications that are set forth, you can readily see where the Turho Meter is very applicable. In this day of increased construction cost, the gas consumer is not interested in building an extremely large area to bouse gas measurement equipment. The Turbo Meter is small and compact, mainly because it operates at much higher revolutions per minute than our old stand-by measurement devices. Ihe basic design of the Turbo also results in very good rangcability. At low pressure, the range of the 6 meter is 13 to I. The 8 Turbo Meter has a rangeability at low pressure of 20 to 1. When you increase the pressure, the rangeability automatically increases. When operating at 125 psi. the rangeability of the 6 Turbo Meter is 40 to 1, and rangeabilify for the H Turbo Meter increases to 62 to 1. The basic principle of the meter also results in a very low maintenance cost. These are only a few of the reasons that we feel that the Turbo type measurement principle is going to find a great deal of use in the gas industry. Because of its relative youth, we shall discuss its basic principle of operation, as well as its construction and other items of interest.
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Document ID: FE44738B

Principles And Applications Of Automatic Control
Author(s): Grady K. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
For the purpose of this paper we will consider the following types of control action: 1. Proportional 2. On-off 3. Proportional Plus Reset 4. Proportional Plus Reset Plus Derivative 5. Single Station Auto-Selector Controller 6. Cascade Control We will use the Foxboro M/40 Controller as our example.
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Document ID: BB5C03BC

Digital Data Systems
Author(s): Robert S. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
A large electric utility in the Midwest currently estimates that its recently installed digital data system is saving over one thousand dollars a day in generation and tranmission costs. In the East, one of the nations major steel suppliers is keeping a close watch on gas, water and electricity demands and effecting substantial economies by maintaining these items within contract limitations using digital telemetering and solid stale supervisory control. In the West, a water utility has programmed a small general purpose digital computer to control pumping from its widely scattered network of wells in such a fashion as to insiue an adequate supply to its customers and still maintain electricity demand below the contract limit. Communication between the computer and the remote equipment is by a solid state digital telemetering and supervisory control system.
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Document ID: ADD559FF

Precautions To Insure Orifice Metering Accuracy
Author(s): A. J. Sahr, K. R. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
The fundamental principles of orifice meters are over a century old. During the last 46 years measurement by the orifice meter has heen developed to be the simplest and most accurate device known for measurement of large volumes of gas The modern orifice meter of today was used to develop the tables of coefficient factors used in computing gas volumes as shown in the American Gas Association, Gas Measurement Committee Report No, 3. The construction and installation specifications set forth in A.G.A. Report No. 3 must be followed to simplify computations and maintain accuracy. These coefficients and specifications are the conlrolling factors to ensure accuracy with orifice meters. Therefore, the primary element must he within the specifications found in A.G.A. Report No. 3. The allowable tolerances and specifications for the secondary elements will vary from company to company. The maximum tolerance usually permitted is . 5% for any one instrument. The tolerances we will discuss are those used in the Columbia Gas System and Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Corporation.
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Document ID: 6AE892D1

Techniques Of Preventive Maintenance
Abstract/Introduction:
The first step in preventive maintenance is to schedule appropriate periods for servicing each piece of equipment or groups of equipment. These periods should he determined on the basis of the service histories accumulated and on specific environments known to exist. Because travel time to stations in the gas industry represents an especially large proportion of work lime, probably whole groups of equipment should be examined at once. Once on the job. the next step is to decide how the process control loop may be isolated successfully without upsetting the process or measurement. It is normally necessary to completely isolate pneumatic instruments because, part of the checking involves a calibration procedure requiring full input variable range manipulation.
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Document ID: 613925F9

Gas Measurement By Pipe Elbows
Author(s): T. G. Craig
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many methods available for the measurement of flowing fluids. The common method employs the differential pressure principle, using as a head producing element such a device as a concentric, eccentric or segmental orifice, a flow nozzle, a ventuii tube or an elbow. The thin square-edge concentric orifice is, of course, the standard in our industry because it is economical and practical, has rangeability and. above other reasons, it is reproducible with relative accuracy without individual calibration. Custody transfer of fluids, both gases and liquids, in the amount of millions of dollars is accomplished by this method throughout the world. However, there is often need of measurement for purposes other than custody transfer, such as control or system operating information. In the interest of maximum economy in an installation investment, with the advantage of minimum net head loss and with some recognized but tolerable inaccuracy, an uncalibrated elbow may serve such a measurement requirement.
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Document ID: A8D613A0

Measurement And Control Of Propane-Air Peak Shaving Plants
Author(s): W. F. Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Judging by the variety of systems for blending propane and air for peak shaving the number of different systems must exceed the number of engineers who design such systems. At any rate the number of different systems is greater than would be expected considering that all are supposed to accomplish the same end result. in spite of these differences all seem to perform their intended function but not with equal effort or attention on the part of the operator, Some arc easily put on stream and operate wiih a minimum of attention while others are difficult to place into operation and require almost constant attention. It is our purpose to examine some of the combinations of controls that have been used and to point out the factors that make certain combinalions more suited to a particular process than others.
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Document ID: 42E61372

Design And Operating Practices For Main Line Regulation Stations
Author(s): J. m. Hamilton, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In designing a main line regulator station there are many conditions to consider and questions to get answered before you are ready lo start a drawing or order any material. The order that I have listed these conditions may not be the order of importance but I feel that all must be considered and answered before the job can be started. 1. The inlet pressure that you can expect, what range of pressure are you to have at this location? This may be limited by the operating pressure on the main line or some governing body, either local or state. 2. What is Ihe outlet or downstream pressure to be controlled to? Here you need to know the maximum and minimum conditions that this station is expected lo control. 3. What are the volumes to be regulated? Here you need to know the maximum and minimum. 4. Will this station be required to have measurement equipment installed now or at a later date or never? 5. is this station to he self-contained or is it to be controlled from a remote location? 6. Will noise be a problem now or later? Should you plan lo contain or supress the noise or just forget about it? 7. Will relief equipment be required, or will you have lo have back up regulators? 8. Is the gas in this location odorized? 9. Will you be able to use the gas for an operating source of power, or have to install an air compressor? 10. What are the building codes in the area you plan lo build? What type of building, if any?
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Document ID: 2B798C56

Monitoring Sulfur Compounds In Transmission Gases
Author(s): Frank V. Wilby
Abstract/Introduction:
This report is concerned with the monitoring of sulfur compounds in natural gas which is ready for distribution. The emphasis is on natiual gas since it comprises over 98.5 percent of the gas sold in the United Slates. The use of manufactured or mixed gas is relatively small and declining. Although the total sulfur content of gas transmitted in some areas may be as high as five to 10 grains of sulfur per 100 standard cubic feet*, in most metropolitan areas a sulfur content that high would produce an intolerable number of leak complaints. Generally the total sulfur concentiation in transmission gas will be in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 grains of sulfur per 100 standard cubic feet. The lower the sulfur concentration, the greater are the difficulties in obtaining an accurate analysis.
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Document ID: 816A8F37

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Forest H. Wehrman
Abstract/Introduction:
When upstream pressure is introduced into the jacket (space between body and top of tube), balancing the pressure across the tube, the tension of the tube on the core forms a positive, bubble-light seal. Since the tube conforms to uneven surfaces, its ability to shutoff tightly is practically independent of erosive core wear, As jacket pressure is reduced, upstream pressure within the tube tends to progressively lift the tube until it is completely off the inlet slots and partially uncovers the outlet slots, establishing a smooth and even throttling condilion. The jacket pressure condition necessary for throttling can be produced by manual or automatic pilot control. The Flexflo reacts instantly to the slightest pressure variation, compensating automatically for surge of shock impulses. Stability of all throttling positions is accurately maintained.
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Document ID: C74805F9

Digital Systems Operations
Author(s): W. C. Hoehl
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will attempt to cover only a few of the many facets to the operation of a digital control system. The operation presented is that of only one company, for there are as many ideas on how a system should operate as there are people working with such systems. No attempt will be made at explaining the technical details of operation i.e., programming techniques, analog to digital conversion, solid state logic, etc., for they are beyond the scope of this paper.
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Document ID: F7B475B3

Field Problems Associated With Orifice Measurement
Author(s): William H. Isner
Abstract/Introduction:
The problem of meter accuracy and performance is one of prime interest to both management and field meastirement men. This subject has been discussed at great length and for many years whenever and wherever gas men gather and we all have developed ideas concerning (he subject. For measurement involving purchase, storage and sale of large volumes of natural gas the Charleston Group Companies of the Columbia Gas System use orifice meters, following the recommendations of AGA Gas Measurement Committee Report #3, covering sharp, square edge, thin-plate concentric orifices using flange taps. It is the responsibility of the design engineer and the field man directly involved to adhere to these proceduies and assure thai physical construction of both primary and secondary elements conform to specifications and all variables kept within tolerance so that published flow factors can be used with assurance that results obtained will be accurate.
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Document ID: D7D78C30

Gas Measurement Short Course
Author(s): Gene G. Greer
Abstract/Introduction:
Most gas companies, whether transmission or distribution, are either involved with adding odorant to their gas or with checking the intensity of the odorant that has been added by others. The problem of adding odorant to natural gas is not a new one. In some parts of the country the gas that is produced is odorized by nattire, although the majority of the gas produced has to have an odorant added to it. The level of the injection is determined by each individual company and/or state in which each is operating. When a company is setting up a program of natural gas odorization, three (3) things have to he decided. First is the kind of odorant, the second is the type of injection equipment, and the third is a reliable monitoring system.
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Document ID: 4F3EB7B0

Low Pressure Applications Of Rotary Meters In Commercial And Industrial Service
Author(s): L. W. Obermiller
Abstract/Introduction:
For a number of years there has been much discussion about pressure surges and outages which have been related to the so-called solenoid valve problem on industrial and commercial gas loads. When it occurs, this problem area is particularly identified with low pressure applications, and in some cases a basic regulation problem can be intensified where a rotary meter is part of ihc system. The purpose of this paper is to outline Ihe basic problem, to identify the installations most likely to be troublesome, discuss solutions to this problem through control modifications and piping configurations, and finally to discuss forthcoming meter modifications which will be of considerable benefit to this condition.
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Document ID: 4CC6618D

Users Viewpoint Of Electroscanner
Author(s): m. W. Doubikin
Abstract/Introduction:
The introduction of the Electroscanner has cleared Ihe way to greatly accelerate production in the method of processing meter charts. Old methods, of a necessity. must give way to the new. Management in all fields of industry is constantly examining every conceivable avenue to implement improvements in equipment, methods and procedures in order to increase production and at the same time reduce costs. The natural gas industry is no exception. Gas measurement, particularly, because of the complexities involved, is a fertile field for the employment of new concepts of techniques and methods to accurately measure gas volumes and speed up the operations necessary to calculate these volumes.
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Document ID: 8F8E5577

Measurement And Regulation In Connection With Underground Storage
Author(s): G. G. Less
Abstract/Introduction:
If all of the gas fields in the United States were adjacent to the markets they serve, there would hardly be a need for undergroimd storage. But this is not the case. Most of the gas used comes from Louisiana, Texas, and the southwestern part of the country, whereas the major gas markets are in the central and northern sections where colder weather generates a heavy space-heating load. Tn many instances, gas fields are a thousand or more miles from where the gas is consumed--about a three-day trip through the pipelines. Yet gas transmission companies and local utilities must be ready to deliver large volumes of gas on short notice when the weather suddenly turns cold. The gas companies must overcome two problems to operate economically: (1) provide adequate supplies of gas for the winter months when demand is most intense, and (2) operate pipelines as near full capacity as possible at all times, including summer when demand is lower. Generally, there are two ways-or a combination of the two-to deal with these problems: interruptible load gas and storage. The storage segment of the system provides a high system reliability. With a large volume of gas located near the market area, supplies can be made available on a moments notice to replace pipeline flow in the event of unforeseen emergencies.
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Document ID: AD59B8C5

Prevention Of Freezing At Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Jack Sheets
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the objective of this panel to present an approach to Ihe subject of freezing. The panel members represent a good cross section of those so involved equipment manufacturers, production, transmission and distribution. Each gives inside into his companys approach based on operating practice and years to solid experience. The problem of freezing is one of long standing and will not diminish in the foreseeable future. Technological advances will improve their solution at less cost. With ihe increase of gas sales from our pipelines, it has become necessary to increase our pressures in order to meet customer requirements. The improvement of materials and types of conduction permit us to do this, but in doing so, problems of freezing have been encountered both internally and externally. The difficulties encountered in internal freezing, and methods of prevention will be covered first in this report.
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Document ID: 01570746

Design And Installation Of Odorizers And Odorant Monitoring Facilities
Author(s): Walter J. Fitzgerald
Abstract/Introduction:
Let us commence this discussion by assuming that your company has recently decided to odorize, perhaps at the urging of the Utility Commission, or perhaps due to a reduction in the odor level of available gas supplies. The engineering and construction departments have completed their part of the program, and, since odorant is added to gas at a rale which is proportional to standard cubic feet of gas flow, it is not surprising that the measurement department is selected to operate. The Superintendent of Gas Measurement calls you in, explains that the company plans to odorize, and shows you the odorizer and a drum which he says in full of odorant. You ask him How do you get this odoranl into the odorizer and then into the gas? He answers, That is your problem. You have heard enough about odorant to know that it must be treated with respect, so before you reach for the funnel, you read up on the subect. The odorant manufacturers literature is helpful, and his representative will very probably visit you. His years of experience in the field enable him to answer many of your questions, and you soon learn many pertinent facts. As for equipment, there are two classifications of odorizers, evaporation by-pass, also known as absorption, and liquid injection, It turns out that you have a King Odorizer, which is a commercial absorption odorizer of vertical design.
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Document ID: 82880727

Introduction To Testing And Inspecting Orifice Meters
Author(s): Thomas G. Voisey
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of large volumes of natural gas, at high pressure, by the orifice meter method has become so widespread that it is now accepted as standard for the industry. Because of the very nature of large volume measurement, huge sums of money are involved. It is plain to see that the slightest deviation from the designs and standards governing orifice measurement could cost the gas industry large sums of money. Therefore, with this fact in mind we will proceed, in this paper, with the various tests and inspections which have been developed la insure that the lost revenue, due to inaccurate orifice meters, will he held to a minimum. The standards for the design, installation and calculation of flow of orifice meters, has been set forth in the publication entitled Orifice Metering of Natural Gas. Gas Measurement Committee Report Number Three, sponsored by the American Gas Association. The facts and figures contained in this report were derived by running many actual tests on orifice meters under various conditions that would be found in the field. The specifications, and tolerances indicated in this paper were based on information contained in this report.
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Document ID: F35D7136

Mechanical Displacement Meter Prover For Gas Meters
Author(s): A. W. Jasek
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this presentation is to tell you about a new technique to test the accuracy of gas meters under actual operating conditions by the use of a bidirectional mechanical displacement meter prover. This is really an old technique used to lest liquid meters that has only recently been adapted to gas meters. This technique known as proving, determines a meter factor that indicates the percentage a meter is measuring over or under the true volume. The A G A Report No. 3, as a guide to good measurement, is a remarkable document. However, the use of the report does not furnish proof thai all uncertainties in gas measurement are eliminated in every case. This new technique shows how the uncertainities in measurement can be eliminated by the use of the bi-directional mechanical displacement meter prover. Tests made with a mechanical prover in gas service indicate:
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Document ID: C3F23028

Ball Valve Regulations
Author(s): G. R. Ytzen
Abstract/Introduction:
The consideration of a ball valve for throttling control must involve an analysis of features of conslruclion. dynamic forces, flow characteristics and limitations of application. In considering the basic construction features of ball valves in general, we find the ball or plug supported in one of two ways: (1) rigidly by the use of bearings on each end of a shaft attached to the ball or (2) cradled between the sealing members with some allowance for a small amount of movement.
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Document ID: 6EE195F4


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