Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1964)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Measurement By Orifice - Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Lewis P. Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
One never knows when an interesting observation may lead to an important discovery. It is reported that John Newton was struck on the head by a falling apple as he lay under an apple tree. Thinking and dreaming about this lead him to spell out the laws of gravity that we use today even for our space and rocket vehicles. Galileo was probably day-dreaming in church when he became aware of the great chandelier that swung so rhythmically above the altar.
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Document ID: 2D152870

Measurement For Gas Lift Operations
Author(s): C. B. Northcutt
Abstract/Introduction:
The practice of lifting fluid from oil wells by utilizing gas pressure is not new. It has been recognized for many years as a major method of artificial lift. This paper concerns itself with Measurement For Gas Lift Operations and the problems encountered therein. However, in order to better understand the measurement problems, it is necessary to briefly discuss the principle of gas lift. When utilizing gas lift, well conditions coupled with operational requirements will dictate the type of equipment and also the type of lift that will be used. There are two primary classifications of artifically lifting fluid by gas lift - continuous flow and intermittent flow.
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Document ID: 3DE25161

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): B. B. Stultz
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is a precision measuring instrument that is accepted as such by both buyer and seller of gas and many liquid products. Many dollars are exchanged each month in accordance with the records that are made and permanently recorded on orifice meter charts. Orifice meter measurement is desirable because of the wide range of pressure and volume of products to be measured, however, more than just the meter itself is used in orifice meter measurement, There is also the meter run and the orifice plate, each having a most important place in the measurement installation. Standards and specifications for the installation of these three, components - orifice plate, the meter and the meter run - are listed in the American Gas Association Gas Measurement Committee Report No. 3.
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Document ID: 4F88E451

Field Measurement At High Pressure
Author(s): S. R. Rhodes
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is by far the most common tyre of meter used for field measurement at high pressure. The term field measurement, for this discussion, may be defined as the metering of any gas stream at a point in a gas producing area. Gas streams being metered may be either wet or dry, but their differences must be considered separately. Wet gas streams contain free liquid of water and heavy hydrocarbons which cause many problems in field measurement. Dry gas streams are free from these troublesome liquids and the water vapor content has been reduced below hydrate formation temperatures.
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Document ID: CE1439B8

Orifice Meters
Author(s): J. S. Boynton
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter as we know it today has evolved from an early beginning dating back to the reign of Julius Caesar. The Romans used a crude orifice to regulate and calculate the flow of water into homes and public buildings. Further developments in the principles of differential type meters occurred in the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1750 the pitot tube was developed by Henry Pitot. Investigations by Venturi in 1791 were put to practical use in 1887 by Clemens Herschel in the design of the Venturi tube for measuring flow commercially. The turn of the 20th century brought about very significant development in the use of an orifice as a measuring device. Major contributions were made in this area by T. R. Weymouth and H. C. Cooper from 1903 to 1910 and by Hicks in 1913.
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Document ID: 0FC82AD9

Design Of Meter Tubes And Primary Elements
Author(s): Ralph H. Clemons, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The term primary element in orifice measurement refers to three devices: the orifice plate, the plate holding device and the approach and discharge piping known as the meter tube or meter run. For precise measurement these three elements must all be carefully made and maintained or the primary signal may be incorrect. It will be the purpose of this paper to describe the types of manufactured equipment available for gas measurement, and outline design features and applications which should be considered.
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Document ID: 97DB01C6

Problems In Off Shore Gas Measurement
Author(s): C. W. Mangus
Abstract/Introduction:
On platform measurement of off shore produced gas presents a great variety of problems, many of which continue to occur on each new platform. This repetition is primarily attributed to the high cost of installation and operation. The largest problems involve platform space, the elements and transportation, and for the most part these three problem sources are peculiar to off shore type facilities.
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Document ID: 99D1B76F

Utilization, Installation And Maintenance Of Bellows Type Flow Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
The widespread application and popularity of the bellows type differential pressure gauge in orifice metering is due to its simplicity and reliable performance in difficult measuring installations. The bellows differential pressure gauge does not require mercury, nor critical leveling for operation. It is self-draining and generally not affected by condensed liquid in the measuring system. Other advantages include a high speed of response combined with high output torque, which makes the bellows gauge particularly adaptable to integrating and computing devices.
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Document ID: 92E407F5

New Applications Of Orifice Meters And Automatic Controls
Author(s): Louis V. Hickman
Abstract/Introduction:
With the present day trend toward further automation in all phases of industry, the application of existing and, or, new equipment to perform new tasks is finding widespread use in the gas industry. These new applications involve orifice meters, both Dri-flo bellows and mercury type pneumatic control with or without telemetering, single diaphragm and two diaphragm pilot regulators. The time alloted to this paper does not permit a detailed discussion of orifice meters nor of control: therefore, since slides of actual installations will be shown, the description of the instruments used in these installations will be limited.
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Document ID: 438F713A

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): W. m. Reese
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is being gathered, blended and delivered across the North American continent in increasing and diverse procedures and applications. In this complexity of purchasing, transmission and selling, a great number of precision flow meters are required to meet the exigencies of each transaction. The bellows type flow meters have been selected for some new gas distribution, installation, and extensions on account of their simplicity, accuracy and ease of maintenance. The industry has been supplied with coefficients and table to cover an ever expanding range of conditions characteristic of each field.
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Document ID: D7E981E1

Field Application Of Analog Computers
Author(s): Marvin W. Holm
Abstract/Introduction:
Early in 1960, management decided to operate one of its main line booster stations utilizing a computer. The installation chosen was a new peaking station that is, one that is required during the winter months of peak gas deliverance to Northeastern customers. The main line compressor stations of our system are operated to sustain rated torque on the optimum number of prime movers to maintain a desire station discharge pressure. The load on reciprocating engine compressors is controlled by clearance pockets on the compressor cylinder, and speed adjustments are available to the operator to maintain that discharge pressure.
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Document ID: 01042141

Maintenance And Repair Of Orifice Metersa Demonstration
Author(s): R. H. Hemfelt
Abstract/Introduction:
As indicated bv the title, this paper will cover the maintenance and repair of orifice meters. It will consider both the mercury type and the dry type meters.
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Document ID: 9C4319C2

Shop Equipment For Domestic Meter And Regulator REPAIR-A Demonstration
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
The cost of repairing gas service regulators and gas meters can be materially reduced by the efficient use of time and labor saving devices, jigs and fixtures, as well as tools. It is the purpose of this class to help the gas companies reduce the unit cost of repairing and testing both regulators and meters. The subject of recommended methods of actually repairing and testing meters and regulators has been adequately covered in other classes, so this demonstration was devoted entirely to the subject of efficient tools and devices for speeding up this repair work and making it easier for the operator doing the job.
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Document ID: 8B54A800

Pressure Controls
Author(s): C. L. Bryan
Abstract/Introduction:
Controls, automatic controls of all types, unquestionably originated in mans physical laziness. But their development, to even the present degree of perfection, attests to mans mental alertness and ingenuity during these periods of physical laziness. History doesnt tell us when man first realized the existence of pressure or the possibility of pressure control through pressure dissipation. We know, however, that hydrostatic head (pressure) was a factor in the everyday life of the early Egyptian in the Nile Valley. The building of crude dams for water head pressure and water diversion for irrigation purposes through crude gates combined the two factors of pressure and control. These systems of water regulation were greatly improved by the addition of transmitting pipe lines made of hollowed out trees or crude clay pipes. The original crude Gate Valve was improved by the addition of gadgets and these gadgets led directly to self-actuated valves or regulators and indirectly to automatic controls.
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Document ID: D48D5B77

The Proper Installation Of Synthetic Diaphragms In Meters And Regulators
Author(s): E. C. Hemes
Abstract/Introduction:
Synthetic diaphragms for gas meters have been commercially available since 1938 when the first Vulcan diaphragms were initially presented to the gas industry. Eight years of field trials followed, involving numerous changes in compounds and base fabrics, in 1946, Vulcan settled on a Thikol/ Neoprene combination and, thereafter, the acceptance of the synthetic diaphragm made rapid progress until they came into practically universal use several years ago. Synthetics for regulator diaphragms were introduced at about the same time but made more rapid progress because they involve less stringent requirements such as proof holding characteristics.
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Document ID: BE42AE61

Basic Elements Of Field Proration
Author(s): G. W. Godfrey
Abstract/Introduction:
What is proration? To prorate means to divide, share, or distribute proportionally--to assess or apportion pro rata. Proration is the legal device established by State regulatory authorities to accomplish: (1) The prevention of physical or economic waste (2) The protection of correlative rights of all parties involved. It accomplishes these aims by: (1) the assurance of ratable taking within a common pool, (2) the prevention of discrimination among pools, and (3) granting permissively to each well, the opportunity to produce ultimately the reserves underlying the well and, to produce the reserves currently with other wells in the common pool. The objective of this paper is to acquaint you with the elements that make up proration.
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Document ID: 8879B878

Specific Gravity Instrumentscare And Operation-A Demonstration
Author(s): W. R. Gay
Abstract/Introduction:
The Arcco-Anubis Gas Gravitometer, a direct weighing type instrument, was discussed, The gravitometer is constructed to measure the difference in specific gravity of a column of gas and an equal column of dry air. This difference is transmitted to a chart on which is recorded the specific gravity of the gas passing through the instrument. The instrument consists of two identical bells, an air bell and a gas bell, which are suspended at equal distances from the fulcrum of the balance beam. The purpose of the air bell is to compensate for the weight of the gas bell and the surface tension of the sealing liquid in which the two bells are suspended.
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Document ID: 807F4171

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): L. D. Allert
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula Qb C /HwPf where Qb is the quantity, Hw is the differential and Pf the static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, supercompressibility factor, and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors the values of the quantities from which they are derived must either be assumed or measured. This paper will deal with those instruments measuring specific gravity. (For further details of the flow computation refer to A.G.A. Gas Measurement Report No. 3).
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Document ID: A7DB7BFF

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): 0. W. Heyman
Abstract/Introduction:
The manometer is the simplest of instruments for measurement of pressure. The manometer conforms to such basic laws of nature that it is the Primary Standard from which all other devices for pressure measurement in the low pressure field are derived and calibrated. How fortunate we are to have this measuring device. Containing no mechanical moving parts, requiring no calibration, needing nothing but the simplest of measurements, the primary standard manometer is available almost off the shelf at modest cost. The principle of the manometer has not changed since its inception, however, great strides have been made in its arrangement and the application of the instrument to industrial measurement requirements. Whereas, formerly the manometer was considered a laboratory instrument, today we find the manometer commonly used to measure pressures ranging from as high as 600 inches of mercury to space vacuums.
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Document ID: 20A35D74

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): m. R. Weaver
Abstract/Introduction:
The Recording Calorimeter in most general use today in the Gas Industry is the most precise instrument available for the indication and recording of gas heating values. The accuracy guarantee is 0.5 per cent and with proper installation and maintenance, results within 0.25 per cent can be expected. In order to achieve this performance a knowledge of the principles involved in the instrument operation is essential. With these principles understood, the requirements for the installation of the Calorimeter can be established. The recording Calorimeter consists of two measuring units, the tank unit or Calorimeter proper in which the heating value of the test gas is measured, and the recorder unit which translates the heat measurements into an indication of calorific value and records it graphically.
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Document ID: 910DC4D0

Measurement And Regulation In Connection With Underground Storage
Author(s): Carl B. Mercer
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years the underground storage of natural gas has become very important. In fact, many people advocate that it is perhaps the most significant operation developed by the gas industry in the past twenty-five years. The American Gas Association has defined the term underground storage of natural gas as follows Gas which has been transferred from its original location in a gas and/or oil field to another natural underground reservoir for the primary purpose of conservation, fuller utilization of pipe line capacities, and more effective deliveries to market.
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Document ID: AEBF5141

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For-Gas In Distribution Systems
Author(s): John H. Glamser
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to have a better understanding of what we are to discuss here today, we should define what is meant by unaccounted- for-gas losses and what we mean by gas leakage, because correct definitions are vital to understanding. Unless we understand just what we are talking about, we cannot communicate with one another. So lets take a look at all of the factors which make up so-called unaccounted-for-gas and leakage and why, in most cases, leakage and unaccounted- for-gas losses cannot be used synonymously. Then we will try to determine what we can do about these losses of gas.
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Document ID: 9344E97C

Methods Of Determining The Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): B. G. Grant
Abstract/Introduction:
If all gases were alike, the problems of the measurement man would not be nearly so complex. But the facts are that we must take into consideration many variables when we work with any gas. This is true even with the most common of all gases which is air. It becomes necessary that we specify what kind of air we are talking about. Even air behaves differently under different conditions. This paper will deal with the methods devised for determining the property of a gas called its specific gravity. In very simple terms the specific gravity of a gas is the ratio of the weight of the gas to the weight of the same volume of air. More precisely, the specific gravity of gas is the ratio of the specific weight of a gas to the specific weight of dry air, the pressure and temperature of both being the same and the air free of carbon dioxide. The most common conditions referred to for air are 60 F, 14.73 p.s.i.a,, and with the air being dry.
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Document ID: 018521D6

Orifice Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
In discussing the principles and performance of orifice meters, perhaps we should define what an orifice meter consists of. An orifice meter is a collection of devices used for measuring the flow of fluids in terms of the differential pressure produced across a restriction in the flowing path. Basic components of an orifice meter which will be discussed in this paper are 1. The orifice or restriction 2. The meter tube or run 3. The interconnecting gauge lines 4. The differential pressure gauge 5. The static pressure gatige 6. The temperature gauge. 7. An integrating device
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Document ID: 34DBEB87

Installation And Testing Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): Howard W. Beckerdite
Abstract/Introduction:
The recording calorimeter measures and records the difference between two quantities of heat. It is a machine which must set up definite conditions for these two heat levels, measure the difference, and translate this measurement on a chart showing B.T.U, per cubic foot at the conditions specified for a particular installation. A B.T.U. (British Thermal Unit) is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree F. The conditions specified may be the standard conditions of 14.73 p.s.i.a. (30 mercury) for pressure, 60 F for temperature, one cubic foot saturated for volume, or the same conditions corrected to a contract base.
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Document ID: 5C4F615F

Determination Of Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): W. F. Barker
Abstract/Introduction:
Those of us who have had the responsibility of handling natural gas, whether it be in the production, measurement, processing, transmission or regulation phase know full well that water vapor in natural gas, above certain concentrations, will interfere seriously with efficient, economical operations. To reduce the cost and improve operations, we readily recognize the fact that control of the water vapor in natural gas is essential. It is, therefore, necessary to accurately determine the water vapor in natural gas or control is impossible.
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Document ID: 3F3125C3

Determination Of Gasoline Content Of Gas
Author(s): m. A. Vasquez
Abstract/Introduction:
In every industry we have newcomers who will be beginning a new career that is to provide their livelihood. We are principally concerned with the Natural Gasoline Industry and specifically the determination of gasoline content of gas. There doubtlessly are many questions in the minds of every beginning gas tester such as, what is meant by gasoline content, why is it necessary and how is gasoline content determinded. It is to these new men that this paper is primarily directed.
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Document ID: F4EE9951

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment-A Panel Discussion
Author(s): Chester B. Keagy, K. E. Burnham, J. J. Mccart
Abstract/Introduction:
The cause or process of freezing in hydrocarbon gases must be understood in order to bring about the prevention. Snow-like, complex, crystalline solids called hydrates are formed when hydrocarbon gas, usually methane, ethane, or propane, combines with water vapor under certain conditions of temperature and pressure. The hydrates form and build up very rapidly when physical conditions are just right. The rapid process starts like a chain reaction at the moment the first water-hydrocarbon crystal forms. The formation is encouraged by disturbance, such as turbulence and erratic velocities, in the smooth flow of the gas.
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Document ID: 6B8DA826

Deuverability Method Of Rating Gas Wells
Author(s): E. m. Mowrey
Abstract/Introduction:
Deliverability tests are taken once each year in two Oklahoma gas pools. These are the Guymon-Hugoton Pool with 1375 producing gas wells and the Keyes Pool with 137 producing gas wells. The Guymon-Hugoton Pool produces from one common source of supply, although there are three or more producing horizons that are interconnected, known as the Crider, Winfield, and Harrington horizons. The Keyes Pool produces from the Keyes horizon. The results of these deliverability tests are then used by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission in an allocation formula to determine the monthly individual gas well allowables in these two pools.
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Document ID: E509AC50

Safe Practices In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): G. m. Mcclintock
Abstract/Introduction:
The title assigned for this discussion Safe Practices in Measurement and Pressure Regulation includes a broad field of operations and cannot be properly covered in one short session. This subject suggests the following responsibilites: developement of safe practices for maintenance and operation of measurement, regulation, and well production facilities. Each of these basic operations can be sub-divided into a dozen other functions in which good operations must include safety procedures.
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Document ID: B066723E

Field Sampling Of Gas
Author(s): P. W. Cockrell
Abstract/Introduction:
Sampling of gas is the first step in a procedure to determine the exact chemical components and physical properties of natural gas at a given location. The quality of the gas determines its commercial value. In recent years methods of obtaining exact and accurate gas analysis have been greatly improved. Now through the use of chromatography we are able to obtain analytical results much faster and more economically than ever before in the history of the natural gas industry. It has long been common knowledge that no analysis can be more accurate than the sample being analyzed. With this thought in mind we must endeavor to obtain a sample that is representative of the gas being sampled. This is not an impossible task, which we hope to show in the brief discussion to follow.
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Document ID: 6D551525

Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): J. m. Lange
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of a modern gas measuring and regulating station includes the study of many details of all degrees of importance. Many of the resulting choices evolve from engineering judgement-some just happen because of the standard sizes and shapes of fittings that are available-some because of local tradition or precedent. A station design can be considered successful, if after construction there are no surprises: the maximum and minimum flow rates are measured and controlled accurately, the capital and operating costs are in line with those estimated for the station, the noise and vibration levels are not excessive. Unfortunately, as loads and pressure drops increased the traditional methods of designing stations did produce surprises. In some cases the station would not deliver the maximum flow rates for which they were designed. In others the station pressure drops were excessive. In still others noise and vibration levels caused neighbors to complain and appurtenances to the pipehne to fail.
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Document ID: 7B410538

Determination And Application Of Supercompressibility Factors
Author(s): J. W. Stidham
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present some of the theory of compressibility, to cover very briefly the history of the development of the various methods of obtaining the supercompressibility factors, to describe these methods in detail, and to show how the supercompressibility factors from the different sources compare with each other. The most notable development of recent nature is the publication of the single volume A.G.A. Manual for the Determination of Supercompressibility Factors for Natural Gas (December 1962).
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Document ID: D5F707FD

Gas Chromatography
Author(s): John R. Stroder
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is used as a collective term, combining both gas-liquid and gas-solid chromatography. This paper concerns both of these terms since both practices are required to present the chemist with a versatile, fast, accurate new tool for the complete analysis of natural gas. When a natural gas sample is placed in a chromatograph column through which an inert carrier gas is flowing, the components tend to separate, under favorable operating conditions, into bands that arrive separately at the exit of the column, where they are measured by a suitable detector (Figure 1). Identification of these components are made solely on exit time i.e., each component has a definite retention time when considering a given set of conditions. It is the intent of this paper to present favorable operating conditions of the chromatograph which will lead to the complete analysis of natural gas.
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Document ID: F7DDD88E

Orifice Meters-A Demonstration
Author(s): F. J. Mclane
Abstract/Introduction:
This demonstration will cover the component parts of the mercury type orifice meter, a differential recorder, define their function and show their relationship with one another.
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Document ID: 94700D8A

Calculation Of Open Flow Potential Tests Using Ibm Computers
Author(s): Wesley m. Owen
Abstract/Introduction:
I have enlarged the subject matter of my paper to cover the calculation of deliverability tests as well as open flow potential by using IBM computers. This paper will deal with our companys methods and experiences in using the IBM computers for calculation of these tests.
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Document ID: 9A5C5F78

The Sampling And Analysis Of Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Author(s): R. L. Huntington
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of the determination of the composition of a liquid or gas consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbon is generally thought of in terms of the laboratory analyst. The importance of the analytical laboratory is not to be minimized however, it is a total loss of time to carry out careful work in the laboratory unless one can be certain that the proper sampling is made of the stream or batch of material under investigation. In other words the analytical results are of no value to the engineer unless they represent the average composition over a definite period of time in the case of continuous process or a portion of a truly homogenous mixture in the analysis of a large batch of stored liquid hydrocarbon. A number of the major companies are making an effort to improve upon sampling practices either by sending out mobile laboratories into outlying districts or by having the technical man go to the field to obtain the samples. In the absence of the engineer in the field, a set of clear-cut written instructions may serve fairly well as a means of ensuring proper sampling.
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Document ID: 7E940968

Gas Cleaning
Author(s): Laurance S. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past ten years the term gas conditioning has come into general use within the natural gas industry to identify a well-defined group of operations for the removal of diluents and contaminants which make natural gas unmerchantable. In this decade, significant advances have been made in dehydration, acid gas removal and hydrocarbon dew point control processes and techniques. The economic removal of nitrogen still challenges the industry. Gas cleaning is the oldest of the gas conditioning operations, born with the industry itself.
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Document ID: 31547202

Gas Laws And Their Use In Measurement
Author(s): E. F. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the metering of gases the fundamental gas laws play a major role. The determination of the quantity of a gas in volume units at a particular pressure base and temperature base is the usual objective. The gas laws are equations expressing relationships of gas properties, such as pressure, volume and temperature, under varying conditions. These gas laws are usually known as Ideal or Perfect Gas Laws. There is, however, no ideal or perfect gas. While no actual gas conforms exactly to perfect gas laws, many of our actual gases, such as air, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, follow so closely in accordance with these laws that engineers use these ideal laws with some actual gases to a high degree of accuracy.
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Document ID: DE3411E3

New Ideas In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): T. W. Lally
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for developing New Ideas in Measurement and Pressure regulation is necessary because of the high cost of gas, labor, equipment and miscellaneous items. It is imperative that all gas be measured, unaccounted for gas be kept low and that customer sales and purchases are accurate New aids or ideas that come to the gas industry each year are very much appreciated because each one enables performance of a better job. Often, it might appear that the gas industry is slow to take over and put these new ideas into use. but years of experience has proved present equipment to be rugged and long-lasting and this contributes to the fact that there is some hesitation to make a major change to new ideas and not because the gas industry is against progress.
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Document ID: 787C214E

Problems In Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Wayne Coffman
Abstract/Introduction:
What are the problems of wet gas measurement? First, what is wet gas? Wet gas may be defined as gas containing fluids such as liquified petroleum gases and/or water. The gas may be produced as a by-product of crude petroleum or it may be produced from a gas well with distillate as a by-product. It is often referred to as casinghead gas. In practically all cases, water is produced along with the gas. In practically all cases, water is produced along with the gas. Measurement, as far as this paper is concerned, is restricted to mean measurement by an orifice meter. Although the fundamental principles of orifice measurement are the same for wet gas as for any other, measurement of casinghead gas does present physical conditions, as well as other conditions which require special handling in order to obtain fairly accurate measurement. Each particular field and each individual well may require a slightly different approach to solve the various measurement problems encountered.
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Document ID: AA8E3F7A

Test Instruments For Pressure, Water Vapor And Supercompressibility
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and compressibility. In addition, it is desirable to measure and limit the water content of natural gases. Water, in free or vapor form, will cause operational difficulties at meter stations and regulators. Free water is easily disposed of, but it is necessary to measure water vapor content in order to maintain a value low enough to prevent difficulty.
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Document ID: FAC10287

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): F. B. Leslie
Abstract/Introduction:
Kinetic energy is energy associated with motion of any substance and, if all other conditions arc equal, it is proportional to density. This principle is the basis ot an instrument which was developed about 41 years ago for automatically measuring the specific gravity of gases. It is the object of this class to explain the theory, review operating techniques and to describe testing, servicing and calibration.
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Document ID: 29376B63

Electronic Gas Flow Data Recording
Author(s): R. A. Day
Abstract/Introduction:
A new system of recording gas flow data has been developed and is being evaluated presently at gas measurement stations in Ohio. The technique is one of obtaining gas flow data from a modified orifice meter and electronically recording the data on magnetic tape instead of on circular paper charts. The development of this new approach to accurate gas measurement recognized that, in the natural gas industry, the orifice meter has enjoyed general acceptance as a practical means of measuring gas, especially when the orifice meter is constructed and installed according to specifications outlined in the A.G.A. Gas Measurement Committee Report #3.
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Document ID: A55D0BBE

Mass Flow Metering
Author(s): Charles m. Halsell
Abstract/Introduction:
The phase mass flow meters suggests something in the future, advanced, space-age technology! This much is true. But the space age is with us today and so are mass flowmeters. Mass sensitive flowmeters and mass flow measurement practices are accomplished facts. A few facts will illustrate why mass flow measurement is attractive. Standardization has been an important part of industry since the early 19th century. Progress has been slow in many isolated areas, but the effect has helped to place our nation in an economic position enjoyed by no other.
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Document ID: 41B4F3F8

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): Vv. S. Christian
Abstract/Introduction:
The rupture-proof bellows-type orifice meter was conceived, patented and first produced over nineteen years ago by our company. The contemporary bellows-type meter is the result of continuous refinements and improvements, based on field use and experience. In the last few years, several makes of bellows-type meters have been introduced to the market, and they are essentially the same in principle the details of their design, construction and operation are different.
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Document ID: AD4D6EA0

Fundamentals Of Electronics As Applied To Measurement
Author(s): F. J. Kern
Abstract/Introduction:
The field of electronics is an ever expanding one which is generally conceded to have started with the invention of the vacucm triode although it could have as easily been brought about by the invention of the light bulb. In general, electronics has to do with the art of development of hardware which makes use of electron devices. The most commonly known of these devices are vacuum tubes and transistors In order to understand the present state-of-the-art capabilities in this field one must first know something of the behavior of electron devices themselves. Proper grasp behavior requires a vocabulary of basic electrical quantities and terms.
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Document ID: 924B976A

The Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur By Titration Methods
Author(s): Robert R. Austin
Abstract/Introduction:
Sulfur measurement in natural gas has long been important because of the odorous and corrosive nature of some naturally occurring sulfur compounds. The procedures used in the determination of hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan concentration in manufactured gas and in petroleum products were carried over into the natural gas industry and provided a useable means of determining sulfur concentration where sulfur concentration was not lower than one or two grains per 100 cu. ft. Sulfur concentration measurement in the range of one tenth grain per 1OO cu.ft. was not important during the days of old cast iron systems for distribution of manufactured gas. With the advent of high pressure lines for interstate distribution of natural gas it became necessary to control sulfur more effectively and to maintain low hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan concentration both for protection of costly transmission and distribution lines and for stabilization of odor level. New and more sensitive analytical procedures have been developed to meet the need for reliable analytical data.
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Document ID: BFA9F3CF

Mass Flow Metering In The Field
Author(s): Carson Dabbs, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement man does not think of a meter without thinking of manometers, dead weights, provers, thermometers, etc., as being a part of the meter. To talk about a meter that does not need or require any of these devices is strange talk to a measurement man. Stranger yet is to talk of a meter that uses the pound as a unit of measurement rather than the cubic foot. Wo have been testing and operating this strange meter, called a mass flow meter, for approximately five years. During this period of operating and testing this mass flow meter we have gained certain experiences that will be discussed in this paper.
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Document ID: 71372C80

Regulators, Controllers And Related Equipment - Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): J. A. Pommersheim
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we present the Fundamentals of Regulators, some appropriate definition should be given to a Pressure Regulator. We should, first of all, understand what a regulator is and the basic function or functions it performs. A regulator is defined as a device capable of maintaining gas pressure at a predetermined value, regardless of variation in flow or changes in inlet pressure. In addition, under no flow- conditions, it is sometimes called upon to act as a shut-off valve. It must stop the flow of gas and prevent build-up of pressure on the downstream side when gas is not being used. Basically a regulator is a variable resistance installed in a flowing gas stream that automatically reduces to a lower pressure by a throttling action.
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Document ID: 7C690C58

High And Low Pressure Gas Regulators - A Demonstration
Author(s): Harold F. Kruzan
Abstract/Introduction:
This class covered the basic fundamentals of gas regulator design and was illustrated with colored slides and blackboard sketches. A pressure regulator was defined as A mechanism which automatically operates to correct or Imiit deviations of outlet pressure from a selected reference point. It was also described as a self-contained pressure controller requiring no auxiliary power supply.
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Document ID: C56535A9

Gas Service Regulatorsinstallation And Operation-A Demonstration
Author(s): Chas. D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
For the duration of this class the subject of gas service regulators was covered for the many styles, types, construction, and application of such regulators. Actual operation of regulators was demonstrated iDy the use of a regulator test stand using compressed air and a manometer to show reduced pressure. Sectional regulators, their component parts, weather and bug-proof vents and other allied items were used to assist in this demonstration. A projector and slides were used to demonstrate actual regulator installations, views of sectional regulators and capacity charts.
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Document ID: 8611F871

New Developments In High And Low Pressure Regulators And Boosters
Author(s): G. W. Vincent
Abstract/Introduction:
The growth and development of the gas industry over the past few years have been phenomenal. In this time, housing developments have reached far into the suburbs of our cities and new communities have grown, resulting in an increased demand for gas service. This, coupled with the extension of gas service to the smaller cities and industrial users, has presented to the transmission companies the responsibility of meeting a far larger demand. Their answer has been to increase transmission pressures to the point where today line pressures of 1000 p.s.i. are the rule rather than the exception. To the regulator man, this presents a problem as extremely large reductions to pressures suitable for measurement and delivery to the distribution companies have to be achieved. Further difficulties are encountered in the case of the smaller cities, where flow demands are often low, and in the case of the industrial user who often shuts down his plant over the week end, requring tight shut-off of the regulator.
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Document ID: A76EABF4

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators A- Demonstration
Author(s): Joseph P. Lofink
Abstract/Introduction:
The selection of a regulator is governed by the operating requirements and conditions of each particular installation. When selecting a regulator for a specific application, it is important that the essential requirements for desired control and safety are met.
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Document ID: 08F3D923

High And Low Pressure Gas Regulators - A Demonstration
Author(s): Donald L. Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
Since not all areas of the country classify regulators for various pressure conditions in exactly the same category we will, during this class, break them down into three separate categories for the purpose of discussion. A. High Pressure Regulators-p.s.i to p.s.i. Reduction B. Intermediate Pressure Regulators-p.s.i. to Oz. Reduction C. Low Pressure Regulators-Oz. to Oz. Reduction Through the use of demonstrations, discussions, and photo slides this class is intended to give a brief resume on the use and maintenance of each series regulator in these three categories.
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Document ID: FA60B759

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): Harry J. Schneider
Abstract/Introduction:
Economics of Transmission system operation demand that pipelines deliver maximum pressure and maximum flow at terminal points. At these terminal points, it follows that regulating units are required to handle these high pressures and high flows. As the Natural Gas Transmission Systems grew in length, in diameter, and in operating pressure, the need for high pressure, high capacity regulating devices also became apparent. In addition to the ability to handle high inlet pressures and large volumes, these terminal point or transmission system units are usually required to pass maximum volume at times of minimum available inlet pres,sure. In other words, the maximum hourly flow rate required usually occurs at times of low inlet pressure. Sizing, therefore, of regulating devices for such application is determined by the lowest inlet pressure anticipated.
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Document ID: C3F83759

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Jack D. Muff
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficiency and accuracy of an orifice meter set up depends largely upon the care with which the orifice fitting and meter tube are installed and maintained. To give sensible care to any mechanical device, it is necessary to be familiar with the design and principles of its operation. This paper will attempt to cover enough of the description of orifice fittings and meter tubes that the user of such equipment will be able to use it with the greatest accuracy and still not find it necessary to spend excessive time in maintenance work. Investigations conducted by the Gas Measurement Committee of the American Gas Association show that conditions in the pipeline upstream and downstream from the orifice plate influence metering accuracy. These conditions are controlled by the meter tube and straightening vanes. Discussion of these factors will be found in this paper under the heading meter tubes.
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Document ID: 535B50DE

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): Donald A. Cunningham
Abstract/Introduction:
The expansible tube type valve through increased usage as a pounds to pounds and as a pounds to inches regulator, has prompted wide spread recognition of its ability to meet the Gas Industries exacting requirements. More commonly known as the Flexflo, this valve in its design, operation and application most favorably fulfills the requirements for safety, dependabihty, and accuracy, as well as economy, simplicity and versatility.
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Document ID: A0E8B8B5

Principles And Application Of Automatic Control
Author(s): C. H. Collins, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Five elements are basic to pneumatically operated controllers. They are (1) A measuring element which measures the process variable to be controlled. The element can also position a recording pen on a chart or an indicating pointer on a scale. (2) A means of setting the desired control point on the measurement scale and a setting index to indicate the control point which has been set. (3) A detection system consisting of a differential linkage and a flapper-and-nozzle to detect the difference between measurement and set point. (4) A mechanism which feeds back a signal to the detection system to provide suitable control functions. And (5) an amplifying system, generally a pneumatic relay, which provides an output pressure of any value between three and fifteen pounds per square inch gauge. Usually, regulated air supply of seventeen to twenty pounds per square inch is required to operate this relay.
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Document ID: A44FDE6A

District Regulators And Load Distribution
Author(s): R. m. Hurt
Abstract/Introduction:
The best way to tackle any problem is to ask ourselves What? Why? When? Where and How? Generally, if we can answer these questions about any problem, the whole answer becomes evident by the time we have accumulated the answers to its various parts. Lets try this with district regulators.
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Document ID: 36FBAC82

Gas Regulation From High Pressure Transmission Lines
Author(s): Joe Tiner
Abstract/Introduction:
Insofar as this paper is concerned, the subject Gas Regulation from High Pressure Transmission Lines has reference to gas regulation from transmission lines with a maximum pressure of 1000 p.s.i.g. and a minimum of 300 p.s.i.g., and with controlled pressure of from 800 p.s.i.g. to 50 p.s.i.g. As operating pressures of the various large volume transmission systems become greater each year, gas regulation becomes more and more an important part of each companys business. In particular where metering records are secured in connection with pressure reduction, installing regulators of the correct type and design becomes critical. Measurement equipment cannot function properly unless regulators are properly installed and efficiently operated.
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Document ID: B5CA97E1

Operating Experience With Remote Supervisory Control And Telemetering
Author(s): E. J. Burgin
Abstract/Introduction:
In all probability, everyone here has reviewed the program and is aware that during this period we shall discuss operating experiences with telemetering and supervisory control to maintain a high load factor and safe operating conditions on a pipeline transmission company, No attempt will be made to discuss the detailed operation, maintenance, or calibration procedures as these items are covered in other instructional periods, and, of course, it is intended that our emphasis be directed more to operating experiences. For those persons interested in the more detailed instruction on the actual operation and maintenance of the individual components of telemetering and supervisory system, their attention is directed to the excellent literature provided by the various manufacturers and other classes conducted here at the school.
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Document ID: 79DCA1C7

Flow Computing And Telemetering Systems
Author(s): R. Hardcastle
Abstract/Introduction:
Analog computing and telemetering systems are not new to the Natural Gas Industry. They performed continuous online measurement and transmission long before the new digital systems were available. Digital computing systems have so far been limited to off-line operations. As far as telemetering is concerned, the digital method does not provide the continuous operating record for which analog telemetering is so well known. Since both pneumatic and electronic analog computing systems arc available, it is up to the instrument engineer to decide which is better suited to the application under consideration. Essentially, the analog computer may be described as an instrument or group of instruments which continuously performs a mathematical calculation on one or more variables. Both pneumatic and electronic systems have their singular purpose but each has its own advantages.
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Document ID: D785B7F9

High Pressure Farm Taps And Service Regulators - A Demonstration
Author(s): Charles H. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
High pressure farm taps are normally considered to be those small reducing stations along a high pressure natural gas transmission line, reducing pressures ranging from 100 to 500 p.s.i.g. to usable pressure measured in inches of Water Column. These stations normally feed an individual domestic customer. However, high pressure reducing stations feeding small industrial customers would be included.
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Document ID: F1866984

Trouble Shooting In Metameter-Telemetering Systems
Author(s): E. P. Bousquet
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to discuss trouble-shooting in Telemetering Systems, lets first define the word Telemetering. Telemetering is the art of measuring at a distance. A simple form of telemetering, which we all have available to us, is a gasoline gauge in our automobile, The level of our gasoline is made to actuate a slider on a variable resistor which, when combined with the automobile battery, varies the voltage to a simple voltmeter calibrated in gasoline capacity.
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Document ID: DF312DBE

Telemetering-Advanced Techniques And Flow Computers
Author(s): B. C. Joyce
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past few years, the most notable change that has occurred in the Field of Telemetering, has been the trend toward large systems brought about by centralized dispatch operations. As dispatching has progressed from a local to centralized mode of operation, great amounts of data have been required in order to make the Dispatcher knowledgeable of the happenings in his system. As a result, the need has been evident for new approaches to our Telemetering problems, and these have been developed over the past few years. Based on past performance of impulse duration Telemetering, this system was first investigated to determine the possibility of its being upgraded to provide the backbone for these new systems, but in many eases, because of various electrical and physical limitations on the impulse duration equipment, this was not possible or practical.
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Document ID: 7053DA32

Operation And Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Regulators
Author(s): R. H. Welicek
Abstract/Introduction:
Why was a regulator which utilizes a solid rubber plug for the inner valve designed? This is an often asked question that needs a clear answer since the regulator is a piece of equipment that must be reliable for long periods of time and often under adverse and changing line conditions. Primarily the solid rubber plug was used to obtain the best possible flowing conditions through the regulator, to give it a flow pattern that was dead straight, with an effective flow area that you could actually see through by looking into the end of the regulator (Figure 1), These particular characteristics could only be accomplished by expanding a resilient member into the flow area.
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Document ID: C7F0798A

Orifice Fittings-A Demonstration
Author(s): W. R. Henry
Abstract/Introduction:
The demonstration and discussion covered the various types of Orifice Fittings and explained their operation and construction by means of slides. Design, application and maintenance were also covered.
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Document ID: 3F76BB8B

Proper Sizing Of Domestic Regulators
Author(s): George C. Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
Careful selection of proper size and type of regulator is important to assure accuracy in pressure control and safety. The regulator selected should cover the maximum and minimum pressures encountered in service and deliver the desired capacity within a given outlet pressure-envelope and be adaptable to future changes of pressure conditions, capacity requirements and installation practice.
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Document ID: 7F8D2A22

Measurement By Displacement Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
The Displacement Gas Meter is frequently referred to as a Positive Displacement Meter, not because measurement with this device is any more definite or accurate than the measurement which might be obtained with another type meter, but because the measurement that it affords is a positive volumetric quantity in cubic feet at flowing conditions- regardless of the temperature, gravity or pressure of the flowing gas. There are three basic types of gas meters which fall in this category: 1-wet (rotating drum) meters: 2-rotary (impeller type) meters: and. 3-slide-valve dry type meters.
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Document ID: 982C0F79

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): J. W. Harriger
Abstract/Introduction:
When the gas company is called upon to supply a meter for a particular service there are several things that need to be considered: 1. The maximum load conditions that this service would ever require. 2. The operating pressure under which the gas is to be measured, 3. The minimum flow ever required for the service. 4. The amount of pressure drop that could possibly be allowed for the service.
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Document ID: 666E73F2

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Howard H. H0LMES
Abstract/Introduction:
Domestic meters can be defined as positive displacement meters having a capacity of 500 cubic feet per hour or less, operating at a differential pressure of V2 water column. These meters are generally classified by capacity and case material. Case materials used are tin plated steel, cast iron, and aluminum. In the Southwestern area in particular, and more and more throughout the United States, aluminum case meters are becoming more popular. For this reason, and the fact that the working principles are all the same, we will confine this paper to a discussion of Ironcase and Aluminum case meters.
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Document ID: C86CEC87

Domestic Meters
Author(s): J. W. Harriger
Abstract/Introduction:
When the home owner receives his gas bill every month, his main concern is to find enough money to pay it. Very few or any of them ever consider what has been necessary to assure them of accurate, honest measurement, For a good number of years now, we have relied on a positive displacement meter to do this for us. Through these years, the numher of chambers required have varied but today we generally accept the three or four-chambered meters as being standard.
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Document ID: B4FF1A72

Automatic Proving Of Domestic Meters
Author(s): Stuart P. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Ten years ago, probably there were many managers of meter shops who liked to think of a day when repaired and rebuilt meters would move along an automatic belt conveyor, advance to a prover test stand where they would automatically be put through open and check runs, with the data including differentials recorded and move on to the next station, all with no more effort than merely pressing a button. Since then a great deal of this has become a reality. Conveyor systems have been in use for many years and we have seen several semi-automatic proving devices come on the market. There are available devices that will sense and record meter differentials automatically. As for further automation in this field we will undoubtedly see more of this within the next ten years.
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Document ID: E9572D67

Testing Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): C. W. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
It might be of interest to note that it costs between thirty and fifty cents to test and adjust the average domestic meter. When one considers that the average domestic meter in this area recoids in the neighborhood of 75.00 worth of gas per year and that meter change periods have increased due to better parts, better materials, and better testing equipment and procedures, ten years is now the average service life. Multiply this by 75.00 and you have a potential of 750.00 revenue before you will see your meters again.
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Document ID: AECB881B

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): Ben H. Limpach
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary positive displacement meters were first introduced to the Gas Industry in 1920. Early rotary positive displacement (RPD) meters were used for measuring large volumes at low pressures, such as existed in manufactured-gas plant stations. However, since RPD meters are now available for loads as low as a few hundred cubic feet at 4 oz. pressures to 1068.0 Mscfh at 400 p.s.i.g. and two-line mounted models for loads up to 434,4 Mscfh @ 900 p.s.i.g., they are no longer restricted to constant large load applications.
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Document ID: E0063598

Domestic Meter Shop Operation And Test Frequency
Author(s): Charles C. Cameron
Abstract/Introduction:
In the United States today, there are approximately 1100 meter shops. Some are fully automated with new automatic prover and conveyor systems others are small shops located in garages and small buildings without air conditioning or proper repair equipment. Large shop or small shop, in order to do an accurate repair job on a gas meter, we must provide good working conditions and require high standards. 1. A shop must be clean and safe with modern tools and good material-handling equipment. 2. The personnel must be highly skilled and well trained to insure that reconditioned meters and regulators will perform in a highly satisfactory manner.
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Document ID: 3F7A1A8A

Field Testing And Maintenance Of Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. E. Hollar
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion will deal primarily with the methods and procedures for testing and repairing large capacity displacement meters on location.
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Document ID: 7061465F

Orifice Fittings
Author(s): Philip m. Vickery
Abstract/Introduction:
The most important single item in the science of orifice measurement, the criterion for our billion dollar a year natural gas industry, is the flat, thin orifice plate which is commonly called tile primary element. The secondary element, whether an inexpensive indicating water column only, or an expensive and elaborate recording mercury orifice meter can only indicate or record the signals transmitted by the primary element, or orifice plate.
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Document ID: 40DD5642

New Developments In Meter Shop Design, Equipment And Techniques - A Panel
Author(s): James W. Chrisman, Jack K. Secord, Louis Baldacci, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
During tho past twenty-five years, society has witnessed a multitude of changes, both in industrial growth and scientific achievement. For example, who would have visualized a quarter of a century ago, we would have not one but several people being able to orbit the earth at the speed of better than 17,000 mph. or even possibly journeying to the moon. While these are only a few of the outstanding developments of our time they do make us aware of the fact that we are living in an age of great progress-
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Document ID: 497E21D0

Large Capacity Displacement Meters And Auxiliary Devices
Author(s): James K. Lane
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity displacement meters are those used in the measurement of gas to the industrial or commercial customer. The break point between domestic and industrial meter capacity is somewhat arbitrary, but generally specified at 500 cfh. Large capacity meters must be capalile of measuring quite accurately over a wide range of flows, and normally at elevated pressures.
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Document ID: 565F6D6B

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Robert C. Heffernan
Abstract/Introduction:
A domestic gas meter is generally understood to be any meter that will pass up to about 500 ft. per hour, taut because there are more of a type called the Glovers meter in use than any other, we will confine this talk to that type. The first Glovers meter was developed around 1850 by an Englishman, Thomas Glover, and during the 110 years since its invention the basic principles have not been altered substantially. New materials have been introduced to improve wear characteristics and accuracy, and new designs have been conceived for better accessibility and more economic construction. However, its function is still the same, to determine how much gas the consumer has used so that he may be properly billed for the correct amount. There are very few mechanisms that are called upon to maintain their accuracy for as long a period of time as the modern gas meter, particularly in view of its low mitial cost. It may be installed on a lawn, or in a playroom, and in atmospheres which vary from hot to cold, dry to damp. It may be accidentally struck by ladders of construction men, or the hammers of do-it-yourself home owners, and it may be deliberately shot at by sharp-eyed youngsters with BB guns. Yet, it is expected to go on year after year, with little or no maintenance, doing its job of profitably and equitably converting the utilities gas into money.
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Document ID: C77D6CE8

Operation And Maintenance Of Combination Domestic Meters And Regulators
Author(s): Robert G. Burk
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, the demands for consistent regulation are greater than ever before. Regulators must reduce and maintain constant pressure from pilot light rates to hundreds of cubic feet an hour. The combination meter-regulator is designed to meet these exacting conditions and at the same time offer several unique features as well as to accurately measure the gas consumed by the customer.
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Document ID: EDAAD02D

Fundamentals Of Turbine Meter Measurement
Author(s): H. J. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
The Rockwell Series G 6 Turbo Meter is the first of its kind ever to be used in the gas industry, It has a rangeability of 13:1 on .6 specific gravity gas. The minimum flow rate is 2300 cfh and the maximum is 30,000 cfh. The differential at maximum capacity is 2 water column. The light weight meter has a maximum working pressure of 125 p.s.i. and a total weight of 55 pounds. The meter is designed to be installed in a horizontal position but need not be absolutely level. It is recommended that 5 ft. of straight pipe be used ahead of the meter and 2.5 ft. immediately downstream from the meter. The total length of the meter is 16 inches from flange to flange. The short length and light weight makes installation extremely simple, and eliminates the need for an installation platform.
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Document ID: 0103D918

Gas Accounting Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): W. C. Hutton
Abstract/Introduction:
As natural gas has become increasingly more valuable, the need for accuracy in measurement of its flow has increased. Much work has been done to improve measurement methods and techniques, and today measurement of flow by the orifice meter is highly accurate. Early calculations of orifice flow were made by merely scanning the charts and later, by using the planimeter. These methods were followed by the Rockwell Integrator, which gives with high accuracy a portion of the calculations required to arrive at quantity flow. Accuracies in the range of one-half of one percent are now attainable.
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Document ID: 70BFCF3D

Gas Accounting For Production Systems
Author(s): A. m. Melton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is based on the operations and methods of this Company and is limited to the functions of gas accounting as they pertain to gas produced and purchased at the wellhead, and the disposition of such gas. The functions of gas accounting are to take the volumes of gas purchases, Company production, gas used in operations, and gas sales To assign to these volumes tlie proper prices. To compute the division of interest payments on each well or lease. To provide the sellers and royalty owners statements of gas purchases and royalties and issue checks in payment therefor. To compute, withhold and pay applicable taxes on gas, to invoice gas sales customers. To invoice and pay royalties when requu-ed on products extracted from natural gas and To record all these transactions in the books of the Company.
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Document ID: AFAB519C

Gas Accounting For Transmission Systems
Author(s): C. m. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of Gas Accounting for Transmission Systems is quite different from a subject entitled Accounting for Gas Transmission Systems. Where the latter would involve itself in all phases of accounting activities such as corporate accounting, tax accounting and general accounting, the former which is our subject here confines itself to the accounting for gas within the transmission system. The starting point in accounting for gas within the transmission system is provided by the terms of gas purchase contracts for gas being received and by the terms of gas sales contracts for gas being sold. Accounting for gas which is produced by the transmission company will not be dealt with here since we are not accounting for production activities but rather accounting for the gas itself which accounting is no: materially different from that for purchased gas.
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Document ID: CADCCA53

Calculation Of Meter Charts
Author(s): A. S. Macchietto
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas, sometimes called the flame of a thousand uses, is one of natures great gifts to man. Its clean, blue flame is used in millions of homes for cooking, for heating, and for refrigeration. Its most familiar use to us is as a fuel, although it is used in many important ways in industry.
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Document ID: 9CD1A885

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Joseph Tamasy
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was first discovered and put to use several thousand years ago in tlie Orient. The Chinese, who were the first in the invention and application of many useful things, were the first to use natural gas for fuel and many of the gas uses were adopted by Western civilization. In quest for salt they drilled wells to a depth of 2000 feet and by accident natural gas was found. They transported the gas through bamboo pipes to the point of use. Japan is recorded to have had gas wells as early as 615 B.C. The Japanese word for natural gas is KazaKusadzu which means wind or air and etymologically is identical to the Western word gas which is the invention of the Belgian eliemist Van Helmont. There is also recorded facts that during the time of Julius Caesar open gas flames were visible in France.
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Document ID: 4F09E1FD

Orifice Meter Tube FABRICATIONA Demonstration
Author(s): James Johnston
Abstract/Introduction:
The two commonly used devices for the measurement of gas are the positive displacement meter and the orifice meter. This report concerns only the meter run, a complimentary part of the orifice meter. The generally accepted authority by the oil and gas industry for orifice metermg of natural gas is Gas Measurement Committee Report No. 3 pubhshed by the American Gas Association, in cooperation with National Bureau of Standards, A.S.M.E. Research Committee on Fluid Meters, and Pipeline Research Committee.
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Document ID: 3D8D6EC6

Application Of Electronic Computers To Calculation Of Gas Measurement Factors
Author(s): F. H. Badke
Abstract/Introduction:
The solution of problems concerning gas measurement is an attractive application of digital computer systems. Complicated formulae for representing physical properties and elaborate thermodynamic relationships are required for accurate calculation of a volume of natural gas. Since the gas measurement function may also represent practically all of a companys revenue and a substantial part of its expenditure, it is essential too that calculations be performed as quickly as possible. The use of modern, high speed computer systems has permitted a big step toward the ultimate method performing all table-lookup and arithmetical operations quickly and automatically after the introduction of a minimum of basic data.
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Document ID: D1BEEC77

New Instruments For Intecration Of Meter Charts
Author(s): Conway T. Sinclair
Abstract/Introduction:
The widespread use of high speed digital computers for processing the data from orifice meter charts, temperature charts, gravity charts, and static pressure recordings brought about a need for faster and more accurate means of interpreting these charts and feeding these data to the computer. Seven years ago the Research Department of the United Gas Corporation initiated a project to develop automatic chart reading equipment, The ELECTROSCANNER chart scanner and computer system was one of the devices which resulted from this effort. This instrument scans the orifice meter chart with a revolving optical system and an associated special purpose computer calculates the necessary integral of the square root of the product of the differential and static pressure levels. An ELECTROSCANNER operator can integrate up to 250 orifice meter charts per hour and obtain results that are in general more accurate than can be obtained by other methods.
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Document ID: 18DD22D5


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