Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1962)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Measurement By Oriffce
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
The customary approach to orifice meter measurement has been to consider it in a very academic manner-explaining the operation of these devices by reference to various traditional concepts and laws. These explanations and bases for derivation of the applicable equations are sound and proper. I would not want to give the impression of disparaging such generally employed and scholarly methods of analysis.
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Document ID: A8873529

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): B. K. Golson
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter has proven to be accurate and dependable for the measurement of gases and liquids by the industries for more than forty years. It is desirable due to the wide range of pressure and volumes at which it will operate. It is being used to measure gas from the well to the burner tip. Therefore since most companies use this method to measure the amount of gas purchased and sold, it should be considered one of the most important instruments in the industry
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Document ID: EAF1348C

Field Measurement At High Pressure
Author(s): Hubert P. Pringle
Abstract/Introduction:
Each year new developments and improvements in equipment and technique employed in the measurement and control of natural gas are exhibited and demonstrated at the annual Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course. Many additional improvements are certain to be developed and shown during future Short Course proceedings, some of which will probably be even more revolutionary than previous ones were at the time of their origination. While it may be difficult to fully conceive the part this new equipment will play in the future measurement and control of gas flow, there is little doubt the part will be a major one
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Document ID: 2A2BA018

Orifice Meters
Author(s): L. P. Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
A poor man once asked a sage, Why am I in such need u sage broke off a willow twig and cut notches on it at 1 intervals. Then he gave it to the poor man, saying I thee this sceptre of suecess-a stick for measuring member, all tilings are made to measure-sandals for feet, the sheath for the sword. Drive the stick straight the ground and according to its shadow, which follows e sun. thou shalt measure time and arrange thy life In spring when the shadow shortens, sow thy grain- in :umn when it lengthens, gather in the crops. Measure y share and thy neighbors share do it honestly and thou - - tare v,ell.
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Document ID: E6554EDA

Design Of Meter Tubes And Primary Elements
Author(s): Ralph H. Clemons, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
From a historical viewpoint, most of the refinement of the science of orifice measurement has taken place in the last thirty years. Laboratory and field tests under close scrutiny have developed flow coefficients which are accurate, and are accepted by industry. The scientific advance of gas measuring equipment has kept pace with user requirements for design and tolerance limits. Such equipment has added to the status of orifice measurement as a reliable means of accounting for exchange of gas. This paper will describe some of the products now being used in gas measurement, as well as products destined for future use.
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Document ID: 56507153

Problems In Off Shore Gas Measurement
Author(s): C. B, Keagy
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas and oil are being produced in areas farther offshore every year. So, the problems in offshore gas measurement are at present and will continue to be demanding on the gas measurement personnel in Coastal Regions. The problems are the same as encountered onshore, plus those caused by limited platform or working space, transportation difficulties, expensive operations, corrosive atmospheres, and other contributing factors. These conditions necessitate some practices in gas production, process and measurement that slightly deviate from the conventional.
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Document ID: 918AD631

Utilization, Installation And Maintenance Of Bellows Type Flow Meters
Author(s): G. m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
The widespread application and popularity of the bellows type differential pressure gauge in orifice metering is due to its simplicity and reliable performance in difficult measuring installations. The bellows differential pressure gauge does not require mercury, nor critical leveling for operation It is self-draining and generally not affected by condensed liquid m the measuring system. Other advantages include a high speed of response combined with high output torque which makes the bellows gauge particularly adaptable to integrating and computing devices.
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Document ID: 75F9CBC1

New Applications Of Orifice Meters And Automatic Controls
Author(s): Louis V. Hickman
Abstract/Introduction:
With the present day trend toward further automation in all phases of industry, the application of existing and, or. new equipment to perform new tasks is finding widespread use in the gas industry. These new applications involve orifice meters, both Dri-flo bellows and mercury type pneumatic controls with or without telemetering, single diaphragm and two diaphragm pilot regulators
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Document ID: D207B172

Integrating And Transmitting Devices For Orifice And Displacement Meters
Author(s): Byrd L. Minter
Abstract/Introduction:
Integrating and transmitting are two different operations combined, they give us a totalized answer at a specified location. In measuring gas to many large commercial, small industrial and school plants, the need for delivery pressure in excess of utilization pressure (4 oz.) is increasing for various reasons. This requires the installation of metering equipment which will deliver gas at varying pressures, correcting the quantity of gas to the base conditions at which the customer is billed.
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Document ID: 8A38BE8B

Shop Equipment For Domestic Meter And Regulator Repair-A Demonstration
Author(s): Chas. T). Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
The cost of repairing gas service regulators and gas meters can be materially reduced by the efficient use of time and labor saving devices, jigs and fixtures, as well as tools. It is the purpose of this class to help the gas companies reduce the unit cost of repairing and testing both regulators and meters. The subject of recommended methods of actually repairing and testing meters and regulators has been adequately covered in other classes, so this demonstration was devoted entirely to the subject of efficient tools and devices for speeding up this repair work and making it easier for the operator doing the job.
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Document ID: 19EF6630

The Proper Installation Of Synthetic Diaphragms In Meters And Regulators
Author(s): E. C. Hemes
Abstract/Introduction:
Since synthetic diaphragms for gas meters and regulators have been adopted by all manufacturers and practically all utilities, the utility people who are responsible for the performance of measurement and control equipment need to be concerned primarily with only two basic points: 1. Reliability of the source of diaphragms and diaphragm materials to preclude the introduction of inadvertent changes without adequate field trials. 2, The proper installation of replacement diaphragms. While point one is very important, this discussion is limited to point 2.
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Document ID: E83943E9

Maintenance And Repair Of Orifice Meters-A Demonstration
Author(s): R. H. Hemfelt
Abstract/Introduction:
As indicated by the title, this paper will cover the maintenance and repair of orifice meters. It will consider both the mercury type and the dry type meters.
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Document ID: 5E774076

Theory And Application Of Thermometers And Pressure Gauges
Author(s): Jerome E. Miles
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to present day gas accounting procedures based on accepted standards, it has become increasingly important to those engaged in gas measurement that they know the basic concepts surrounding the physical characteristics and conditions of gases. Lets briefly discuss them. When subjected to a change in pressure the volume of any substance is changed, but the change in volume of a solid or liquid is usually very small
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Document ID: 9C415CBC

Specific Gravity Instruments-Care And Operation-A Demonstration
Author(s): Specific Gravity Instruments-Care And Operation-A Demonstration
Abstract/Introduction:
The subjects discussed during the demonstration were: 1. The importance of accurate specific gravity determinations, particularly to the Engineering and Accounting Departments, since in the measurement of a gas, both the quantity and quality of the gas are directly related to its specific gravity. 2. Methods of arriving at these determinations, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these methods:
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Document ID: 8A550512

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula Qi, C X VHw Pr where Qi, is the quantity, H* is the differential, and P. the static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, supercompressibility factor, and manometer factor
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Document ID: FC143484

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): O. W. Heyman
Abstract/Introduction:
The manometer is the simplest of instruments for measurement of pressure. The manometer conforms to such basic laws of nature that it is the Primary Standard from which all other devices for pressure measurement in the low pressure field are derived and calibrated. How fortunate we are to have this measuring device
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Document ID: AF5E02DC

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): C. W. Warner
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy, available in large quantities and in a convenient, usable form, has been the impetus for the material and economic development of civilized man. As man accumulated knowledge, he harnessed the natural sources of energy and then controlled them to do useful work. Heat, a transient i of energy, is a most useful energy source. The sas industry is one of the most important sources .:,. - particularly heat energy. In-so-far as the industry itself is concerned economically, energy is another f saying dollars.
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Document ID: 70DFC865

A Discussion Of AGA Gas Measurement Report #3
Author(s): Robert W. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1903, Thomas R. Weymouth, of the United Natural Gas Company, Oil City, Pennsylvania, started his experiments using sharp, square edged, thin orifices in series with a pitot tube, for comparison purposes of large volume gas measurement. For his tests, Weymouth used flange pressure taps 1 upstream and 1 downstream from the face of the orifice. which were later to become the predominate standard for industry in the United States. He determined his static pressure from the downstream side of the orifice. The series of tests completed in 1911 and 1912 were presented as an A.S.M.E. paper entitled, Measurement of Natural Gas. His tests, superseded by more exact data, based on another ten year study, provided a valuable basis for metering natural gas by orifices, using the developed empirical coefficient data, correlated with the ratio of the orifice diameter to pipe diameter. This eliminated the necessity of calibrating each individual orifice plate, The total test results of Weymouth and developed flow coefficients were published as part of the A.G.A. Gas Measurement Committee Report No. 2, in 1935
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Document ID: 86D2997F

Measurement And Regulation In Connection With Underground Storage
Author(s): E. Vincent Martinson
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry is putting gas back into the ground-but where it is needed instead of where it happened to be found. Dealers in natural gas have learned to do what dealers in other seasonal commodities have been doing since the dawn ot history-store it in the summer when it isnt needed so as to have plenty in the winter when it is needed. Natural gas storage is. in effect, the warehousing of gas by gas utilities and transmission companies during the summer, when the supply exceeds the demand for home and industry, then, withdrawing it in winter when cold weather pushes demand above supply.
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Document ID: 73C84928

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): Richard m. Nicholson
Abstract/Introduction:
Leakage and unaccounted for gas is a subject that all gas companies should make every effort to control, as it not only effects the profit of operation, but also places the company in a potentially hazardous position. Unaccounted for gas, as you all know, is that difference between the volume of gas purchased and the volume of gas sold by your company during some definite accounting period. The causes of this difference are very numerous, but are composed mainly of used unmetered gas, errors in measurement, differences created by billing lag, and the actual loss through leakage.
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Document ID: 861DB661

Methods Of Determining The Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): Ira J. Mead
Abstract/Introduction:
Before going into a discussion of the methods of determining the specific gravity of a gas, it would be well to refer to the definition of specific gravity. By definition, the specific gravity of a gas is the ratio of weight of a given volume of the gas at a definite temperature and pressure to the weight of an equal volume of air (dry and carbon dioxide free! at the same temperature and pressure. This can be stated in another way by saying the specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a gas to the density of air when both densities are determined at the same conditions of temperature and pressure. Thus it is seen that while density varies according to the conditions under which it is determined specific gravity, on the other hand, is a constant value, using air at unity as a standard of comparison
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Document ID: F239997E

Installation And Testing Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): H. W. Gillian
Abstract/Introduction:
Industry is a precision instrument, which provides a continuous record of the heating value of gas, registering this heat in British Thermal Units. In the early days of the natural gas industry, the high heating value of natural gas, as compared to manufactured gas, was one of its several advantages. A minimum-maximum BTU Clause became part of the gas sales contract to assure the buyer of comparably consistent gas which created the need for a continuous record of the heating value. Some suppliers and distributors use the Thermal basis for selling gas in which the BTU becomes a factor in computing the sales.
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Document ID: 3A8A05A9

Orifice Meters
Author(s): Giles m, Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
In discussing the principles and performance of orifice meters, perhaps we should define what an orifice meter consists of. An orifice meter is a collection of devices used for measuring the flow of fluids in terms of the differential pressure produced across a restriction in the flowing path. Basic components of an orifice meter which will be discussed in this paper are:
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Document ID: 8B0AA2FF

Determination Of Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): J. m. Hamilton, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
With this paper I will try to bring out the importance that a correct water content report can mean to a pipe line. Also, what could happen by using an incorrect report. Finally, a discussion of methods, techniques and equipment that is used to determine the water content of natural gas. Before starting, let me define a few terms that are common with the subject:
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Document ID: 36C0B639

Determination Of Gasoline Content Of Gas
Author(s): J. A. Ciironister
Abstract/Introduction:
Anyone not too familiar with the subject might wonder what is meant when we speak of gasoline content. To the majority of people, the word gasoline promptly and normally suggests a liquid commodity sold at the corner service station. They may or may not know that the gasoline they buy is a highly refined, treated and blended product. The gasoline considered in this paper bears little resemblance to thai sold at the service station. The term gasoline content has long been used as a trade term for identifying the gas condensate which is obtained by testing a sample of natural gas. Thus, testing gas is actually the art of grading gases by some prescribed method
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Document ID: 1D105210

Problems Fn Measuring Natural Gas Containing Hydrogen Sulphide
Author(s): Arles H. Barrett
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring gas containing hydrogen sulfide (H:S presents unique problems however, when these problems are properly understood and adequately solved, acceptable measurements can be made. To begin, let us review the metering device and the composition of natural gas. This will provide the proper foundations for dealing with the problem of measuring gas containing ILS.
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Document ID: FE588C6E

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment-A Panel Discussion
Author(s): G. Paul Cook L. E. Connealy P. 0. Petursson
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing in measuring and regulating equipment is one problem that is encountered by Natural Gas Production Transmission and Distribution Companies. Therefore, this panel will discuss the following topics as they apply to each type of operation.
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Document ID: A1EADE1D

Deliverability Method Of Rating Gas Wells
Author(s): O. T. ICE,jr
Abstract/Introduction:
An Open Flow Test, during which a gas well was blown to the atmosphere by fully opening the master valve, was the method of testing or rating a well prior to 1935. During this test Pitot Tube readings were taken at the discharge end of the flow string at specified times from the beginning of the test. This test was generally of such short time duration that it was little assurance that the well would produce a given volume for any extended time into a pipe line. The volume of gas being vented was then determined from charts or tables using the Pitot Tube readings. These gas volumes together with the wellhead shut in pressure were then used to compare or rate gas wells
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Document ID: 9D4AA9CE

Safe Practices In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): W. Vance Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
After accepting the assignment to discuss Safe Practices in Measurement and Pressure Regulation, I began searching for the approach I should take. The more I searched, the more uncertain I became. I found too many facets to the main theme to attempt to cover the field in one short session. We could spend out time going over a lot of Dos and Donts such as: 1. Do wear personal protective equipment when the job requires it. 2. Dont smoke around explosive gaseous atmosphere. 3. Do drive in a safe and sane manner. 4. Dont transport mercury in breakable containers. 5. Do clean up all spilled mercury. 6. Dont use gasoline as a cleaning agent. 7. Do get first aid or medical treatment for all injuries.
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Document ID: D3FD24E9

Field Sampling Of Gas
Author(s): C. Dabbs, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
The quality clauses of gas contracts contain many requirements that either set the price per MCF or causes the gas to be further processed. Some of these requirements are: 1. Heating value no less than the stated B.T.U. per cubic foot. 2. No oxygen in excess of a certain value. 3. No carbon dioxide exceeding a certain value. 4. Free of dust, gums and solid matter. 5. Hydrogen Sulfide less than a certain number of grains per 100 cubic feet. 6. Water vapor not to exceed seven (73 lbs. per MMCF.
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Document ID: 328A3AC0

Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): L. R. Boyter
Abstract/Introduction:
If you would give ten design engineers the same contractual conditions of volume, pressure, temperature, gas quality, load factor etc., and tell them to design a measuring and regulating station, the result would be ten differently designed stations, even though you specified a purchase, sale, check or fuel station. The same ten men given the same conditions a few years later would come up with ten additional designs all different from the previous years because we are constantly searching for and finding new ways and material to improve our facilities
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Document ID: 18737B1D

Determination And Application Of Supercompressibility Factors
Author(s): K. C. Yost
Abstract/Introduction:
The behavior of gas mixtures is such that as the density is increased above its usual base conditions, the dependency of the volume of a given mass may not be expressed accurately in terms of its pressure and temperatures as set out in the ideal gas law. This deviation from the ideal gas law is dependent upon the pressure, temperature, and composition of the gas the more complex the gas, the greater will be the deviation. Propane and the heavier hydrocarbon gases will behave less ideally than methane which has a simple molecule.
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Document ID: AAE063D3

Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Marion F. Deavours
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatography may be classed as a relatively new method of analysis as the method was only beginning to be used in the early part of the year 1957. From that time to the present, the increase of interest in the method has motivated much research and as a result, Gas Chromatography is now widely recognized as one of the significant, advances in the analytical field. While the scope of the method has been broadened to include many types of samples, it is the aim of this paper to discuss the specific application of Gas Chromatography to the analysis of natural gas.
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Document ID: 92D55DB3

Orifice Meters-A Demonstration
Author(s): D. L. Louvier
Abstract/Introduction:
It is desirable to design a piece of equipment for field use as simple and sturdy as possible, and still obtain the required results. The Mercury Type Orifice Meter is simple in design. and certainly very rugged. For these reasons, and many others, we can be assured that the Mercury Type Orifice Meter will be doing the majority of gas measurement for years to come. It is essential, therefore, that we maintain a thorough knowledge of the operating principle and maintenance of the Mercury Type Orifice Meter. This will be subject matter of this paper.
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Document ID: 91314E31

Back Pressure Test Of Gas Wells
Author(s): E. T. Rogers
Abstract/Introduction:
Test methods for determining the flow capacities of gas wells have been the subject of much discussion, both written and oral, throughout the natural gas industry over the years. The Back Pressure Test method for determining gas well capacities was developed by The Bureau of Mines in cooperation with the State of Oklahoma and a Committee appointed by the Natural Gas Department of The American Gas Association and is described in the Bureau of Mines Monograph 7 published in 1935.
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Document ID: D9A1F0C7

The Sampling And Analysis Of Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Author(s): R. L. Huntington
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of the determination of the composition of clamps can be closed and the bottle placed in a wooden a liquid or gas consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbon is crate equipped with rubber snubbers to hold the bottle segenerally thought of in terms of the laboratory analyst. rarely in place and to reduce the chances of breakage in The importance of the analytical laboratory is not to be shipmont. minimized however, it is a total loss of time to carry out careful work in the laboratory unless one can be certain that the proper sampling is made of the stream or batch of material under investigation. In other words the analytical results are of no value to the engineer unless they represent the average composition over a definite period of time in the case of continuous process or a portion of a truly homogenous mixture in the analysis of a large batch of stored liquid hydrocarbon. A number of the major companies are making an effort to improve upon sampling practices either by sending out mobile laboratories into outlying districts or by having the technical man go to the Held to obtain the samples. In the absence of the engineer in the field, a set of clear-cut written instructions may serve fairly well as a means of ensuring proper sampling.
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Document ID: 3546F189

Gas Cleaning
Author(s): Laurance S. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past ten years the term gas conditioning has come into general use within the natural gas industry to identify a well-defined group of operations for the removal of diluents and contaminants which make natural gas unmerchantable. In this decade, significant advances have been made in dehydration, acid gas removal and hydrocarbon dew point control processes and techniques. The economic removal of nitrogen still challenges the industry. Gas cleaning is the oldest of the gas conditioning operations, born with the industry itself.
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Document ID: 98C3A5DB

Gas Laws And Their Use In Measurement
Author(s): E. F. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the metering of gases the fundamental gas laws play a major role. The determination of the quantity of a gas in volume units at a particular pressure base and temperature base is the usual objective. The gas laws are equations expressing relationships of gas properties, such as pressure, volume and temperature, under varying conditions
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Document ID: 98CB87B2

New Ideas In Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Charles L. Truby
Abstract/Introduction:
improved gas measurement, regulation and lem confronting all gas companies. Basicah engineering design, accuracy of instru- -Qique of measurement personnel. It is a o easy solution. Engineering design undated in part by economic rather than measderarions. Instrumentation accuracy is limited s in turn by economic considerations again : measurement personnel is a somewhat easier aining programs and proper supervision of . - -:-- -y- contribute much toward better measure-
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Document ID: 02D7F266

Problems In Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jack E. Lay
Abstract/Introduction:
In dealing with the problems involved with measurement of wet gas streams, it should be emphasized that each particular field and each individual well may require a slightly different approach. Perhaps it would be well at this point to define wet gas measurement. A wet gas stream is one which contains fluid and/or water.
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Document ID: 0CBDB0D9

Test Instruments For Pressure, Water Vapor And Supercompressibility
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and compressibility
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Document ID: 754377B7

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): F. B, Leslie
Abstract/Introduction:
Kinetic energy is that energy which matter has by virtue of motion and, all other factors being equal, is proportional to density. This principle is the basis of a commercial instrument which was developed about 38 years ago for automatically measuring the specific gravity of gases. It is the object of this class to explain the operation, illustrate the physical equipment and, as time permits, to answer your questions.
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Document ID: CA08420C

The Operation Of A Flow Meter Test Site
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass meters, vortex velocity meters, turbine meters, computers, impeller meters, sonic meters etc. are continually appearing as the answer to a measurement mans prayer. Day to day operations of our orifice meters raise questions among us. Where do we go to get the answer to these problems? We have the various associations that answer a great number of them but, by necessity must answer the generalized universal type of problems. Specific equipment, procedures, and application problems need specific answers. We of Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company recognized these problems and decided to set up our own Flow Meter test site to determine the specific type of answers.
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Document ID: 2B9099CF

Mass Flow Metersng
Author(s): D. K. Wonder
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past two or three decades, much attention, research, development and evaluation testing has been directed toward improvement of one of our industries most basic and needed operations-measurement of a flowing fluid stream, In the last 5 to 6 years, it would appear that this improvement program has been given ad i emphasis and attention. Some of this increased emj :s can be credited to the recent development of practica ardware to implement an old concept-measurement on a raass basis
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Document ID: AF64E728

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): William S. Christian
Abstract/Introduction:
Around the turn of the Century, the gas industry was in desperate need of a practical way to measure large volumes of both natural and manufactured gas. The displacement type meter, ideally suited for accurate measurement of small volumes of low pressure gas, could not meet the new requirements due to practical considerations of design and application, Consequently, gas companies and manufacturers turned to orifice measurement as the best solution to their problem. With the acceptance of the orifice plate as a reliable primary device, attention was concentrated on the secondary device- the orifice meter.
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Document ID: 421818B3

Regulators, Controllers Amd Related Equipment
Author(s): J. E. Stegelin
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the fundamentals in the operation of a gas system is pressure. A gas system is not a stable system with the changing load conditions requiring various volumes of gas. and with variable main and delivery pressures. The fundamental principle of a regulator is to deliver from a gas main in a distribution system, or from a high pressure cross country pipe line a varying volume of gas at a predetermined set outlet pressure, with complete safety, and reliability to the gas system or the gas consumer.
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Document ID: 8F015925

High And Low Pressure Regulators-A Demonstration
Author(s): Harold F. Kruzan
Abstract/Introduction:
This class covered a demonstration and discussion of the newest models and innovations of high and low pressure regulators. Both single valve toggle actuated regulators and balanced single valve regulators were displayed. Slides were shown and cut-away cross section models were used to illustrate the various principles discussed
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Document ID: 51647542

Gas Service Regulators - Installation And Operation
Author(s): Charles D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
Under the foregoing title, we will discuss the general subject of Gas Service Regulators by subdividing this paper into the following groups or titles of each phase of the subject: I. Definition of a Service-Type Gas Pressure Regulator. II. Low fnlet Service Regulators for Conversion Projects and High Leakage Conditions. III. Internal Relief Valve Regulators for Indoor Installation. IV. Description of Construction and Mechanical Operation. V. Suggestions for Good Installation Procedure,
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Document ID: 557B2338

New Developments In High And Low Pressure Regulators And Boosters
Author(s): New Developments In High And Low Pressure Regulators And Boosters
Abstract/Introduction:
As the market for natural gas has expanded in recent years, a greater demand has been placed on the transmission lines. This means that pressures have continually increased with demand until today 1000 p.s.i.g. is very common. Consequently, our problem of reducing these high pressures to a lower value for measurement and delivery to the distribution company has increased in magnitude in proportion to the pressure drop across the reducing station.
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Document ID: C146221E

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators-A Demonstration
Author(s): Raymond P. Lofink
Abstract/Introduction:
When selecting a regulator for a specific installation, it is essentia! that the regulator selected meets all the requirements of the installation if possible, therefore, it is obvious that the installation requirements and conditions be listed and a regulator chosen accordingly
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Document ID: 988C0D93

High And Low Pressure Gas Regulators - A Demonstration
Author(s): Donald L. Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
Since not ail areas of the country classify regulators for various pressure conditions in exactly the same category we will, during this class, break them down into three separate categories for the purpose of discussion. A. Low Pressure Regulators - Oz. to Oz. Reduction B. Intermediate Pressure Regulators-P.si. to Oz. Reduction C. High Pressure Regulators - P.s.i. to P.s.i. Reduction
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Document ID: F118A442

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): J. A. POMMERSHE1M
Abstract/Introduction:
When one talks about large capacity regulators, it follows that the subject relates to regulators capable of handling large flows with minimum drop in pressure. Usually in the Gas Industry the flow requirements are such that maximum flow is desired or needed when the available pressure is at a minimum, Thus, a regulator able to allow large flows with a minimum of pressure loss becomes highly desirable
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Document ID: CAC6D1DD

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): Forest H. Wehrman
Abstract/Introduction:
The Flexflo is a value of unique design whose operating member is an expansible tube which surrounds a cylindrical metal core having a series of longitudinal slots at each end with a separating barrier between. Action of the expansible tube is determined by control of the differential pressure across it with no mechanical connection between the tube and control units required. In its operation the Flexflo valve resembles a diaphragm motor valve with the expansible tube acting as both diaphragm and inner valve, The
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Document ID: 51CB0A29

Principles And Application Of Automatic Control
Author(s): R. C. Croston
Abstract/Introduction:
In present day industry, striving to meet competitive demands of better quality, lower costs, and higher production rates, automatic control is becoming more and more imimportant. Controllers are aiding personnel in the operation of process by doing a better and more reliable job of regulating the process thereby helping to attain better quality, higher production rates, and lower production costs. What are automatic controllers and how do they work? Let us examine the basic concepts used in automatic control to see what these concepts do for us and how these concepts are used. In order to do this, we shall examine an exaggerated example of automatic control to see what happens. I am sure you all remember
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Document ID: 7497647B

District Regulators And Load Distribution
Author(s): J. R. Julian
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of district regulators and load distribution covers the design and operation of any gas distribution system, whether it be a small system or a metropolitan area, It is a very common tiring for a lot of discussion to take place when distribution men meet, in that there are such wide-range variations of how a distribution system should be designed and operated. This paper is not intended to specify any particular design or method of operation, but it, is hoped that it will be general and cover some subjects that will be of interest to distribution personnel
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Document ID: 950F3DD5

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Jack D. Muff
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficiency and accuracy of an orifice meter set up depends largely upon the care with which the orifice fitting and meter tube are installed and maintained. To give sensible care to any mechanical device, it is necessary to be familiar with the design and principles of its operation. This paper will attempt to cover enough of the description of orifice fittings and meter tubes that the user of such equipment will be able to use it with the greatest accuracy and still not find it necessary to spend excessive time in maintenance work
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Document ID: 69F98646

Gas Regulation From High Pressure Transmission Lines
Author(s): Osborne Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this lecture is to provide a description of principles and considerations involved in the highly complex area of pressure reduction. In preparing the material outlined in this paper, care has been exercised to make sure that the conditions and requirements do comply with existing operating practices
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Document ID: EE5C2887

Operating Experience With Remote Supervisory Control And Telemetering
Author(s): James B. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
In discussing remote supervisory control and telemetering. it appears best that one relate each of these functions to their proper place in control procedure. Control procedure will normally consist of the following five steps: 1. Collection of information. 2. Organization of information for evaluation. 3. Analysis and decision making. 4. Transmit decisions to operating facilities. 5. Execution of instructions to obtain results
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Document ID: 8563CECB

Flow Computing And Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Raymond Hardcastle
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout every gas transmission and distribution system there are many flow measurements vital for efficient operation. If these measurements reach the dispatcher as uncompensated flow and pressure readings, the dispatching personnel must calculate the corrected flow. As systems operations grow more complex, this type of operation entails an ever-increasing number of transmission channels and a considerable computing burden on the dispatcher
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Document ID: D49AB171

High Pressure Farm Taps And Service Regulators-A Demonstration
Author(s): James E. Rawley
Abstract/Introduction:
The farm tap is a complete small capacity pressure reducing station in a high pressure natural gas transmission line t reduces pressure from 100 to 1200 p.s.i.g. to pressures of a w p-s.i. or down to inches water column. These stations can be designed to serve either a single or a small group of residential customers or an industrial plant.
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Document ID: C4192916

Trouble Shooting In Metameter-Telemetering Systems
Author(s): W. R. Grime
Abstract/Introduction:
In dealing with trouble-shooting in Telemetering Systems, we must first discuss briefly what telemetering is and how it works. Telemetering is measurement at a distance. In Figure 1, we have a simple analogy of what telemetering is. As the man who picks up the desired information or measurement opens and closes the circuit with a telegraph key, the opens and closures are transmitted along the wires to the coil or sounder at the receiving end and these in turn are transformed or decoded into meaningful intelligence. Thus, the man, or any measuring device at a distance from the place where the information is desired, can transmit this information, and it can be indicated, recorded, or otherwise displayed.
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Document ID: A343462F

Telemetering - Advance Techniques And Flow Computers
Author(s): B. C. Joyce
Abstract/Introduction:
Telemetering has been used in the gas industry for many years but the past few years have brought an accelerated need for this equipment. Eased on past satisfactory and economical operation of telemetering equipment, many companies have rapidly expanded their communication and telemetering network m order to provide centralized control and dispatching In the past, where one local dispatcher might have 10 to 15 system readings available for dispatch purposes, centralized operations could easily mean this same man would have 20 to 30 times that many.
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Document ID: DAB8974B

Operation And Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Regulators
Author(s): R. II. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the beginning of volume transmission of natural gas the industry has carried on a continuous search program for a pressure regulator that would perform two basic functions - give a positive shutoff and infinite rangeability with a minimum of mechanical friction. The Jet Stream is a rubber plug type regulator that was designed within the gas industry to perform these two functions. Jet Streams were first installed in the field during the early part of 1958 in sizes ranging from 1 to 3 and pressure drops of from 5 to 1000 p.s.i. The principle of using a solid rubber inner
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Document ID: 4790EC3C

Proper Sizing Of Domestic Regulators
Author(s): George C. Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of the word Proper Understood in the collect sense Special Adaptation Conforming to Standard. outlines the necessary procedure to size a service regulator. UNDERSTOOD IN THE CORRECT SENSE The fundamental principles of a domestic service regulator must be understood before selecting the right regulator in regard to diaphragm case size and orifice size. The single orifice in a domestic regulator tends to unbal ance the set conditions as the inlet pressure varies. The amount of unbalance is a direct ratio of the orifice area and the change of pressure in p.s.i./sq. in. The change in the inlet pressure force acting on the valve changes the outlet pressure setting. Therefore, the smaller the orifice area the less the outlet pressure change.
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Document ID: EBC83D93

Measurement By Displacement Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. J. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
A definition of a positive displacement meter would be a meter which directly measures volume at line conditions regardless of temperature, pressure, or density of the gas. This type of meter is fundamentally the same whether it is designed for the measurement of water, petroleum products or gas. For the purpose of simplicity, we will only consider the two diaphragm, four compartment meter with D-slide
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Document ID: 839FDEBF

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): E. B. Perrine
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity meters are used to meter commercial and however, in which the large capacity meter differs from its industrial loads where the orifice type meter is not suitable, due to pressure loss conditions, load ratio, and other reasons. In these installations the proper size and type of diaphragm meter makes an excellent measuring device. In many respects such as appearance and principal of operation the large capacity meter is simply an overgrown domestic positive displacement meter. There are many features
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Document ID: 1DBF9EBA

Orifice Fittings
Author(s): Phillip m. Vickery
Abstract/Introduction:
A regular schedule of orifice plate inspection is encouraged by the use of orifice fittings as it is relativeiy simple and requires a minimum amount of time and effort to complete the full cycle of removing, inspecting and re-installing an orifice plate in an orifice fitting, Even when a flow condition is relatively static and the orifice bore would require infrequent changing, an orifice fitting is justified due to the importance of regularly inspecting the orifice plate for proper sharpness, accumulation of dirt, scale and other extraneous material, or
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Document ID: 8575B71C

Domestic Meters
Author(s): James K. Lane
Abstract/Introduction:
A positive displacement gas meter is a device that measures volumetrically as opposed to an inferential device such as an orifice meter. A positive displacement meter is constructed so that compartments are alternately filled and emptied, and the number of cycles indicated. Domestic meters are those positive displacement meters having a rated capacity less than 500 CFH. The vast majority of these meters currently produced are made of die-cast aluminum. Many meters are still produced from tinned sheet steel, and a few of cast iron. All such meters produced by American Meter Company are of the four compartment, D-slide valve design, and are equipped with molded Duramie diaphragms as a standard feature.
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Document ID: B44CAAA1

Domestic Meters
Author(s): John W. Iiarrigkr
Abstract/Introduction:
For over 100 years, gas has been measured by means of a positive displacement meter. There have been various types and sizes but the basic principle is still the same. In addition to this, the basic difficulties are also the same that were encountered in 1850. Let us dig deeper and see how the present day domestic gas meter overcomes these difficulties
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Document ID: 6EC06829

Testing Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): C. W. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
might be of interest to note that it costs between thirty and fifty cents to test and adjust the average domestic meter. When one considers that the average domestic meter in this area records in the neighborhood of 75.00 worth of gas per year and that meter change periods have increased due to better parts, better materials, and better testing equipment and procedures, ten years is now the average service life. Multiply this by 75.00 and you have a potential of 750.00 revenue before you will see your meters again
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Document ID: 475E84D1

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): Bruce Fedder
Abstract/Introduction:
The year 1924 was significant in two respects. The beginning of the Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course and the contribution of the Roots-Connersville rotary positive meter to the gas industry. Thirty-eight years later Roots-Connersville has chosen 1962 to introduce to the gas industry a completely re-designed line of ROOTSMETERS. This paper deals with the application of the ROOTSMETER to the three general areas of gas measurement, distribution, transmission and production
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Document ID: E4036B8E

Field Testing And Maintenance Of Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): J. S. Roberts
Abstract/Introduction:
Without question, measurement is an important function that directly influences the economics of the gas industry. This is true because the revenue of the industry, for the most part, is determined by the registration from meters. The testing and maintenance of meters are operating costs which represent an expenditure fr om this revenue therefore, it is important that the testing program be carefully designed and continually improved to assure accuracy at the lowest practical maintenance cost
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Document ID: CE869211

New Developments In Meter Shop Design, Equipment And Techniquespanel Discussion
Author(s): J. W. Juckes A. W. Rauth Douglas Mckean
Abstract/Introduction:
The general aim of the members of tins panel is to present a discussion as nearly within the limits of the subject as humanly possible. In so doing we will refrain from any detailed descriptions of the way we operate in our own shops. In trying to cover ideas which are new or at least recent, we realize that some of the discussion material will be controversial, even in our own minds. No endorsement is intended. The desire is merely to air developments for your own consideration and evaluation.
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Document ID: 954C0E6D

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Robert C. Heffernan
Abstract/Introduction:
A domestic gas meter is generally understood to be any meter that will pass up to about 500 ft. per hour, but because there are more of a type called the Glovers meter in use than any other, we will confine this talk to that type. The first Glovers meter was developed around 1850 by an Englishman, Thomas Glover, and during the 110 years since its invention, the basic principles have not been altered substantially. New materials have been introduced to improve wear characteristics and accuracy, and new designs have been conceived for bettor accessibility and more economic construction.
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Document ID: 81137382

Operation And Maintenance Of Combination Domestic Meters And Regulators
Author(s): Robert G. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
The Combination Meter integrates the function of the Regulator and Standard Meter into one compact unit. Its design simplifies installation as well as removal for- periodic tests, etc. Since the regulator goes to the shop along with the meter, it receives the same periodic preventative maintenance attention prior to resetting, which reduces the possibility of failure in service to a minimum.
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Document ID: 01057821

Displacement Meters
Author(s): E. R. Gilmore
Abstract/Introduction:
The research work on displacement gas meters carried on during the past five years has enabled gas meter manufacturers to materially improve their products. The four major factors assisting in the achievement ol better meteis and metering are: A. Materials anil Processes The new materials and processes which continue to become available bid fair to even greater improvement within the next five years. Such materials provide a means for engineers to investigate the possibilities of novel measuring mechanisms of simplified design.
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Document ID: AA41A4FD

Gas Accounting Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): Davie S Allport
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to best understand a science, a basic knowledge of that science should be studied after which specific problems may be solved with greater ease. This discussion is for the purpose of building this foundation of knowledge in the operation of the Orifice Meter Chart Integrator, so that you, who are new in this field, will be better equipped to carry out your profession. It is further the intent to present this subject in a somewhat different manner which may be of stimulating interest to you old timers
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Document ID: FDC01397

Orifice Meter Tube Fabrication-A Demonstration
Author(s): James V. L. Johnston
Abstract/Introduction:
The two commonly used devices for the measurement of gas are the positive displacement meter and the orifice meter. This report concerns only the meter run, a complementary part of the orifice meter. The generally accepted authority by the oil and gas industry for orifice metering of natural gas is Gas Measurement Committee Report No. 3 published by the American Gas Association, in cooperation with National Bureau of Standards, ASME Research Committee on Fluid Meters, and Pipeline Research Committee.
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Document ID: 7488DF96

Gas Accounting For Production Systems
Author(s): Charles E. Axe
Abstract/Introduction:
The rapid pace set by transmission pipelines since World War II in gathering and transporting natural gas, along with new developments in the petro-chemieal industry, has built a once floundering industry into the fourth largest in the nation. Today, the petroleum industry supplies seventy per cent of the nations energy requirements, as compared to six per cent at the turn of the centuiy
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Document ID: 044AE7D4

Gas Accounting For Transmission Systems
Author(s): C. J. Robino
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Accounting is necessary for the efficient operation of a Pipeline Company in order to insure proper forecasting, planning and success of a Company. Many records, forms and files are kept so that management can accomplish the tremendous task of a successful business. New ideas and proper statistics also serve as an aid to the entire industry for keeping abreast of gas as a vital fuel and how Man can make it better serve him.
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Document ID: 6A69B330

Calculation Of Meter Charts
Author(s): L. G. Tidwell
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter chart reflects the activity of a meter for a predetermined period of time. This chart is the primary method of transferring this information to the office personnel where the volume of gas is calculated. After the price has been applied to this volume, one may readily see the value of this gas therefore, every chart should be handled and processed as though it were this amount of money.
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Document ID: 53B9E27E

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Norman m. Hulings, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to cover the various provisions commonly found in gas purchase contracts currently being negotiated. This discussion should not be construed as a legal interpretation of a gas purchase contract or of any particular provisions that will be touched upon, but is designed to give a general understanding of the workings of gas purchase contracts to persons not directly involved in that phase of the industry.
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Document ID: D94B30D1

Application Of Electronic Computers To The Calculation Of Gas Measurement Factors
Author(s): Thomas H. Haines
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement factors can and are being calculated on electronic computers in many companies. This method of calculating gas volumes has been generally accepted and is being used and improved each year. In many large companies, the volume of chart calculation is such that it would be impractical to maintain a clerical force large enough to manually calculate all charts. Billing deadlines are such that without electronic help, accounting procedures could not be kept current
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Document ID: B280BA74

New Instruments For Integration Of Meter Charts
Author(s): D. F. Searcy
Abstract/Introduction:
High speed electronic computer systems have been used now for many years by alt major gas companies for processing gas measurement data. These data come from orifice meter charts, temperature charts, specific gravity charts. ad static pressure recordings. A computer can process data a a rate that 1S no faster, of course, than the rate at which the basic data are made available to it. The present bottleneck m the processing of gas measurement data is the reading and interpretation of the charts
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Document ID: 725A06CB

Measurement For Gas Lift Operation
Author(s): H. m. Purkafle
Abstract/Introduction:
Ever since man climbed down out of the trees and started ::.:.: :s ?his earth of ours he began creating problems for himself. Thus, since the earliest stages of the exploration and development of the oil industry we have had problems relating to the disposition of natural gas. It was during these periods that gas was considered a hazardous nuisance and much of the inherent power of gas energy was wasted.
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Document ID: 0ABEACF7


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