Measurement Library

Southwestern Gas Measurement Short Course (Now called ISHM) Publications (1941)

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

How To Repair Regulators
Author(s): William R. Shiperly
Abstract/Introduction:
A pressure regulator, being essentially an automatic mechanism, requires the periodic maintenance and repair operations always necessary In any object in which there is motion. In order to secure the efficient performance which is embodied in their design, it is necessary at times to replace those parts normally subject to wear or deterioration and to maintain the regulator in proper operating condition. Safety and efficiency combine to make worthwhile Che proper maintenance of pressure regulators. Manufacturers have endeavored to make their construction as rugged as possible, utilizing the best of materials available, and to reduce to a minimum parts requiring frequent attention by simplifying iheir design as much as possible without sacrificing desirable operating characteristics.
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Document ID: DFCB2265

Helpful Hints On The Installation And Operation Of Regulators
Author(s): Charles D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
The intention of this paper is to discuss a number of more or less unrelated subjects pertaining to pressure regulators and controlling equipment. These suggestions are made from time to time in discussing pressure regulators with tiie people wlio install and use them. As these suggestions may be of benefit to :hose who use this equipment, they should be discussed :n then order. Tire Capacity Chart Bulletins which have been distributed are new, up to date and have incorporated in them additional data not found in earlier copies of this Capacity Chart Bulletin. In this bulletin capacity charts coverinfj valves of the double seated Type which are sub-classified as being quick opening, low lift v-port, high lift, or characterized v-port, Throttle plug and ratio plug type. Line drawings on :he charts illustrate the various types so that no difficulty will be had in knowing the type referred :o. These charts are made up in three companion ser-s for each type of inner valve assembly with one -hart for liquids, another chart for air, and a third :hart for steam. The liquid charts are usuable for ill liquids and have correction factors for different 5pecific gravities likewise the charts giving aii rapacities have corrections for using them for gases az various specific gravities in the same manner, The steam charts may be used with correction factors : : r either saturated or superheated steam.
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Document ID: 75B53B1B

House Service Regulators
Author(s): H. Mike Meuppels
Abstract/Introduction:
House Service Regulators have been discussed many times at this School, however, reviewing last years proceedings it is noted they were omitted. Since there are so many in use and their use is increasing year after year it seems they have a place on the program. It Is essential that constant pressure be maintained on all regulators and especially important on house service regulators where the pressure is reduced to burner consumption. The gas regulator manufacturers are constantly striving to improve the product to meet requirements of the improvements in gas burning appliances, Closer regulation improves performance and helps to elimiirate service calls. These are of prime importance to the gas, utility and pipe line companies and are of benefit to the consumer in efficient utilization as well as improving public relations between customer and company.
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Document ID: 7E97D290

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): A. F. Benson
Abstract/Introduction:
All types of displacement meters are designed on the principle that when the inlet valve is open to admit gas to a compartment containing its minimum volume of gas, the outlet valve from that compartment is closed. After the compartment is filled, the inlet valve is closed and later the outlet valve is opened. When a definite volume is discharged from the compartment, the outlet valve is closed so that during a period of measurement there is always a definite volume admitted to, confined within, and discharged from the compartment. Lets look at the various parts used In the assembly of a tinned steelcase meter designed on the above principle.
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Document ID: 5E86A710

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
The large capacity displacement meter operates on the same fundamental principles as do the smaller meters used for domestic seivice. The same common comparison of the meter with a steam engine having D-slide vajves can be made. The front and bacli sections of the meter have operating cycles that are 90 degrees apart, as does the two cylinder steam engine this prevents the meter-or the steam engine -from ever stopping in a dead-center position from which it could not start up of itself. Although the fundamental principles of operation of the large capacity displacement meter and the smaller displacement meters are identical, the detaUs of their design differ considerably. The valve timing mechanism, although fundamentally the same, is often constructed more elaborately in order to obtain decreased angular movement of the parts. The decreased angular movement permits more accurate valve timing and decreases the amount of wear at bearing points. The large capacity displacement meter is also fitted with better bearings and with increased facilities for lubrication in order that it may withstand the greater strains to which it is subjected. Large capacity meters measuring high pressure gas usually operate at a greater difference of pressure than do the small domestic meters, since the gas which is being metered has a greater density.
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Document ID: 96EDBA2A

Field Testing And Maintenance Op Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): J. P. Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
To insure accurate measurement of gas through large capacity displacement meters, it is essential that rhey be tested and sevviced at regular intervals. The larger they are the more often they should receive this attention. Many natural gas companies have found it practical and economical to test and service, in the field, meters that have capacities over 1.000 cubic feet per liour, rated at a two inch differential. It has also been found most satisfactory to service each meter twice a year, once rn the spring and once in the fall when the temperature is between 60 and 80 degrees P. This is the ideal temperature at which meters should be tested. Circumstances have made it necessary to develop methods for accurately testing and servicing these meters while still In place. These improvements which Irave been made in the methods of testing large capacity meters in the field have been developed to meet the following requirements:
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Document ID: FAA5A505

Testing Displacement Meters With The Critical Flow Prover
Author(s): By H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
Displacenaenl meters are most commonly proved with test equipment that is very familiar to all meter men, that is, with the beh type prover. Accurate meter proofs can be obtained with a bell prover If certain precautions are taken. The apparent simplicity of the bell type prover has a tendency, however, to cause us to neglect the precautions which everj careful meter tester is suie to exercise. Temperature variations, pressure loss, evaporation from the bell if water is used as a seal, together with improper adjustment of the counter weights, leaks and faulty operation of the prover bell: all these can combine to cause an error in the proof determination. With large meters which can hot readily be re- Turned to the meter repair shop for a test with a bell type prover. or when a beh type prover of sufficiently large capacity is not available, a critical flow prover or a low pressui-e flow prover is frequently used.
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Document ID: 9039FCDB

Domestic Meters
Author(s): A. F. Benson
Abstract/Introduction:
main parts: the body, front, back, top, index box, and nandhole disc. The body (including table, partition, outlet channel and diaphragm channels) is cast in one piece. The body and top are molded from fine gray iron. The front and back are of the same material, with the exception of the SB, lOB, 20B, and 25B low pressure designs, in which pressed steel is used for front and back. The inside of the case is -horoughly cleaned and treated with a protective coating which prevents corrosion from water vapor and sulphur gases. Cast iron fronts and backs for :he smaller meters are furnished when desired. The fact that the body (table, partition and channels) is cast in one piece may seem to be unimportant and yet it is a detail of the greatest importancs. This method of construction eliminates machined joints and the use of gaskets between the table, the channels, and the partition, thus preventing any separation of the internal divisions and the consequent interval leakage caused by casting strains, strains produced by bolts or pressure, improper machining of surfaces or broken gaskets between the parts. Meters srith internal leaks may fail, for instance, to meausre the gas used by a pilot light or gas-fired refrigerator. The one-piece design eliminates in a positive mamier Jie possibility of minor internal leaks.
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Document ID: 1FC89606

Domestic Meter Repair
Author(s): E. R, Gilmore
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past very few years gas companies in all sections of the country have made great progress in obtaining better gas measurement. Today meter repair shops are well lighted, well ventilated and neatly arranged, furnishing an atmosphere which should bring out the best efforts of the repairman. Proving rooms spotlessly clean are the pride of the sh-jps. The repairmen have been given the opportunity to attend classes In meter repairs not only in their own organization but at colleges where gas measurement short courses are held each year, The meter repairman of today understands the mechanism and its proper functioning much more thoroughly than in years gone by. Having a complete understanding of the relation of the various parts of the
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Document ID: D9AE8C6E

Practical Maintenance And Repairs Op Positive Meters
Author(s): H. A. Kahler
Abstract/Introduction:
There is perhaps no other mechanical servant ol which so much is expected and to which ,sa little attention is given as the gas meter, With this thought in mind, tlie following is for practical application to the mete:- rendering it a better servant when in operation. Sprague Meters, Figure 123, are made in seven (7) different sizes, namely, No. lA, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4, No. 5, No. 7, and No. 20. All cases are made of cast iron and consist of the center, front, back, top and
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Document ID: 277732E0

Meter Shop Practices
Author(s): Fred Kihneman
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter repair sliop has one of the most imjjortant operations in any gas company, and the men that carry on this work are called upon to do tlieir job accurately, in the interest of the Company and the public they serve, Our Company has at the time approximately 97,000 gas meters representing tin and iron of numerous sizes and makes. Meters received at the repair shops are brought in for the following reasons: damaged, leaks, dont register, too small, too large, high bill, low bill, and routine meter changes.
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Document ID: 3C3D7193

Bell Prover Operation
Author(s): H. V. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas meter is tested lor accuracy of registration by passing through it a volume of air from a prover and comparing the registration of tlie index of the meter with the accurate volume which is indicated by the prover. As usually constructed, the meter prover consists of a cylindrical metal tank open at the top and nearly filled with oil or water, in which a smaller cylindrical tank called the bell, open at the bottom and having a dome-shaped top, can be raised or lowered. tPigure 125). The liquid acting as a seal prevents air from entering or leaving the bell except through a pipe called the dry well which extends from the outside of the prover tank down underneath it and up on the inside to a point above the level of the liquid. The prover tank is generally made of two concentric tanks with a distance of about two inches between them, the inner tank having an air-tight top tlirough which the air supply pipe passes. This method of construction decreases the quantity of liquid lequired to seal the bell and permits more rapid temperature adjustment of the liquid. The prover tank is mounted on three short legs which raise it off the floor, so that better circulation can be obtained around the tank.
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Document ID: F5FAF712

Recording Instruments
Author(s): A. G. Koenig
Abstract/Introduction:
The recording instruments most commonly used in the gas industry are in their order of importance as follows: Orifice Meters, Recording Pressure Gauges and Recording Thermometers. Generally, the installation and maintenance of these insturments are under the supervision of the Gas Measurement Department, and the Field Meter Men are usually responsible for their installation, care and operation. They are charged with the Instrument layout and proper installation so that reliable measurements may be obtained. Not only should the Field Meter Man be familiar with the technical and practical installation wrinkles but he should also be familiar with the design and construction of the instruments. All manufacturers prepare and distribute very complete instructions and technical description of their instruments, and the Meter Man should really study these instructions. It will save him much trouble when difficulties arise. Since other papers are being presented on specific instruments of the above classifications, this paper will briefly define each of the instruments enumerated and discuss their general method of installation, calibration and maintenance.
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Document ID: 85F12D0C

Recording And Controlling Instruments
Author(s): E. H. Triphaus
Abstract/Introduction:
The title of tills paper, Recording and Controlling Instruments, contains only two of the six words which constitute the theme song of the Industrial Instrument business. The six vital words are Indicating, Recording, Controlling, Pressure, Temperature, Time. These words, which name the three principal varieties of instruments and the three fundamental variables with which these instruments are concerned, are not the entire song they are just the refrain. There are a lot of verses concerned with other variables with combinations of variables, and with combinations of instrument functions. Some of these other variables such as, rate of flow, liquid level, absolute pressure and vacuum are special cases of pressure. In addition, there is a long list of variables which are quite distinct from the three basic ones. .Although these others are outside the scope of this paper, they deserve mention because of the insight that they give into the possibilities of industrial instrumentation. A list of these variables reads a little like the table of contents of a physics text-boob. Light, sound, electricity weight, velocity, acceleration dimensions, density, viscosity humidity, chemical composition, stress and strain. These and more, but of greater interest than a complete list are some applications which may be chosen from those just named.
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Document ID: 8F9BD6B7

Functions Of Field Meter Men
Author(s): J, R. Bird
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary function of a field meter man is to inspect, operate and maintain instruments in the field connected with the control and measurement of gas. TliE functions of an individual meter man will depend upon the amount and type of equipment which his company uses in his territory. The various other papers on the program will detail the functions connected with specific pieces of equipment. The purpose of this paper is to outline in a general way the various duties that are usually assigned to meter men.
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Document ID: 1996B3B4

Elementary Gas Laws
Author(s): E. F. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
Matter is said to exist as a solid, liquid, or gas. Fluids, of interest to the engineering field, i. e., water, ammonia, sulphur dioxide, freon, air, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, etc., may exist in one or more of these phases in the range of pressures and temperatures encountered in modern engineering practice. These phases or conditions of matter are more often referred to as States of Matter. It Is common knowledge that water in the liquid state may be changed to ice or steam. The operation of the vapor compression system of refrigeration depends upon the change of refrigerants from the liquid state to the gaseous state, and vice versa.
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Document ID: 10396F92

The Slide Rule
Author(s): E. E. Ambrosius
Abstract/Introduction:
The calculations which the average engineer is required to make in ordinary work are numerous. He could hardly be expected to make them if he did not have the necessary calculating device. Inasmuch as he cannot always carry with him a large bulky calculator, he must resort largely to the use of a slide rule. The slide rule has sufficient accm-acy for most engineering calculations and as a result it furnishes a means of performing rapid and reasonably accurate calculations. Little time is required to become familiar with its operation, and with little practice, reliable results can be obtained. Slide rules have been constructed for almost any kind of computation. Special rules have been made for flow calculations, calculation for quality of steam, interest clrarges, the discharge from meters and for innumerable other purposes. The two most common slide rules, however, are the ordinary polyphase and the log log duplex. These two rules are used for straight multiplication, division and the elevation of numbers to powers. However, it would be safe to say that with these rules one can do a diversified type of work. The solution of trigonometric relations are easily handled.
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Document ID: 4685418B

Determination Of Line Losseslow Pressure Lines
Author(s): C. E. Halloren
Abstract/Introduction:
There is an obvious relationship between the subjects of gas measurement and lost or unaccounted for gas, Both involve measurement, and lost or unaccounted for gas may be defined as the difference between the amount of gas purchased at the town border meter and the amount of gas sold to consumers. Assuming that the measurement at each end of the system, that is the purchasing and the selling points, are accurate, there still exist some differences which represent a dead loss to the gas company. This difference is usually termed Unaccounted for Gas and consists of Actual Leakage and Apparent Leakage. Apparent leakage is caused by a number of variables which if given serious study in the office can usually be reduced to a negligible amount, and will normally adjust itself over a period of months.
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Document ID: DEF3DD35

Determination Of Pressure Drop In High Pressure Gas Lines
Author(s): R, J. Sullivan
Abstract/Introduction:
In this discussion the calculated and actual observed pressure drops in high pressure gas lines will be limited to the commercial sized pipe lines that are in general use at cycling plants, high pressure natural gasoline plants and miscellaneous high pressure field operations. In such lines the pressures vary from seveial hundred pounds to several thousand pounds with a flowing temperature around 100 P. or higher. The specific gravity of the flowing gas, whether it is wet or dry, is from 0.60 to 0.65. The line sizes will be the nominal 2 inches to 8 Inches of a proper wall thickness to withstand the operating pressures.
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Document ID: D151CD2A

Back Pressure Method Of Testing Natural Gas Wells
Author(s): E. N. Armst
Abstract/Introduction:
A definition of a Back Pressure Test can be said to be: The measurement of several rates of gas flows resulting from measured pressure differentials between the surrounding formation and the well bore to provide field data for plotting a straight line on log paper from which line any rate of flow for any well pressure condition can be read-the intersection of tliis line with the maximum differential line establishes the absolute potential capacity of the well. Glance at the backgroiuid behind this positive sounding statement.
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Document ID: 93A475C2

Measurement And Regulation From Extremely High Pressure Gas Wells
Author(s): Sidney H, Smith, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In previous paper.s presented at this school tliis subject has been well presented, particularly from a theoretical standpoint. Retrograde condensation and its influence on measurement problems has been ably discussed and consequently will not be dealt with in detail in this paper. This also applies in particular to the discussion of coefficients and the various methods used in determining Boyles Law deviation factors. It is the aim of this paper to present data gathered from as many practical sources as possible in regard to the mechanical difficulties encountered in attempting to measure and regulate large volumes of wet gas at pressures of from 1,000 pounds per square inch to 3,000 pounds per square inch. Of necessity, most of tliis data has been acquired from experience in connection with recycling plant operations. With present measuring equipment, the orifice meter is tl-ie only device that can be used to measure such large volumes under necessary operating conditions as are found in recycling plant operations. The meter itself has been built to stand higher pressures, but otherwise has not been appreciably changed. Methods of calculating clrarts are the same with the exception of deviation factons due to higiier pressures and sealing liquids.
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Document ID: 7EB22CCF

Measurement And Regulation From Extremely High Pressure Gas Wells
Author(s): J. C. Dennis
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a continuation of paper given by Mi. S. H. Smith, jr., Lone Star Gas Company, and if there are duplications of Mr. Smiths discussions, they are only minor ones tliat are necessary in the discussion of a different sub-head,
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Document ID: 24A844F7

Problems In Wet Gas Measurement And Regulation
Author(s): C. L. Baker
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gaa for the most part is measured by orifice meter. The positive and proportional types have become more or less non-existent due to non-flexibiUty. expense, inaccuracies and otlier causes. Tlie orifice meter is based upon measurement by velocity. If a barrel has a hole near the bottom, the rate at which fluid will run out of it depends upon the size of the hole and the height of the fluid in the barrel. About the middle of the eighteenth century the Pitot tube was developed by a Frenchman by the same name. He recognized the above principal and developed the instrument for measuring fiuids emitting from the ends of pipes and the flow of water in streams. In 1900 Forest M. Fowl and Eugene Costs conceived the idea of using the Pitot tube to measure gases in a closed pipe. These men rigged up a 4 pipe 7 3 long, bent a Pitot tube in it, and went to work. They produced right decent results between 5 and 22 differential and definitely contributed to the march of progress.
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Document ID: 282E3143

The Problems Of Wet Gas Measurement And Regulation
Author(s): m. S. Fales
Abstract/Introduction:
The problems of wet gas measurement are many and varied, and are very familiar to the natural gasoline plant operator and his meterman. They include all the problems of dry gas measurement plus distinct problems peculiar to wet gas handUng. Gas measurement, to some, means the measuring of gas by means of an orifice meter. It is known that the orifice meter is accepted as an accurate means of measuring gas, also that it makes an hourly record of the static pressure on a gas line and that it records a pressure differential caused by an orifice plate inserted in the line. A volume of gas that is clean and dry is ideal for orifice meter measurement. Any gas going to a natural gasoline plant is wet. It is, in reality, gasoline vapor that comes off the oil together with some dissolved gas. When the atmospheric temperature drops, or the line pressure rises, this gas condenses into a liquid. When high vacuum Is carried on a formation, water vapor comes off with the gas and this also condenses under similar conditions.
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Document ID: AA8885B0

Gas ACCOUNTING-DRY Gas Practices
Author(s): James L. Griffin
Abstract/Introduction:
A brief review of natural gas history sliowa that when natural gas was first discovered in the United States it was referred to as Ghost Gas and its use limited to advertising or display purposes and later used in a few isolated street ligiits. The value of natural gas as a commodity was soon realized and science and industry immediately began searching for means ot utilizing this fuel. In the earlier stages it was sold on a flat rate basis, the charge being so much per light or burner per year with little or no thought given to the volume of gas that such an appliance would consume or if the revenue derived from the sale would be sufficient to meet the cost of operation and provide sufficient reserve for tlie i-eplenishment of exhausted supplies. It is needless to say that measurement and accounting methods have kept pace with the advancement in other branches of the industry. In the establishment of measurement or accounting methods it is doubtful that any one method will fulfill conditions of all companies. That is, the procedure iliat would bo satisfactory for a small eonfineci company where possibly the owner or a co-partner reads the meter and prepares the bills would fall far short of fulfilling the requirements of a more completely coordinated company. Neither would the method adopted by a small company serving only a few communities within a given state fulfill the requirements of a fully coordinated company involved in producing, transporting and distributmg its product in several states.
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Document ID: A32D816D

Gas ACCOUNTING-WET Gas Practices
Author(s): C. L. Quast
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas accounting procedures are many and varied, depending upon the respective companies need for such accounting and governed by the volume of Wet Gas Purchases, number of plants in operation and their participation in the manufacture and sale of by-products, such as Residue, Butane and Propane. It has been observed that plants with Residue, Butane, and Propane sales, constitute approximately twice as much accounting as those without such sales. Tlie greatest Interest In gas accounting is from an employment standpoint therefore, this paper vill outline the procedure followed by one company leaving most of the details for later discussion. One lease will be used and will, as closely and briefly as possible, outline the accounting necessary for the computation of the charts to payment for the total casinghead gas value and company records, First, itemize the equipment and personnel. The Gas Accounting is divided into two groups namely, Fiist and Second Sections. The First Section carries the accounting from calculation of charts through completion ol the Statement of Gas Purchased, and Voucher Controls. The Second Section begins with completed Statement of Gas Purchased, and Voucher Controls, carrying the accounting through to completion.
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Document ID: 71FB74D5

Chart Integration
Author(s): J. L. Cottrell
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart Integration has been discussed each year at this school since the McGaughy Integrator was first introduced in 1929. Since that time it Is apparent that ehait integration is playing a very important part In the improvement of orifice meter measurement and is now considered by a number of companies as a vital link In their measurement procedure.
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Document ID: 1093DADD

Calculation Of Orifice And Positive Displacement Meter Charts
Author(s): C. P. Rittman, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart calculation embraces more than the performance of the ordinary routine of reading pre.ssmes. An efficient chart calculator must exercise judgment based on a knowledge of the functions of the apparatus that records the information on the chart to be calculated. The correctness of the work directly affects the operation of anj company. In tlie last few years, manufacturing concerns have extended themselves to place at the disposal of the natural gas industry, instruments that are nearly precise in their various functions and among these, of particular concern to us in our present discussion, are meters for measuring our product, natural gas. The two most widely used meters are of the orifice and the displacement type. The former, so-called because of the use of an orifice in determining flow, the latter because of its measurement by displacing certain amounts of gas. Both types have their particular functions, depending on conditions at the point of measurement. Since the orifice meter presents problems in chart calculation not found in the displacement measurement, the two will be discussed separately.
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Document ID: 242D974F

Gravity Balance And Gravitometer
Author(s): E. P, Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of the specific gravity and instruments for determining the specific gravity of gas is primarily of interest, because of its bearing upon the measurement of gas by the orifice meter. In its original form the fo:mula, for the flow of gas through an orifice in a pipeline, included the density of the gas being measured. Density is defined as the quantity (mass) of a substance per unit volume. In the English or Engineering System of Units, the densities are commonly expressed in pounds per cubic foot, while in metric units, densities are expressed in grams per cubic centimeter. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of the density of the substance to that of a second substance which is taken as a standard. For gases, air is generally used as the reference standard. The air and gas must be compared under the same conditions of pressure and temperature.
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Document ID: 95206AD6

The Determination Of Specific Gravity
Author(s): C. T. Gill
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of the determination of specific gravity would be incomplete without a brief review of the various methods that have been used, or are In use today, Probably the first method In general use was the direct weighing of a sample of the gas in a chemical balance. This method, while very accurate, was at least inconvenient. Later the effusion method was hitroduced, but this proved disappointing. Due to the inability to obtain ideal conditions, it was impossible to obtain consistent results. Witli the introduction of the Edwards balance, accurate field determinations became an actuality, and due to the simplicity of construction, and the basic principles on which it operated, the method became a standard within itself. Although the Edwards balance was rather delicate for field testing, this objection was overcome in balances of later design, such as tlie Ac-me and the Anubis. The American Meter Company instrument is something rather different from the usual design, in that the pressure developed by a constant speed fan is calibrated to bo read directly in specific gravity.
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Document ID: E55FB81C

Fundamental Principles Of Specific Gravity Determination
Author(s): P. J. Renner
Abstract/Introduction:
The term specific gravity is quite familiar in the dally problems of gas measurement. Yet, it is doubtful if many have considered the fundamental aspects of specific gravity determination. Since the balance method of determining specific gravity has come to be the accepted standard, this discussion will be confined to the fundamentals of that method. A general definition of specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a given voiume of any substance to ihat of the same volume of some other substance selected as a standard. To avoid the use of unwieldy figures, air has been selected as a standard reference base to express this weight ratio for gases. Thus, s-hen a gas has a specific gravity of .675, it simply means t h a t the gas is 671 per cent as heavy as air. Or i: a gas has a specific gravity of 1.45, the gas is one and forty-five one-liundrcdths times as heavy as air. So it is apparent that the term specific gravity exrresses the weight of a volume of gas in terms of a percentage of the weight of the same volume of air.
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Document ID: D4705C1D

Reconditioning Of Mercury
Author(s): H. F. Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
The reconditioning or purifying of mercury to be used in orifice meters is important lor two reasons. First, the mercury used in orifice meters should be clean and pure in order that the meter will operate accurately without the errors which might be introduced by use of dirty mercury. In the second place, the present market condition of mercury emphasizes the importance of reconditioning mercuiy so that none of this essential material will be wasted. To obtain chemically pure mercury, the mercury should be redistilled in a glas.s still, but as the glass still is subject to breakage, it is tierefore not practical for use in a meter shop. Some other method of cleaning mercury should be used for cleaning the mercury used in orifice meters, In addition to the method of purifying mercury, it will be well to consider a method for testing the purity of mercury.
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Document ID: 20401BD0

Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): G. m. Arnold
Abstract/Introduction:
With ever widening markets for gas and greater utilization of this fuel in industry, the measurement and control of gas quality is assuming increasing importance. Greater accvuacy is now demanded in the measurement of gas heating value Llian ever before, requiring not only a more thorough knowledge of the art of Calorlmetry, but a greatly improved standard of testing devices, Tlie new Type AB Recording Calorimeter has been developed to meet the newer and more rigid testing standards and at tire
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Document ID: 309D300B

Operation Of The Flow Calorimeter
Author(s): L. H. Cherry
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the principles behind the theory and operation of the Flow Calorimeter. The necessity of the Flow Calorimeter is well understood. Various types of gas, blast furnace, producer, and even natural gases from various fields, have various heating values. It is therefore an advantage for large scale domestic consumers to have a means for easily and cheaply determining the heating value of the gas being purchased.
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Document ID: E5C84B66

The Orifice METER-A Product Of Cooperation Within An Industry
Author(s): Allen D. Maclean
Abstract/Introduction:
The old bard who coined the phrase-Necessity J the mother of invention would be forced to cliange iiis wording somewhat if he lived in modern times. -Necessity is the mother of development more nearly 55 the facts in most of our recent advances. In- ra:ion-pure invention-is becoming much rarer in :r industrial life development, in its true and broad seEse, more nearly describes the process by which tiLe tcols and appliances of industry are furnished. Xo one development Illustrates this fact better than -.he orifice meter as used by the gas industry. It Tould be impossible to name the inventor of the - tdern orifice meter. There might be a few me- --.sniCHl parts Of the whols instrument for which .-:me one Individual might receive credit as inventor :u: the instrument as a whole in its application to --P job of measui-ing was developed. It was developed zu- by one man, or even one group of men. It is a Sue example of cooperation between many sides of miustry the physicist, the mathematician, the inrr- jment builder, the various engineering societies, -Jie universities, governmental agencies, and last but re least, the gas companies themselves. It required -e services of all these groups individually and it rec-jired a unification of their efforts to produce the T-r7 excellent measuring device we now call the :r--:ice meter,
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Document ID: 177CB498

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): C. E. Terrell
Abstract/Introduction:
An orifice meter installation consists of three principal features-the meter tubes or run the orifice plate and the recording instrument. Any error in one of these features will defeat the accuracy of the other two.
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Document ID: 6097C7E1

Orifice Meters
Author(s): A. P. Benson
Abstract/Introduction:
An insistent demand from the oil refineries has led to the development of meters for operation at high pressures. The same general design has been retained in these high pressure meters, but the thiclcness of metal In the covers and walls of the various parts has been greatly increased to give the necessary extra strength for high pressure service. Special stuffing boxes and other parts are used for the highest pressures. The test and working pressures of the several pressure types are listed in the following table
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Document ID: 94190352


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