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Title: Noise Reduction In Ultrasonic Gas Flow Measurement
Author: Kevin Warner, Klaus Zanker
Source: 1999 International Symposium on Fluid Flow Measurement
Year Published: 1999
Abstract: Ultrasonic meters are becoming increasingly accepted for the custody transfer measurement of natural gas. This is reflected in the most recent standards, regulations, and codes of recommended practice, such as the AGA Report Number 9, the Regulations and Guidelines of the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, and the UK Department of Trade and Industrys Petroleum Measurement Guidelines. Although these documents encourage the use of ultrasonic meters, they do not provide rigorous installation instructions and it is possible for design engineers to place meters in locations not suitable for ultrasonic measurement. One common concern for operators is the possibility that ultrasonic noise present in the pipeline might interfere with the meter and thereby compromise its performance. Such noise is typically generated at points with significant pressure reduction, such as flow control valves.