Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2022)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

CORROSION CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS FOR M&R STATIONS
Author(s): John Otto
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 556698E4

BENEFITS AROUND TIMELY ANALYSIS OF MEASUREMENT DATA
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely capture and analysis of measurement data relies on ever-evolving technology, equipment, and procedures. Current industry practices use flow computers located near the primary measuring device to capture, calculate, and store measurement data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems or polling engines (PEs) are used to collect measurement information on a scheduled frequency using microwave, fiber, satellite, or cellular communication channels. After the SCADA/PE system collects the measurement data, the information is available to the measurement system. The measurement system provides the necessary processing layer that validates the measurement data to ensure integrity and compliance with regulatory and industry requirements.
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Document ID: A3B597DE

MEASUREMENT OF NATURAL GAS BY CORIOLIS FLOW METER AGA REPORT NO. 11
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained world- wide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than one million units. Through significant design, enhancements in the early 1990s Co- riolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 100,000 meters installed worldwide and most notably the publication of the sec- ond edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter. Having the ability to bidirectional measure almost any gas from -400 to +660 degrees Fahrenheit with little to no concern of error caused by flow profile disturbances, pulsations, or flow surges, Coriolis meters are becoming the meter of preference in many applications. Coriolis is a small to medium line-size technology cur- rently the largest offering from any vendor for gas applica- tions is a 250mm (10) equivalent flow diameter.
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Document ID: 246441B4

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE METERS
Author(s): Brian Shomper
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, posi- tive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measure- ment. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applica- tions ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration sys- tems such as transfer provers. A significant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and configura- tions have become available over the past 50 years of production. This paper will focus on the basic theory, operating principles, performance characteristics and installation requirements used in turbine meter applications. A dis- cussion of fundamental turbine meter terminology is also included.
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Document ID: E72633C2

ROTARY DISPLACEMENT METERS BASICS
Author(s): Todd Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferen- tial type meters are so-called because rather than mea- suring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them. The rotary positive displacement meter has been in ex- istence for over 75 years. Its reliability, rangeability, long- term accuracy, and ease of installation, maintenance and testing have made this meter a favorite among gas utilities for billing purposes in industrial and commercial applica- tions. Rotary meters have also gained popularity in the production and transmission markets. This paper will present basic operating principles of rotary gas meters, sizing of meters, accuracy and rangeability, installation of meters, maintenance and testing, meter in- strumentation and finally a brief glimpse at the industry trends in rotary gas metering.
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Document ID: 94206FF4

MULTIPATH ULTRASONIC METERS FOR CUSTODY TRANSFER OF NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 30 years, gas ultrasonic meters have tran- sitioned from the engineering lab to wide commercial use as the primary device of choice to measure gas volume for custody transfer accounting. Wide acceptance and use by gas pipeline companies has occurred during this time due to the devices Reliability Accuracy Repeatability Capacity (rangeability) Commercial availability that translates into product sup- port, and Adoption of industry standards for custody transfer mea- surement applications Briefly, the historical development of fluid velocity mea- surement in closed conduits with sonic pulses was first considered in the 1920s with the discovery that trans- mission and reception of repetitive sound bursts could be used to describe the location and speed of moving objects this principle was soon used to build sonar and radar arrays. Attempts were made over the years to ap- ply the principle to measurement of fluid velocity in con- duits, but it wasnt until the development of economical high-speed electronics and digital signal processing in the late 1970s that a repeatable instrument with suffi- cient resolution for gas measurement applications was devised.
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Document ID: E4A4DE3F

BASICS OF DIAPHRAGM METERS
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company found- ed in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the sup- ply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers. The pattern of operation used by this New York company was quickly copied by other companies throughout the east coast, including the Baltimore company. Seeing the success in New York, businessmen formed new gas companies in Albany, Boston, Philadelphia, New York, etc., and the new industry in the United States began to flourish.
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Document ID: EA2D3DB7

NON-INTRUSIVE ULTRASONIC FLOWMETERS IN LIQUID AND GAS APPLICATIONS-TECHNOLOGY AND INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES
Author(s): Martin Dingman
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas and Oil are different in their physical, chemical, and ultrasonic properties. Nevertheless, each fluid state can use Widebeam technology that uses the pipe wall as a Sonic Waveguide, permitting accurate, repeatable and reliable non-intrusive flow metering. This paper explains non intrusive gas ultrasonic metering, providing field and laboratory test data demonstrating the ability of Clamp- On Ultrasonic meters to provide accurate Measurement. It also explains the importance of correct installation.
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Document ID: 3033D8AE

ADVANCED APPLICATION OF ROTARY METERS
Author(s): Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine and explain several common characteristics of rotary meters and their use in the natu- ral gas distribution, transmission and production markets. The selection, proper installation, start-up procedures and regular maintenance routines will be covered, as well. ROTARY METER OPERATING PRINCIPLE As gas flows through a rotary meter the impellers turn, trapping known volumes of gas. This measuring chamber and impellers are constructed of hard coated anodized aluminum to offer strength and resistance to damage from gas flow debris. For the purposes of this paper it is impor- tant to note that the impellers and cylinder do not touch each other and are separated by gaps that measure an average of .003. As a meter begins to increase its speed this gap creates a fluidic seal so that any slippage (un- measured gas), is confined to very low flow rates.
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Document ID: 1E5A76FA

IN-SITU (ON-SITE) GAS METER PROVING
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr., James N. Witte, and Adam Hawley
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) cali- bration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Comparisons of flow meters in the field have been performed for nearly as long as flow meters have been in existence. For example, Figure 1 shows an orifice meter being compared to three 60-A tin meters (a.k.a., diaphragm meters) in Rosedale, Kansas in 1921. 1 Each tin meter had the flow capacity of 1,800 standard cubic feet per hour. In this particular test, a 1.6% difference in reading was discovered between the orifice meter and the tin meters (so named because their housings were made of thin tinned sheet metal.
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Document ID: 4EE79DAB

INTRODUCTION TO SINGLE PATH ULTRASONIC METERS
Author(s): Paul Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter falls into the classification of inferen- tial meters. Unlike positive displacement meters that cap- ture volume to totalize volume, inferential meters measure flowing gas velocity to totalize volume. Ultrasonic meters use sound waves to measure flowing gas velocity to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years, primarily in liquid measurement. However, we are seeing more and more applications in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 12DAA772

LOW PRESSURE GAS MEASUREMENT USING ULTRASONIC TECHNOLOGY
Author(s): Volker Herrmann, Toralf Dietz, and John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The utilization of ultrasonic metering as a cost effective form of measurement has grown dramatically over the past 10 years. A growing portion of this market is in cus- tody transfer applications. This growth is primarily due to growing acceptance in industry, advances in the technol- ogy, extensive self diagnostic capabilities and industry/ regulatory standards and recommendations related to their use in custody transfer applications. With the research and development which has been com- pleted to date, ultrasonic meter use in domestic /residential and high pressure applications has been proven and has widespread acceptance. New research and development is being done to address the segment of the market which poses additional challenges in the use of this technology. This is the use of these meters in atmospheric and low pressure applications such as gas distribution systems, and industrial fuel gas measurement.
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Document ID: 80A8E102

BASIC PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS
Author(s): John H. Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automo- biles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right? While it is true that the above mentioned materials are all made up of the same basic components, each has its own physical and chemical characteristics.
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Document ID: C9970AAA

DISTRIBUTION GAS METER PROVING: THE EQUIPMENT AND METHODOLOGY USED TODAY IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
The performance accuracy of a natural gas meter is de- termined by passing a known volume of air from a mea- surement reference or standard-the meter registra- tion is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions be- sides the proving of gas meters. The bell-type meter prov- er - though still commonly used in the industry - is not the only kind of meter prover used today. The advance- ments and developments in electronics and computer technology has lead to an evolution of meter proving equipment - far from the manual proving methods that were commonplace only a few decades ago. Many utili- ties have replaced the bell-type prover with sonic nozzle and transfer provers. Provers can now store and retrieve information from a utilitys meter management system, reduce the human error factor in the proving operation, and provide self-diagnostics to assist the prover operator in maintenance and in troubleshooting problems.
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Document ID: 258EF32C

DIFFERENTIAL TESTING OF ROTARY METERS
Author(s): Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of rotary meters in the 1920s, gas distribution companies have used the differential pressure across the meter as an indication of meter condition and performance. Using manufacturers recommendations in concert with industry and regulatory standards differential testing is a cost effective method to verify the condition of a rotary meter while in service. With acceptance by many U.S. public utility commissions, differential testing has been used by gas distribution com- panies for many years. This paper will discuss the tradi- tional methods used for differential testing as well as the most recent developments that improve the efficiency and effectiveness of a differential pressure testing program.
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Document ID: 49085424

DIAGNOSTICS FOR LARGE HIGH VOLUME FLOW ORIFICE PLATE METERS
Author(s): Mark Skelton, Simon Barrons, Jennifer Ayre, Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2008/9 DP Diagnostics disclosed a proprietary dif- ferential pressure (DP) meter diagnostic methodology 1,2. Swinton Technology (ST) has subsequently devel- oped software named Prognosis in partnership with DP Diagnostics. Prognosis allows these generic DP meter diagnostic methodologies to be applied in flow comput- ers thereby making these principles available for field applications. Whereas initial DP Diagnostics technical papers concen- trated on proving the diagnostic principles a simple way of presenting the diagnostic results was also proposed. The diagnostic analysis could be plotted as points on a graph which could be shown live in a control room (or ar- chived for later analysis). After a review of the diagnostic methods this paper discusses diagnostic pattern recog- nition for this graphical representation. It can be shown that when the diagnostics signal a warning the pattern of points can indicate extra information regarding the source of the problem. New CEESI Iowa test facility, BP Central Area Transmission System and ConocoPhillips Theddlethorpe gas terminal large orifice meter data sets are presented here showing these principles.
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Document ID: 4DCAF841

LEVERAGING USM DIAGNOSTICS FOR OPERATIONAL EXCELLENCE
Author(s): Pam Ryan
Abstract/Introduction:
Equitrans Midstream (ETRN) operates a large natural gas gathering system and a mid-size transmission system in the Appalachian Basin, transporting approximately 8.3 BCF of gas daily (as of year-end 2021). Monitoring the volumes and gas quality is a critical component of ETRNs operations. The ultrasonic meter (USM) is ETRNs preferred meter, with over 750 units in service and more than 91% of ETRNs throughput metered with USMs. We use various types of USMs - non-custody clamp- on USMs for compressor throughput, dehy slipstream, operating large valve yards and odorizers and several styles of multi-path, custody-grade USMs at gathering, storage, transmission, and distribution meter sites. With 400+ USMs at the inlets to ETRNs gathering system, monitoring the gas quality (GQ) and the various measurement parameters, including pressure, temperature, and meter diagnostics (together known as meter health) is essential to supporting safe, reliable, and efficient operations. Meters in the gathering systems are known to be in harsh service. These meters can be exposed to formation sands, free water, NGLs, glycol or well treatment chemicals. Tariffs and gathering agreements typically prohibit these contaminants however, there are instances when contamination occurs. Contaminants can reduce the pipeline capacity cause operating issues at meters, control valves, filters, dehys and compressors and may eventually result in internal pipe corrosion.
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Document ID: 9850712F

WHATS NEW IN AGA REPORT #9 2017
Author(s): David Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
AGA Report No. 9 is a performance based specification for multipath ultrasonic flow meters typically used in custody transfer applications for natural gas. In July 2017, AGA Report No. 9 Third Edition was published as an update to the previous second edition dated April 2007. The document provides complete information on ultrasonic meters terminology, operating conditions, meter requirements, installation, calibration, and commissioning. There are also five Appendices describing Calibration, Electronics design testing, flow meter package and/or flow conditioner performance verification tests, uncertainty calculation examples, and USM commissioning and verification tests. First and foremost, these are performance based specifications, meaning the equipment has flexibility in terms of design but it must meet certain performance and design criteria defined in the standard. This paper highlights the significant changes incorporated in the third edition because of advances in technology and the practical applications experience gained since the prior edition.
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Document ID: 848FC8F6

FLOW CALIBRATING HIGH VOLUME ULTRASONIC FLOWMETERS- CONSIDERATIONS AND BENEFITS
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popu- larity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters, Second Addition Ref 1, now requires flow calibration for ultrasonic flow meters when being used for custody transfer applications. What considerations then, should be taken when choos- ing to flow calibrate an ultrasonic flowmeter? What are the benefits to the user? What should a user expect from a flow calibration? What kind of performance should the customer expect or accept from an ultrasonic meter? What are the diagnostic capabilities inherent in an ultrasonic meter? These areas, as well as others will be explored and considered.
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Document ID: 3FC5EFF6

RECOGNITION & RESOLUTION OF PROBLEMS WITH GAS ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS
Author(s): Joel Nava
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline Operators have used Ultrasonic meters commer- cially for gas custody transfer applications since the late 90s. These meters combination of operating features, including superior rangeability and on-board diagnostics have made this the technology of choice for most high vol- ume gas metering applications. As user comfort with, and capabilities of, the technology has increased and the size and cost of ultrasonic meters has decreased, Operators and Manufacturers continue to stretch the envelope of ap- plication possibilities. This includes use in upstream, cor- rosive and high CO2 applications, where the technology previously couldnt work or didnt make economic sense. With these meters proliferation both in numbers and use-cases, the need to apply smart meter diagnostics is of increased importance to identify and address op- erating issues early that may affect measurement accu- racy. Near real-time data requirements are demanded by wide-spread business restructuring of gas transportation Pipelines into MLPs (Master Limited Partnerships) in the wake of de-regulation. These new business structures re- quire daily cash-out and balancing in many cases, and monthly accounting settlement of transportation accounts in all cases, so the facility to recognize and fix measure- ment problems within an accounting period (i.e., prior to month-end business close) is imperative to avoid what have become in the MLP era, painful PPAs (prior period adjustments).
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Document ID: FF5776AE

UNDERSTANDING GAS ULTRASONIC METER DIAGNOSTICS-ADVANCED
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USMs), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that may have gone undetected in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal- quality, multipath USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters as they are often single path designs. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide more advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners, liquids, and gas compositional errors. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse and British Gas configurations (both being four-path chordal designs), and the information presented here may or may not be appli- cable to other path designs.
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Document ID: 0D10FCCC

LARGE CORIOLIS METERS AND THE APPLICABILITY OF WATER CALIBRATIONS FOR GAS SERVICE
Author(s): Marc Buttler,Tonya Wyatt,Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
In the late 1970s, the first Coriolis mass flow meter was introduced. By the early 1980s, the use of Coriolis me- ters gained popularity for liquid applications, but few were used for gas applications. In the 1990s major design en- hancements were made to the technology improving its usability in gas applications. Driven by the need for a stan- dard industry practice to guide its use in gas applications, the American Gas Association (AGA) published the first edition of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natu- ral Gas by Coriolis Meter in 2003. Today, with an installed population of over 100,000 Micro Motion Coriolis meters in gas applications and the 2013 publication of the second edition of AGA Report No. 11, many users are applying Coriolis meters in gas custody transfer applications. There are many advantages users have found to using Coriolis meters over other technologies including: Very high accuracy measurement No moving parts to wear over time Bi-directional flow capabilities Typically no flow profile or straight run requirements (de- sign specific - check with manufacturer) Water calibration valid for gas applications (design spe- cific - check with manufacturer) Direct mass measurement eliminates the need for pres- sure and temperature compensation in most cases No damage to flow tubes with over range of flow (unlike most mechanical meters) Tolerant of wet gases and dirty gases Insensitive to flow pulsations (design specific - check with manufacturer) Multiple health diagnostics available (check with manu- facturer for details)
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Document ID: FC44D645

FROM THE WELLHEAD TO THE BURNER TIP: A SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Mea- surement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the first year student to understand the basic flow of natural gas and the terminology uti- lized from Production and Storage areas to end use by consumers. Specific focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution systems.
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Document ID: 29ED6A1F

FLEXIBLE ELEMENT REGULATORS
Author(s): Bryan Vranek
Abstract/Introduction:
This class will consist of a presentation about flexible element style regulators. Flexible element regulators are offered in both a tube style as well as a flexible diaphragm style design. Both types of regulators are used in a pressure control system, which is a system that controls the flow of fluid from a supply to a load system while maintaining pressure. It is important to have these types of regulators to control pressure to allow for safety and efficiency. Below is an example of where pressure control devices will be used in a natural gas distribution system. The regulator itself is the device that controls the flow of gas from the higher pressure system to the lower pressure system while trying to maintain the constant delivery pressure needed. These types of regulators can operate as either a pressuring reducing regulator (taking a pressure cut) or a back pressure regulator (holding upstream pressure back). The principle of operation of both types is very similar, where a pilot will sense pressure, whether it will be upstream or downstream, and open and close the regulator based on whether it needs to allow more or less gas downstream. Flexible element regulators are widely used due to their size options, high range ability, low cost, accuracy and simple construction.
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Document ID: 66C0F1E8

REGULATOR/CONTROL RUN DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
Author(s): Peter Glaser
Abstract/Introduction:
Through proper piping design and equipment selection, many regulator and control valve station issues encountered in the field are preventable. This paper explores the key design considerations to assist in avoiding many of the potential regulator and/or control valve station issues and optimizing the station design to suit the operational needs of the facility. This includes exploration of the valve selection process, station control configurations, and design of the station piping to match the engineered equipment.
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Document ID: 0266C7D0

GATE STATION DESIGN
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
The City Gate or, Take, Station, is the interchange of natural gas between: Two interstate pipelines An interstate pipeline and a local gas distribution company (LDC) An interstate pipeline and a large industrial end user (usually a power plant) The City Gate station is one of the more complex designs a natural gas engineer will deal with in the course of a ca- reer. Like all projects, a properly designed and constructed gate station begins with good preliminary engineering. In preliminary engineering, all of the major project goals and hurdles are defined. If the preliminary engineering docu- ment is written properly, it will serve as the backbone for the entire project.
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Document ID: 693B15B1

UNDERSTANDING REMOTE CONTROLLED CONTROL VALVES AND AUTOMATED VALVES FROM THE SCADA CONTROL ROOM TO THE FIELD DEVICE
Author(s): Raymond J. Schnebelen
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays modern natural gas infrastructure requires the need for natural gas utilities and pipelines to remotely con- trol flow and pressure through control valves, regulators and actuated block valves to properly and safely control the gas flow to critical systems. For those new to the gas industry, much of this technology may seem overwhelming, and difficult to understand how commands from a gas control center are transferred to the field devices, and signals from end devices are relayed back to the control center. There are many factors that are used in the selection of these control devices so that proper operation and control is consistent, reliable and operates safely in the field. This paper outlines the basic techniques used to achieve these goals.
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Document ID: 35E9238A

UNDERSTANDING HYDROCARBON LIQUIDS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Chris Carville
Abstract/Introduction:
BASIC VOLUME & MASS TERMS Indicated Volume - The meter pulses divided by the K-Factor (ex: Pulses/(Pulses/Gallon) gallons Gross Volume - The Indicated Volume multiplied by the Meter Factor - This is what a truck driver is concerned with. Gross Std Volume - The Indicated Volume multiplied by Correction Factors BS&W Volume - The Gross Std. Volume multiplied by the Basic Sediment & Water percentage value. Crude oil will contain some amount of water and suspended solids from the reservoir formation. The particulate matter is known as sediment or mud. Net Std. Volume - The Gross Std. Volume minus the BS&W volume - what you get paid for. Gross Mass - Can be calculated from the Gross Volume & Density or can be a direct mass reading from mass meter
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Document ID: CAF7FF71

WIRELESS HART SOLUTIONS IN OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION
Author(s): Tony Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 386B7F20

BASIC APPLICATION OF FLOW COMPUTERS AND TELEMETRY SYSTEMS
Author(s): Jared Korab
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to flow computers being commonly used in the measurement of hydrocarbons, most telemetry systems were used to collect control information and real time data and provide control commands to Remote Terminal Units (RTU). Most of the local metering was being handled by chart recorders and local data collection by operations personnel. The collected charts were sent to the central facility where the information provided custody transfer reports and or field operations reports. Most of the com- monly used chart recorders were the standard circular chart format and pneumatic devices. These were used to process the information for billing, regulatory operations, and monthly operations, but generally culminated into a cumbersome and costly task. The measurement depart- ments often had to deal with discrepancies in data and in- formation that was often weeks or months old. There was an urgent need for collecting real time information from metering equipment and custody transfer data. Although there were telemetry systems in place, collecting real time data and getting this information to a central office was not easily accomplished with the early types of SCADA sys- tems in place. Most of the early RTU and SCADA systems were used for control purposes, such as start/stop, open/ close, and alarm reporting. Some RTUs did have ana- log signal input and output capabilities. The RTU could be used to download remote set points and collect valve position data.
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Document ID: 36422FF3

REAL-TIME ELECTRONIC GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Al Majek
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of oil & gas production has progressed considerably since the days of paper charts and manual integration. Technology has moved increasingly to microprocessor based flow computers allowing for greater measurement accuracy, increased control functionality, and ready integration into a companys enterprise computer networks.
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Document ID: 0A6EFCFA

BASICS OF USING MODBUS IN MONITORING AND CONTROL
Author(s): Tushar Shah and Elias Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
The MODBUS is a common industrial communication protocol. It is widely available either as a standard or an option in an industrial control and monitoring equipment e.g. Remote Terminal units (RTUs), Programable Logic Controllers (PLCs), Flow Computers, Volume Correctors, Pressure Recorders, Ultrasonic Meters, Coriolis Meters, Chromatographs, Valve controllers, Odorizers, Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems etc. Originally, MODBUS serial communication protocol was published in 1979 for use with its PLCs by Modicon (now Schneider Electric). It has become a de facto standard communication protocol for industrial electronic devices. Since 2004, the development and update of MODBUS protocol is managed by the Modbus organization. Over the years the protocol has evolved, including the latest variation allowing communication over an ethernet network. Modbus is a simple protocol however, it can get confusing as there are different flavors of MODBUS available i.e. MODBUS ASCII, MODBUS RTU, MODBUS TCP, MODBUS Plus, Extended MODBUS etc.
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Document ID: 6932532E

OPTIMIZING FLAME AND GAS COVERAGE AND PROTECTION
Author(s): Brian Ledeboer
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 70C2E3DA

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the first practical gas meter in Eng- land in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843. It consisted of two diaphragms, sliding valves and linkage. T. S. Lacey patent- ed the pre-payment meter in 1870. The most significant change to diaphragm meters over the years has been in the materials of construction. Brass parts have been replaced by plastic, and leather diaphragms have been replaced with synthetic rubber. A rotary piston meter was invented in the late 1800s, but it was primarily used a blower. In the 1940s a Roots-Con- nersville dimensional rotary meter was used. The style of rotary meter in use today was first used in the 1960s in the cast iron version, the extruded aluminum style came out in the 1970s. The modern turbine meter was devel- oped in the 1970s. It has had minor modifications over the years, but the basic operation is the same. Ultrasonic measurement was first developed in the 1980s and has been refined over the years.
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Document ID: 9DD4AA5A

WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS-APPLICATIONS IN OIL & GAS
Author(s): Brent McAdams
Abstract/Introduction:
As Machine to Machine (M2M), Internet of Things (IoT), and of course, Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) makes the transition from technology magazines to corporate strategic initiatives, companies are recognizing a significant opportunity to enhance productivity, efficiency, and profitability through Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). These Networks have emerged as a key technology for oil & gas exploration and production companies looking to gain a competitive advantage. Since initially being introduced, manufacturers have enhanced product offerings to operate in the most inhospitable of environments while fortifying the technology with more robust communications architectures, hardening security, increasing reliability, and driving down power consumption. Through the entire oil & gas value chain (upstream, midstream, and downstream) as well as other industrial markets including Electric Power, Water/Waste Water, and Manufacturing, wireless sensor networks are increasingly being deployed where hardwiring was the De facto standard. For many industrial applications, it has been well documented that wirelessly connected assets are up to 10X less expensive than wired alternatives. Driven by substantial and measurable cost savings in engineering, installation, and logistics as well as dramatic improvements in the frequency and reliability of data, wireless sensor networks offer much faster startups, and accelerated profits.
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Document ID: C71C90EC

BASIC GAS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR GAS DETECTION
Author(s): Eric Six
Abstract/Introduction:
In this class we will review what we need to know about how natural gas, and other gases, works in order to bet- ter understand how to detect leakage and unintended releases. We will then look at the operation, maintenance and cali- bration of the instrumentation available for gas detection. The class will conclude with a demonstration of the Explo- sion Chamber.
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Document ID: F65CBF42

NETWORK ANALYSIS - PART 1 GAS FLOW EQUATION FUNDAMENTALS
Author(s): Tim Bickford
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 25 years engineers in the natural gas in- dustry have come to depend on the computer as a tool to perform complex hydraulic network analysis. Analysis, which would take weeks to perform by hand or by punch- card machines 30 years ago, can now be accomplished in mere hours or sometimes seconds. Today gas net- work analysis software, though complex and extremely sophisticated, has become very user friendly. Low cost PCs, inexpensive software and flexible software licensing now make it possible for almost anyone to have access to these powerful engineering tools. Today, more and more non-technical persons are using this cutting edge tech- nology to perform analyses that were once performed by specialists. Although computer technology has paved the way for a new generation of gas network analysis enthusiasts, it is important that fundamental gas pipeline hydraulic con- cepts are not forgotten. Its imperative that users of net- work analysis software know what is going on behind the scenes.
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Document ID: B256956B

PROJECT MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS
Author(s): John Jay Gamble, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A temporary, non-routine endeavor to create a unique product or service limited by time, budget, and specifications. The purpose of a project is to achieve its objectives and transfer to operations.
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Document ID: 4358D826

SAMPLE EXTRACTION AND PRECONDITIONING FOR NATURAL GAS ANALYZERS
Author(s): Mark Firmin
Abstract/Introduction:
Experience throughout the natural gas industry indicates that the sample handling system is by far the greatest source of the errors and problems that negatively impact the accuracy and reliability of process analyzer systems. The emphasis and effort applied toward ensuring proper design of the sample handling system should be commensurate with its status as the greatest source of both problems and errors. In the past, the general perception of sample handling is that it is a mysterious art to be avoided by most, practiced by few and mastered by none. A comprehensive collection of fundamental concepts, sound principles and best practices are presented to help make the design of sample extraction and preconditioning systems less of a mysterious art and better aligned with good engineering practice. Some art remains in the form of judgement calls, the balancing of pros and cons, choices guided by experience gained by trial and error.
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Document ID: 37D57FA0

ON-LINE MONITORING OF TRACE H2O USING TUNABLE DIODE LASER ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY (TDLAS) TO OPTIMIZE RECOVERY OF NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS
Author(s): Greg Lankford, Dr. Xiang (Sherry) Liu, and Sam Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Molecular sieve dehydration must be used to obtain the very low H 2O concentration ( 0.1 ppmv) required in low temperature and cryogenic processes for NGL extraction and liquefied natural gas (LNG) production. Instrumentation exhibiting quick response and accurate water concentration measurements are critical to optimizing operation of the molecular sieve unit and maximizing the life of the sieve. This paper explores the application of Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) as a fast, accurate, robust, and reliable technology for measuring moisture at the outlet of the Mole Sieve Dehydration process. An overview of the technology explaining strengths, benefits, and unique attributes of the technology will be given. Side by side comparisons of TDLAS versus quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technology at DCP Okarche as well as versus Aluminum Oxide probe technology at Enterprise Meeker will be reviewed. Return on investment calculations for both examples will be provided. Examples of application of the instrument to switch cycles on demand by running to water breakthrough at Superior Pipeline Chaney Dell Plant.
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Document ID: 4A3EAD39

DISTRIBUTION & TRANSMISSION VALVES AND VALVE O&M
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 13EE1E10

COMPRESSOR STATION DESIGN BASICS AND AN OVERVIEW OF THE DESIGN PROCESS
Author(s): G. Mitchell Mazaher
Abstract/Introduction:
PURPOSE OF A COMPRESSOR STATION Production - Move gas from wells into transmission pipelines Storage - Move gas in and out of storage fields to and from transmission pipelines Transmission - Move gas through a pipeline
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Document ID: 494EE169

UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Amir Dastgheib
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 8D945BE5

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS LAWS
Author(s): Tushar Shah
Abstract/Introduction:
Today millions of people depend of Natural Gas for cooking food, heating home/office, heating water and much more. As gas moves from well head to the burner tip, there are many points where gas transportation changes hand from supplier to customer (called custody transfer). These custody transfers include various types of companies/ utilities. Such as, from upstream to midstream, from midstream to downstream, from distribution company to end customer etc. The custody transfer of gas requires accurate measurement as currency is involve in billing for natural gas. Natural gas is naturally occurring gaseous substance that is highly compressible, highly expandable hydrocarbon mixture and with a low specific gravity. The understanding of fundamental of gas laws are important in order to understand accurate measurement of natural gas. Also, it helps in understating the behavior of natural gas under different conditions. Also, it helps in designing and operating natural gas system.
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Document ID: DFE0FB3B

PHMSA REGULATIONS FOR UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE
Author(s): Sue Burla
Abstract/Introduction:
HISTORY OF API 1171 Anticipating future regulations based on PHMSAs 2011 Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding pipeline safety, the American Petroleum Institute (API) convened a group of industry experts to draft recommendations for underground storage operations. Recommended Practices specifically outline how to safely design, store, and operate natural gas in salt caverns and depleted oil and gas reservoirs. RP 1170 - Salt Caverns (July 2015) RP 1171 - Depleted Reservoirs (September 2015) After several years of formulation, peer review and revision, documents were finalized and distributed in hopes of guiding potential regulatory decision making in the future.
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Document ID: A58A75F3

GLYCOL DEHYDRATION
Author(s): Andrew Glascock
Abstract/Introduction:
DEHYDRATION The term dehydration means to remove water from a substance. Water vapor is removed from natural gas through the glycol-absorption process. The glycol absorbs the water from the gas, and then the water is distilled from the glycol and driven off into the air. WHY DEHYRDATE? If water vapor is allowed to remain in the natural gas it will reduce the efficiency of a pipeline. The water will cause corrosion and reduced capacity of the pipeline. Water and other corrosive agents will in time eat holes in the pipe or vessels through which the gas flows. The water vapor mixed with Hydrocarbons will form hydrates or ice blocks in pipes, Valves and Vessels Hydrates will form at fairly high temperatures when gas is under pressure. Hydrates can form @50 to 70 deg F in 1000 psi lines.
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Document ID: 10355121

LIFE OF A MODERN SHALE WELL
Author(s): Ryan Deaderick
Abstract/Introduction:
Since its discovery and use in ancient times to the beginning of the industry in the 1850s, oil and natural gas have largely influenced the reality of our modern world. Most scientists theorize that the majority of the worlds oil and natural gas were created from the transformed remains of ancient marine organisms. Today, we find deposits of oil and gas within underground formations of sedimentary rocks and continue to develop techniques and technologies to extract these resources. Unique developments involving one particular type of sedimentary rock called shale have created a renaissance in oil and gas production in the United States. Thousands of private companies in the US operate to primarily develop and produce hydrocarbons from the major and prolific shale basins. Successful shale development operations require significant financial investment, long term planning and the great work of dozens of unique, exciting professions. It is estimated that the shale gas industry supports more than 800,000 American jobs.
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Document ID: 5DFC4F40

UNDERSTANDING HYDROCARBON DEW POINTS IN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will present a discussion on the hydrocarbon dew point of a gas, and is intended as an introduction for operations technicians to the conditions that determine a hydrocarbon dew point value, operating concerns gener- ated when the hydrocarbon dew point is reached, and approaches to the management of gas quality to control hydrocarbon dew point in pipeline systems. The hydrocar- bon dew point is one of the most important parameters defining the quality of a natural gas mixture. The signs of having reached hydrocarbon dew point are readily recognizable. Evidence of reaching the hydrocar- bon dew point include a high liquid line (stain) found on an orifice plate, liquid that is found when trying to take a gas sample or a sound speed comparison error in an ultra- sonic meter diagnostic routine. One of the distinguishing characteristics of hydrocarbon liquid is that at atmospher- ic pressure and temperature the liquid will rapidly vaporize without a trace. The formation of hydrocarbon liquids can pose several operating problems. The liquids can accumulate in a low point in the pipeline or move as a collective slug of liquid. If they reach a compressor, a boiler, or a gas turbine the results could be a catastrophic failure of the equipment. Hydrocarbon liquids can also bias gas analysis equipment and prevent gas operated pneumatic controls from func- tioning properly. Therefore, understanding the conditions under which hydrocarbon liquids will form and precautions that can be taken to avoid hydrocarbon liquid formation is important.
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Document ID: 18A98197

ADVANCES IN HYDROCARBON DEWPOINT MONITORING THEORY AND PRACTICE
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitoring the hydrocarbon dewpoint of natural gas is becoming ever more important. We have collected more than 20 years worth of data from our customers who use our analyzers in a few different countries with different cli- mates. We have analyzed this data to look for trends and other information that may be useful to the industry. Our customer base includes pipeline operators, gas pro- cessors, storage operators, as well as power plants. While these customers are from distinct segments of the gas industry, they face similar issues in controlling the hydro- carbon dewpoint of their natural gas streams. The range of observed dewpoints show strong correla- tion with ambient temperatures. In general, hydrocarbon dewpoints are higher in warmer climates, while in colder climates, the dewpoints are usually lower. However anom- alies, manifested by high hydrocarbon dewpoints, pose a significant challenge to pipelines and natural gas users regardless of climate. In this paper we present selected data from some of cus- tomers in different geographical regions. We also show process upset events and their effects on the hydrocar- bon and water dewpoints.
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Document ID: FC427156

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR GAS SAMPLING AND GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper ac- counting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
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Document ID: F4C7E61F

DETERMINATION OF H2S & TOTAL SULFUR IN NATURAL GAS
Author(s): Byron Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, H 2 S and total sulfur are moni- tored to validate tariff limits or to ensure process specifica- tions are maintained at receipt, sales, and process con- trol points throughout the system. Typical measurement ranges are 0-20 ppm for H2S and 0-100 ppm for total sul- fur on transmission lines. Wellhead treating, particularly shale gas development has created the need to measure higher ranges of 1000 to 5000 ppm measurement at H 2S treater skid inlet with a target treater outlet of 1 to 5 ppm. Downstream processing plant inlet applications require percentage measurement of 1-10% and sulfur plant feed or H2S re-injection ranges of 20-60%. Natural Gas gath- ering systems may blend off-spec gas with spec gas to maintain gas quality specifications in the 0-5% H 2 S range. Liquid rich shale gas presents a need to measure H2S in condensate or light oil streams. Natural gas streams used as feed stock in fertilizer production or any other sulfur sensitive catalyst bed dependent process requires sub ppm to as low as 10 ppb sulfur measurement. This paper summarizes principles of operation and points to consider when employing available technologies for vari- ous applications and concentrations encountered in the gas industry and related downstream facilities.
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Document ID: 08A939E3

WATER VAPOR EFFECTS ON NATURAL GAS QUALITY AND NATURAL GAS MEASUREMENT
Author(s): James N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is produced from underground formations in which the gas is at an equilibrium condition with water typically in the formation. Since the gas has been in the formation for a sufficiently long period, full saturation at the pressure and temperature conditions that exist in the production formation is a good assumption. This paper will discuss the effects of water vapor content on natural gas quality and the effect of water vapor on gas measurement.
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Document ID: 9C0175E2

FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
Author(s): Duane Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is one of the most widely used tech- niques for analyzing hydrocarbon mixtures. Some of the advantages of chromatography are the range of measure- ment (from ppm levels up to 100%), the detection of a wide range of components, and the repeatability of the measurements. Chromatography is used in the labora- tory, in permanently installed online systems, and in the field with portable systems. No matter the location, style or brand, all gas chromatographs are composed of the same functional components that are the sample handling sys- tem, the chromatograph oven, and the controller electron- ics (refer Figure 1). This paper will cover the principles or sample handling, how chromatograph columns separate the components, why and how multi-port analysis valves are used, the common detector type used in the hydro- carbon applications, and the analysis processing that pro- vides the component concentrations and the other calcu- lated values (such as heating value and specific gravity) through physical reports or interfaces to other devices.
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Document ID: 1A748B73

INTRODUCTION TO GAS QUALITY USING SPECTROSCOPY
Author(s): Sohrab Zarrabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Optical spectroscopy is an established group of tech- niques. These methods all share a fundamental common feature they use the interaction of electromagnetic waves (e.g. light) with materials to deduce information about the make-up of the material under analysis. Optical spectroscopy has been around for almost 100 years. Despite this relatively long history, practical indus- trial applications in the industry have been somewhat of a more recent trend. Field applications (outside of laborato- ries) have been even more recent phenomena. In the last 20 years, advances in optical components, computing power, and display technologies have worked hand in hand to enable many new applications of field- deployed spectroscopy in many different industries. Wide ranging applications in medical, semi- conductor, envi- ronmental, materials, pharmaceutical, food, and energy industries have emerged making significant contributions to safety and efficiency in these industries. Applications in natural gas analysis have been one of the more recent areas of development. However, these ap- plications are rapidly growing in both breadth and depth of analytical power applied to natural gas analysis. Optical spectroscopy enjoys a fundamental advantage over most other methods. This advantage can be summa- rized in the non-invasive nature of optical spectroscopy. Using photons to determine the quality of materials (in- cluding gas) is in almost all cases non-invasive. Further- more, since the sensor is not in direct contact with the analyte, it will not undergo a change or drift. Therefore, the calibrations or adjustments become less frequent or non- existent. This is a tremendous advantage in the energy sector, where analyzers are installed in remote places and cannot be monitored or adjusted on a day to day basis.
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Document ID: 7A1FC131

FUNDAMENTALS OF PRESSURE CONTROL
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natu- ral gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to bal- ance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures. Pressure control is used in all phases of the delivery sys- tem as follows: Production Wells Up to 5,000+ psig Compressor Stations Pumping into Storage or Boost- ing Transmission Supply. City Gate Stations Reduce Transmission Pressures to Distribution Pressures. District Regulation Stations cutting pressures for safe delivery End User Regulation Providing a safe pressure for end user appliances.
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Document ID: 6FC41E63

CARE AND FEEDING OF ELECTROCHEMICAL OXYGEN ANALYZERS
Author(s): John Bizzarri
Abstract/Introduction:
Oxygen is the 3rd most abundant element by mass in the universe. While critical for life it is a well-documented issue for natural gas production and transmission. The obvious concern would be avoiding oxygen concentrations that could support combustion but the difficulties for natural gas and the equipment that supports the industry start at much lower levels. Oxygen contamination, even in trace amounts, can pose serious and potentially costly problems in gas plants, transmission lines and gathering systems. Specific areas of concern are: Pipelines - sulfuric acid is formed when oxygen is pres- ent with trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and water. This condition over time can cause corrosion to the interior of piping systems. Dehydration Systems - oxygen will enhance degrada- tion of glycol in dehydration systems and accelerate cor- rosion of the equipment Amine treatment systems - oxygen will react with amines to form heat stable amine salts. The salt forma- tion creates multiple problems for the amine plant. First, they will reduce the overall amine available for acid gas removal which will drive an increase in chemical usage in the plant. Second the salts will form acids that cor- rode and damage systems. Finally, the buildup of salts can be passed downstream and foul valves, piping and heat exchangers. The presence of oxygen in natural gas systems, even sub 10 ppm levels, is both a reality and a concern for systems operators. Understanding how the oxygen enters the sys- tems and what the options are to monitor its levels are critical skills for a successful operation.
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Document ID: 56344FCE

REMOTE MONITORING AND CONTROL - IMPACT OF EVOLVING COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND PROTOCOLS
Author(s): Vishal Prakash
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitoring of remote assets has been in practice since the 19th century. Since then, there has been many quan- tum changes including the type of assets that are being monitored, remote control of instruments and processes, type of media and the protocols used. There is a plethora of information available on the World Wide Web that docu- ments and explains these changes, in detail, including a number of white papers. The focus of this white paper is look at the evolution to newer communications technologies such as high speed radio and 3G cellular and advanced protocols such as DNP3 and the advantages that this offers for remote mon- itoring and control applications. This paper will also dis- cuss the emergence of IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) as a potential new paradigm for remote monitoring and control.
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Document ID: 08792972

CONSIDERATIONS FOR WIRELESS APPLICATION AND DESIGN
Author(s): Todd Mathias
Abstract/Introduction:
A QUICK SURVEY & DISCLAIMER Who would trust an emergency shut in from a device with wireless communication? - 1/3 - yes, 1/3 - no, 1/3 - wont answer if their manager is in the room Disclaimer - I am a wireless fan - in the hands of the right designer - I work with a lot of wireless technologies Reliability is everything Batteries are, by in large, the same Price and flexability are getting better by the day - I would not suggest wireless for an emergency shut in decision
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Document ID: 6953EC68

WIRELESS NETWORKS USING MIXED TECHNOLOGIES - THE FUTURE OF OIL & GAS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
Author(s): Dan Steele
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasingly, Oil & Gas companies are deploying intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) and other smart apparatus on Oil & Gas (O & G) well pads along with (Saltwater Disposal sites) SWD and LACT (Local Area Custody Transfer) units and Gas Pipelines. As well as equipping O & G field workers with laptop, tablet and handheld computers. They are also installing specialized edge computers and MQTT software on Oil & Gas Pad locations, plus enterprise software applications in their data centers to automate various facets of utility operations. These technologies are often labeled Smart Field. They enable valuable applications such as SCADA and IT information, Oil & Gas Well automation, Oil & Gas distribution automation, power outage management, emergency shutdown, and the ability to manage alternative energy sources such as solar and thermal electric generators (TEG units) at remote locations without AC power. LTE, 4G and 5G cellular networks will be used more as stand alone or redundant networks.
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Document ID: 4E710A71

DATA COMMUNICATIONS IN THE MARCELLUS & UTICA
Author(s): Brad Waldrip
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion is to explore the various types of data connectivity that are available for data communications to the various points needed, in the Oil & Gas Industry. We will explore the various data connection types, pros and cons of each type and practical applications. The locations that we will be discussing are primarily in West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Ohio. While each type of data connections is feasible there are considerations that need to be observed. These considerations are cost, terrain, bandwidth, serviceability and power consumption. CONNECTION TYPES: 1. Hard Line, or Copper (Fixed Connection) 2. Fiber (Fixed Connection) 3. Cellular 4. Satellite 5. Radio Hard Line or Copper These can be in the form of a DSL, T-1 or Potts type connection. These are primarily fixed point connections. They can be a good alternative for locations that need a stable dedicated data connection. Because these are primarily serviced by physical wiring, they are somewhat susceptible to outages due to weather. Lightning and static can be issues on any hard line connection. These can be a good lower cost alternative depending on the bandwidths required. If facilities do not exist in the area where the connection is needed, construction costs can high. There are a few companies that still use POTTS (Voice) Lines. This utilizing the means of converting data to audio (FSK or Tone) and reconverting on the other side. The quality of the line is critical for this connection to work. A noisy line can create poor data transfer and disruptions.
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Document ID: BB4C6C8F

SCADA FUNDAMENTALS FOR O&G
Author(s): Lars Larsson
Abstract/Introduction:
According to the EIA there are more than 3 million miles of gas pipelines around the world, with at least 2 million miles of them are here in North America. To be able to operate these pipelines and associated equipment safely, reliably, and efficiently, pipeline companies use SCADA systems to monitor and control operations on a daily basis. The paragraph above sounds perfectly acceptable, however from a laymans point of view, several questions arise: What does SCADA even stand for? Why do we use it? What is a SCADA system? What does it encompass? Who operates a SCADA system? How is it used? Why not a different control/automation system, e.g., DCS? What can you monitor on a SCADA system specifically? What modules are used or available within SCADA? What can you control on a SCADA system specifically? This paper will attempt to address many of the questions above in non-technical terms so that everybody reading it can firstly understand what SCADA is used for, and why it is increasingly important to have a SCADA system based on modern technology.
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Document ID: 155C7A50

UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS OVERVIEW
Author(s): Rob Lesser
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion is to provide an overview of typical automation, measurement, and control processes utilized in upstream oil and gas. This presentation is appli- cable to Marcellus and Utica shale plays. Although there are several challenges and different needs that arise in this environment, some basic principalities and best prac- tices can be utilized for design concepts. This presenta- tion will investigate several challenge areas and will shed light on the most widespread and accepted practices for achieving successful product usage in the dynamic indus- try we are involved in.
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Document ID: 490EF72B

TECHNOLOGIES THAT ARE SHAPING THE OIL & GAS INDUSTRY
Author(s): Julian Sanchez
Abstract/Introduction:
The Oil & Gas industry is not known for its tendencies to embrace new technologies quickly. On the contrary, we continuously see multiple reports and world-wide industry analysis coming out of companies like McKinsey or Forrester that show how Oil & Gas is consistently the last industry vertical when it comes to digital maturity. In a way this tendency can be understood since Oil & Gas is an industry very much focused on physical goods, and improvements in equipment, processes, and people skills typically yields a greater return than the adoption of new digital technology by itself. Unfortunately, this tendency to leave digital technologies for last has become a collective badge of honor rather than a recognized area of improvement. The default mode of operation has always been to not keep an eye on new technologies unless competitors implement that technology first. As a result, nobody ends up adopting new technology for long periods of time. This mindset may have worked for the last few decades, but we need to be prepared for an abrupt awakening. Lets take a quick look at the pace in which new technology has been adopted throughout history. A good indicator to reflect the speed of adoption is to measure the time it takes for a new technology to reach 50 million users. It took 62 years for the automobile to reach 50 million people from the time of its invention in the 19th century. It took 50 years for the telephone to reach 50 million adopters while mobile phones only took 12 years to reach the same amount of people. The internet took only 7 years to reach 50 million users. Facebook took 4 years. The game Pokemon Go only needed 19 days to reach 50 million users.
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Document ID: 143B4D48

PRINCIPLES OF ODORIZATION
Author(s): Greg Ebert
Abstract/Introduction:
Unfortunately many regulations are drafted on the heels of a disaster. Current regulation Odorization of Gas 49 CFR part 192.625 began setting roots after the deadly school explosion that claimed the lives of nearly 300 school children and teachers in New London Texas. The apparent cause of the explosion was an undetectable natural gas leak, that when concentrated above the lower explosive limit, found an ignition source. This explosion on March 18, 1937 may have been avoided if just 1 out of the 500+ occupants had the ability to recognize or detect the level of danger that existed. Today, regulations, guidelines, policies and procedures are active in the effort to prevent incidents as described above. The information provided in this article is meant to provide a snapshot of odorants, odorization equipment, odorization rates, tools and techniques, as well as general best practices when working with odorant presently in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: BCF43309

COMMISSIONING OF ODORIZATION SYSTEMS
Author(s): Steve Sams
Abstract/Introduction:
SELECTING AN ODORIZATION SYSTEM Factors to Consider In Odorizer Selection Type/Method Sizing Reliability Support Three Primary Methods In Use Wick/Bypass/Farm Tap Liquid Injection System (Pump/Drip) Electronic Smart Bypass Odorizer Method - Wick How it works Odorant is drawn up the wick from the container and into the gas stream Oldest and simplest method based on free evaporation of odorant into the gas Dosage controlled by the size of the wick The disadvantages during low or high flow periods the gas can be under/over odorized
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Document ID: 2244AD04

SELF-OPERATED REGULATOR BASICS
Author(s): Trent Decker
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accus- tomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a ten- dency to take them for granted. It is only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fun- damental of the regulator operation.
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Document ID: 20A06427

ODORANT LEAK MANAGEMENT
Author(s): Eric Olivier, Pierre Braud, Olivier Griperay, and Jean-Benoit Cazaux
Abstract/Introduction:
All around the world, propane, butane and natural gas must be odorized. The odorization ensures a safe transport, distribution and use of this valuable energy to residential buildings. Regulations vary from one country or state to another. The natural gas can be odorized at different points of the gas grid: in some countries (France, Spain, South Korea...), odorization takes place at the entry points of the countrys gas grid, either at the gas transmission pipes or at Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminals just after vaporization. In other countries (USA, Canada, Mexico, Germany, Italy, Belgium, China...), natural gas is often odorized at city gate level, where gas is depressurized to allow distribution to residential points. Odorants also may vary from one country to another, and within the same country as well. The International Organization for Safety (ISO) is listing in the ISO 13734 (1) components commonly used: odorants are mainly composed of Sulfides (TetraHydroThiophene, MethylEthylSulfide, DiMethylSulfide) and Light Mercaptans (mainly TertiaryButylMercaptan, IsoPropylMercaptan). With the exception of TetraHydroThiophene which can be used as a standalone odorant, odorants are composed of blends of these thiochemical compounds. By definition, these odorant are flammable products and have a very low odor detection threshold: 0.3 part per billion in volume for TertiaryButylMercaptan(2) . Any small leak of odorant can trigger a misleading gas alert. A significant leak will do the same and may lead local authorities to evacuate large city areas to manage the public reaction and protect people against the potential fire and chemical risks.
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Document ID: AE69D502

GAS ODORANTS - SAFE HANDLING, HEALTH, AND ENVIRONMENT
Author(s): Daniel E. Arrieta, David C. Miller, Eric Van Tol,
Abstract/Introduction:
Thiols (mercaptans), alkyl sulfides (dimethyl sulfide and methyl ethyl sulfide), and cyclic sulfides, such as tetrahy- drothiophene, have been widely used in the odorization of natural and liquefied petroleum gas due to the fact that natural gas does not possess an odor. Mercaptans, for example, have proven to be very effective in odorizing be- cause of their low odor threshold and therefore, immedi- ate impact on the olfactory system (Roberts, 1993). Although, gas odorants are characterized as having a low hazard potential regarding health effects, their unique physical chemical properties such as, high flam- mability, require that they be handled safely.
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Document ID: F8CE53BB

NATURAL GAS ODOR LEVEL TESTING PROGRAMS
Author(s): Mark E. Gunsalus
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas odor level testing programs are an important part of delivering safe and reliable natural gas. We will review olfactory biology basics, regulations, odor fade, program development, program execution and training. As an operator and Director for nearly 36 years responsible for this process, we have developed and refined processes and procedures that ensure proper odor levels and identify deficiencies so they can be quickly rectified.
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Document ID: 34B45D0F

DECOMISSIONING OF NATURAL GAS ODORIZATION EQUIPMENT
Author(s): Wesley Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is a colorless and odorless gas. Because of these properties of natural gas, a chemical additive is added to the natural gas to give it a detectable odor in the event of a leak. These chemical additives are commonly called odorants and are generally mercaptans or thiophane. Natural gas utilities, distribution and transmission, are adept at odorizing the natural gas they handle. Odorization is primarily done with some sort of liquid injection system or a bypass (vapor) or slip stream odorizer.
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Document ID: EE02CAF4

PICKLING OF A NATURAL GAS PIPELINE
Author(s): Wesley Lucas and Mike Mullett
Abstract/Introduction:
There are inherent safety considerations associated with handling of natural gas. A very significant risk is that natural gas is generally odorless and colorless. Because of these properties natural gas goes through a process known as odorization to give the gas the typical gassy smell that people associate with natural gas. In a new pipeline, odor fade occurs when natural gas is stripped of its odor, thereby posing a risk since a potential leak would not be noticeable by smell. The primary focus of odorization is safety. Safety must be the primary goal and be kept in mind as we develop, maintain and improve our odorization techniques and processes. The startup of a newly installed steel pipeline carries the most risk for under-odorization or over-odorization, and it is up to the operator to balance this concern. This paper will describe odor fade in a natural gas pipeline and discuss a pre- odorization step known as pickling used to overcome this odor fade issue.
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Document ID: D60999FA

LNG SAMPLING, ANALYTICALLY ACCURATE PRACTICES AND TECHNIQUES WITH INDUSTRY OVERVIEW OF LNG FLOW LAB AND LNG INDUSTRY
Author(s): Ken Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
Sampling and transportation of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) has increased as this has become a Global Market with many new liquefaction plants, export and import ter- minals that have been built to date and more under con- struction or in the planning stages due to the increase in world demand of LNG. This demand has increased due to LNG being considered by many countries as the fuel of choice based on its safe properties, availability, cost, cleanness and ease of transportation. With the increase of liquefaction, storage, blending and transportation so has the need increased for Analytically Accurate measure- ment of the LNG in the realm of custody transfer. This has also led to new techniques in LNG sampling to help verify the measurement results. This paper will cover these new techniques in their approach and their unique challenges for the industry.
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Document ID: EB7A9931

MITIGATING LOST AND UNACCOUNTED-FOR GAS: DETERMINATION AND CORRECTIVE ACTION IN CONTEMPORARY UPSTREAM, MIDSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OPERATIONS
Author(s): Duane Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
In light of volatile prices, the industry has assumed an every drop counts approach to running the business. In this environment, issues such unaccounted-for (UAF) gas, with which every operation has dealt before, find themselves under new scrutiny. Production, gathering, midstream, pipeline and distribu- tion companies are all responsible for managing UAF. Long gone are the days when the cost and impact of UAF was passed directly to the customer with virtually no re- quirements for managing and reducing costs associated with the loss. While UAF has, historically, been the result of a combina- tion of issues, current trends in the industry have managed to further complicate it. Interest in shale plays has given rise to mergers and acquisitions, which have resulted in diversified, oil & gas operations. An increasing number of producers and midstream companies must track and balance multiple fluids, including natural gas, natural gas liquids (NGLs) and heavier hydrocarbons in their systems. At the same time, measurement departments are faced with more ambitious UAF loss targets.
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Document ID: C527901C

CONTROL ROOM MANAGEMENT-ARE YOU IN CONTROL?
Author(s): Julie Porcaro,David Weeden
Abstract/Introduction:
Starting in 2011, many pipeline operators were required to implement the requirements listed in 49 CRF 192.631 - Control Room Management. Many of the requirements were either identified as necessary after a review of pipeline incidents or are considered industry best practices. Some of the high-level requirements listed in 192.631 are: Control Room Operations o Training on system operations o Shift Scheduling Fatigue Management Shift Change Protocols o Operator Roles and Responsibilities o Documentation of Actions during normal and abnormal operating conditions o Communication Between Control Room and Field Between Control Room and Management SCADA Systems o Field to SCADA point verification o System Configuration API RP 1165 (SCADA Displays) Sections 1,4,8,9,11.1, and 11.3 incorporated by reference. o Back-up system testing Change Management Operational Drills o Mock drills to test procedures Simulations Table-top exercises Field manipulation of telemetry data or devices
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Document ID: E30F0BF5

THE CHANGING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
Author(s): Scott Laplante
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years there have been several incidents in the natural gas pipeline industry that have caused an increased level of scrutiny of how natural gas pipeline companies conduct their daily operations. Local, state and federal regulatory agencies are examining not only company procedures, but also the laws and regulations that govern how natural gas systems are installed, maintained and operated. Topics of discussion in this paper will discuss the following: Current government regulations Incidents and the investigation process Changes in gas industry practices
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Document ID: D7883CA9

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PILOT OPERATED FLEXIBLE ELEMENT REGULATORS
Author(s): Michael Garvey
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators are capable of providing very accurate control in natural gas trans- mission and distribution pipelines. The Pilot Operated Regulator provides advantages over both self-operated regulators and control valves. Primary benefits include simplicity of operation and elimination of any fugitive emissions caused by atmospheric bleed gas. However, it is important to recognize the limitations of the pilot operated flexible element regulator and apply it accord- ingly. The original Flexible Element Regulator, the Flex- flo, was developed by the Grove Valve and Regulator Company circa World War II. The original intent for the regulator was to regulate water in submarine ballasting systems. However, Grove quickly recognized that the Flexflo regulator product was ideally suited for pres- sure control applications in natural gas pipelines. Many advances have been made since the original Flexible Element was created more then fifty years ago, but the same basic operational advantages and principles of op- eration remain unchanged.
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Document ID: AB5DAE5D

HIPPS (HIGH-INTEGRITY PRESSURE PROTECTION SYSTEMS) DESIGN ANALYSIS, AND JUSTIFICATION
Author(s): Charles Fialkowski
Abstract/Introduction:
Per API Standard 521: A High-Integrity Protection Systems ( HIPS) typically involves an arrangement of instruments, final control elements (e.g. valves, switches, etc.), and logic solvers configured in a manner designed to avoid overpressure incidents by removing the source of overpressure or by reducing the probability of an overpressure contingency to such a low level that it is no longer considered to be a credible case.
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Document ID: 06C221FB

ADVANCED METERING INFRASTRUCTURE (AMI) SMART METER TECHNOLOGIES MORE THAN JUST METER READING
Author(s): Mark E. Gunsalus
Abstract/Introduction:
Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) has experienced significant technological advancements over the past few years. The opportunity to replace walk-by and drive- by systems with smart and cost-effective fixed base AMI systems is better than ever. Smart meters are now on the market in the United States and offer operators a host of new features that significantly improve safety and reliability. While automated meter reading was the basis for these systems, we now can add features such as pressure monitoring, cathodic protection monitoring, automated meter shut-off and countless custom features based on your utilitys requirements for unique operations. This paper will discuss and illustrate the latest technologies and features available in todays marketplace. In addition, we will discuss how to develop a business case and return on investment (ROI) for your utility. As part of the business case review we will highlight best practice deployment techniques for improved safety, reliability and cost savings.
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Document ID: 190B3532

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: GAS MEASUREMENT A USER PERSPECTIVE
Author(s): Bruce Wallace,Michael Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
Artificial Intelligence continues to skyrocket in every aspect of technological advancement. From robotics to self driving cars, AI with human intelligence is booming at a great pace. Medical diagnosis and healthcare Agriculture Aviation and Transportation Energy Finance, Marketing, and HR Education Designing sensors
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Document ID: 5781E264

FUNDAMENTALS OF NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS (NGLS)
Author(s): Ken Haynes
Abstract/Introduction:
Before discussing NGLs, it is first necessary to build some background on natural gas. Natural gas is a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbons (compound of hydrogen and carbon) and nonhydrocarbon gases found in porous geologic formations beneath the earths surface. Natural gas is a mixture of the hydrocarbon components of methane, ethane, propane, butane, and pentanes, with the principal constituent being methane. Natural gas also can contain non-hydrocarbon gases such as carbon, dioxide, water, hydrogen sulfide, and nitrogen. The natural gas extracted from underground gas fields and brought to the surface by gas wells (commonly called raw gas) is much different than the natural gas used to heat our homes, to cook our food or to generate electricity. The natural gas used by consumers is composed almost entirely of methane. In contrast, natural gas found at the wellhead, although still composed primarily of methane, is by no means as pure.
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Document ID: 0FBF3715

OVERVIEW OF AN APPALACHIAN SHALE GAS PROCESSING PLANT
Author(s): Ryan Savage & Jim Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this class is to provide an overview of a typical northeast Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) processing plant. The Marcellus and Utica Shale play in the Appala- chian Basin area has brought the need for new substruc- ture, compressor stations, facilities and processing plants. The natural gas production in Appalachia has historically been lower pressure Devonian gas which is considered dry when compared to the rich Shale gas. The terms dry, wet, lean and rich are industry terms for describ- ing the physical state and composition of the gas as it is produced from the earth. The term dry gas or lean gas refers to natural gas that has a BTU value range of ap- proximately 900 to 1100. The terms wet gas or rich gas is used almost interchangeably, but the more accurate term for description is probably rich because wet can also refer to the gases water content. Rich gas is natural gas that has a BTU value above 1100 generally. The gas produced can be treated or processed dependent on site location and size, terrain and availability of public utilities. Filter/separators and multiphase separators are two examples of some of the equipment that are utilized in both the treating and processing activities. This paper de- scribes a high level overview of the treating, processing, water removal, CO 2 & H 2S removal, types of processing plants, NGLs, fractionation, storage and contracts.
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Document ID: 5689DE09

EMERSON PROVIDES A COMBINED MEASUREMENT SOLUTION FOR PRODUCER IN THE MARCELLUS BASIN
Author(s): Tom Kuny,Michael Samaha
Abstract/Introduction:
Producers are under constant pressure to create efficiencies and increase profitability. A producer in the Marcellus basin is no exception, and indeed, often find they lead the way in testing and adopting new and innovative measurement solutions. This producer has for example, changed their approach for well pads where they have 100% land ownership. In these locations, they have adopted a bulk and test measurement approach, utilizing multi-port valves and a high level of automation. This has proven to be a cost-effective solution. The Producer continue to look for further efficiencies, constantly moving forward towards higher performance, streamlined operations and increased profit. In the shale oil and gas market in North America, it is common to have assets with split ownership as well. The producer has a responsibility to have high quality production measurement for each individual well. Indeed, lease agreements may specify uncertainty levels that must be achieved and may even detail the instrumentation to be used. For a producer such as Producer, this results in exploration of measurement approaches and options. The aim is to both meet measurement and lease requirements and streamline operations, ultimately increasing profitability. Producer started their exploration of this with dry gas wells, which have gas and water only, with no condensate present. It is this application and testing of Emerson instrumentation that will be discussed throughout the remainder of this paper.
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Document ID: C187232F

SAFE HANDLING AND SAMPLING OF LIQUID PRODUCTS
Author(s): John Drzayich
Abstract/Introduction:
The Marcellus and Utica shale plays are rich with com- ponents of high value. Natural gas wells in these regions contain condensate liquid which can be processed and used as a blend stock for producing gasoline blends. The natural gas produced from these wells contains more than just methane. Valuable liquid components are also present which can be processed and separated through various refining processes and sold as individual purity products. The cryogenic process of removing methane yields natu- ral gas liquids (NGL), which contain many hydrocarbons including ethane, propane, isobutane, normal butane, and natural gasoline (a mixture of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons). Understanding the physical properties of these liquid com- ponents is important to ensure the proper safety proce- dures are followed and the proper sampling techniques are utilized to maintain the sample in a single liquid phase. A phase diagram should be used to determine the tempera- ture and associated pressure at which the hydrocarbon liq- uid being sampled will reach its bubble point and begin to flash off vapors (Figures 1-8). The sample analysis is only as good as the sample being analyzed!
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Document ID: 90CE7A92

NATURAL GAS LIQUID MEASUREMENT-DIRECT & INFERRED MASS
Author(s): Dean Minehart
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) streams consist of mixtures of hydrocarbons including ethane, propane, butane, pen- tane and natural gasoline. NGL is sometimes referred to as y-grade. The American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14 Section 7 provides guidance on the mass measurement of NGL. Mass measurement techniques are applied to NGL measurement due to solution mixing of a variable fluid composition within the NGL stream. Mass measurement can be achieved by direct measure- ment (Coriolis flow meter) or inferred by multiplying a volumetric flow rate times flowing density. This paper will discuss the relative advantages of direct mass measure- ment for NGL streams. NGL stream components are bought and sold on a volu- metric basis. Conversion of measured mass during a measurement interval to the volume of each NGL stream component will be discussed.
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Document ID: 3318C76E

PROVERS FOR MEASUREMENT VERIFICATION
Author(s): Greg Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This document will provide the reader an understanding of what a prover is, the need for proving meters for accurate measurement verification, the equipment deemed ac- ceptable and available for use in the oil and liquefied gas market. It will also define the general terminology used in the industry, general operational aspects for verification devices, and general information utilized by the groups and agencies that govern the meter verification process.
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Document ID: 9CDAED6A

BALANCING OF NGL GAS PLANTS
Author(s): Alex Ramsey
Abstract/Introduction:
Developing a balance for a natural gas processing plant is a critical step needed in a plants efficient, safe, and reli- able operation. At its core, the main purpose of a balance is to compare molecules coming in with molecules going out. Accurate balances benefit several departments as- sociated with a plant including operations, measurement, accounting, environmental, safety, marketing, schedul- ing, and business development. Having an accurate and thorough balance of systems and sub-systems allows all concerned groups to account for products entering and leaving each system of interest. Gas extracted from the Marcellus and Utica shale forma- tions can be rich with natural gas liquids (NGL) that are processed and sold as individual purity products. NGL products are recovered from the raw natural gas by run- ning the gas through cryogenic process plants. Mixed NGLs containing ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline (pentane and heavier) are then run through ad- ditional processes that allow them to be separated into individual purity products. These processes, which cre- ate separate streams with varying compositions, create a need to balance plants to ensure all products are ac- counted for, which provides other troubleshooting tools to address system inefficiencies.
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Document ID: 451295F6

FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTROL VALVES AND PNEUMATIC CONTROLLERS
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas flow. The first is the regula- tor and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform flow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the funda- mentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: DA65DB3B

WET GAS TEST COMPARATIVE RESULTS: ORIFICE VS. USM
Author(s): John Lansing, Toralf Dietz, Dr. Richard Steven, Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
The CEESI Nunn Wet Gas facility consists of a closed- loop test stand with up to 650 horsepower that permits flow rates from about 83 to 620 ACMH. This corresponds to 3 to 23 m/s in 4-inch Schedule 80 piping. Pressures can range from 1,380 kPa up to 7,500 kPa (13.8 Bar - 75 Bar). Gas flow is measured using a calibrated 6-inch turbine meter, and the injected liquid is measured using one of 2 different Coriolis meters (1/2 and 2 sizes). The liquid typically used is Exxsol D80, but water, or a mixture of both can also be used. The first test involved a 4-inch dual-chamber orifice meter with the gas USM were installed in series. The second test incorporated a 3-inch dual-chamber orifice and 2-path USM, both in series. In both cases the USM was located upstream to minimize, if not totally eliminate, any affect on the orifice meter. In order to ensure that the flow profile is as realistic as possible to what would be seen in the field, the non-intrusive USM was located upstream of the orifice meter.
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Document ID: 93D66757

HIGH VOLUME MEASUREMENT USING TURBINE METERS
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
For over one hundred years the turbine meter has been servicing large volume applications of the natural gas market. During this time the turbine has continuously evolved into a device that offers the industry new and unique features. This paper will focus on the significant advancements of this technology as well as how they are applied in the field today.
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Document ID: 37303A51


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